Effectiveness of Para-Transit Transport Services


The thrust of this article is on the desirability of motorcycles in Abraka region as a means of para-transit transportation. The paper examines the existing mode of para-transportation in Abraka region, and discovers that commuters in Abraka region are increasingly patronizing motorcycles as a mode of transport. Also, with the poor conditions of roads in Abraka, most parts of Abraka are denied access to public transport services. In the light of this, a vast number of commuters have now resorted to the services of motorcycle transport in spite of the social risks and incessant cases of accidents associated with this mode of transport. This study discovers through Pearson’s Product Moment correlation coefficient analysis that there is a high significant relationship between the standard of living of cyclists and motorcycle business in the study area. The paper ends by highlighting issues, which should be incorporated in a comprehensive urban transport policy to make motorcycle transport safe and efficient as a para-transit mode of transport in Abraka region.
The need for an efficient public transport service to cater for the demands of urban commuters cannot be overstressed. Public transport systems are more efficient means of transporting large numbers of people between and within settlements than private cars (Adeniji, 1983).
In contemporary transportation lexicon, two major types of public transport systems are defined. These are the conventional public transport system and the para-transit or intermediate systems of public transport. The para-transit or intermediate systems are so called because they include all systems of urban transport, between the private car on the one hand of the scale and the conventional public transport system on the other (Adeniji, 1983).

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Para-transit modes of transport in developed countries include such systems as car pools, rental cars, specialized commuter bus services provided on a subscription basis, as well as taxi cab related services like dial-a-bus and motorcycles. In the less developed countries, para-transit modes are usually referred to as intermediate modes of public transport. They include the shared taxi cab, mini buses, modified vehicles such as the jeepneys of Manila in the Philippines (Grava, 1977), silos of Chien Mai in Thailand (Fourcare and Manundes, 1977), Molue of Lagos in Nigeria (Olayemi, 1979), Beenos of Surabaya in Indonesia (Fouracre and Manuder, 1978), the cycle rickshaws community found in most Asian cities (Jacob and Fouracre, 1976) and “Going” in Nigerian Towns, (Okoko, 1990).
In recent years, the prohibitive prices of brand new cars and buses have resulted in the reduction of the number of private cars and commercial vehicles generally on our urban roads. Even the fairly used imported cars and buses (Tukunbo) are beyond the reach of the majority of our people. As a result of these factors, there has been a tremendous demand for public transport in our towns in recent years. It is now a common sight to see hundreds of passengers at bus stations or along road sides waiting for hours for the few buses and taxis on the road (Okoko, 1998),
This scenario has necessitated the introduction of motorcycles as a means of para-transit transport in Nigeria towns. It first gained prominence in the Cross River State the l970s where it was variously referred to as “Aka-Uke” or “Ala-Olok”. This mode has now diffused to other Nigeria towns including Lagos and Abuja. It is now the dominant mode of transport in most of our urban centres e.g. Uyo Calabar, Nasarawa etc. It is variously referred to “Okada” in the Mid-West belt regions of Nigeria and “Abacha” in Northern Nigeria.
The motorcycle mode has had the advantage of flexibility and door-to-door service especially in towns where the road network does not permit an efficient operation of taxi service. The major problem associated with it is the high number of accident cases often resulting in the death of both the cyclist and the passenger or commuter.
Table 1, shows some para-transit modes and their relative performance characteristics. Most of these modes are very popular in Asian and Latin American countries where they are employed both in rural and urban areas. These modes are recommended for use in our towns and rural areas where conventional mass transit facilities are inadequate. In rural areas where the population is less than 50,000, privately operated para-transit modes are adequate. In settlements where the population is between 50,000-100,000 para-transit and privately operated omnibuses are adequate. Mass transit public transport services are recommended for settlements with a population size of over 100,000 inhabitants (Adeniji, 1986).
In recent years, with the aid of motorcycling, Abraka community has experienced an unprecedented general economic boom, which has encouraged the increased diversification of local industries and commercial activities.
Atubi and Onokala (2004b) stated that “in human geography, one of the most fundamental themes is spatial interaction. That spatial interaction involves the movement of goods and services and people between various centres in space. In general, when constructing or improving a road network where economic constraints apply, they said, the most economical solution for one road link may not necessarily be the best solution for the network as a whole. That the cost of implementing one project to high standards may consume resources that would be better spent over the whole network, or in filling other gaps in the network with lower standard roads”.
The influence of political policies on the transport facilities in metropolitan Lagos was also examined by Sada (1970) where he maintained that politics had more than desired influence on the city network and this is irrational to objective planning of transport network in such a large city. He further said that until the city was given a new dimension such as planning and reversing same existing policies, the problems of traffic in Lagos would still continue to be in existence.
Furthermore, for any meaningful division of labour and specialization in production process to take place in any society such as Abraka, there must be an efficient and effective means of transport (Atubi and Onokala, 2004a). The various feeder roads and paths are constructed to connect the interior parts of the region and this gives room or serve as an advantage to motorcycle transport system in Abraka region.
Data for this article were collected through questionnaire survey in Abraka region. Questionnaires were administered randomly/systematically on respondents. This article specially aims at examining the influence of motorcycle transportation with emphasis on employment opportunities of respondents.
For the purpose of achieving the aim eighty (80) questionnaires were administered. For effective administration of the questionnaires the region was subdivided into three (3) regions or zones Viz: Ekrejeta Road, Kwale Road and Abraka-urban Road.
The statistical techniques employed include means and percentages as well as the Pearson’s Product Movement Correlation Coefficient (P.P.M .C.C.)
Table 1: Basic Para-Transit Modes and their Performance Characteristics

Source: Howe, J (1983) Conceptual Framework for Defining and Evaluating Improvements for Local Level Rural Transport in Developing Countries (Geneva, H. 0.) Dept. 1983, Pp. 3 7-39.
Table 2: Importance of Motorcycle Transportation



Percentage (%)







Source: Field Survey, 2004.
From the table above, it was clearly shown that the importance of motorcycle as a mode of transportation in Abraka region cannot be over-emphasized. It is observed that 96% of the respondents are of the view that motorcycle transportation has played an important role in Abraka region while only 4% disagreed. Also, the movement of people, goods and information are being facilitated via motorcycle transport.
Table 3: Ownership of Motorcycle



Percentage (%)

Yes (My own)
No (Hired)






Source: Field Survey, 2004.
Sixty-four percent (64%) of the respondents agreed that most of the motorcycles in use in Abraka community for transport purposes are hired and thirty-six (3 6%) are of the view that the motorcycle used in Abraka are privately owned. Therefore, the lot of motorcycles in Abraka region are hired meaning that the users (cyclists) are operating on a “balance and take” basis. That is the motorcyclist pays the owner of the machine certain amount of money depending on the terms of agreement after which the machine becomes that of the cyclist.
Table 4: Monthly Income Through Motorcycling



Percentage (%)

Below N2,000
N2,000- N4,000
N6,000- N8,000
Above N8,000






Source: Field Survey, 2004.
It could be deduced from the above table that the majority of the cyclists earn between N2,000 and N4,000 monthly. This is followed by those cyclists that earn below N2,000 per month. From the table 30% and 29% earn between N2,000 and N4,000 and below N2,000 monthly respectively.
Table 5: Time of Operation/Service



Percentage (%)

Below 10 a.m






Source: Field Survey, 2004.
The table above shows that the time of operation is mostly in the morning between 10.00 a.m. and reduces until the evening from 4.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. The peak hour of operation being in the morning and evening in Abraka region could be as a result of people going to their various places of work and their return back home. These periods have the highest percentages of 30 and 24 respectively. Following the peak hours are the hours betweens 10.00 a.m. and 4.00 p.m. with a percentage rate of2l. This could be because of parents going on “school run”.
Table 6: Fare/Charge Per-Distance



Percentage (%)







Source: Field Survey, 2004.
The responses from the table above means that the fare per distance is likely determined by the passenger and the cyclist, 51% of the respondents agreed that the charge per distance during operation is constant while 49% disagreed. Meaning that, the charge varies with distance. This could be as a result of the operation hour because the fare at night or during bad weather (rainfall) and even during period of fuel scarcity fare tends to vary with distances. During such period, it is the bargaining power between the passenger and the cyclist that determined the fare. Nevertheless, the charge within Abraka region is relatively constant.
Table 7: Standard of living through income Received and Motorcycling (observed Frequency)


Ekrejeka Rd.

Kwale Road


Road total

Strongly Agreed
Partially agreed










Source: Field survey, 2004,
From table 7 above, the calculated value of the correlation coefficient is 0.90 approximately (see table 9). It could be deduced therefore, that as income increases through motorcycling, the standard of living of the cyclists also increases at 0.05 level of significance.
Table 8: Increase in Motorcycle and the population of Abraka Region


Ekrejeka Rd.

Kwale Road


Road total

Strongly Agreed
Partially agreed










Source: Field survey, 2004.
From the calculated values in table 8, (see table 9), the calculated value of the data using the Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient is approximately 0.89. From table 9, it also implies that 20.79% of the population of Abraka can be explained by increase in motorcycle activities while 79.2 1% cannot be attributed to increase in motorcycle activities which could be due to other reasons.
Table 9: A correlation Table of Population and Motorcycle increase in Abraka Region

Table 10: Provision of Employment Opportunity and Motorcycle Transportation

Source: Computed from Table 8, 2004
The calculated value derived from table 10 above using the Pearson’s Product Movement Correlation Coefficient is appropriately 0.86 (see table 11). Also, 26.04% of the employment opportunity can be explained by motorcycle transport in Abraka region while 73.96% cannot be explained and may be due to other factors.
Table 11:. Provision of Employment Opportunity and Motorcycle Transportation

From table 11, there was a high and positive correlation between employment opportunity and motorcycle transportation in Abraka region. From this brief and simple analysis, the fact that motorcycle transportation has a role to play in the employment of youths in the study area is incontestable.
The time has come for us to accept the indispensability of motorcycle transport in Abraka region. The availability of a comprehensive and up-to-date information on vehicle population in the country makes it difficult to have an accurate car ownership ratio per capita for the country. Recent phenomenal increases in the prices of imported cars, both brand new ones and fairly used cars otherwise known as “tokunbo”, have made it difficult for the average Nigerian to own a car. Even motorcycles and bicycles are now priced out of the reach of the middle and low income households in the country (Adeniji, 1986).
In the light of the poor economic situation in the country, there is need for the government to give an official recognition to the operation of motorcycle transport in Nigeria. The operation of motorcyclists should be streamlined such that it should not be a case of any body just picking up his motorcycle and going into business. Just like the National Road Transport Workers Union that monitors the operation of taxis and buses, a similar body should also be set up to oversee the operation of motorcyclists.
Every motorcyclist should be made to register with this body before he is allowed to operate. This body should issue identity cards and uniforms for easy identification by commuters. In addition to this, the procedure for the issuance of driving licenses should be reviewed. Every motorcyclist should have either a license or a permit before he is allowed to operate the motorcycle.
The Government should reconsider the idea of introducing crash-helmets for the use of both the cyclist and the passenger. The importance of crash-helmets cannot be over-emphasized s they protect the head from severe injury whenever accidents occur.
Urban roads should from now henceforth be designed to accommodate cycle-ways. This will reduce cut throat competition for urban road space by cyclists, motorists and pedestrians thereby reducing the rate of accidents on our roads.
Existing traffic bye-laws and regulations should be reviewed to accommodate the motorcycle mode and conscious efforts should be made to ensure their enforcement.
Transport of any kind is concomitant and a prerequisite to the development of any modem society. It is indispensable in the economy of any society hence it has increased the socio-economic development of Abraka region. This research has revealed that motorcycle business has a significant effect in the provision of employment, increase in the standard of living of the cyclists and a corresponding increase in the population of Abraka region.
Adeniji, K. (1983): “Urban Development and Public Transport in Nigeria” Third World Planning Review, Vol.5, No.4, Pp. 383-394.
Adeniji, K. (1986) “Public Transportation in Nigeria: where do we go from here?” Paper delivered at the NISER Seminar Series, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, Pp. 1-22.
Atubi, A.O. and Onokala, P.C. (2004a) “Road Transportation and the Socio-Economic Development of the Niger Delta: A case study of Warn Metropolis”. Journal of Social and Management Sciences Review Vol. 1, No. 1, Pp. 102-113.
Atubi, A.O. and Onokala, P.C. (2004b) “The Accessibility of Centres to the Road Networks: The Case of Lagos Island, Lagos, Nigeria”. International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Dynamics, Vol. 2, Pp. 140-15 1.
Fouracre, P.R. and Maunder, D.A.C. (1977): “Public Transport in Cheng Mai, Thailand” Crowthorne, Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Supplementary Report 285.
Fouracre, P.R. and Maunder, D.A.C. (1978) “Public Transport in Swiabaya, Indonasia” Crawthorne, Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Supplementary Report 370.
Grava, S. (1977): “The Jeepneys of Manila” Traffic Quartet, Vol. 26,No. 4, Pp.465-483.
Jacobs, G.D. and Fouracre, P.R. (1976) Further research on road accident rates in developing countries. TRRL complementary Report27O. Crowthorne
Okoko, F. (1990) “For an Effective “Going System”. The Standard Newspaper, Jos, Nigeria. Wed. July 25, p. 9
Okoko, F. (1998) “The Demand For Para-Transit Transport Services in Nigerian Towns: The case of Motorcycle Transport in Akure. Journal of Transport Studies, Vol.2, No. 1
Olami, O.A. (1979): “Intra-city Personal Travel in Metropolitan Lagos” Ibadan, NISER, University of Ibadan, Reprinted Series Number.1 11
Sada, P.O. (1970): “Political Policies and the Development of Transportation in Metropolitan Lagos. Nigerian Geographical Journal Vol. 13, No.2.

Impact of Current Lifestyle Choice on Healthcare Services

2.3 Impact of current lifestyle choices on future needs for health and social care services

According to the medical dictionary, Lifestyle is defined as ”The constellation of habitual activities unique to a person, which lend consistency to activities, behaviour, manners of coping, motivation, and thought processes, and defines the way in which he/she lives; lifestyle activities include diet, level of physical activity, substance abuse, social and personal interaction.” Factors like the advanced technologies, globalization of trade, urbanization, et al, are beneficial and lead to positive outcomes but at the same time we can talk about negative effects on population, bringing up sedentary life patterns und unhealthy dietary patterns, an increase in the consumption of tobacco, alcohol or the use of illegal drugs. To be healthy, is one of the fundamental rights of every human being, therefore to reach the highest possible health standards, a holistic approach is required, that goes behind the traditional curative care, involving everyone from stakeholders, providers and least but not last, communities. Healthy Lifestyle choices from an early age are recognised to have a positive impact on the needs and health for Social Care at the stage when people are getting older, hypothetically a choice of lifestyle can be considered an investment for the future. Grossman model analysis for ”The demand of health” in one of the Pub Med articles, ”Dev Health Econ Public Policy, 1998”, rises the demand for health from the model in which health investment is seen as a consumption and as an investment good, an approach where the individual can decide his level of health, hence his life span. To begin with, an individual is granted a certain quantity of health capital, which over time is belittled, but can be replaced by investments like medical care, exercise, diet, et al. So, the level of health is not treated as an external cause but is influenced by the amount of resources the individual assigns for the production of health. As an example, educated people are likely, more efficient producers of health, hence a lower price for their capital of health is demanded.

Fries (1980), suggests that the need for medical services and social care might be reduced if the outbreak of chronic diseases and disability can be put on hold. So, having as objective to reduce or postpone health problems, procedures to modify or change unhealthy lifestyle factors at an early stage in life, were winning a significant attention in the current researches. The level of disease in the population and the skill to improve policy is seen as influencing the future demand of care. According to the ‘Office for national Statistics 2006’ the big challenge for the future is chronic disease and also a trend in long-lasting illness and disability in younger population. Therefore, the changing burden of disease associated with the ageing population is already high in the minds of policymakers. There are reports about the differences in self-reported longstanding illness by region, employment status or socio-economic group. The number of incapacity-related benefit claimants has tripled since 1979 and is increasing year-on-year. (Prime Minister’s Strategy Unit 2005)
As a summary from the ‘Health Policy futures’, is recognised that:

”There is a steady increase in morbidity. Most diseases in the future will be of a chronic nature and require health and social care over long episodes in time.
There has also been a massive (62 per cent) growth in the number of young people with disability since 1972.
Poor mental health and neurodegenerative ailments are becoming more prevalent.
There are differences in self-reported health. Discrepancies in disease have implications for where care is provided and to whom in the future. Regional forms in disease shift, and effective and rightful provision of care should follow need.
Health differences replicate social inequalities. Trends in equality are important predictors of future health status and areas of need for care.”

As indicated in the article ”Archives of internal medicine”, an unhealthy lifestyle, is the lifestyle where a person is engaged in activities that can be harmful to one’s health, like smoking, not exercising regularly enough, eating unhealthy on a regular basis and not keeping a healthy weight, alcohol consumption, et al.

Alcohol consumption- recent increase of alcohol consumption reflects in the recent alcohol related deaths that has more than doubled (Office for National Statistics 2006)
Smoking- In comparison with alcohol consumption the number of people smoking has decreased over time, from 45 per cent to 24 per cent. This is reflected in the drop in smoking related illnesses. (Office for National Statistics 2005) However trends like alcohol use, obesity or other lifestyle factors related to cancer can inverse these trends. Smoking is considered an activity that will directly lower the health of human’s respiratory system and all related systems. According to, ”Centre of Disease, Control and Prevention”, smoking is damaging almost all organs in our body, and increases the chance of developing lung cancer or any heart disease and will never be considered a healthy lifestyle.

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Diet- The phrase ‘you are what you eat’, has been around for who knows how long now. Eating well sustains a healthy body and mind, thus is not likely to be the same if someone may choose junk food over fresh vegetables but at the same time ‘Prevention is key’. According to” Food Standards Agency’s, 2005′, there is an increase in the number of respondents of eating fruit and vegetables. Citizens cannot work to their full capacity if they are sick, and as a result the national’s safety and economic health will suffer, making it weak economically and military. As a result, this is why city, state and national governments care about their citizens to be involved with health promotion which is defined by the WHO, to increase control over their health and its determinants.
Exercise- Daily exercise is seen as very important for cardiovascular health, weight, upkeep our overall health, therefore exercising regularly will help burn calories and stimulate muscle tissue. All this will lead to a better muscular structure and a much lower overall weight. Being overweight puts stress on joints and bones and at the same times increasing the risk of diabetes and heart disease. According to the ‘National Health Services’, our body weight is affected by the quality and quantity of food that a person eats as well, therefore in order to have a healthy lifestyle, healthy foods, fruit and vegetables are recommended because they contain the vitamins and minerals for all our body needs.
These are example of modifiable lifestyle factors, which can be related to grave health conditions, like cancer, myocardial infarction, thus they can be related to some daily life activities at a later stage in life. All these factors will have a significant impact on the health and social care system. Evidence are suggesting that the improvement of these factors will prevent functional limitations associated with older age and will lead to a healthier and more independent way to age. (Lanz, et al. 2001)

The report, ‘Engaging with care: A vision for the health and care workforce of England’, published in September 2007, is analysing the policies, directions and identifies the routes for future actions, establishing trends and challenges in identifying common grounds in health and care policy guidelines at local and national level. The aim is to empower all those involved in health, in their different roles, to influence the health and care policy and practice. It is well known that the demand for care is shaped by disease patterns, however the patterns of disease are influenced by social determinants.

Health Policy Futures Engaging with care: a vision for the health and care workforce of England, The Nuffield Trust, paper 2, prepared by Morris Z., (2007), available at: http://www.health.jbs.cam.ac.uk/research/cuhresearch/downloads/reports/socialcontext.pdf, accessed on: 24/01/2017
Nocera S.,(1998), The demand for health: an empirical test of the Grossman model using panel data, PubMed, available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10662408, accessed on: 24/01/2017
The Free Dictionary, (2003-2017), available at: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Life-style+choice, accessed on: 24/01/2017 

Business Strategy of Tata Consultancy Services (TCS)

TATA group of companies:
Tata Group of companies is the largest private corporate group in India and has been recognized as one of the most respected companies in the world which was founded by Jamsedji R Tata in 1991. The company has operations in more than 85 countries across six continents and its companies export products and services to 80 nations and the Tata Group comprises (114) companies and subsidiaries in seven business sectors (Tata Sons Ltd., 2010).
SBU’s of TATA group 🙁 For details please refer to appendix no.1)
SBU’s which form a major part of the Tata group include:
Tata steel
Tata motors Ltd.
Tata consultancy services
Tata Technologies
Tata tea
Tata power
Tata Communications
Tata Teleservices
Tata hotels
1.1 Company profile: Tata consultancy services (TCS)
SBU of Tata group:
Source: http://biet.beadvg.org/images/logos/tcs_logo_cmyk.jpg
Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) is one of the SBU of Tata group of companies. It is a Software services consulting company which is a subsidiary Tata group .It is the largest provider of information technology (IT) and business process outsourcing services in Asia. It has offices in 42 countries with more than 142 branches across the globe. The company is listed on the National Stock Exchange (NSE) and Bombay Stock Exchange(BSE) of India.TCS mainly offers a consulting-led, integrated portfolio of IT and IT-enabled services delivered through its unique strategic Global Network Delivery Model which is recognized as the benchmark of excellence in the IT industry (LinkedIn Corporation, 2010) .TCS is currently investing in new technologies, new processes & people in order to achieve an competitive edge (Amdocs Ltd., 2010).(For details please refer to appendix no.2)
TCS helps some of the world’s largest companies to adopt the right technology-enabled solution that helps them in following manner (Tata Sons Ltd., 2010).
Optimize business performance
Facilitate alignment of business with technology
Connect their extended supply chains
Reduce product development time
Improve product differentiation
Provide real-time business insight
Lower operational costs
TCS business structure:
Following diagram illustrates operating structure of TCS:
Fig 1.TCS operating structure
Source: http://www.allbusiness.com/glossaries/organizational-structure/4943569-1.html
2 Business Level Strategies:
TCS has developed its business level strategy by assuming as world financial institutions are in a tremendous shock of crisis and think of scaling up revenue from other industries. (Tata Consultancy Services Limited, 2010). TCS names its business divisions as Industry Service Practice which will help them to collect maximum revenue from Banking Financial Services and Insurance Sectors. (Please refer to appendix no. 3)
Generic Business Strategies of TCS:
TCS provides low cost Global delivery with the help global strategy.
TCS mainly focus on customer relationship management & customer retention in order increase the business revenue.
TCS provides timely delivery of IT services with the help of proven delivery & quality framework called as (iQMS)
TCS uses differentiation strategy by providing low end services in terms of cost, resources.
TCS also diffenciate its high end services such as consulting in term of niche offerings.
TCS has strong knowledge management system & resource
Strength by which they has successful in reaching the overall cost leadership in the (IT) industry.
TCS has develop a resolute strategy where they are providing (IT) services according to the requirements of customer and the nature of business.& targeting new markets like Middle East, Europe, and Asia-pacific.
Currently TCS Focus on Centres of Excellence (CoE) to hold ability so as to construct technologies such as service-oriented architecture, testing, and virtualization which will help TCS to attempt outsized projects so as to alter customer’s (IT) applications.
Business level strategy model:
Following diagram illustrates various business level strategies of TCS which are closely related to the company.
Fig 2. Business level strategy model-TCS
Source: Author
Business level Strategies are listed below:
Global Strategies
Strategic Alliance strategy
Acquisition strategy
TCS: Co innovation network (coin) strategy
(1) Global strategy:
TCS global strategy structure tend towards its global operations to implement a Customer centric and integrated approach which will help them to control external factors arising from the Economic Meltdown in western countries. TCS’s global operation units is divided into five main divisions includes the established markets like North America K & Western Europe as well as the new markets includes mainly Latin America, Middle east, India and Eastern Europe. TCS was the first one to set the global delivery centre in China which distinguished TCS from other corporate companies (Mitra, 2005).
This global strategy of TCS will Increase Company’s market growth rate at the rate of 40% every year. TCS is establishing global delivery centres outside India which demonstrate TCS as a Global company. In recent years TCS was frequently changing its approach towards global market. (For details please refer to appendix no .3)
Global strategy map:
Following map illustrated the countries where TCS collaborate its global strategy
Mainly includes US, Mexico, China, India, Hungary, UK, West-Europe etc.
Fig.3 Global Strategy map
Source: http://www.cogmap.com/chart/tata- consultancy-services
2 Strategic Alliances strategy:
Tata consultancy services have been holding a strategic relationship with various International technology (IT) vendors such as Intel, Hewlett-Packard (HP), IBM this distinguished as service provider, customer, supplier, and alliance partner. (Mitra, 2005). The relationships with the international technology vendors have made TCS to maintain a holistic approach to create a joint venture opportunities with these international vendors on joint research by which each other’s strengths will provide a strategic advantage by following ways(For details please refer to appendix no.4)
It creates joint engagements with (IT) vendors.
It provide new or improved solutions on problems
It helps to adopt a Joint go-to-market strategy for the specific (IT) solutions.
3. Acquisition strategy:
TCS divides its acquisition strategy into two components. Organic means and inorganic means (Mitra, 2005). The Inorganic way of acquisitions of companies this has business sense to TCS as part of its strategy to look at expansion options has set up an internal team which will focus only on acquisition strategies.(For details please refer to appendix no.5)
4. Co- innovation network (coin) strategies:
TCS have implemented a Co-innovation strategy in order to face the competition in today’s globalization world. Where competition among the IT companies is increasing day by day. TCS has developed & implement an innovative technology which will result in collaborating a “Globally Distributed Network (GDN)” (Mitra, 2005). (Please refer to appendix no.6)
Bowman’s strategic clock:
Business level strategy of TCS can also be explained with the help of Bowman‟s Strategic clock (work of Cliff Bowman) (For details please refer to appendix no.7)
Fig 4. Bowman’s strategic clock
Source: Adopted from (Faulkner & Bowman, 1995)
Based on the competition faced by TCS they are using two parallel strategies so as to sustain in the (IT) sector.
Differentiation:-TCS use differentiation strategy by offering its low &high end services such as consulting in term of niche offerings & terms of cost resources. Expertise that is different from those of the competitors in (IT) industry & which are valued by the customers.
Low price:-TCS has achieved cost (price) leadership in the (IT) industry with the help of its strong knowledge management system as compare to competitors.
According to Bowman’s strategic clock differentiation & Low price strategy comes under ‘hybrid strategy’. So, it is evident that TCS use these strategies in order to keep up with the emerging (IT) trends and working out towards its goal of being the most chosen brand in the (IT) industry.
TCS Business level Strategies can also be identified and explained with the help of Ansoff matrix which divides the strategy of a company into four different categories namely,
(i) Market Penetration Strategy
(ii) Market Development Strategy
(iii) Product Development Strategy
(iv) Diversification Strategy
TCS’s growth and development strategies based on Ansoff’s matrix
Ansoffix growth matrix 🙁 For details please refer to appendix no.8)
TCS’S Business level Strategies can also be identified and explained with the help of Assnsoff matrix as follows:
Existing Products New Products
(Market Penetration)
Existing Markets: USA and Europe
Existing Products: ADM, BPO, KPO, consultancy services & software products.
(Product Development)
Existing Market: USA and Europe
New Product: Consultancy and package implementation services in relatively growing sectors life sciences & healthcare, aviation sector, and KPO services
(Market Development)
New markets: India, Middle-east and Australia
Existing Products: ADM, BPO, KPO, consultancy services & Software products (financial products).
New products:
vertical- Specific services packages, TCS Financial Solutions, and Platform-based BPO
New markets: Latin America, Eastern Europe, Middle East & Africa and India),
Existing Market
New Market
Fig 4. Ansoffix growth matrix of TCS
Source: Author
(i) Market penetration strategy:
As per the growth matrix TCS is currently penetrates its range of services into USA and Europe where they provide ADM, BPO, KPO, consultancy services (in BFSI, manufacturing and retail firms) as well as they provide software products (financial products) to the firms as most large clients in US and Europe are concentrating on cutting costs of (IT) related services (Tata Consultancy Services Limited, 2010). TCS needs to be more aggressive on cost cutting strategy with good quality.

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(ii) Market development strategy:
As per the growth matrix TCS is concentrating on new markets like India, Middle-east and Australia where they provide products like ADM, BPO, KPO consultancy services (in BFSI, manufacturing and retail) and software products (financial products) (Tata Consultancy Services Limited, 2010).Since these are the most fast developing IT market where TCS needs to keep a paradigm as a shift in focus from US & EU markets to these new markets.
(iii) Product Development Strategy:
As per the growth matrix TCS is selling its new products such as Consultancy and package implementation services in relatively growing sectors especially in life sciences & healthcare, aviation sector, and KPO services into existing markets like USA and Europe (Tata Consultancy Services Limited, 2010). This strategy will definitely help on building expertise in these domains by strategic acquisitions.
(iv) Diversification strategy:
As per the growth matrix TCS has diversified their new products like vertical- Specific services packages, TCS Financial Solutions, and Platform-based BPO into new markets like Europe & and other emerging markets where the market growth of the company has increased by 40 % (Tata Consultancy Services Limited, 2010).TCS diversified its function to new markets like Latin America and Middle East for considerable expansion. In order to penetrate a new market TCS has established delivery and offshore centres in countries like Brazil, Uruguay and Mexico.
3 Strengths & weaknesses based on business Level Strategies:
Following table illustrates (TCS) strengths and weaknesses:
Extensive Universal reach
Strong economic performance
Strong brand name and awareness
Unique service Offerings
Employee Management Skills (HR Skills)
Innovation lab system
Fame of founder
Momentous publicity to financial markets
Lack of focus on the domestic markets.
Deficient in level of consulting
Source: Author
3.1 Strengths:
(1) Extensive Universal reach: TCS has widespread a global reach by its product and services throughout its branches all over the world includes in UK, U.S, Middle east, Australia, Europe etc. (Tata Consultancy Services Limited, 2010). This provides a diverse revenue base for the company to have an active control on its business operations universally.
(2) Strong economic performance: TCS has made apparent and strong economic presentations around the globe which makes its clients to be financially confident about the company and hence it will increase company’s reputation.
(3) Strong brand name and awareness: As the popularity of the brand TCS (Tata consultancy services) has been reach all over the world which made TCS a reputed brand image in the Global information technology (IT) and software industries.
(4) Unique service Offerings: TCS provides a unique range of services including business consulting; information technology, business process outsourcing (BPO), infrastructure, and engineering which distinguished them from competitors belong to IT industry (Tata Consultancy Services Limited, 2010).
(5) Employee Management Skills (HR Management Skills): The domestic base of TCS i.e. ‘India’ is well -known for its skilled employees in IT field which naturally made TCS a very strong in HR management .TCS is also recruited its board of Directors are from overseas countries in order to adopt the strategies from all the parts of the world.
(6) Innovation in lab system: TCS have most effective infrastructures and innovative labs all over the world with most modern technologies which help its employees to have an access to update the most up-to-date information to make research in various IT related fields (Tata Consultancy Services Limited, 2010). This provides TCS an competitive edge.
(7) Fame of founder: Tata is recognised as the most renowned brand in Asia as well as the fame of the founder Mr.Ratan J Tata also added value to TCS (Tata Consultancy Services Limited, 2010).
3.2 Weaknesses:
(1) Momentous publicity to financial markets:
The Excess exposure on the financial service markets at a global level (Datamonitor, 1998). Which generally necessitate to be keep confidential as they it displays company’s private policies and legal terms which is considered as the primary & key weakness of Tata consultancy services (TCS)
(2) Lack of focus on the domestic markets:
As per the strength of TCS it has an Extensive Universal reach by its product and services throughout it are all over the world branch which provides a diverse revenue base for the company. (Datamonitor, 1998). But at the same time domestic markets are also affected due to lack of focus by the company. This is the key weakness of Tata consultancy services (TCS).
(3) Deficient in level of consulting operations:
Lack in Effective consulting team which show a strong reflection of decline in the growth Cycle of the TCS, Being a company which mainly works on Outsourcing on scale large projects and assignment which generally needs a very good effective consulting team which acts as the link between the Clients and company (Tata Consultancy Services Limited, 2010).TCS company is lacking behind in its level of consulting operations.
Report to the Board of Directors
The Board of Directors,
Tata consultancy services Ltd.
Subject: Recommendations for the (TCS) business unit.
Respected Board members,
In the report which is attached along with a critical research and analysis has been done on the corporate strategy followed by your company. The research and analysis has been conducted by using various corporate strategy tools and methods and the company’s past and current strategies have been highlighted.
On the basis of the strengths and the weaknesses of these strategies we have stated so; following are the recommendations which I was able to generate after studying the strategies adopted by the TCS:
TCS should create specific value propositions aimed directly at the relevant stakeholders which include business executives, IT personnel in order to improve your market positioning in domestic markets.
The excess exposure on the financial service markets which usually need to be kept confidential is considered as the main weakness of TCS so they can should focus more on increasing their IP (Intellectual Property) assets in order to lower the momentous publicity to financial markets (Tata Consultancy Services Limited, 2010).
TCS can also go for isolation strategies with premium services like IT solutions and focus on a niche market.
In market Meltdowns (recession) marketing can work as a differentiator. TCS can alter its focus from Low cost advantage to high quality services considering quality being pioneer in the (IT) industry.
TCS can offer diverse services to refrain from being over-dependent and increasing exposure to the vulnerabilities of few sectors like USA.
TCS can adopt ADM (Application Development and maintenance) system to increase value added services, BPO to Consulting and Package Implementation (Tata Consultancy Services Limited, 2010).
Consolidation and strategic acquisitions are essential for future growth of revenues. The HP-EDS merger (one of the biggest ever merger in this industry) is evidence to this. TCS should prepare for such opportunities which are strategic fit for the company.
TCS has rightly placed SMB (Small and Medium Businesses) as a separate strategic unit, which should be focused aggressively. They should also focus consulting practice on the same business unit (Tata Consultancy Services Limited, 2010).  

Barriers for Parent Engagement in Childcare Services

Critically discuss the barriers that parents may face in engaging with one area of the children’s services. What role can practitioners play in overcoming some of these barriers?
Parents and practitioners trying to access help for children with disabilities face many barriers when engaging with children’s services. While changes have happened in society over the past number of years it can still be said that there is always room for improvement in children’s services. This TMA will focus on children with a disability and how parents and practitioners face the barriers of being heard and accessing the help available to them. While children with disabilities have been integrated into mainstream school or given the opportunity within a special need schools, parents still face barriers of the integration of multi-agencies and getting the right help and advice.

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Over the past few years change has come about from children with special needs been hidden away to now being integrated into mainstream education or special need schools. This has developed as a result of the implantation of new laws and legislation to protect child’s rights e.g. children’s NI order (1995), Education Act (2011), and also the present Ten year strategy for children and young people in Northern Ireland 2006-2016. While this has brought about significant change and better quality of education for special needs children it can be critically argued that parents still face many barriers within the education system. Ashley Walter (2014) identified that children with disabilities have more unmet health needs. This was further seen more from children of rural areas. Parents are not only having to coping with the additional needs of their child’s disability, but also the barriers of seeking help and being heard for their child to receive the right education. As a foster parents for a disabled child I can refer to these parents as I too found the barriers of known what services was available as information is limited. Lambing (2009) supports these parents when his studies identified that parents face the barriers of not knowing how the system works and the support available to access for their child’s needs. It can also be equally argued that parents themselves set the barrier to engage with the services. This may be a result of not coming to terms with their child’s disability being in denial or that they feel ashamed of not being able to cope. I was inspired by the research of Brodhurst (2003) which shows that parents of disabled children have a social barrier in engaging in services. Chin and Philip (2004) support this when talking about Cultural capital, on how parents from different social strata define how their child is raised. It can be seen how parent’s aspirations can influence barriers as they can higher expectations for their child than they are capable of. This is when the role of the practitioner plays an important role to overcoming these barriers. Parents need the support in knowing that there is something wrong as well as learning that engaging with different services will overcome barriers. The integration of children’s services has been set up to reach out to these parents. Guaralnick J M talks about early intervention and its importance to both the child and their family. The development of Sure Start is seen as a crucial early year services. They provide an invaluable network of support and guidance to help overcome some of the integration barriers parents’ face.
Cohan (2005) sees that while services change and multi-agencies work together, so too does the relationship with the child change. Parents are therefore faced with the new barriers of how the child will intergraded into this system. This is supported by the research reported in the Journal of developmental and behavioural paediatrics, where parents and providers both perspective in barriers where children with disabilities are unable to integrate into the system due to their complex needs of coping with change and new facilities. It can be critically argued that our system tends to fit the child into the services rather than the service into the child. Can appointments not be carried out in the home or school environment? Has the child condition been taken into consideration especially a child who can’t cope with new places or people? These are some of the many questions and barriers that parents face. As service providers it can critically be said that we have a tendency to look at what we think is best for the child rather than listening to child themselves. As a foster parent I too faced these barriers as the child I cared for found difficult is coping with change. When attending appointments it caused stress and anxiety given the many barriers to overcome. Child A had the difficulties of dealing with not only the new surrounding but also the different faces and assessments needs. Then there are the barriers of waiting on decisions. I can say that I found it hard to know the outcomes and faced the barriers of frustration in not knowing what is happen and how Child A needs were being met. It is important as services providers to remember while all areas of development are interlinked each child is an individual. Like Young C talked about in video clip three learning guide 17.2 while the contributing of information is important we have to consider how we gather this information as it can be seen an innovation when professional visit the setting within short period to carry out similar assessments. This is the same for parents attending numerous appointments as it becomes frustrating to getting the same feedback and not answers to the services their child needs. Turner (2003) research I feel is important as he talked about the importance for the child’s welfare of having numerous agencies while at the same time having the support of a co-ordinator known as a Key worker to work on their behalf to reduce stress. These methods would help reduce some barriers and provide the support for parents during difficult periods. As stated in the Warnock Report (1978) “Parents provide valuable if not unique information for professionals who can then decide on the appropriate course of action in the ‘best interest of the child.” Parent’s participation is crucial in the ongoing development of services as they will be there for the children when professional are not.
An interesting Journal came to my attention was the Facilitators and barriers for co – ordinated multi-agency services which highlighted that while there is little evidence on the effectiveness of multi-agency it has been found that barriers are reduced of collecting information, clear aims and timelines. While we talk about partnership it is argued that it evolves, grows and develops a style of attitudes and working together, it can be critically argued that this attitude constantly influences relationship within the partnership and the children needs are met. Like Savage J in Video clip 2 Learning guide 17.2 states there is no point in ‘demonising’ agencies who are viewed as not contributing; it should be recognised that they have their own objectives which need to be linked to shared objectives which need to be linked to shared objectives. While this is true the barriers both parents and schools face are of professionals not wanting to over step their role in making formal decisions as they don’t feel they have the authority as its beyond their job title.
The key to direction of interagency work was set out as a process of consulting the children, young people, and parents using the service. It is to enables the children to comment on their needs and issues directly related to interagency service delivery. While this is the aim barriers are still faced todays parents and practitioners. While the interagency is to help relieve these barriers as a childcare practitioner working in the early years I too face the barriers of been heard. In schools practitioners also have to overcome barriers to help the child as well as building parent’s relationship. As a practitioner we need the parents support as they are the main source of vital information for the child welfare. This can be challenging when a child is unknown to have a special need and is identified within the school. While the UNCRC (1989) legislates the right for children to be educated in mainstream schools both practitioners and parents face the barriers of being heard and having the support needed to allow their children needs met. In my own setting we face the barriers of children not been assessed before school age especially children that present with autism, this therefore leads onto being declined the support needed within the setting. These barriers have an ongoing effect not only on the child but the stress parents face to being heard.
Guralnick J M (1991) highlights the importance of early intervention and the benefits it has on the child’s development as well Government DFE (2012) suggesting that poor provision for children and young people with SEND, particularly those with needs such as autism and dyslexia is likely to significantly affect their quality of life. However it does not always happen in practise. In my own voluntary organisation we do not have the support of the education system as we are seen as a pre-school and not a nursery even though the difference is the title. This therefore does not enable us to have the support of early intervention to get children assessed for autism. These children are suffering and barriers are set against the pre-school in providing services and helping parents to get the best start for their child. It can be seen that while new laws and legislation has seen improvements in children’s services it can be seen that the voluntary organisation who focus on the specific needs of the child, know more about children’s needs rather than the local authorities. The voluntary organisations work hands on with parents and children taking strategic partnership forward. It therefore is important that voluntary agencies are not set barriers but be included within partnership with children. Some families will turn to smaller community group for supporting needs resulting from the mistrust of statutory organisations. Voluntary organisations are user lead in that they are focusing on the child as well as the policy. That’s why it’s important that they feed into policy rather than local authorises which don’t work hands on. The sure start organisation has had a great impact in helping parents with barriers they face. Within the organisation they have provided a service where all personal meet under the one complex reducing the barriers for parents whose children have complex needs and find change difficult to cope with. It can however be critically said that some organisation only reach out to rural areas and parents outside this catchment area still face the barriers. It could be therefore said that the government need to review their services and enable all users to avail of the services. Voluntary organisations like the pre-schools also need to be included in these services so barriers can be reduced and children assessed at a young age. This would not only have the nature of the partnership been redefined but so too has the concept of childhood on the role of the community strengthened. As DH 2001 research shows that power can over view the resources needed and the children’s needs.
In conclusion to this ATM it can be said that Law recognises disabled children as being in need. While many parents and practitioners still face barriers to accessing services for disabled children in need, many barriers can be overcome through multi – agency support services that has a evolve to adopt a ‘holistic’ approach with the child at the centre. Voluntary organisations integrating into government and state holders are contracting these powers, drawing them into policy process would give children and parents an important role in the shaping of government and how finance is distributed. This approach is supported by Tuner (2003) in research carried out with disability and young people for the Welsh Assembly, it was clearly demonstrated that the views of the disabled people and parents was of importance. There has been and will continue a constant shifting of barriers for children, parents and practitioners within the integration of agencies, to ensuring that our children’s wellbeing’s are met.
Barriersto inclusion – Joseph Rowntree Foundation
Dixon SD (2010) Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics: official Journal of society. Publisher: Wolters Kluwer Health
Frost N, (2008) ‘Interagency working with children and families: what works and what makes a difference’ in Collins, Foley P & Rixon A (eds), Changing children’s services, The Policy Press, The open University Bristol.
Guralnick M J, (1991). The Next Decade of Research on the Effectiveness of Early Intervention. Published by University of Washington
Hammond L, L, (2013). Integrated services for Aboriginal children and families, New Zealand, Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, Vol. 38 Issue 1
Kimberly P (2014). “Barriers and Facilitators of Access to Health and Support Services for Adolescents Living with Disabilities in a Rural Area”. Publisher University Honours Program.
Lesack, Bearss r, Celano k, Sharp m, William G. (2014) Parent–Child Interaction Therapy and autism spectrum disorder: Adaptations with a child with severedevelopmentaldelays. Publisher: Educational Publishing Foundation.
Leverett S, (2008) ‘Parenting, practice and Policy’ in Collins, Foley P & Rixon A (eds), Changing children’s services, The Policy Press, The open University Bristol.
Lewis J (2011) From Sure Start to children’s centres: an analysis of policy change in English early years programmes. Publishers Cambridge University Press
Meghan N. MD, D. (2014) Parent and Provider Perspectives on Procedural Care for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Volume 35 issue 3. Publisher: Wolters Kluwer Health
Royston S & Rodrigues L (2013) Breaking Barriers: How to help children’s centres reach disadvantaged families. Publishers The Children’s Society
Sloper P (2004) Facilitators and barriers for co‐ordinated multi‐agency services, Volume 30 Issue 6. Publisher: Child: care, health and development, 2004 – Wiley Online Library
Stone B & Foley P, (2008) ‘Towards integrated working’ in Collins, Foley P & Rixon A (eds), Changing children’s services, The Policy Press, The open University Bristol.
www.childrenssociety.org.uk (20 April 2014)
www.sagepub.com/upm-data/25240_01_cheminals_ch_01.pdf (29 April 2014)
www.foundationyears.org.uk (1May 2014)
KE312 Working together for children Activity 17.2
KE312 Working together for children Activity 17.3
Sinead Bartley (Sb35636) TMA5
Page 1  

Organisation of Essential Services in Mauritius

3.0 Introduction
The level of activities at the MFRS is very high and includes a cocktail of hazards and risks to the H&S of its employees. In any essential service organization, where there is poor H&S management system, the fire fighter’s safety is compelled to be affected and impaired. Therefore, the provision of adequate H&S measures become necessary as it greatly contributes to enhance fire fighter’s safety and health.
3.1 An overview of the Fire Service Department in Mauritius

Port Louis
Quatre Bornes
St Aubin

3.1.1. History and Foundation
Founded in the year 1906 the first fire station was erected in the centre of Port-Louis and named Port Louis Municipal Fire Station. At this date Mauritius had 11 stations including 4 Municipals, 4 districts, 1 Mauritius Marine Limited (MMA), 1 Airport Mauritius Limited (AML) and 1 Port-Mathurin, Rodrigues. But, nowadays with the exception of the AML, MMA and Port- Mathurin Fire Station, the other fire station has merged into the Government Fire Services under the Ministry of Local Government with addition of two more fire stations. However, with rapid development and complexity of incidents the fire services has added more tasks in their duties and hence has added rescue operation where fire fighters provide paramedic services as well. This is why it is now called the Fire and Rescue Services Department. (Fire Services Act, 1947, Mauritius).
Henceforth, MFRS is responsible for ensuring the people of the republic of Mauritius are supported by and benefit from, an effective disaster and emergency management system and essential emergency response services. The MFRS provides fire mitigation and management services, emergency rescue and disaster management services.
It currently operates 9 Fire Stations manned by about 800 fire fighters working on 4 shifts to provide fire and emergency cover for the whole country with a population of about 1.2 million. This gives us a fire fighter-to-population ratio of 1 fire fighter on duty for every 7000 in population to respond to an annual average of 5000 to 6000 fires, about 2000 non-fire incidents with a fleet of about 40 fire fighting vehicles.
3.1.3 Organigram of the Fire and Rescue Services. (Appendix)
1. Fire Prevention

Issuing of fire certificate, fire clearance and certificate of registration.
Inspection of places where the above certificates can be issued like high rise buildings, shops, industries and so on.
Carrying out fire awareness campaigns at workplaces and schools.
Performing fire drills for fire alertness.

2. Operation.

Indulging in fire fighting.
Carry out rescue operation, for example; road accidents, rescue of animals.
Render other special services, for example; floods, cyclones and tsunami.
Carryout safety talks at community level.
Carrying out fire drills at station level.

3. Control Room Unit

Hazards emergency calls ( Dial the hotline 115)
Mobilize suitable operational (at station level) resources.
Notify other agencies relevant to incident.
Produce relevant support in dealing with emergency.
Record and maintain data relating to emergency.

4. Hydrant

Maintenance of fire hydrant.
Installation of new hydrant.
Seek location for water sources.

5. Training unit

Carrying the training for new recruit’s fire fighters.
Performing refreshers training to fire fighters in relation to their duties.
Giving lectures in connection with fire awareness campaigns.

3.1.5. Division of Labour. Fire services in Mauritius comprises of about 700 staffs which include the following:





Chief Fire Officer (CFO)



Deputy Chief Officer (DCFO)



Assistant Chief Fire Officer (ACFO)



Divisional Officer (DO)



Senior Station Officer (SSO)



Station Officer (STNO)



Sub Station Officer (SO)



Fire Fighter (FF)


Table 3.1: Division of labour

CFO- Head of department.
DCFO-Assist the CFO in his daily routine work.
ACFO-Assist the DCFO in his work.
DO- Responsible for controlling a number of sections or stations.
SSO-Responsible for the management of only one particular station.
STNO-Responsible for controlling a particular team (watch) in a station.
SO-Assist the STNO in his daily station routine work.
FF-Carry out all operations work like firefighting rescue and other cognate duties.

3.2. Vision of the MFRS.
To have a Republic of Mauritius free from the dangers of fire and other emergency threats and safe to live, work and visit anytime and anywhere.
3.3. Mission of the MFRS
The mission of the Fire Services Department is to:

Save life
Effect rescue in Road Traffic Accident, flooding, cyclone, tsunami and other natural calamities.
Protect properties endangered by fire and the environment.
Effect special services.
Render humanitarian services and give advice on fire prevention and protection measures.

3.4. The strategic goals of the MFRS are dedicated to build a safe Mauritius society by:

Reduce the number of fires, road accidents and other emergency incidents.
Reduce the severity of injuries in fire, road traffic accidents and other emergency vehicles.
Reduce commercial, economic and social impact of fires and other emergency incidents.
Create a safe working environment for our fire fighters.
Safe guard the environment and heritage (both built and natural).
Provide a sustainable service that demonstrate quality and best value service provision.
Building public confidence in the fire services.
Continually develop the resources available to meet changing needs.
Working effectively with all their partners and stakeholders.

3.5. Health and Safety at MFRS.
With the promulgation of the OSHA in the year 2007, the minister proclaimed that this act shall bind the state as per Section 3 of OSHA 2005.
3.5.1. Health and Safety Officer.
At the MFRS, there is no such appointed officer. However, there are safety officers from the Ministry who come on regular OSH audit to identify risks to S&H. They recommend in writing all recommendations and measures that have to be implemented by the employers. The role of Health and safety Officer (HSO) is to implement appropriate training program to meet the requirements of OSHA 2005, but it can be argued that this requirement is not met. It should be noted that practically all the hazards and risk pertaining to the job of firefighters are found on incident ground. So, HSO from the ministry caters for only 5% of H&S of fire-fighters.

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3.5.2. Role of Incident Commander as HSO.
The incident commander has the duty to supervise and monitor the safety and health of fire fighters on incident ground. He must carry a dynamic risk assessment with the continuous changing environment because new hazards, emerged with increased risks. Unfortunately, those commanders have not been given S&H training and carryout their job without caring for the S&H of fire-fighters.
3.5.3. Medical Check up.
According to section 77 of OSHA, a medical check up is carried out periodically at the public hospitals as recommended by the Occupational physician. Unluckily some firefighters do not attend medical appointment.
3.5.4. First Aid
According to section 45 of OSHA 2005 and First Aid Regulation, first aid boxes with appropriate items are to be placed at conspicuous place. At fire stations, there are first aid boxes but there are missing first aid items or else they are out of date.
3.5.5. Health and Safety Training
Section 5 of OSHA 2005 stipulates the duties of employer where training is an important element for the health and safety of personnel. Despite the fact that there are qualified firefighters with Bsc honors working in private companies as HSO, the MFRS have never used the competency of these firefighters to undergo any S&H training.
Consequently, they lack information and instructions on proper use of PPE’s, tools, equipment and how to carryout their jobs in a safe and healthy manner.
3.6 Summary
This chapter has provided an overview at MFRS, stressing on the mission, vision, strategic, goals and task organization. The role of incident Commander as HSO, general S&H in the MFRS, S&H training.


Paramount Senior Care Services Inc. (Paramount) is a new home health care company in its start up stages. It will offer in-home care services to patients and clients from Halton-Peel region of the province of Ontario, Canada. Our value proposition is to offer quality, personalized, customized care, support and assistance to seniors and families to help them maintain their independence at the comfort of their own homes at reasonable cost. Paramount has a unique competitive advantage; it is offering a “one-stop-shop” home care service for senior: skilled home health care, companionship; cleaning and housekeeping services; home repair, renovation and maintenance at reasonable price. Paramount is providing the senior and families the benefits of living in an assisted facility in the comfort of their own homes.

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There is an expected growth in the demand of health care in Canada over the next 30 years, largely due to unprecedented growth in the number of seniors. According to Statistics Canada there will be a 30% increase in Canada’s senior population annually from 2006 to 2016 or 4.3M to 9.0M respectively. The population based in Canada is aging, including residents of Halton-Peel Region, and more of the seniors opting to stay in their own homes as long as possible. Even after their hospitalization for example, they rather recuperate at home rather than proceeding to a nursing home or rehabilitation clinic. At the rate of 57% growth of senior population in Halton-Peel region from 1996 to 2016 as projected by Statistics Canada, the senior population aged 65 to 85+ in the region for the next five years will be from 222,921 to 242,459; trend is growing by 30% annually in succeeding years. Paramount customer base will be through referrals from physicians, social workers, other health care professionals and community care facilities in the region. There is a strong competition in the market, however, Paramount will position itself as unique ‘one-stop-shop’ home care service for seniors with competent, caring caregivers and professional management.
Our company’s business model includes several revenue streams from services we offer such as skilled care-nursing care, physical therapy, speech therapy or occupational therapy; companionship; housekeeping; and home repair, renovation and maintenance.
In the home care business, the terms of payment for services rendered usually takes up to 30 days. In this regard, Paramount is looking for additional funding to support the cash flow for the initial operation, in the form of a 5-year loan in the amount of $50,000 at the prevailing interest rate. The company will not take up any further loans, as it plans to support the growth through its cash flow.
Company Overview
Paramount Senior Care Services Inc. is a start-up company in its initial year of operation. Our company will be located in Mississauga. It will offer in-home care services to patients and clients, who prefer to be assisted and taken care of in the comfort of their own homes, from Halton and Peel District region which includes the cities of Mississauga, Brampton, Caledon, Milton, Oakville, Halton Hills & Burlington.
Skilled Care- Nursing, Physical Therapist, Occupational Therapist, Speech Therapist
Personal Support Care
Home Repair, Renovation and Maintenance
Value Proposition
Our value proposition is to offer quality, personalized, customized care, support and assistance to seniors and families to help them maintain their independence at the comfort of their own homes at reasonable cost.
Mission Statement
Paramount Senior Care Services strives to offer superior and reasonably priced home health care to individual and families in Halton-Peel Region providing with competent, reliable health care and professional management.
Company Ownership
Paramount Senior Care Services Inc. is a limited liability partnership owned and operated by:
Severina Saliva-Parayaoan
Arlyn Gardon, RN
Ben Dimaano
Business Model
Our company have several revenue streams from services it offers that includes income from skilled care, companionship, personal support and services, housekeeping and companionship, and other special services in home repair, renovation, maintenance and security services as outlined in the diagram below.
Business Model
Key Personnel /Resource
Revenue Streams
Customer Segments
Strategic Goals
Key Strategic Areas of Focus
Year 1
Year 2
Year 3
Sales Revenue
10% annual growth
10% annual growth
10% annual growth
Profit before Interest & Taxes
40% of sales
40% sales
40% of sales
Net Profit
At least 20% of sales
At least 20% of sales
At least 20% of sales
Geographic coverage- # of locations
Focus in Halton-Peel Region
Expand nationwide thru franchising the company’s business in Edmonton and B.C.
Expand internationally- US East coast and the Islands of Bermuda
Customer satisfaction
At least 80% customer retention
At least 80% customer retention
At least 80% customer retention
Service Overview
Paramount Care Services Inc. offers excellent home health care services such as skilled nursing care, nursing aide, speech therapy, physical therapy, or personal support services; companionship: personal hygiene, meals preparation, housekeeping, laundry, transportation and shopping. We also provide home repair, renovation, security and maintenance to upgrade home facilities adaptable to seniors changing lifestyle and physical mobility.
The following are the list of services and its features. All aims to benefit the seniors and family with peace of mind, convenience and assurance of excellent personal health care and care of property- providing the benefits of assisted living facility in the comfort of their own homes.
Skilled Care features:
Nursing Care
Physical Therapy
Speech Therapy
Occupational Therapy
Personal Support Care features:
Assist in personal hygiene and grooming
Morning Care/Bedtime Care
Catheter care
Companionship features:
Companionship on travel
Respite care while in the hospital or at home
Meals preparation
Grocery shopping
Medical appointment
Beauty Salon or Barber’s appointment
Engage in interactive activities
Pet Care
Housekeeping features:
Cleaning inside the house
Cleaning windows
Laundry, etc.
Home Repair, Renovation and Maintenance features:
Toilet and bathroom renovation
Installation of handrails in bathrooms or stairs
Gardening and Lawn Maintenance
Snow removal
Country Analysis- PEST
PEST Analysis- Canada
Establishing a senior home care business in a democratic country like Canada is projected to be successful. Canada has a strong and stable economy where seniors are protected and covered with health care insurance and benefits, and labor laws pertaining caregivers and health care professionals are in place to support the growing and changing needs of the country’s demographics, supported with highly advanced technological infrastructure with a general hospital in every major city and good route accessibility.
Political and Legal Factors
Democratic country
Health insurance for seniors are mandatory and well-established
Laws and regulations supporting and encouraging seniors home care health services
Labor laws and immigration laws encouraging caregiver programs
Economic Factors
Strong, stable economy
Senior citizens are provided with health care benefits and allowances
Growing population of seniors at the rate of 30% annual growth rate
Increase in demand in seniors home health care services
Growth in immigration particularly in health care profession
Socio-Cultural Factors
Seniors in Canada are usually taken care of caregivers other than family members
Family members are usually busy with careers and can afford to hire caregivers for elderly members of the family rather than to give up their work
Seniors prefer to stay in the comfort of their own homes as long as there will be proper caregiver to assist
Technological Factors
Highly technological infrastructure with very good access to telecommunications including telephone, internet, etc.
Service Business-Industry Analysis
To summarize the industry analysis using Porter’s Five Forces:
Barriers to Entry is low, considering home care services are considered as home-based business threats of new entrants is high.
Supplier’s Power is low, although nurses and health-care related professionals are in demand there are more people who are also getting qualifications in health care as second career as well as qualified new immigrants coming to the country.
Buyer’s Power is high, considering there are many choices referrals and recommendation from key partners is highly important.
Threat of Substitute is high, as there are many alternative service providers in the market.
Competition/Rivalry is high, existing large private companies are dominating the market plus the presence of major franchise companies.
Due to the increasing demand and growth of the industry, senior home care business is still consider to be an attractive industry even though the rivalry is high.
Marketing Plan
Market Analysis Summary
There is an expected growth in the demand of health care in Canada over the next 30 years, largely due to unprecedented growth in the number of seniors. The forecasted numbers are below*.
Number of Seniors
Population Share
Ratio of Seniors
4.3 million
1 in 7 people
5.7 million
1 in 6 people
7.7 million
1 in 5 people
9.0 million
1 in 4 people
* Statistics Canada, CANSIM, Table 052-0004 and Catalogue no. 91-520-X. 2005.
Based on the above information, there will be a 30% increase in senior population annually from 2006 to 2016.
The consumer base for Paramount Senior Care Services Inc will be patients referred by social workers, physicians, health care facilities and other health care professionals as well as satisfied clients and their families. The majority of these patients will be covered by OHIP with a smaller portion being shouldered by the patients and/or families.
Market Segmentation
The population based in Canada is aging, including residents of Halton and Peel Region, and more of the seniors opting to stay in their own homes as long as possible. Even after their hospitalization for example, they rather recuperate from home than proceeding to a nursing home or rehabilitation clinic.
Population Estimates and Projections by CSD for Halton-Peel Region, 2001-2016
Halton Hills
Grand Total
From 1996 to 2016, Halton-Peel region’s population is projected to experience a growth rate of over 50%, compared to a provincial average of approximately 25%, as per Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term care Provincial Health Planning Database in 2001.
Population in Halton-Peel Region, by Age and Sex, 2000 (Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term care Provincial Health Planning Database in 2001)
Halton Region Peel Region
Target Market Segment- Trends and Growth
Based on the above data, at the rate of 57% growth of population from 1996 to 2016 as projected by Statistics Canada, the senior population aged 65 to 85+ in Halton-Peel region for the next five years will be as follows:
Halton Region
Estimated Population
Peel Region
Estimated Population
Total Population
Projected Senior
Population (65 and above)
(13.3% of Total)
The total size of the market representing projected senior population in the Halton and Peel region is 222,921 in 2011 to 242,459 in 2016; and expected to increase by 30% in the succeeding years.
Out of the total market size, Paramount Senior Care Services, Inc target market share for the first three years of operation is 0.12%, 0.13%, and 0.14% or 276, 303 and 333 patients/clients respectively, at 10% sales annual growth as illustrated in the table below.
Projected Senior
Population (65 and above)
(13.3% of Total)
Target Market Share in %
Target Number of Clients/Patients/day (year)
Growth Rate
23 (276)
25 (303)
27.5 (333)
Our primary market segment includes those seniors 65 years old and above who require health care services or companionship by home health nursing staff or personal support workers. As well as, individuals who have suffered stroke, and other physical ailments resulting to personal injury requiring rehabilitation care, respite care, speech therapy, physical therapy, or care management from skilled nurse or therapist or personal support worker in their own homes.
These patients and their families may also require other home services such as meals preparation, cleaning, housekeeping, transportation and shopping as well as home repairs, renovation, including property and lawn maintenance, home security and emergency alarm.
Target Market Segment Strategy
Initially, our company will focus on those market segments that require only home-based services where our services are mostly needed. This will greatly decrease overhead, since additional office or facilities will not be required. In the long term, maybe after five years of successful operation opening of an assisted living facility will be an option.
Competition and Buying Patterns
The following are key factors considered by the consumer and healthcare professionals when referring home health care services:
Trust in the reputation of the service provider
Reliability and timely delivery of services
Quality of services by the service provider
Price comparative to other providers
Competitive Analysis
Key Factors
Care Services
Next Door
Guardian Angel Care
Public sector-i.e. Red Cross, Victorian Order of Nurses,etc
One-Stop-Shop care for seniors
Franchise proven business and strong support
Franchise proven business and strong support
Hospice, palliative & end of life care
Community services and link with government/
New company with no strong clients base yet
Categorize as more expensive in the industry
Categorize as more expensive in the industry
Lack of personalize care
Limited to health care service only (no cleaning/ housekeeping)
Unique Selling Proposition
One-Stop-Shop care for seniors
Patented CAREgiver program
nurses just next door of the clients
Specialized in hospice, palliative & end of life care
Community service supported by the government
Trust in the professional reputation
Medium-as we are a start-up company
High-due to brand image
High-due to brand image
High-due to number of years in the business
High- due to established and proven organization and community service
High-24/7 service
High-24/7 service
High-24/7 service
High-24/7 service
High-24/7 service
Quality of Services
High- regulated by law
High- regulated by law
High- regulated by law
High- regulated by law
High-regulated by law
Lower than franchise competitors
As per OHIP
The table above shows a strong competition in the home health care industry. However, Paramount Senior Care Services Inc is positioning itself as health care company providing affordable rates for seniors and families having a limited budget which represents a majority of seniors in the target market areas with our unique offering of ‘one-stop-shop’ services for seniors.
Competitive Advantage
Paramount Senior Care Services Inc. is a newly set up business that has a unique competitive advantage offering a “one-stop-shop” for senior care: home health care and companionship; cleaning & housekeeping services; home repair, renovation and maintenance at reasonable price. Paramount Senior Care Services is providing the senior and families the benefits of living in an assisted facility in the comfort of their own homes.
Strategy and Implementation Summary
Paramount Senior Care Services Inc. will initially focus on Halton and Peel District within the province of Ontario, Canada. Within this geographical area we will target on senior home care program. Within this area we have two target markets: the individual client, and the regional physicians, hospitals and other health care facilities and insurance companies.
Marketing Strategy
Our primary focus is home health care services to seniors. We will provide seniors a ‘One-Stop-Shop’ in all their home health care services need; it will provide convenience for seniors and their families.
Pricing Strategy
Our company pricing system will be set according to OHIP and other private insurance regulations, and is reasonable and competitive. We will do so by developing a contracted service from health-care staff on hourly, daily or weekly basis and only limited full-time employees as full-time staff.
Distribution Strategy
Our company will focus in the Halton-Peel Region where the projected growth of seniors is higher than the national average. Our company will build strategic alliance with health care facilities in the region primarily Trillium Hospital in Mississauga, Credit Valley hospital, and the new general hospital in Milton as well as community centers and health care practitioners in the region.
Promotion Strategy
Marketing our company as a service-oriented business requires establishing a good reputation for expert care and superior quality service. It starts with our existing contacts currently in positions to make recommendations and referrals to us, and we will continue with our efforts to network, integrate with the community health care professionals in the region.
We will participate in community events in the region to build contacts and generate more referrals.
We will create marketing communications and promotion materials in a business, professional manner, as well as our marketing tools such as flyers, brochures, business cards and advertisements.
Sales Strategy
Our patients and their families, as well as referring physicians and healthcare professional must be satisfied with our service, as we sell superior care, 24/7 availability, reliability and good relationships.
Growth in service industry often resulted to loss of quality control that causes client dissatisfaction, increase in complaints and eventually loss of customers. In this regard we will constantly focus on superior quality of service.
Sales Forecast
The company’s projected annual sales for the first three years of operation are as follows based on the assumption:
Using conservative estimates
Assuming to acquire a share of only 0.12% to 0.13% of target market
An average of six hours service per client
An average rate of $25/hour
Target growth rate of 10% annually
Sales Forecast
Year 1
Year 2
Year 3
Target Market Size
Target Market Share
No. of Patients or Clients
Ave. Hours/Patient/Day
Total Service Hours/Day
Ave. Rate/Hour
Total Sales/Day
Total Sales/Month
Total Sales/Year
Direct Cost of Sales
at 6% of Sales
$ 66,240.00
$ 72,000.00
$ 79,200.00
Gross Profit
$ 1,037,760.00
$ 1,128,000.00
$ 1,240,800.00
Geographic Expansion Plan
Year 1- Halton & Peel Region in the Province of Ontario, Canada
Year 2- To expand operation nation-wide by second year of operation by expanding in British Columbia and Edmonton.
Year 3- To expand operation internationally by third year of operation; to start in the United States by entering New York City in US East Coast; and the Islands of Bermuda in the Atlantic.
Day-to-day Operations
Office Location: Main office in Mississauga with sub-office in Milton
Office hours: 8:30 am- 5:30 pm Mondays-Saturdays at the main office location in Mississauga.
Operating hours: 24/7 on call in case of appointment schedule, clients visit or emergency. There will be an assigned manager to handle calls during out-of-office hours on rotation basis.
Client call and visit schedule.
Staff and sub-contracted parties work schedule and assignment making sure clients/patients will be attended as required.
Office Requirements
4-in-1 printer, copier, fax and scanner machine
Computer for office use
Office table and chairs
Office supplies- stationary, etc,
Legal Compliance
Business license and registration
Bond, security and liability insurance
Legal documentations
CPA retainer
Health Compliance
Accreditation and certification from government agencies
Certification and qualification of staff and skilled professionals
Management Information System
QuickBooks software program for accounting, finance and payroll recording and management
Company website
Internet connection and email
Data Base Management
Customer Relationship Management
Print ads
Presentation folders for clients and partners in health care
Medical Supplies & Equipments
Basic supplies in handling patients such as clinical gloves and masks
Risk Management
There are several identified potential risks in home health care industry, our company have identified some of them and have established mitigation plan to manage the risk accordingly as described in the table below.
Potential Risks
Mitigation Plan
Injury, accidents and/or death
Loss/theft on clients property
Internal breach of security (i.e. credit card use, unauthorized use of data by employees or third parties)
Health care recording process & quality control management in place to prove proper care or negligence
Bond and insurance coverage
Liability waiver
Background check on staff and sub-contractors/partners is mandatory
Bond and security & liability insurance
Liability waiver
Organization policies and procedures in handling documentations must be in order
Data encryption
Electronic form and signature
Offsite storage
Management and Organization Summary
Paramount Senior Care, Inc. initial management team will consist of a Managing Director, a Case Manager, a Maintenance Manager, six employees, and contracted caregivers and housekeepers, a contracted agency to fulfill the need for Physical Therapists, Occupational Therapists, and Speech Therapists. Initially, all managers will also provide direct service.
Severina Saliva-Parayaoan has a Bachelor’s Degree in Business Administration major in Accounting and currently finishing a post-graduate certificate in Global Business Management. She has over ten years experience in business development, management and administration. She will provide all administrative direction and will perform most of the administrative functions with assistance from the Administrative Assistant. She will also supervise housekeeping service.
Arlyn Guardon is a registered nurse and has experience as a Skilled Nurse and Care Manager for a Home Health Agency will be the Case Manager. She will also provide direct nursing services during the initial stages of the business, as well as supervising the nursing and caregiver staff. As the need for the service providers grows, both managers will assume primary roles in management and will delegate direct service to employees.
Ben Dimaano is a licensed home technician in Ontario and has over 10 years of experience in home repairs, renovation and maintenance. He will be the Maintenance Manager responsible for the HRR&M Department.
Organizational Chart
Personnel Plan
Owners will not receive salaries rather it will be in the form of a draw.
Number of full-time employees will be kept to a minimum, any increase in labour requirements will be fulfilled through contracting.
10% annual increase in cost of living allowance for the full-time employees.
Managing Director- This full-time position will be held by Severina Saliva-Parayaoan. As owner compensation will be made in the form of a draw.
Case Manager- this part-time position will be held by Arlyn Gardon. As owner compensation will be made in the form of a draw.
Maintenance Manager- this part-time position will be held by Ben Dimaano. As owner compensation will be made in the form of a draw.
Administrative Assistant (1)- this full time position is based on 40-hours per week reimbursed at $12.00 per hour, with benefits assume at 30% of total payroll.
Skilled Nurse (1) – this full-time position will be paid $22.00 per hour for direct service hours, with benefits assume at 30% of total payroll.
Personal Support Workers (12)- This full-time position will be paid for $12.00 per hour for direct service hours, with cost of benefits assume at 30% of total payroll.
Housekeepers (10)- This position will be paid for $10.25 per hour for direct service hours with cost of benefits assume at 30% of total payroll.
Physical therapist/Occupational Therapist/Speech Therapist- these positions will be contracted at a rate of $30.00 per hours. There will be no benefits attached to these positions as they are contracted on a fee-for-service reimbursement only.
Personnel Plan
Year 1
Year 2
Year 3
Managing Director
$ –
$ –
$ –
Case Manager
$ –
$ –
$ –
Maintenance Manager
Administrative Assistant
$ 29,952
$ 32,947
$ 36,241.92
1-Skilled Nurse
$ 54,912
$ 60,403
$ 66,443.52
12-Personal Support Worker
$ 359,424
$ 395,366
$ 434,903.04
$ 255,840
$ 281,424
$ 309,566.40
Total People
Total Payroll
$ 700,128
$ 770,164
$ 847,178
Personnel Summary
Admin Assistant
Skilled Nurse
Personal Support Worker
College Graduate
At least one year experience
Registered and license in Ontario
At least 3 years of experience
Certified in Ontario
At least 2 years of experience
Secondary School graduate
At least one year of experience
Type of employment
Full time
Full Time
Full Time
Full time
Salary +Benefits
No. of Positions
VIII. Start-up Capital Requirements
The following is the summary of the start up costs which includes:
Business Development
Rental Expenses
Office Equipment
Nursing Supplies
Start-up Capital Requirements
Business Development
Attorney Fees- Setting up a limited company
$ 1,000.00
Business Licence
$ 200.00
Medisoft Billing Program
$ 5,000.00
Professional Liability Insurance
$ 3,000.00
*Assuming 25% down of $12,000.00
Workman’s Compensation Insurance Deposit
$ 500.00
Premises and content Insurance Deposit 

Outsourced Delivery Services Of Ikea

The purpose of our thesis is to find out the factors that affecting the customers satisfaction on outsourcing. The importance of Supply Chain Management (SCM) is being a vital part of a company; however, a well SCM is not as mature as some old function like Human Relation Management, Accounting, etc. Thus, companies may outsource SCM or particular function among SCM to the 3rd party services provider.
Meanwhile, the quality and effect on outsourcing would be a concern to companies. Customers make the sales, profit of a company. If the part which being outsourced may contact customers directly, is there any precaution and measurement to ensure the services provide will not be affecting during outsourcing, or how to minimize the influence to companies.
Today’s Supply Chain Management
Many companies today are strengthening their connections with partners all along the supply chain. They no longer just treat suppliers as vendors and distributors as customers. They treat both as partners in delivering customers value. Most business nowadays are customer-oriented, e.g., Sales, CS & Business, Insurance, Banking/Finance, Beauty Care/Health, etc.
Background of Outsourcing
In a global marketplace an increasingly huge competition forces companies striving to find strategies that give them competitive advantage over the competitors (Christopher, M., 1998). Outsourcing has been treated as one of the most important business and economic concepts for achieving competitive advantages.
Outsourcing can be defined as “the transfer of the production of goods or services that had been performed internally to an external party” (Van Weele, A., 2005). Company can focus on their core business if the companies transfer its operations to another company to produce goods or services some 3rd party services provider.
The basic reason for outsourcing is the increased trend of globalization (Enarsson, L., 2008, p.33). The reasons behind outsourcing may lower the cost on delivery, utilize local firm’s resources thus avoid capital investment on fixed asset for developing non core products, and to gain access technology, performance through effective partnership.
Problems discussion
Outsourcing, regardless a powerful economic and business strategy, does not always ensure success to the outsourcesr involved in the entire process. There are many drawbacks in outsourcing operations. It might help a company on cost saving, focus on core business; enhance capacity for innovation, wider experience and knowledge, etc. However, there are some arguments on guaranteeing quality of service, qualifications of outsourcee, standpoint of labor.
Once a company determined which projects will be outsourced, they have to know why outsource and when to be carry out, how to prevent from mistakes while outsourcing.
In this part we will explain the concept of supply chain management and outsourcing as well as their relationship from the point of view of different available and established theories and literatures. In this section our goal is to elaborate more about outsourcing in a theoretical frame.
Supply Chain Management (SCM)
A customer focused definition is given by Hines “Supply chain strategies require a total systems view of the linkages in the chain that work together efficiently to create customer satisfaction at the end point of delivery to the consumer. As a consequence costs must be lowered throughout the chain by driving out unnecessary costs and focusing attention on adding value. Throughput efficiency must be increased, bottlenecks removed and performance measurement must focus on total systems efficiency and equitable reward distribution to those in the supply chain adding value. The supply chain system must be responsive to customer requirements.”

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SCM describles a longer channel, stretching from raw materials to components to final products to final buyers. To implement an efficiency and effective supply chain systems take lots of time to design and manage, and so many companies nowadays decided to outsource parts of logistic function to a 3rd party services provider. Then they can allocate more resource and pay more effort on their core business.
The Trend of Outsourcing
There are no constrains to any functions which can be outsourced or not to be outsourced. To enhance the levels of competition, many organizations have started to consider in developing and maintaining the range of expertise and skills needed to compete effectively. This need has led many companies to engage with various kinds of sourcing; like outsourcing (Oshri, I., Kotlarsky, J., & Willcocks, L.P., 2009)
Definition of Outsourcing
Different authors have defined the outsourcing that covers a wide scope of the concept of outsourcing. The word of “outsourcing” can be split as “out” and “source” which means sourcing externally. Some simple definitions of outsourcing are given as follows
“…contracting with a third service provider for the management and completion of a certain amount of work, for a specified length of time, cost, and level of service…” (Oshri, I., Kotlarsky, J., & Willcocks, L.P., 2009, p 4)
“A contract is the means by which the planning, responsibility, knowledge, and administration of processes is transferred to an external party” (McCarthy & Anagnostou, 2004, Blumberg, 1998)
According to Franceschini, F. et al., 2003, Outsourcing is a managerial approach usually taken for delegating the responsibility to an external source for carrying out the operation of production process or services of an enterprise.
In these contexts, it can be summarized that, outsourcing is an agreement between buyer and supplier(s) to avail processes or services that the buyer is providing internally at present; with an intention to reduce cost, increase focus on core business, improve quality of products and services and to ensure more flexibility.
Evaluation Process for Outsourcing
An organization needs to maintain an operational cycle to conduct the outsourcing operation. There are the outsourcing life cycle brought up by M.J., Desouza, K.C., & Bonifazi, C. (Source: Power, M.J., Desouza, K.C., & Bonifazi, C., 2006)
Strategic assessment – As the first stage of the outsourcing process, strategic assessment is the crucial activity in the whole life cycle of outsourcing. The organization should identifie a certain business case and assesses the potential benefit of adopting the outsourcing as a strategy.
Needs analysis – After completion of the strategic assessment, the next step for the organization is to define the needs and more specifically areas of the needs that are needed to be focused on.
Vendor assessment – Organization goes for soliciting, evaluating and choosing the vendor for its outsourcing needs.
Contract and negotiation management – To be engaged in negotiations (and renegotiations) until an agreement is reached about the details of outsourcing work.
Project initiation and transition – This is the most influential stages of the outsourcing relationship. The client organization slowly starts to hand over the control of the work to the outsourcee. Outsourcer should always pay attention to deal with emergent issues and smooth out any problems that occur. This stage marks the foundation of the continued relationship.
Relationship management – To keep up to date with the outsourcing relationship
Continuance modification or exit strategy – Organization must evaluate its current outsourcing contract to see if its best interest lies in continuing, modifying or exiting the relationship.
Motives for Outsourcing
Cost Efficiencies:
Cost reduction has been the prime motive for outsourcing (Ford, D., et al., 1993). To develop a complete product is always expensive for a company as it needs huge investment to improve products and production process through continuous research and technology development. Outsourcing reduces the cost of the client company in this area as the service providers invest in this area to meet up the demand of the buyers in a large scale. In this way, a company can achieve the competitive advantages in the market reducing the cost through outsourcing process.
Focus on Core Business:
Every company has some activities that are not as essential as compared to its core business functions. By sourcing non-core business activities a company can focus on its core business in a better way. So, the efficiency of a company is likely to increase as more time and resources are focused only on the core business functions (Davis, J., 2002).
In addition, there are some other driving factors that encourage the buyer company to adopt the outsourcing strategy. Such as operational expertise, enhance the capacity for innovation, capacity management where the risk in providing the excess capacity is borne by the supplier.
IKEA Hong Kong’s Concept and History
They offers a wide range of well-designed, functional home furnishing products at prices so low that as many people as possible will be able to afford them. This is the idea at the core of everything IKEA does, from product development and purchases to how they sell their products in retail stores.
IKEA can make a good-quality product for a high price, or a poor-quality product for a low price. But to make good products at low prices, they need to develop methods that are both cost-effective and innovative. This has been the focus of IKEA since its beginnings in Småland, Sweden. Maximizing the use of raw materials and production adaptation to meet people’s needs and preferences has meant that their costs are low. The IKEA way of doing things is to pass these cost savings on to customers.
Importance of Select Reliable Outsourcee
Under our investigation, IKEA Hong Kong has outsourced the home delivery and assembly services to an independent contractor. Basically, with return or exchange, home delivery and assembly services would be the final stage for company to provide services to customers. From ordering to delivery, IKEA takes at least three workings, even the staff give excellent customer services at retails store, the experience in store almost fade out after placing order. As the period from waiting order delivery to complete can replace the experience in store, services provide during these period of time is essential to decide will this customer return or not.
No customers, no business, no sales. Those satisfied ones turns to be a loyal customers, otherwise, unsatisfied customers will bad month our company. Word of mouth is a reference to the passing of information from person to person. The influence of word of mouth is not measurable and difficult to rebuild company image.
The dimensions of reliability; responsiveness; assurance; empathy; tangibility and cost in the service quality approach can be used in identifying critical factors that may suggest some ideas on selection of logistic services provider (LSP) (Kong & Mayo, 1993; Bienstock, et al., 1997).
Transit time
Service Consistency
Variety of Services
Express Delivery
Global coverage
Updated rates
Track and Trace
No Goods Damages
Modern Equipments
Credit term
Case Study I: Apple Computer and TNT Express (See Appendix I)
Apple Computer has been outsourced its delivery services to TNT Express. There would be a list of complaint about the services of TNT Express. The complaints are regarding to package missing, long delivery time, with recomfirm to package receiver.
Apple Computer outsourcing its delivery services to TNT, every one who place the order from Apple store knew this. Once the order is placed, there are an implication of customers are agreed to let TNT Express to take over the duty of product delivery.
Unlike IKEA Hong Kong, the delivery materials of contractors like trucks, boxes are printed in IKEA logo. It is difficult for customer to identify they are not the staff of IKEA. In order to protect the image or reputation, IKEA should ensure the contractor can perform like an IKEA staff, i.e., the delivery worker should have basic product knowledge, especially for solving the enquiries during the process of services delivery. That is unreasonable to say “we are contractor rather than direct staff of IKEA”.
Customer service is any contact between a customer and a company, which can cause a negative or positive perception by a customer during services delivery. As an outsourcer, they may state clear of relationship between outsourcer and outsourcee may reduce complaints caused by misunderstanding.
The case of Apple, sometimes online checking system of TNT Express does not show the actual product delivery status. Those complainers about product delivery did focus on the services provider – TNT Express instead of complaining the Apple’s decision making on contractor selection.
Case Study II: Survey on Outsourcing of Government Activities on 2002 and 2004 (See Appendix II)
The Efficiency Unit of HKSAR has been conducted a survey about outsourcing of governemt activities as at 2002 and 2004 since 2000. In this two reports, it showed, over 80% of bureaux and departments have beed outsourced at least one function to an indepentend contractor.
According to the report on 2004, those functions which occupied the most expenditure were capital works & constraction, building & property management and environmental hygiene are the top three outsourced functions.
By analyzing the pattern of annual expenditure, the fluctuation of transport services is the most serious among the listed functions. The ratio of reducing expenditure is the most significant as well. In 2000, the expenditure was around $1 billion and then it dropped to $0.1 billion in 2002. Unlike other services categories, transport services were doubling up the expenditure on 2004.
The focus of outsourced function of IKEA Hong Kong is the delivery services, it may categorize as transport services among the government functions. Reference to the expenditure on different services categories, transport services it is did not donminated the propular function of being outsourced.
Reference to the page 6 of survey on 2004, there are current satisfaction of outsourcee’s performance. Around half of the outsourcee full met the requirement of outsourcer. Yet there is also another half that only partially fulfill.
IKEA is now the world’s largest furniture retailer; they have a fixed group of partners on manufacturing, purchasing and supply functions, design and development of products in the IKEA range. For distribution they have their own logistics center Europe is located in Dortmund, Germany and Asian logistic center is located in Singapore along with its IT base. To retaining customers, they have the customer relation system of IKEA Family.
IKEA perform well in Europe no matter for SCM, marketing and customer retention. In Hong Kong region, they also have a good SCM, even they outsourced parts of service to an independent services provide. Yet the seldom to hear so negative comment to those outsourced services.
Furthermore, under our investigation, we found that only one contractor took over the job of delivery, assembly services. The part that would appreciate is even the delivery services are being outsourced, IKEA Hong Kong still having a backup delivery term in-house. Once there are any conflicts or under peak seasons of ordering, IKEA can take over part of the order themselves.
However, it is difficult to understand why they have not launch the loyalty card in Hong Kong. To strength the loyalty of customer, which is important to understand the purchase pattern of customers, in order to give related promotion and information to encourage them repeating purchase.
There are no absolute anwser for good to be outsoure or not to be.Companies should adopt a planned approach towards outsourcing taking into account the interests of employees and customers alike and come up with a balanced advance.
The cycle of evaluation process for outsourcing is a good model for a company which would interest in outsourcing a/some particular function to a 3rd party services provider.
For those companies which have been outsourced, a regular evaluation on before and after outsourcing is important. In today’s dynamic marketplace, there are no rules can last till the end. The one who wants to be dominant of the market, they should keep track on of market trend, find out the competitive advantage and having a periodical review company’s performance from time to time.
Some links of complaint about TNT Express when taking over the order from Apple Computer.
(a brief survey hold by some forum members)

Impact of E-banking on Traditional Banking Services

In order to introduce e-banking and traditional banking this part of the article is explained a short background of established bank, problem statements, research question and the research intention. Also, a concise overview of e-commerce activity on e-banking and traditional bank has been presented in this chapter.
Bank and business are intimately connected to each other. At the beginning, the original type of commercial bank that handled customer deposits and made investment loans to businesses. Franlin (1995) illustrated that the traditional banks only entities legally able to issue checking accounts prior to the 1980s. While still dominant in the banking industry, traditional banks are joined by savings and loan associations, credit unions, and mutual savings banks.

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In a recent decade, traditional banks adopted e-commerce and converted to e-bank that is an important component of business development plan. During better times, business is easier to acquire and maintain. An extreme view speculates that the e-banking will destroy old models of banking services (DeYoung, 2001a). This extreme view proved that banks take advantage of this new technology that depends on their assessment of the profitability and established e-banking services (Malhotra and Singh, 2009). For example, Titrade (2008) demonstrated that e-banking services offer customers to get online benefits those are:

• achieve information about accounts and loans,
• transfer money to different accounts, even between external banks,
• Paying bills,
• Buying and selling stocks and bonds by depot,
• Buying and selling fund shares

Magdalena and Luminita (2009) reported that banking services through internet have, generally, operational and transactional costs cheaper than usual banking services. In the meantime, banking industry must adapt to the electronics age, which in its turn is changing all the time
In addition, Berger (2003) revealed that industry analysis outlining the potential impact of e-banking on cost savings, revenue growth and risk profile of the banks have also generated considerable interest and speculation about the impact of the e-banking industry on traditional bank. However, one of the issues currently being addressed (Titrade, 2008) is the impact of e-banking on traditional banking. Rogers (1998) points out that the impact of traditional bank measures based only on traditional balance sheet figures where as largely ignored non-traditional activities. On the other hand, Panait (2009) argued that the impact of e-banking evaluates to customer information under the existing regulations.
Ensure the security and confidentiality of customer information;
Protect against any anticipated threats or hazards to the security or integrity of such information;
Save from unauthorized access to or use of such information that could result harm or problem to any customer.
Researcher’s important activities and usefulness course of action have prompted a search for better methods for reducing impact of traditional banking service. Although a number of methods have been reported, simple and efficient approaches still remain scare. In recent years much effort has been devoted to study the effect of different measuring extreme systematic risk process (Olivier, 2008).
In this paper it will be discussed how e-banks are different from the traditional banks in terms of profitability, cost efficiency, asset quality and other characteristics by examining bank financial statements. The present study will examine a comprehensive a set of measurements of financial performance that allow us to “look inside the black box” of e-banking performance. By developing a deeper understanding of these phenomena, we can draw more insightful inferences about the impact of e-banking strategies, production processes and financial performance.
Research significance:
The need and demand of e-banking possesses a great challenge for traditional banking service. In order to meet a high-quality service in business sector traditional banking service has to be optimized to e-banking. The significant of research associated with e-bank itself and e-commerce, off course, lies in its availability. Ineligible banking progress and decisions may amplify a financial strategic risk (Cezar et al.). Carter and Garcia (2009) made it clear that traditional banking system and transactions have recognized that they are not as permanent as previously assumed. The loss of confidence in traditional banking system has revealed by the recent financial system fall down.
Panait (2009) made it understandable that banking operation’s hazard arises from fraud, handling errors, system trouble, or other unexpected actions. This risk continues in each item for consumption and service offered. Funding and investment-related risks could increase with an institution’s e-banking initiatives depending on the volatility and pricing of the acquired deposits.
On the other hand, the drawback lies in its security factors and complexity. Both of them have profound impact of e-banking traditional banking service. It may appear form social and organizational perspective (Ioannis, 2009) and may arise due to a failure of some relevant integrity or all the lack of authentic and confidential information.
From the above point of view, it is clear that traditional banking faced a lot of problems from different user and non user. The study can be extend this examine to all banks offering online banking sectors.
Problem statement:
Main area of this study is “impact e-banking on traditional bank services and several drawbacks of some traditional banking”. There are few reasons for directed on this topic:
1) Most traditional bank activities, such as banks acting as derivatives dealers, expose banks to risks and moral hazard problems failure to get customer satisfaction (Franlin, 1995).
2) A potential commercial market for e-banking services are successful, but old model banks getting lose to manage their vast expenses (Yuan, 2010).
3) The banking sector has been most successful with online transaction, easy internet access, the availability of secure, high standard online banking functionality, cost savings, and the necessity of banking services (AC Nielsen Consulting 2000; Laforet & Li, 2005). Besides that poor public image, customer dissatisfaction, competition and specialization had made the practice of much more difficult to deal traditional banking.
Research Question:
The research questions of this study relate to the factors that influence the adoption and implementation of e-commerce in particular reference to the traditional banking industry. The specific questions to be examined are: What impact factors verify the adoption of ecommerce in traditional banks? According to the present study I initiated following question:

How e-banks are different from the traditional banks?
How the traditional bank’s financial performance affected by e-banking?
General responsible of bank is public funding operation such as; payment and deposits then why bank are regulated?
In comparison with e-banking why traditional bank services failed to get customer satisfaction?
How to utilize the new digital products and services to create a more sustainable future.

Aim and object:
In view of the extensive occurrence of traditional banking in our society, specifically in public sector and organizations as well as their important activities of the e-banking, it is planned to search for better methods and recommendation for developing banking systems.
The study is designed to correspond with the objectives of assessing the impacts of e-banking, specifically focusing e-banking on the traditional banking service. The following objectives are discussed:

Understanding e-banking and traditional banking terms of profitability.
To assess the impact of e-banking on traditional banking service.
To identify and highlight potential improvements what reduces the impacts of traditional banking.
To highlight the different products or services distribution strategies which increases resource of efficiency and customer’s satisfaction?

2. Literature review:
2.1. E-banking VS traditional banking:
The banking sector is an integral part of the economy. Bjelica and Dejan (2010) addressed that traditional banks are considered to be financial institutions which deal with financial activities in terms of collecting deposits and giving loans. An e-banking, on the other hand, is consists of several distribution channels that can supply several information about transaction (Karjaluoto (2002a). Similarly, Daniel (1999) illustrated that e-banking is the delivery system of banks which provides information and services to customers via different delivery policy that can be used with a variety of devices such as a internet accessory, cell phone and desktop, telephone or digital television.
Under the traditional bank payment transactions, we assume every payment which is done via a bank or some other similar organization concerning any kind of legal affairs (Bjelica and Dejan, 2010). However, the Internet is a main delivery channel for e-banking and its value to customers and banks is continuously increasing its delivery systems (Karjaluoto, 2002; Mattila, 2001). But, the payment transactions system does not include only cash payments, i.e. when a debtor gives money to a creditor.
Definition of traditional banking transactions system extended by Bjelica and Dejan,( 2010) that all natural and legal persons are on the side of the applicants while the authorized organizations for payment transactions (banks, PTT exchange, savings banks) are on the side of the recipients. Conversely, e-banking is the automated delivery system to customers through internet, interior message channels (Daniel, 1999; Sathye, 1999). According to Basel Committee report on banking supervision (2008) “it refers to the provision of retail and banking products and services through electronic channels. Thus in the most encompassing definition, electronic banking would run the gamut from direct deposit, ATMs, credit and debit cards, telephone banking, to electronic bill payment and web-based banking”.
2.2. Movement of e-banking
According to Karjaluoto (2002), the consumer movement from traditional branch banking to e-banking has meant that new strategies to attract new customers and retain existing ones become critical. Ranaweera and Prabhu (2003) argue that ideally, firms should aim at a combined strategy that makes switching costs act as a complement to customer satisfaction. While customer satisfaction may be one important driver of customer retention, switching costs are also likely to influence customer retention (Lee et al., 2001; Ranaweera and Prabhu, 2003). Portal providers are likely to attract the most significant share of banking profits. Indeed banks could become glorified It required much more effort to manage and sustain a successful practice.
2.3. The impact of traditional bank:
In the last two decades the impact of traditional banks tainted a great deal. Therefore the understanding of the essence of this banking system has been changed as well. Bjelica and Dejan (2010) illustrated that many aspects prejudiced this trend. For example; internationalization, globalization, the increase in number of financial services, the progress of competition, technological development and the appearance of a great number of innovations have changed banking system. In addition, Altunbas et al., (2001), Iannotta et al. (2007) argued that the impact of traditional bank is focused on ownership of different types banking service such as; the state ownership (Porta et al.,2002), Berger et al. (2005), Micco et al. (2007), foreign ownership (Berger et al. (2005), Lensink et al. (2008), Staikouras et al. (2008)) and block holder ownership (Caprio et al. (2007), Laeven & Levine (2008)) are on the banking performance. Furthermore, DeYoung et al. (2001) was studied to examine the impact of the level of management and board ownership on bank efficiency.
By separating management and board ownership, It address the criticism presented in Demsetz & Villalonga (2001) that many studies on the impact of management ownership has included board ownership in the management or insider ownership variable even though the interests of the management and board are different.
2.4. Potential improvements that reduces the impacts of traditional banking
Goski et al.(2007) concentrated on the frustrations of accessing credit facilities compel from formal banking systems to informal enterprises which is non banking activities and informal arrangements to access funds for their business operations. De Wulf et al. (2001) realize that building a profitable and sustainable long term relationship with customers is central to the relationship marketing theory. Correspondingly, increasing customer’s retention, developing and maintaining trust and commitment between sellers and customers (Gaur & Xu, 2009) are part of theory. In addition, Gaurav, (2008) appreciated that achieving high customer’s loyalty and more customers’ satisfaction is the main objectives of an organization. Also, cost reduction due to the better understanding of customers needs (Ndubisi, 2004) equally important of marketing theory. The application of relationship marketing theory has even extended into financial services, due to the deregulation policy (Yavas & Yasin, 2001).
The removal of restrictions between banks, building societies and insurance companies (Speed and Smith, 1992) and the vast expansion in the adoption and use of information technologies (Bergeron et al, 2008) is important factor. There are outlined specific actions that organization should consider in implementing a security program (Ramball M. (2008)). These measures include:

Identifying and assessing the risks that may threaten consumer information;
Developing a written plan containing policies and procedures to manage and control these risks;
Implementing and testing the plan;
Adjusting the plan on a continuing basis to account for changes in technology,
the sensitivity of customer information, and internal or external threats to information security.

There are also outlined the responsibilities of management to oversee the protection of customer information including the security of customer information maintained or processed by service providers. Titrade, (2008) afraid that in opportunity of e-banking and its allegation are uncertain. The points of view in favor are as follows:

• E-banking transactions are much low-priced than branch or even phone transactions. This could be a large competitive advantage for e-banking, that allow e-banks to undercut bricks-and-mortar banks. This is commonly known as the “beached dinosaur” theory.
• E-banking will lead to al other banking sector that is currently enjoyed by the major UK banks.

2.5. Products or services which increase resource of efficiency and customer’s satisfaction:
Traditional banks may simply be left with payment and settlement business even this could be cast into doubt and customers unhappiness. The idea of customer pleasure has been exercised since the early 1980 (Bailey & Pearson, 1983; Ives, Olson, & Baroudi, 1983) and its have been studied since the 1980 (Bailey & Pearson, 1983; J. Chin, Diehl, & Norman, 1988; Ives et al., 1983; Rivard & Huff, 1988; Rushinek & Rushinek, 1986). Bailey et al. (1983) state that several factors affect the user satisfaction and it can be seen as a bi-dimensional attitude. The user satisfaction can be seen sum of user’s feeling and attitudes toward several factors that affect the usage situation (Bailey et al., 1983).
Recently, there has been growing interest in traditional bank user experience (Hiltunen et al., 2002; Lindgaard & Dudek, 2003; Wilson & Sasse, 2004), which can be seen as much larger concept of consumers satisfaction. User experience has become an important factor in e-banking because the end user often pays for the majority of new products and services, which indicates that new products characteristics such as; security, ease of use, Digital products/services, transaction and payments, and innovation contents(Khanfar, 2006). From this perspective, assessing the user experience is essential for many technology products and services (Wilson & Sasse, 2004).
3.2. Theoretical framework:
From the practical point of view, there are mainly two kinds of venture, one of which is adaptation of e-commerce and other is development of e-banking. Kyu and Bipin (2001) provided both theoretical explanations and empirical validation on the adoption of e-commerce for traditional banking services. Regarding the adoption of e-banking, they enabled to offer specific recommendations on marketing strategies for practitioners. Ronald (2003) observed that law and right and the increase of internet facilities moved up the transaction. Elias (2000) explored the status of e-commerce in the banking industry. Many researches focused on the user of e-banking that have been done on adoption of e-commerce, and the following factors influencing it.
Security: The quality or state of being secure to be free from danger.
Ease of Use: A method that the bank Availableness it for the customer who through it use the procedures of banks easily.
Digital Products/Services: Goods and services that can be transformed to digital format and deliver upper the internet banking.
Transaction and Payment: services and procedures that the bank availableness for the customer who through it able to payment and other borrow and other transaction form banks online.
Information Content: content at a web site that need to be changed continually to keep it up to date.
Innovation: the innovation of new ideas such as new technologies, design and best practice that permit bank to compete efficiently in the worldwide environment.
When an enterprise realized danger, it will takes a series of examine on the basis of tthree hypothesizes. This study tries to make relationship and linkage between e-business and networking technology.
The proposed model depicts that a customer’s assessment of traditional banking service quality is positively related to customer satisfaction and his/her willingness to recommend and will decrease his/her likelihood to complain. On the other hand, if the customer’s assessment of the traditional banking service quality is negative, the customer will engage in unfavorable behavioral intentions.
Therefore, the following hypotheses are developed:
H1: There is a significant difference between customers’ expectations and their perceptions of service quality offered by traditional banking.
H2: There is a significant relationship between traditional banking service quality and customer satisfaction.
H3: There is a significant relationship between internet banking service quality and customer behavioral intentions
H4: Customers at are dissatisfied with banks environment and location. There is a significant relationship between customer satisfaction and customer behavioral intentions
3. Methodology:
The methodology will be based on a cross- sectional survey method with three (3) main components. These included Reviews, Contacts and Field Activities. The review was conducted through desk research of online resources, research papers, working documents, conference documents, and other publications. The contacts were made through one on one discussion and/or small group discussions by visiting offices and officials of banks whether, semi informal or formal. A self developed instrument was used for the field exercise. The study classified the system into three categories based on the classification by (Basu et al., 2004) in an IMF working paper.
The suggested method which is also applicable in the study is the use of the questionnaires wherein the banks can determine the level of understanding of the customers about the online banking and the other related services. Also through the help of the questionnaires, the banks can measure the influence or the impact of the interactive banking in finding solutions out of the client’s busy life. All of the information created out of the questionnaires will lead to the determination of the various perceptions of the customers in the services that is offered through the use of Internet.
Investigation will be prepared by collecting data, analyzing, comparing and interpreting the results according to literature procedure. The course of action will be ready by gathering data from several years to current published journal. The data will be monitored by comprising with several aspects. The accumulated data will be justified based on analytical data obtained from internet publication.
The important networking activities and usefulness as natural process have prompted a search for better methods of producing e-business. Although a number of synthetic methods for judging of e-business have been reported, simple and efficient approaches still remain scare.
To collect more information from present fast moving situation, manage formal and informal interview within the time will be main problem for this study. Anyway, more limitation will be including actually when I will handing out data.
Reflection: e-banking is the real output of the impact of traditional bank.
Research proposal
Topic selection
Literature review
Problem identification
Submission of research proposal
The result of this study shows that traditional bank users are not completely satisfied in comparison with online banking system. Traditional bank did not provide sufficient facilities to their clients that they obtained from online bank organizers’. For instant, e-bank consumers are achieving several benefits such as; ATM, internet banking, credit card and a range of buying or selling option. As a result, most of the customers are moving to e-banking system. Usefulness, perceived ease of use; consumer awareness and perceived risk are the important determinants of e-banking banking adoption.
This study meets the desired objective; but it suffers from one setback. Study concludes that a majority of customers are accepting e-banking since of many positive issues. We concluded that value, effortlessness of use of the system and the awareness about online banking and risks related to it. Those are real thing to accept online banking system. These factors have a strong and positive effect on customers to accept online banking system.
These researches provide a rapid entry to justify business market in all conditions. This methodology is expected to be widely used in e-banking sector. Therefore, the process will provide a new entry into the active system for improving traditional banking system.

Planning and Evaluating Health Services

Evaluation in a planning process is defined as the systematic accumulation, analysis and reporting of data about a program so as to assist in decision making (Health System Intelligence Project 2008). Evaluation is not only the mere accumulation and summarization of data that are clearly relevant for decision making rather it determines the effectiveness, accuracy and efficiency of any purposed plan, and further contributes in the improvement of plan. Evaluation is the most valuable aspect of planning cycle. It is an intregal phase in the planning cycle or the method of convencing, developing, implementing, and modifying planning strategy or decision as shown in figure 1(Davis & Bridgman 2004).

Fig.1. The Planning cycle (Source Health System Intelligence Project 2008).
Importance of Evaluation
As shown in figure 1, evaluation plays a significant role in the improvement in the health service delivery along with provide guidence for the better allocaton of the resources. It acts as an important tool to help the planners to learn and understand wether the plan that has been purposed has achieved its goal or not. And further, evaluation acts as a tool to examine the success and failure of the plan, whether the plan had the favourable impacts and met the target set by the planners, and whether anything that can be introduced to for the betterment of the plan in future. Proper and planned execution of evaluation of plan can be beneficial for any organsation. High standard evaluation strengthen accountability and delivers a rigorous evidence based to inform health care service development and plan design (Agency for Clinical Innovative 2013).Some importance of well executed evaluation includes (ACT Government 2010),

Accumulation of more information so as to undergo better decision making.
Better and effective allocation of resources.
Enhance the mentality to achieve goals and priorities the goals.
Enhance the skills and knowledge to broaden the concept of plan.
Assure whether the organisation is moving in the correct pathways and appropriate treatment need to be taken if required.
Provide guidance to the individual involved in the plan along with the entire staff of the particular organisation

Steps for Evaluation of NSW Renal Dialysis Plan 2011.
The main purpose of this paper is to provide a strategy for evaluation of NSW Renal Dialysis plan 2011 that has been designed by the Statewide Services Development Branch with an aim to improve the renal dialysis services in future and consider all the elements of renal dialysis service delivery including issues and demands which are most likely to affect the delivery of services in coming years. Effective plan evaluation is a well planned and systemic procedure to understand the nature and outcome of plan purposed. For the effective evaluation of the plan, systematic and well managed steps are required. Inclusion of appropriate steps in evaluation strategy helps in the better understanding of the aim of the evaluation and other tools needed for the evaluation procedure. For the effective and well planned evaluation of NSW Renal Dialysis plan 2011, stages has been categorized into two basic criteria which is based on evaluation steps proposed by Wall 2005 and Health System Intelligence Project 2008,

Stages for preparation of evaluation
Stages for conduction of evaluation

Stages for preparation of evaluation

It is essential to understand and well organize the stages that have to be considered prior to conduction of evaluation. Following steps need to be considered for the proper evaluation of Renal Dialysis plan 2011,

The entire member or stakeholders whether internal or external, that have been involved in the planning of NSW Renal Dialysis 2011 has to be identified and engaged in evaluation procedure.
Set the main purpose of the evaluation.
Conducting an evaluability assessment to determine whether the plan evaluation is possible or not and to understand the pathways that stakeholders would consider for the information delivered by evaluation.

Evaluaility Assessment (EA)
Evaluability assessment is a pre-evaluation tool designed to maximize the possibility that any subsequent evaluation of plan, program or policies would result in beneficial and reliable information (Leviton et al. 2010). Evaluability assessment not only indicate whether the plan can be evaluated effectively but also indicate whether the evaluation would improve the effectiveness of plan. Similar to evaluation process, an important procedure of an EA is to compare the plan design to the plan in operation thus early detection of any variation by EA, then time and money will be saved (JJEC 2003). For the effective evaluability assessment following set of questions must be answered by NSW Renal Dialysis plan 2011 (JJEC 2003),

Does the main objectives and principle of the plan have been clearly mentioned in MSW Renal Dialysis Plan 2011?
Does this plan serve the population for whom it has been designed?
Does this plan have the sufficient resources discussed in the plan design?
Are the activities considered by the plan being executed as purposed?
Does this plan have the potential to deliver data for an evaluation?

To understand whether the NSW Renal Dialysis plan can be evaluated or not following EA steps can be included (JJEC 2003),

Study the plan , strategy, design and operation
Observe the action of plan.
Examine the plan capability for data collection, analysis and interpretation.
Determine the possibility that the plan reaches proposed scope and objectives.
Indicate the reason whether evaluation may or may not help the plan and its stakeholders.

Formulation of evaluation team from the stakeholders either internal or external depending upon the field of expertise. The main role of the team is to perform the planning, implementation, interpretation and reporting of the evaluation (Agency of Clinical Innovative 2013).
Establishment and confirmation of the evaluation method.

Type of evaluation implemented.
For the effective evaluation of NSW Renal Dialysis Plan following type of evaluation has been employed,

Formative (Process) Evaluation
Impact evaluation
Summative (Outcome) evaluation

Type of Evaluation


Achieved by

Process Evaluation

Examines whether

10 planning principles set by renal dialysis plan have been incorporated as proposed.
Strategies proposed have reached the desired population.
Stakeholders and target population are satisfied with the plan.
Target like dialysis equipments and services purchase, data management and reporting, workforce training, development and innovation, state wise transportation, services networks and home dialysis has been achieved or not.

Routine survey among patient with renal disorder and patients undergone renal dialysis.
Interviews with staff as well as focused groups
Data review

Impact Evaluation

Examines the immediate effect that NSW Renal Dialysis Plan on

The focus group regarding the intervention.
The work force regarding on training and education in renal dialysis.
Home dialysis services.
Transportation facilities for renal dialysis patients.
Development of a consistent statewide database and information management.

In-depth interview
Open-ended queries
Data collection (Routine as well as special)
Focus group as well as staff discussion.

Outcome Evaluation


The long term effects of renal dialysis intervention.
Whether the desire scope and purpose of the renal dialysis intervention has been achieved.
Effectiveness and reliability of intervention.
Impact of the plan and target set by the plan to focus group, stakeholders and all the workers involved in intervention regarding renal dialysis.

All the data associated with renal dialysis.
Queries and interviews with focus groups and stakeholders.
Feedback mechanism.
Annual meetings.

Table 1. Representing types of evaluation approached

Formulating evaluation questions which would mainly focus on plan implementation and outcomes.
Establishment of measurable indicators to measure the principles and issues mentioned described by renal dialysis plan.

Stages for conduction of evaluation

For the execution of evaluation plan following strategy has to be implemented (Health System Intelligence Project 2008)

Define the purpose and scope of evaluation.
Tools for data collection like survey, face to face interviews, observation, case study, multimedia (Photograph, videotapes, slides), document review, expert review, journals, annual reports,
Data collection (Quantitative as well as Qualitative)
Preparation of data for analysis
Analysis and interpretation of result so as to summaries the findings and observe for any trends or fluctuation as it is mandatory aspect o evaluation (Program Evaluation Unit 2013).
Recommendation or feedback for any improvement to be implemented.
Communication of the findings through broachers, network feedback processes, newsletters, conference papers and peer reviewed journals.
Evaluate the evaluation.

Cost associated with evaluation
Evaluation of plan is a costly process. A complete and adequate allocation of budget is mandatory for the smooth operation of evaluation as well as to assure that the evaluation procedure considered is fully funded and deliver the intended outcome (Centre for Disease Control and Prevention 2011). Evaluability assessment is an effective tool to control the cost associated with evaluation process. Moreover, evaluability assessment is a method or procedure that is cost effective under numerous circumstances to improve the theme of NSW Renal Dialysis plan and further reduces the cost associated with costly evaluation procedure. In addition, evaluability assessment is cost effective as it sharpens the aim of this plan by generating the underlying logic model and further investigating whether strategies implemented and resources are adequate and suitable for the desirable outcome (Leviton et al. 2010). Generally there are two types of cost; cost required throughout planning phase and cost required for planning. Cost required for planning NSW Renal Dialysis Plan has been well allocated by the planners.
Evaluation of a plan is essential to identify pros and cons of particular plan. On the other hand effective, organized and well planned evaluation procedure is crucial for the proper evaluation of plan. In addition understanding the expenses while performing an evaluation, it is mandatory to employ evaluability assessment of plan prior to actual evaluation of plan. This paper in general describes the importance of evaluation, evaluation steps to be included in evaluation cycle and method of evaluation along with cost associated with evaluation.
Agency for Clinical Innovation 2013,’Understanding Program Evaluation. An ACI Framework’, Chatswood, NSW
ACT Government 2010,’Evaluation Policy and Guideline,’ Australian Canberra territory, Canberra.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2011,’Developing and Effective Evaluation Plan, Atlanta, Georgia.
Davis, G. & Bridgman 2004,’Australian Policy Handbook,’ 3rd edn, Allen & Unwin, Sydney.
Health System Intelligence Project 2008, The Health Planner’s Toolkit Module 6: Evaluation in Ministry of Health and Long-term care (edn.), Canadian Government, Ontario.
JJEC 2003,’Evaluability Assessment: Examining the Readinessof a Program for Evaluation’, Washington D.C.
Leviton, L.C., Khan, L.K., Rog, D., Dawkins, N. & Cotton, D. 2010, ‘Evaluability Assessment to Improve Public Health Policies, Programs, and Practices’, Annual Review of Public Health, vol. 31, pp. 213-33.
Program Evaluation Unit 2015,’Evaluation Guideline’, Department of Treasury,Government of Western Australia, Perth.
Wall, J.E. 2005,,Program Evaluation Mode 9-Step Proces’,Sage Solution.

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Telecommunications Services of Trinidad and Tobago Company

I have been employed with the Telecommunications Services of Trinidad and Tobago
Company Limited (TSTT) for the past fourteen years. TSTT was historically, the single provider of telecommunications services in Trinidad and Tobago until the mid 1990’s when, pursuant to a World Trade Organisation Agreement in 1997 on Basic Telecommunications, 69 countries agreed to liberalise their telecommunications sectors and to open their domestic markets to foreign companies.
This agreement resulted in the entry of several competitors in Trinidad and Tobago’s telecommunications market thereby ending TSTT’s monopoly status.
Against this backdrop, TSTT which provided primarily fixed line, mobile and internet services, engaged Goulet Telecom International Inc. to examine the impact of globalization on its operations.
Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats Analysis (SWOT)
Gregory G. Dess, G.T. Lumpkin, Alan B. Eisner (2007) Strategic Management Text and Cases, 3rd ed. , New York, McGraw-Hill Irwin states “One of the most basic techniques for analysing firm and industry conditions is SWOT analysis. SWOT stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. SWOT analysis provides a framework for analyzing these four elements of a company’s internal and external environment. It provides “raw material”-a basic listing of conditions both inside and surrounding your company. The strengths and weaknesses portion of SWOT refers to the internal conditions of a firm-where your firm excels (strengths) and where it may be lacking relative to competitors (weaknesses). Opportunities and threats are environmental condition external to the firm. Opportunities and threats are also present in the competitive environment among firms competing for the same customers.”(p 49)
An analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats for TSTT in a competitive environment is highlighted, at Appendix A.
One of the major strength of TSTT is its human resource capital and in particular, the leadership and experience of its executive management team which has steered the Company through the process of liberalisation in 2006, to its current position of sustained profitability.
The strength of the Company is reflected in the leadership skills and managerial acumen of the executive team who ensured that the Company retained significant market share since the liberalisation of the sector. Management of TSTT have become more strategic in their thinking and in their of way developing new and innovative technology. TSTT are also developing the intellectual capacity of the workforce through e-learning, training and development program and courses.
The strength of the Company’s human resource capital is also reflected in the Company’s middle management and Senior and Junior Staff employees who have successfully implemented the Company’s strategic initiatives such as the deployment on new customer services such as Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) and BLINK Broadband.
One of the major weaknesses which have been identified at TSTT is its poor network infrastructure and aged plant which has occasionally resulted in the delivery of poor customer service to its subscribers in many instances customers are made to wait for as long as a year to have their phones repaired especially if it is cable related issue.
TSTT’s aged outside plant has also had an impact on the Company’s ability to provide new services such as IPTV to some of its customers due to the unavailability of upgraded plant facilities in certain areas of the country.
As a result of the aged plant facilities, the Company has not “rolled out”its IPTV service throughout the country, thereby precluding it from effectively competing with FLOW, the dominant Cable TV provider which services the entire country.
Another weakness is that TSTT was only able to focus on customer service when it was faced with competition, only then did the prices of the company’s goods and services were reduced.
TSTT has sought to capitalize on by its foray into the entertainment sector through the provision of IPTV, a new service which it now provides in selected areas in Trinidad.
The IPTV product which is branded “Blink Entertainment”is a digital television service which, instead of delivering content through traditional broadcast and cable formats, is received by the viewer using internet protocol technology.
TSTT, like many of the world’s major telecommunications providers is exploring IPTV as a new revenue opportunity from its existing and potential subscriber base and as a defensive measure against encroachment from competitors such as FLOW, a conventional cable television provider which now provides internet and voice services.
Another new market which TSTT has sought to penetrate is the security services sector with the launch of its Blink Vigilance Security Service.
This product which was launched on November 3rd 2009 (along with Blink Entertainment) is a wireless security surveillance system which TSTT offers to both commercial and residential subscribers.
Trinidad and Tobago Guardian Newspapers, November 4th 2009 stated “The opportunity to pursue this strategic initiative is as a result of the growing criminal activity in Trinidad and Tobago which has driven a demand for security services a point which was made by Dennis Gordon, Vice President, Organisational Risk and Security Services at the launch of the product.”
TSTT provides the infrastructure used by security companies to operate their business, its entrance into the security services sector provides an excellent opportunity for the Company to increase its revenue streams and maintain its viability in a competitive telecommunications market.
The provision of these two new services, Blink TV and Blink Vigilance are therefore two examples of how TSTT has created new opportunities for itself based on consumer needs and changes in the social environment.
One of the most significant threats faced by TSTT was that provided by its competitors in the mobile services market as a result of the deregulation of the telecommunications sector in 2006.
As a consequence of the liberalisation of the market, Digicel, began offering mobile service which for the first time gave the population of Trinidad and Tobago a choice of wireless providers.
The introduction of Digicel into the Sector was expected to remove substantial market share from TSTT which had previously enjoyed monopoly status.
TSTT Financial Reports stated “The extent of the threat posed to TSTT by its main competitor is reflected in the Company’s financial results in the immediate aftermath of Digicel’s entry into the market. In the financial year 2006 to 2007, TSTT suffered a financial loss of TT $122 M as compared to the financial year 2005 to 2006 where it made a profit of $261 million.”
Likewise, FLOW, a Company that had traditionally provided only Cable TV service, became in May of 2008, the first “Triple Play”provider of telecommunications services in Trinidad with its offering of Cable TV, Broadband and Landline Voice Services to the population at large.
As a result of FLOW’s strategic initiatives, TSTT is now faced with an additional threat to its revenue streams in the Broadband and Landline Voice sectors.
TSTT’s PEST analysis focuses on the following factors, Political, Economic, Social and Technological scan of the macro-environment in which the organisation operates. The political environment as it presently relates to TSTT is one of uncertainty. This has been mainly as a result of the change in government of Trinidad and Tobago on 24 May 2010 the board of directors resigned since they were politically appointed and to date no board has been appointed. This has result in the capital expenditure budget for the various departments not being past. To this extent certain activities have been at a stand-still such as the cut-over of new infrastructure in Penal, Fyzabad areas which would allow the company to provide a more efficient and reliable telephone service to the people living in these areas.

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TSTT has also been impacted by economic factors from the environment with the liberalisation of the telecommunications market TSTT has not given an increase in salary to its junior and senior staff workforce. Due to the liberalisation of the market as stated before this has resulted in TSTT loosing part its customer base to its competitor resulting in a decrease in the company’s profit margins in 2005-2006 of TT$122m.
TSTT has been a socially responsible organisation, sponsoring local sporting activities and teams, TSTT has been and still is the main sponsor for the
“Soca Warriors” Trinidad and Tobago’s national football team.
Through its Employee Wellness Program various initiatives have been made available to employees such as “Domestic and Substance Abuse Programs”. Recently, due to the outbreak in the H1N1 virus TSTT has taken the initiative to bring-in at the various work locations, personnel from the Ministry of Health to immunize staff against the virus and other illnesses.
Among the social and cultural events covered by TSTT’s Employee Relations department are Thanksgiving prayer meetings at the end of the last year and start of the new-year, Employees calypso competition, secretary’s day, Sports and Family day, Emancipation and Indian arrival day activities etc. These are undertaken to allow the various levels staff in this multi-cultural, racial country to interact as one and enjoy the social, cultural and sporting activities. It fosters a culture of trust, harmony and cooperation between the hierarchical levels in the organisation. These activities also encourage or motivate both customers and employees to buy-in to the policies of the company and encourage loyalty.
Through the use of innovation, research and development TSTT has been able to develop new technologies which would allow it to maintain its competitive advantage in the face of competition. This can particularly be seen through the company’s use of technology to penetrate new markets such as the provisioning of Internet Protocol Television and residential and business security and alarm systems.
Industry Attractiveness
In determining Industry Attractiveness, the issue of Competition must be taken into consideration, as this will have an impact on the threat of new entrants and competitive rivalry within the market from FLOW and Digicel. TSTT no longer enjoys being a monopoly but now has to share its market with other competitors.
Buyers would also have more bargaining power since they have a wider variety from which to choose as a consequence of the liberalisation of the telecommunications market as a result consumers are more likely to purchase where they can get value for their money. TSTT also has to compete against substitute goods and services, for example customers may not purchase their mobile phones from TSTT but from its’ competitor. The customer may simple pay TSTT for the use of the service of being attached to its network, therefore the company loses on it sale of mobile phone.
Suppliers of TSTT would also have bargaining power as to what price they charge you for their goods since they can sell the same goods to your competitors and it you want to maintain competitive advantage over your competitors you would want to enjoy first market advantage and market leadership by providing new and innovation technology to your customers before your competitors. (See Appendix B)
Stakeholder Analysis is necessary because it provides information indicating the level of influence and expectations of the various stakeholders within the environment.
As it relates to the Company’s (TSTT) relationship with its employees and the representative Union a great deal of mistrust exists between this group and Management. In addition during times of industrial unrest it is alleged that the Union is able to influence workers to either “work-to-rule” or “down tools”.
With regards to the customers, if customers are not satisfied with the quality or price, the opening-up of the Telecommunications Sector could cause customers and have caused customers to migrate to other service providers. Customers feel that they can getting better service for their money have chosen to migrate to Digicel or FLOW where they believe they are getting better value for their money.
The management group needs to understand, in addition to managing, emphasis needs to be placed on effective Leadership and to an extent leadership by example. Over the past seven years junior and senior staff employees have not received a salary increase while management level continue to be paid incentives on a yearly basis for meeting their set objectives. This has left employees feeling disenchanted and de-motivated with management. (See Appendix C)
Assessment of TSTT’s position
Having assessed the SWOT elements that TSTT is faced with in its internal and external environment since the advent of competition, one may conclude that the organisation has been able to maintain its position as the dominant entity Trinidad and Tobago telecommunications sector.
This has been facilitated by the leadership of the executive management team which has taken strategic initiatives such as the investment of over $700 million in new technology in order to address the weakness associated with the Company’s aged plant. This investment has also given TSTT a competitive advantage in the IPTV and Security services market as the Company has exploited the opportunities in its external environment to create new revenue streams for itself.
“Porter’s five forces” can be seen through the threat of potential entrants in this case FLOW and Digicel, since TSTT no longer exist in a monopolistic market customers have bargaining power and this was seen when TSTT had to reduce its prices to be more competitive. Suppliers’ in this case also bargaining power with more than one telecommunications company to sell mobile telephones so they are able to bargain as to which telecommunications company what to sell them and at what price. Competitive rivalry is evident when TSTT promotes it mobile phones at reduced prices and the competitor Digicel also reduces its prices in order to compete with TSTT.
The financial results of TSTT since the liberalisation of the market therefore supports the proposition that the organisation has been able to manage the threats posed by its competitors as evidenced by its after tax profits since 2006.
In this type of arrangement, emphasis is being placed on maintaining Strengths, exploring and analyzing Opportunities, improving or outsourcing Weaknesses and identifying, developing and implementing Plans to overcome Threats this is the strategic direction of the company.
Through strategic planning and implementation TSTT was successfully able to maintain its leadership position in the telecommunications market in Trinidad and Tobago in a liberalised, global market. The organisation was able to convert its weaknesses into strengths and threats in to opportunity to maintains competitive advantage. Though its leadership and strategic management, innovative strategies and technologies were developed allowing for training and development of staff thereby providing opportunities for staff to be promoted within the organisation.