Activities in a Childcare at Home Setting

IDENTIFY THE CORRECT DOCUMENT REQUIRED FOR CHILDCARE IN A HOME SETTING
The correct document for setting up a Child Minding Business, which will receive approval from OFSTED, (an Independent Regulatory Body) for schools includes;
1) Child Record Form : This form must contain the Child’s Name, Date of Birth, the parent/carers’ Address and contact details, the Doctor’s name and address, details of two emergency contacts, Medical history, Immunisations (DTP, Whooping Cough, MMR, Hib, Chickenpox), any allergies, Dietary, Medical conditions, Religion (if any). This Record Form provides important information about the child being cared for and will be the first form to be accesses in case of emergency.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

2) Child Information Record Form: This book is to write down in information required by OFSTED. The document contains daily reports about the child being cared for. This includes: food eaten, Nappies changed (if necessary) or anything that happens to the child during the day. This Information book can be A4 or A5 binding exercise book. It must be taken home every day or weekly by the parent so that they will be aware of what their child is learning or doing in the Care setting. This book also enables the parent and the Child Care Provider to communicate every day on matters that are not urgent.
3) Child Care Agreement Form: This form contains the contract agreement between the Parent and the Care Provide. The agreement form contain necessary information such as child’s contact details, parent/guardian information, starting date, Days and hours the child will attend the Care Setting, collection time, payment and fees paid to the Care Provider. This form can be purchased through the National Association of Child Minders (NCMA). This association can also provide Legal issues if there is any. The form contains what the parent is agreeing on.
4) Accident Record and Incident Form: This form provides full report of any accident that have occurred, where it happened, name of any person present at the time and the type assistance or First Aid given to the child (if any). Also, the form must include date, name and signature of the person who filled the form. There is also a section in the form that the Parent of the Child must sign to confirm that they are aware of the accident. A duplicate copy should be made in case the parent needs a copy. The Incident form is to write down what may happen after the accident. Like depression or upsetting the child.
5) Existing Injuries Form: This form is to document what happened before the chid started the Child Care setting. Any mark or injury found on the child, must be written down on this form before the parent drop the child. The parent and the Care provider must sign the form that they are aware of the injury. The form must be dated.
6) Fire Safety Form: In case of fire outbreak in a Child Care Home, this form is needed to write down details of how the children are evacuated. The children must be given training or fire drilling from time to time. Dates and numbers of children that participate in this drilling must be documented in this form. All this activities must be dated and signed. Local Fire Service can also carry out free safety checks.
7) Vehicle Records and Parent Permission for a Child to Travel in a Vehicle: This form is used to record information about the vehicle being used to transport children to trips in the Care setting. The vehicle must be registered for the purpose of driving the children around and must be insured. Parents must give consent before the children can travel in the vehicle. This trip can be organised regularly to a park, playgroup or a planned group outing.
8) Prescription and Non-Prescription Medical Record Form: This is a medical form that is needed to be filled, when drugs is giving to a child in a Home care setting. The form must include Name of drug, dose and how often the drug should be given to the child. The parent of the child must give permission on how the drug should be given, and must be recorded on the form. Non-prescription drugs like Paracetamol or antihistamine must also be given with the parent’s permission.
9) Outing and Consent Form ; These forms are in two types, One for writing small Trips and the 2nd for arranged large trips. The form contains what types of trip, type of transport, by foot, by the Carer’s Car, or the Child Carer’s Car. A consent letter must be written and signed by the parent before the trip and filed in the child’s file. Another form may also be needed for big outings, or financial contribution.
10) Financial Forms – This contains Record of Payment of Fees, Invoice and Receipt . There are 3 types of financial forms for recording fees paid into Home Care Setting. The form is use for payment of fees and record fees paid by the parent, it must be signed by both parent and the Care Provider. A tear-off-slip can be used as a receipt to the parent. This receipt is necessary in case of disputes or when purchasing educational products from the Child Care Provider. Also, the original Invoice is necessary. It contains the Child Carer Provider’s Name and Address, Invoice Number, Date, Description of goods being Invoiced for and total amount paid.
11) Record of Complaint: This form contains who made a complain, the nature of complain, incident date, full details of complain, how it was dealt with and action taken. The form should be signed and dated by the Child provider. This is necessary in-case of future reference or required by OFSTED, especially if the allegation is serious or is an abuse. 
DESCRIBE THE RANGE OF ACTIVITIES THAT CAN BE USED TO STIMULATE A CHILD’S DEVELOPMENT. 
(REFERENCE MADE TO PHYSICAL, INTELLECTUAL AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT FOR BOTH BABIES
(0-12months) AND CHILDREN (1-5years)
The following are skills that can aid a child’s development;
GROSS MOTOR SKILLS: This term mean a whole range of physical movements made by a Child or Baby like Crawling, Rolling, Walking and Skipping. Play is very essential for a child’s development.
Throwing or catching a ball, Riding a Bicycle and Hopscotch helps for develop a child’s growt.
FINE MOTOR SKILLS: This skill involves the control of muscle movements like, Fastening Clothing, writing, drawing, using a knife/ Fork and using Scissors. It makes a child to use all their movements to do all this activities in the Child Care setting. Multi-sensory Toys are also part of this skill to develop baby’s sense. These Toys can be used by baby’s from 9 months, when they can be able to pick up and grasp an object. Some Toys can be squeezed to make noise, some soft fruits like
Banana or sticks of soft Bread can be given to the child to eat. They are good for baby’s hand and Eye co-ordination.
From 12 months old, a baby loves dropping toys from their Cot. Babies like bright colours and the noises of dropping toys into a sorter. By this, Fine Motor Skills are developed.
From 24 months, this Fine Motor Skills activities changes, a dressing up box is now needed in the Home Care, were colourful dresses, buttons and zips are stored. This is because, dressing and undressing are favourite pastime for many baby’s and the dressing up box encourages them to Be creative. Also, Painting, drawing and colouring are good ways of developing children skills, especially colouring books. Water is also a good way of fine motor skill, with children playing with water in warm weather outside the Care Setting.
INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT: Babies – There are many Multi-Sensory baby books which are good for the development of a child’s knowledge. These books have pictures, and are made of Mirrors, Crinkly fabric and Sandpaper’s attached to them. Babies like to touch them when reading Stories. Also, Music, Singing and Colourful, Noisy Toys are good for a child’s development.
TODDLERS: Toddler’s loves Card games like Flash Cards, Board games like Dominoes, ‘Connect 4’ Which are popular games that are good for numeracy skills. They also have enquiring mind which makes them ask questions about their surroundings and what they learn daily in the Care setting.
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT: Play is a good way in developing social skills on children in a safe environment. Children can act different type of rolls like, a Post Office, were children talk to customers and staff behind the counter. Or Hospital setting, were they act as Doctors and patients. All these rolls have different cloths that the children can put on, and can be stored after used.
WRITE A DRAFT FOOD HEALTH AND SAFETY POLICY THAT CAN BE USED IN HOME CHILD CARE SETTING, AND EXPLANATION OF GOVERNMENT STANDARDS 6 AND 7 SHOULD BE INCLUDED.
In a Home setting, Government have 14 standards that a Child Provider requires. Two of this are Safety and Health.
SAFETY: Every registered Home Care setting must make safety inside and outside a very important part of the setting. This is to prevent accident in the home.
Government Standard 6 Policy must be considered by the Care Provider to promote Safety outside, Safety in the Home environment and to prevent accidents. This safety standard includes, safety and security outside and indoors, Gardens, Out building, Kitchen, Gas/Electricity, Fire safety, outings and transport. Also, the Care Provider should make sure that Plugs are blocked with plastic safety plugs, child Car seats are fitted properly, all straps are fitted, Stairs must have gates if required, and Toys must be clean and checked regularly.
HEALTH: In a Home Setting, healthy environment is necessary to prevent the spread of infection and in-case a child is ill, necessary measures must be taken. Government standard 7 Policy is concerned with health and hygiene of children in and outside a Care setting. This standard deals with Hygiene, Sandpits, Animals, Medicine, Handling of food, Sick children, First Aid and Smoking. Children can contract infectious bacteria from Sandpits, Animals and Sick children in the Care setting, and this can be dangerous for them. Therefore, it is important to remove any person, structure or animal that is contaminated by bacteria, in-order not to cause harm to a child or adult working in the Care Setting. It is also important that strict food hygiene in the Care setting is necessary to prevent contamination.
CONSTUCT A TRAVEL PLAN WHICH DISCUSES THE VARIOUS FACTORS THAT NEED TO BE TAKEN INTO CONSIDERATION WHEN CARRING OUT A VISIT AWAY FROM THE CHILD CARE SETTING
Plans to take into consideration when taking children to trips to new destinations includes;
WALKING:

The Child Care must have a suitable Pushchairs, Reigns, Reflective Tabards to know how many children are walking with them.

All the children must be taught Road Safety, that is, how to cross the Road.
Adults must accompany the children walking for this planned trip.
Emergency equipment like, Contact details, Mobile Phone, First Aid Kit or any Medication a child may need for the trip.

BY TRANSPORT:

Permission must be taken from the parent before travelling on public transport.
The type of transport used must be known by the parent.
In-case the children are travelling by Bus or Train, make sure that they wait safely at the Bus stop or at the Train Station before the Transport arrive.

-Number of children travelling by public transport and those travelling by car or a staffs registered Car must be known.

Children travelling during rush hour must be old enough to stand.

TRAVELLING BY CAR:

The Car being used must be insured for business purpose.
Written permission from parent must be taken.
The Car must have enough sit.
The Car must have enough fuel in the tank.
The Car must have a First Aid Kit and necessary medicines.
All the children travelling must be safe to travel with sit belt.
The Care Provider must have a Breakdown Insurance Cover and
Mobile Phone to use in-case of emergency.

It is important to carry out a Risk Assessment when going on a trip for the first time. The Risk Assessment form contains anything that is dangerous to a child’s health, safety or in-case of any danger they may encounter on the trip. The trip can be postponed or avoided, depending on the result of this Risk Assessment.  

Mentoring and Enabling Learning in the Practice Setting

Introduction
The focus of this assignment is on the delivery of mentoring and assessment within nursing practice. The author is a mental health nurse working within a home treatment team in East London. The identified learning need is that of administration of a depot injection, a common element of the nursing role with patients with mental illness. The target audience is a student mental health nurse. The team is a multidisciplinary one with students from different professions all placed within the team for specified learning experiences and time periods.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

Mentors are usually assigned a student for the duration of their clinical placement. They meet with the student at the beginning of the placement to agree learning outcomes and plan learning needs, and then work with the student for a minimum of 40% of their clinical placement (NMC), and then complete their assessment documentation towards the end of the placement. This usually involves passing the student for competence in identified clinical skills.
Part Two – The Role of the Mentor
The role of the mentor within the nursing context is complex, because it involves teaching, facilitation, support, guidance, assessment and feedback[1]. Assessment of a student nurse during their training is in relation to key clinical competencies, as defined by the NMC Standards of Proficiency for Pre-Registration Nursing Education[2]. These competencies are then translated into clinical assessment areas as defined by the student’s University, and assessed against their definitions. The NMC are clear about the expectations of the nursing role in clinical practice, in relation to competence and responsibility “the nursing role involves a capacity not only to participate actively in care provision but also to accept responsibility for the effective and efficient management of that care” [3]. Therefore, mentoring involves not only teaching discrete clinical skills but the more complex issues of demonstrating the management of care for individual clients according to their needs. Mentoring involves the consolidation of theoretical and practical learning acquired during the student’s academic experience within the University teaching and learning setting, and applying that knowledge to practice[4]. Therefore, it is important that mentors not only act in a way that is appropriate to their professional role and the expectations of their employer, but are also aware that theirs is the standard against which students will measure their own conduct and competence.
The role of the mentor is to teach within the clinical setting, therefore, all formal teaching which takes place is clinically oriented and clearly relates to the performance of the professional role[5]. Research by Lloyd-Jones et al[6] seems to indicate that not only do students get the best out of their clinical placements through the student-mentor relationship, but that the quality of their learning and development is linked to the amount of time that they spend with their mentors. Therefore, mentors need to understand that their role involves a commitment to working with their named student and supporting their learning through this close working relationship[7][8].
 
The role of the mentor also involves assessing the student, against competency standards defined by the NMC and by the student’s educational institution. The NMC now requires that some mentors are sign-off mentors, which means that they sign-off the student as competent at the end of their training, and share equal responsibility with the awarding institution for that student’s competence to perform their professional role. In midwifery, all mentors must be sign off mentors. Regardless of this, it is a significant responsibility for any mentor to assess a student and confirm they are competent in key areas of clinical practice, and therefore mentors are educated and supported to understand the teaching and learning processes involved, especially in identifying how to assess competence. Some research shows that assessment can be carried out in a tripartite agreement between student, mentor and a member of the academic staff of the university (usually the student’s personal tutor)[9]. This kind of close working relationship has many benefits, for the mentor, the student and the academic institution, and in relation to the assessment role of the mentor, provides valuable support[10]. This also shows that another role of the mentor is that of close liaison with academic staff in relation to student progress and assessment, student conduct and behaviour. While not all institutions have this three way set up per se, many use this kind of arrangement to address student problems in achieving the required levels of assessment. Despite there being examples of good practice such as this, however, the demands of the mentorship role mean that there is still a deficit between the theory and practice of mentoring, which needs more attention[11].
 
The challenges of mentorship from my perspective reflect these issues in the literature. The demands of meeting identified student needs are partly met by the training and support for mentors, but the realities of providing client-centred care whilst supporting student learning mean that the teaching and learning opportunities are not always maxmised. Developing a good relationship with students is also usually easily addressed, but there are times when it is not possible to develop a good relationship with some students and I have been aware in the past that this impacts on the quality of the learning experience. Another issue is managing students who are not achieving their designated competencies, and this process, while supported by the academic staff, is very stressful for all involved. It seems to me that the mentor role is not valued by the employer either, and in a busy workload, the required time for mentors to spend with students to provide the right kind of feedback is not factored in. However, I am also aware that this is an evolving area, and that practice is changing in line with the published standards for the preparation of mentors. Ultimately, as a mentor I have a strong commitment to ensuring the standards of the profession are maintained, and being a mentor allows me to make a valuable contribution to practice and to the profession in this way.
 
Part Three – The Assessment Plan
The author set out to assess the student’s ability to carry out a depot injection, and so set up a teaching plan and assessment plan accordingly (see Appendix). Carrying out this assessment plan involved reviewing the theories of education and learning which are most relevant to the type of assessment, some of which will be discussed here. This author is aware of the theories which underpin nurse education and learning, and will address some of these here, believing that these theories still help explain how student nurses come to develop the abilities, knowledge, skills and capabilities which allow them to fulfil the requirements of the nurse’s role. Therefore, the teaching plan and the assessment plan build on this theoretical knowledge in order to maximise the student’s opportunities to learn and become competent in the chosen skills[12]. Behaviourist theories suggest that learning takes place through stimulus response learning, and through operant conditioning, through which students’ behaviours are changed through observing, and through reactions to their own behaviours[13]. In order to build on this, the nurse demonstrates the procedure and the kinds of behaviours that are associated with the procedure, including communications behaviours. This would need to be reinforced by discussion of these behaviours, and it is argued that basing learning only on behavioural principles is not adequate to meet the challenges of nursing learning. Cognitive theories are those which also underpin the author’s approach to teaching and assessment. Within cognitivism, which is orientated towards scientific and positivist principles, the mind of the learner is equated with theories about computing and how computers work, and knowledge is viewed in terms of symbolic mental constructs, or schema; learning can be said to have taken place when there is a change in the learner’s internal cognitive schema. Therefore, learning is said to have taken place when the individual’s behaviour has changed following acquisition of cognitive learning[14]. Within cognitive theories, learning is based around the acquisition of factual information, and while there is no requirement for learning to have been processed on a deeper level, it does mean that the relevant knowledge has been assimilated by the learner [15]. Both of these theories, however, underpin much of the assessment process, because the mentor is looking for behaviour change, based on the student’s demonstration of behaviours, both physical and more interactive, and also looking for the student to be able to demonstrate the acquired knowledge and facts associated with the skill[16][17].
However, having carried out the assessment plan, the author also learned that it is hard to assess students on their attitude and behaviour with clients. The mechanics of a procedure can be easily observed and evaluated, but the effect of being observed and assessed may affect the way the student nurse interacts with the client. The client is another factor which may affect this process as well, because the client/student relationship, particularly within a mental health setting, may not be well developed, and may be more difficult to establish. However, it is this author’s experience that the mentor’s approach, manner and preparation of the client and student can ameliorate this kind of difficulty considerably.
Part Four – The Teaching Plan
The teaching plan (see Appendix B) is based on two different theories. The first are the constructivist theories of learning, which suggest that people learn in an active way, and through this process, construct for themselves subjective forms of ‘reality’, within which the pre-existing knowledge and ‘reality’ assimilates any new learning[18]. The second theoretical basis for the learning plan is that of humanism, a theory which supports a more nursing-oriented approach to learning, focusing on self-development and on the individual becoming what they are capable of becoming through the learning process[19][20]. There is, however, some argument that all of the theories discussed so far are eminently applicable to nursing education, because the process is cognitive and behavioural, and combines the acquisition of facts with the competent performance of key nursing skills. Knowledge underpins practice, and helps to develop clinical reasoning, but experience helps students to reconfigure their internal schema and their deeper understanding of the world, albeit subjectively. The most important learning theory here which relates to nursing education and, in particular, to the learning which takes place in clinical practice, under the guidance of the clinica mentor, is Bandurafs Social Learning Theory[21], because it seems to be the theory which best describes how adults learn within this context[22].
 
 
Bandura’s social learning theory, suggests that people essentially learn from observing and imitating each other in social situations, and that through this learning process, people model themselves on others, and learn from them not only how to behave, but also acquire attitudes, and an awareness of the probable consequences of the observed behaviours[23]. What this theory offers in particular to understanding how learning takes place in the clinical nursing context is a model which incorporates other influences on learning, including cognitive processes, the ways in which behaviours are modelled on role models, the effect of the learner’s personality, and the effect of the learning environment [24]. This theory is helps mentors to understand the complexities of nursing competence and its development, which requires the combination of cognitive elements, some of which may be learned in a formal classroom setting, with the modelling of behaviours of student nurses on the mentors who act as their role models[25]. While it is clear that the clinical learning experiences of student nurses are key to development of a good knowledge base[26] and proper professional competence[27][28],[29], the quality of mentorship must be considered, because through social learning theory, students come to model themselves on what they are seeing practice[30],[31]. This can present its own challenges, particularly when the students are not being supervised or taught by their primary mentor but by a buddy mentor[32] [33]. There are those who argue that this is necessary, to expose students to different role models and behaviours, so that students can then develop their own critical thinking and judgement[34][35], through observing different forms of clinical reasoning[36].
The assessment processes built in to the mentoring relationship are a very important feature of learning and development, because student nurses must learn from any errors and omissions, and this continues on into their professional practice once qualified[37]. Learning to manage one’s own learning and development, identify ways to learn from errors or difficult situations, within the practice setting, reflects the principles of social learning theory[38]. However, the author is also aware of the need for students to develop a realistic understanding of practice, and how the errors and challenges which can arise during their clinical work may be related to them not having the knowledge and skills needed to meet the needs of the clients[39], and thus learning is about identified how to develop to meet those needs nursing l[40]. Ulitmately, becoming a nurse means the ability to meet the standards of the profession, through knowledge,[41] skills, clinical reasoning, critical thinking and application of experiential and theoretical evidence to practice[42], which is quite demanding for all those involved in the training of students. Ultimately, student nurses are socialised into their profession as well as being trained how to perform their role, [43], and while this in itself may not always be an ideal, because the organisational culture may not always be positive[44], it is important for students to learn all aspects of the profession[45][46].
Although there is always the possibility that nurses may learn good as well as bad behaviours, [47], a good mentor would support such students to develop the critical awareness and reflective skill to be able to identify the positive models and reject the negative models as part of their learning journey[48].
Part Five
Personal Development and Learning as a Mentor
The process of learning to become a mentor has opened new vistas of experience and knowledge for me, as a nurse, as a mentor, and as a person. While it is challenging to hold up a mirror to oneself and appraise what kind of role model you are presenting to the students you are working with, this is a positive experience because it allows you to identify your own strengths, and celebrate them, whilst also identifying your weaknesses, and take steps to address these. In particular, for me it has demonstrated that while my practice is good, my understanding of some issues is not based on the latest evidence available, and working with students who ask about the evidence base for practice really motivates me to seek out that evidence. I have also become aware of my own tendency to make value judgements, labelling students good or bad, and I have examined the qualities which lead to these as well as overcoming this unconscious stereotyping. ~I learned that I wanted to empower students to take charge of their own learning[49], but learning how to do this was a longer process for my own development.
Learning about learning is also a process of self-discovery which is then applied to mentorship practice. Understanding assessment principles and learning theories has changed the way that I ‘teach’ students and really given me insight into how assessment can best be carried out. It has also helped me to understand the terminology used within the clinical assessment documents. The need to develop better working relationships with the academic staff has also emerged as a feature to be applied to my future practice.
 
Overall, this experience has shown me that mentorship, which can be onerous and demanding in the current clinical situation, is also an investment, in the future of the profession and in the future wellbeing of clients. It can enhance my own capabilities, and provide me with more opportunities to reflect and to reconsider my professional personal and competence. Ultimately, I aim to be a good mentor, but in order to do this, I must be a competent nurse. Therefore, the process has been a form of reciprocal learning.
References 212337
Andrews, G.J., Brodie, D.A., Andrews, J.P. et al (2006) Professional roles and communications in clinical placements: a qualitative study of nursing students’ perceptions and some models for practice. International Journal of Nursing Studies 43 (7) 861-874.
Andrews, M. and Wallis, M. (1999) Mentorship in nursing: a literature review. Journal of Advanced Nursing 29 (1) 201-207.
Bandura, A. (1977) Social Learning Theory New York: General Learning Press.
Bankert, E.G. and Kozel, V.V. (2005) Transforming pedagogy in nursing education: a caring learning environment for adult students. Nursing Education Perspectives 26 (4) 227-229.
Bauer, J. and Mulder, R.H. (2007) Modelling learning from errors in daily work. Learning in Health and Social Care 6 (2) 121-133.
Brammer, J. (2006) A phenomenographic study of registered nursesf understanding of their role in student learning – An Australian perspective. International Journal of Nursing Studies 43 (8) 963-973.

Chenoweth, L. (1998) Facilitating the process of critical thinking for nursing. Nurse Education Today. 18(4):281-9
Collins, M. (1991). Adult education as vocation. London: Routledge.
Cope, P., Cuthbertson, P. and Stoddard, B. (2000) Situated learning in the practice placement
Journal of Advanced Nursing 31 (4) 850-856.
 
DeCarvalho, R. (1991) The humanistic paradigm in education. The Humanistic Psychologist.19 (1) 88-104.
Doughty, R., Harris, T., and McClean, M. (2007) Tripartite assessment of learners during practice placements in midwifery pre-registration programmes. Education + Training
Evans, R.J. and Donnelly, G.W. (2006) A Model to Describe the Relationship Between Knowledge, Skill, and Judgment in Nursing Practice Nursing Forum 41 (4) , 150–157
Freeth, D. and Fry, H. (2005) Nursing students’ and tutors’ perceptions of learning and teaching in a clinical skills centre. Nurse Education today 25 272-282.
Gonczi, A. (1993). Competence and competencies: A global perspective. Paper presented at the First National Conference on Competencies in Nursing Adelaide: Australian Nursing Federation (SA Branc
Gray, M.A.,and Smith, L.N. (2000) The qualities of an effective mentor from the student nurse’s perspective: findings from a longitudinal qualitative study Journal of Advanced Nursing 32 (6) ,1542–1549.
Hawks, J.H. (1992) Empowerment in nursing education: concept analysis and application to philosophy, learning and instruction. Journal of Advanced Nursing 17 (5) 609-618.
Hutchings, A., Williamson, G.R., and Humphreys, A. (2005) Supporting learners in clinical practice: capacity issues. Journal of Clinical Nursing 14 (8) 945–955.
Jones, M.L., Walters, S. and Akehurst, R. (2001) The implications of contact with the mentor for preregistration nursing and midwifery students Journal of Advanced Nursing 35 (2) , 151–160
 
Knight, P. (1995) Assessment for Learning in Higher Education London: Kogan Page
Learning Theories Knowledge Base (2008) www.learning-theories.com Accessed 23-8-08.
Letcher, D.C. and Yancey, N.R. (2004) Witnessing Change with Aspiring Nurses: A Human Becoming Teaching-Learning Process in Nursing Education Nursing Science Quarterly 17 (1) 36-41 .
Lloyd-Jones, M., Walters, S. and Akehurst, R. (2001) The implications of contact with the mentor for preregistration nursing and midwifery students. Journal of Advanced Nursing 35 (2) 1510160.
Mattila, L-R. and Eriksson, e. (2007) Nursing students learning to utilize nursing research in clinical practice. Nurse Education Today 27 568-576.
McMillan, D.E., Bell, S., Benson, E.E. et al (2007) From anxiety to enthusiasm: facilitating graduate nursing students’ knowledge development in science and theory. Journal of Nurse Education 46 (2) 88-91.
Mooney, M. (2007) Professional socialization: the key to survival as a newly qualified nurse. International Journal of Nursing Practice 13 75-80.
Myall, M., Levett-Jones, T., Lathlean, J. (2008) Mentorship in contemporary practice: the experiences of nursing students and practice mentors. Journal of Clinical Nursing 17 (14) 1834-1842.
Neary, M. (2000) Responsive assessment of clinical competence. Nursing Standard 15 (10) 35-40.
Nehring, V. (1990) Nursing clinical teacher effectiveness inventory: a replication study of the characteristics of ebestf and eworstf clinical teachers as perceived by nursing faculty and students. Journal of Advanced Nursing 15 (8) 934-40.
Nixon, M., Morgan, L., Forsyth, J. and Ellis, D. (1996).
A comparative study of teacher directed and self directed methods of teaching clinical skills to undergraduate nursing students. International Journal of Nursing Practice. 2(2) 88-93
 
NMC (2004) Standards of Proficiency for Pre-Registration Nursing Education Available from:www.nmc.org.uk Accessed 23-8-08.
Nolan, C.A. (1998) Learning on clinical placement: the experience of six Australian student nurses. Nurse Education Today 18(8) 622-9
NMC (2004) Standards of Proficiency for Pre-Registration Nursing Education Available from:www.nmc.org.uk Accessed 23-8-08.
Phillips, R.M., Davies, W.B., and Neary, M. (2008) The practitioner-teacher: a study in the introduction of mentors in the preregistration nurse education programme in Wales: part 2. Journal of Advanced Nursing 23 (6) 1080-1088.
Shin, K.R. (1998) Critical thinking ability and clinical decision-making skills among senior nursing students in associate and baccalaureate programmes in Korea. Journal of Advanced Nursing 27 (2) 414-418.
Stuart, C.C. (2003) Assessment, Supervision and Support in Clinical Practice London: Churchill Livingstone.
Tucker, K., Wakefield, A., Boggis, C. et al (2003) Learning together: clinical skills teaching for medical and nursing students. Medical Education 37 (7) 630-637
Welsh, I. and Lyons, C.M. (2001) Evidence-based care and the case for intuition and tacit knowledge in clinical assessment and decision making in mental health nursing practice: an empirical contribution to the debate. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 8 (4) , 299–305.
Appendix A
 
Assessment Plan
 
Competence to be assessed: administration of depot injection
 
Plan

Check student knowledge and simulated technique prior to administration
Prepare student and client for procedure.
Observe student and assess stated assessment points.
Provide feedback to student.

Assessment Points

Student has checked prescription is correct
Student has checked prescription against client identity and care plan.
Student has discussed procedure correctly and appropriately with client.
Student has ensured client confidentiality and privacy during procedure.
Student has discussed effects/side effects with client
Student draws up correct dose, checks drug properly with qualified staff, and prepares to administer injection in correct site.
Student performs injection with correct technique
Student communicates with the client appropriately
Student records procedure in appropriate records, correctly.
Student ensures client is comfortable post-procedure.
Student can discuss properties of medication, side effects, route, dose and any contra-indications
Student can discuss holistic care of the client.

Appendix B
 

Lesson Plan

Administration of Depot Injection

Audience: First Year Student Mental Health Nurse

Module

Mentor/Teacher: Insert name here

Date: Insert Date Here

Lesson Aims:

To introduce the theory and rationale for the administration of depot injections to selected clients
To demonstrate and discuss the technique for depot injection administration.

Objectives – at the end of the session the students should:

Understand the rationale for administration of depot injections
Understand and demonstrate the safe technique for depot injections
Demonstrate knowledge of the medications usually given via this route, their properties, side effects and dosages.
Demonstrate safe disposal of sharps.
Debate issues of care/management from an holistic perspective.
Discuss challenges of provision of depot injections to the chosen client group.
Understand and discuss record keeping in relation to the procedure.
Identify communication and other skills necessary to engage the client as a partner in their care.

Topic

Method

Introduction to Depot Injection: rationale, purpose, background.

Discussion/presentation using visual aids

Drugs used for depot injection

Discussion with handouts/visual aids

Consent, prescriptions and role of the nurse

Discussion/presentation with handout

Technique

Demonstration and student practice with facilitation

Communication skills

Discussion

Issues with client interaction and partnership

Discussion

Review of Technique

Discussion/student demonstration/assessment

Time for Reflection and Questioning

Open discussion.

 
 

11

Footnotes
[1]Andrews, M. and Wallis, M. (1999)
[2] Nursing and Midwifery Council (2004) p 8.
[3] Nursing and Midwifery Council (ibid) p 8.
[4] Mattila, L-R. and Eriksson, E. (2007) p 569.
[5] Phillips, R.M., Davies, W.B., and Neary, M. (2008) p 1080
[6] Lloyd-Jones, M., Walters, S. and Akehurst, R. (2001) p151.
[7]Bankert, E.G. and Kozel, V.V. (2005)
[8] Lloyd-Jones (Ibid) p 160.
[9] Doughty, R., Harris, T., and McClean, M. (2007)
[10]Doughty et al (ibid)
[11] Myall, M., Levett-Jones, T., Lathlean, J. (2008)
[12]Knight, P. (1995)
[13] Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2008)
[14] Learning Theories Knowledge base (ibid).
[15] Learning Theories Knowledgebase (ibid)
 

Goal Setting And Time Management

Goal setting tools is definitely recommended. It doesnt really challenege show up were talking about. But goal setting tips is very important on the subject of time management. When you are aware your goals, you are in a better position to accomplish all the jobs that you should accomplish. The first thing is always to gain an understanding of tips on how to reach the best time management skills goal setting.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

Ahead of starting your goals, you should give some thought in regards to what it is that you will need for getting done. Exist many tasks in front of yourself on the day? Would you enjoy making better technique time you’ve in front of you? Are you interested in creating more a while that you could put to personal use? Questions honestly will let you build your goals properly.
It is when you’re conscious of what you look for to complete the actual goal setting tools should commence. Deal with your short-term goals to start with. Is it possible to do multiple of those with a given day? If you do, do this. Keep things simple. That is going to assist you to keep motivated but not get bogged down by details.
Once these short-term goals are accomplished, it’s time to visualize your long-term goals. Don’t be bogged down by too many short-term goals at the same time. You wish to have a good reason for staying motivated while you are wanting to accomplish something which requires longer than normal.
Time management ideas goal setting tips means, among other things, ways to challenge yourself but not to begin making things look impossibly difficult. A lot of easy chores can undermine your motivation, but goals which may be too formidable may pave the way for failure. So make sure that your ultimate goal is realistic. This can be always a good idea.
One other good idea is, needless to say, to make it rewarding when you fulfill a certain task. The reward ought to be like the goal achieved. A compact task done might require you can forget reward than an soft serve ice cream cone. If it’s been a big deal, purchase to something you might have been wanting for many years, something like a whole new computer.
Time management skills setting goals is amongst the things that can make your life more stimulating in a very general way. Knowing tips on how to create your goals, you will stay away from the miseries that a great many people experience if they are not managing their time in addition to they need to.
Personal time management and Setting goals the proper way
There are numerous elements that distract you as long as you’re working online. It is usually quite challenging to aim to juggle numerous things all at one time. One great tip that I learned in one of my mentors was the concept of using a timer. Which has a timer tracking your worktime, you can quickly notice where you are spending your serious amounts of learn to not allocate your time and energy to non-critical activities including reading email or finding new products.
Present have you ever discovered you are in a situation that needs you to definitely do something extremely important…to discover you’ve convinced you to ultimately delay?
Truth be told, every one of us procrastinate to some degree or another. When procrastination is starting to become portion of your everyday routine then procrastination grows more compared to a minor issue within your business. It is really an obstacle to success.
Thankfully you curently have more control of these forces than you may realize, and you have to work and practice a few simple but incredibly strong techniques to boost your drive minimizing your resistance.
One workout is to comprehend that procrastination is situated your brain. It is advisable to replace these thoughts of putting things off into empowered thinking habits instead. Keep an action journal to keep yourself accountable for the unfinished work, in order to find an accountability partner! Somebody is someone who holds you accountable for tasks as well as meeting your goals.
Time management skills Analysis
Questions:
1. How do you keep track of your goals?
2. Have listing of daily goals?
3. Do you plan your week, month or year?
4. At the end for the day…Sometimes you may feel you could have accomplished your goals?
5. Will you take any breaks in your workday…? In that case the amount of?
6. Do you think you’re a victim of trying to multitask an excessive amount of?
7. The amount of will you look at your email?
8. How often do you meet your deadlines?
9. Is there a first thing you choose to do in the morning?
10. How will you decide what’s important?
Solution:
1. Write things down (Carry a journal)
2. Prioritize your list be responsible for reaching/not reaching goals (find an accountability partner)
3. Learn how to say no to time wasting tasks (negative people included)
4. Check email daily or once weekly
5. Set weekly, monthly& yearly goals (Target Monthly/Yearly Income)
6. Implement an occasion management system (break tasks into manageable daily/weekly or monthly tasks)
7. Identify your improper habits and try to illuminate them
8. Determine what works and get over it …magnify your strengths
9. Make it rewarding for completing goals(take mini-vacations)
10. Outsource as much as possible
11. Automate Everything
12. Know your financial limits (keep track of everything arriving on and on out)
Productivity Tools:
1. Journal/ Planner
2. Calendar
3. Robo Form for Password Management
4. Reminders and Alarms/Timers
5. Outsourcing Services/ Virtual Assistants
6. Organizational Tools (helpful websites next page)
Take an inventory of all the so-called key components required for your web success, which we’ve discussed throughout this chapter and which can be outlined within the list above. This list above illustrates some extremely important ways to detect the urgency of your respective tasks.
Upon having your list, make adjustments in accordance with your schedule. Organize your ideas and stay open to coming up with some new ones at the same time. Now, rather than list you have a road map of sorts, and that is just a strategy for putting structure down on paper.
Effective Personal time management and Goal setting tips For your Overwhelmed Entrepreneur
What emotions do these words evoke? How’s that phrase make you feel?
If you are an overwhelmed entrepreneur likelihood is it does not provde the warm fuzzies!
Whatever it can be, the one thing is made for sure; not all of us are born effective time managers!
Most people wish we 25 hours, and up, daily to install our “to do’s” in.
However, it is actually very possible to become more designed in A shorter period once you give attention to being effective or perhaps prioritizing those “to do’s” rather then cramming them within this elusive thing we call “Time.”
If you feel about this, and dig a little deeper, personal time management is usually a mere figment in our imagination!
Effective Time management skills EQUALS Effective Goal setting techniques
Essentially, time management techniques for entrepreneurs is dependant on focusing on developing effective goal setting tools skills to make essentially the most almost daily that is available to us (just one day)!
For being more appropriate at time management operator must talk about or herself:
“Have i got the focus, clarity and purposefulness to be aware what activities I ought to prioritize in order to assist me to advance in reaching my offer and time management skills goals?”
If i was to:
Prioritize
Limit
Focus
We may succeed time managers.
Prioritizing, limiting, and working on a few things helps us feel more accomplished and productive together with helps us progress in reaching our business goals.
Though the million-dollar question then becomes…
How can we become effective goal setters?
How do we develop that sense of purposefulness making sure that we become entrepreneurs who manage our time effectively?
Panic disorder that’s: Find YOUR PASSIONS and know your STRENGTHS!
Before setting goals, we must first ensure that i am truly following our personal passions!
Find out what you’re passionate about, awesome (just skip to next subheading)!
If you do not know very well what you’re excited about, determine the following questions.
1) What work/activities get me most excited?
a. Can it be serving others by marketing a unique services or products?
b. Will it be an actual task like instructing others?
c. Would I enjoy work with others locally or globally? (Offline, Online or both!)
2) What am I best at? What skill sets are my strongest?
a. Writing
b. Presentation
c. Instructing or Teaching?
d. Coaching?
3) When am I MOST looking forward to using my talents and time effectively?
Once you know your passions and what your strengths do you think you’re can develop clear and effective goals.
Apply the 80/20 Rule to Everything
Everyone understands that 80/20 rule can assist you to improve your personal time management. So, what on earth is 80/20 rule? An Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto had found an unequal distribution of wealth that 20% of individual own 80% on the money. This principle is usually put on other industries. This principle is additionally called “vital few and trivial many.” 20% of something is usually to blame for 80% in the results.
So, how much does this suggest for you? And what is the 80 20 rule in time management skills? Think way: 20% of the work may cost 80% of their time. It seems as if a whole lot waste energy, fine? Meanwhile, we can easily consider at another angel, that is 20% from the tasks you need to do could lead to 80 % with the result. Bingo, this is actually the 20 80 rule in time management! So, to use your time effective, you should target the 20% in the tasks that may end in 80% on the result.
With this way, you can find far better work result by focus on those 20% work there. When you have learn the duty participate in 20% which create for you high benefit, you need to pay attention to them. And, here fit coming. Tips on how to evaluate which sorts of task will belong to 20%? This is some question you need to ask you: can you usually implementing urgent tasks? Do you cost a lot of your time to dedicate yourself other folks, and the ones people have no priority in your case? Tasks take to much time than you anticipate? Are you complaining during the most time of one’s work? Would be the tasks your are performing just isn’t what you’re effective in? Plus it takes an excessive amount of time? Well, if your answer above is absolutely. It could determine that you’ll be doing tasks within 80% and so they are only able to bring about 20% effectiveness. You should do a reveres here:
The duty that you are implementing is actually what you want to accomplish? The activities you do now will send you to your goals? Do you feel happy in your working? If suggestions some task you want to do, but you are negative at it, will you delivery those tasks to people? Could it be highly relatively for a long-term goal that when the position your are performing is just not that which you like? Ok. If the fact is positive, well, your task is owned by 20% and which will result in 80% result. Today, you ought to make list to write down all your task that you’re going to do during in the future. And divide them into two parts. One is 80% and just one more is 20%. Here now, all your good working time should be cost around the 20%. With this way, you’ll be able to achieve greater than before.
Living the 80/20 Rule
Where do you need the 80/20 rule out your work and life?
A single section of gaming Regularly being a consultant inside public sector. In another Regularly as being a coach; with both life coaching and corporate clients. Also i produce other businesses in completely unrelated fields including pet supplies, parenting products, and food supplements. The opposite regions of my entire life are put in leisure activities with my family.
I would not consider myself a jack of all trades/master of none, though: these endeavors counseled me chosen deliberately and executed carefully. Having a lot of things out and about satisfies my should stay diversified and busy (yes, Image told they have ADHD) – i love (almost) everything I really do.
Importantly, I additionally have time for everything I actually do with some to spare. For the reason that from the 80/20 rule.
Simply speaking, I attempt to focus on the twenty percent of my entire life and work which gives me the most results and enjoyment. And i also attempt to say no to – or outsource – the opposite 80 percent whenever and wherever I could. Basically, I only work and spend time with the folks I wish to be around, and i also only work on what I have to focus on.
I understand that saying these items is controversial: you will be convinced that this does not sign up for your life along with your particular situation. You don’t possess the luxury to easily “outsource” what toddler do. You have commitments and responsibilities…
We’ve commitments and responsibilities too, obviously; and naturally you will discover some tips i can’t outsource or say no to either. But it’s exactly about where I choose direct my energy while keeping your focus: I understand I can not always live gaming inside 20 percent – but Also i understand that if I try, I’ll consistently be considered a lot closer than plainly don’t.
(You should say that the chance to do only what one wants depends on circumstance and luck. This is true to some large degree – but Furthermore assume that luck is to be based in the intersection of preparation and opportunity…)
Therefore the aim of this chapter should be to encourage for you you prioritized the points you want in your own life, and that which you really need to be doing regular – then looking honestly at where you can unload many of the 80 % that does not fit with the eyes.
To get started on, hunt for those “big-lever” changes you can make that you experienced. They do not need to be complicated or overwhelming: they include any adjustments, big or small, that have a major impact.
A large-lever change could be described as a change of careers, as an example, or it could be something much smaller which has a domino-effect in your lifetime. A straightforward “big-lever” change could possibly be something as elementary as outsourcing the duty of unloading the dishwasher: when it reduces stress towards the end of the busy day, and give you time for something more pleasurable, then its certainly worth the extra 5 dollars in allowance!
That is just one small example – there are lots of. Where else can you use the 80/20 rule in yourself? Where else are you able to pinpoint the twenty percent of your life and work which gives the biggest results and greatest satisfaction? And where could you set out to unload others?
Applying the Beneficial 80-20 Rule to Your Business
The majority of people who built their unique businesses from your ground-up think that the business is their child. They need to protect it with everything else they have. They want to be sure that everything around the clients are accomplished just perfectly. This constant daily focus to every little detail could be the primary reason that a small business becomes stagnant. There may be only a great deal time in the day and if you’re spending your whole day ensuring that it is all totally done ideal, there are no time left to inflate your online business and lift to the next level of success.
It is advisable to continue to apply the 80/20 rule on your business. Stay, do a list of other nutritional foods that you do all day long in running your company. It could be looking to close sales with customers, ensuring you’ve got people from jobs or projects that are doing what they are meant to do. Being confident that you get invoices out once they need to be out. Being sure that the payroll is going punctually.
Soon after days, go through the list and try to figure out how some of these things helps you increase and expand your online business. When the activities you wrote down don’t help you in this way, hire a roofer as part of your organization that you simply feel you can rely on and delegate these every day tasks to them. You don’t need to completely surrender control of the daily business activities, this is where the 20% comes in. You have to spend 80% of energy on other business expanding activities. An individual will be out of under the way of life you will soon find strategies to spend your time which are a lot more productive in the long run. Now you can fill the shoes from the CEO of your organization. It somewhat to have acquainted with the newest role, but start every morning convinced that today your job is to use new strategies to improve the revenues at your company beyond methods you already use
It will not be a long time before you will be able to waste most of your time and efforts with this new role of CEO. Just think of the benefits it will give you, your household along with your employees whenever you can take a step back and discover the forest even though the trees, it will be easy to more clearly pick which is best direction for the business growing in. By trusting others who are qualified to control the day to day tasks of your business it is possible to generate an even better business for every individual concerned.
Apply the 80/20 Rule watching Your own Productivity Soar
During the early 1900’s, Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto observed that 20 % of those in Italy owned 80 % with the wealth. Over 3 decades later, Dr. Joseph M. Juran, who worked in the field of Quality Management in the United States, recognized the same occurrence, namely, a large number of things in life are unevenly distributed.
He referred to this trend as Pareto’s 80/20 Principle, and that is otherwise referred to as the 80/20 rule. Basically because of this a percentage (roughly 20%) of the overall activity yields a greater percentage (roughly 80%) with the result.
Applying the 80/20 rule for your personal productivity will let you prioritize your job from most critical to lowest and then to budget your efforts accordingly. For making prioritizing your tasks easier, estimate how long you will need to complete each task. You will end up more productive should you give attention to completing the main tasks first in case you finish time-sensitive projects before tackling other tasks.
One survey revealed that while people spend 60 hours weekly within their offices, they actually under 20 hours of actual work. Applying the 80/20 rule, with all the aforementioned suggestions, could send the common office-worker soaring to employee with the month before you know it!
With your priorities set and also a definite plan in position as to what work you have to complete as well as the time-frame you must complete it, you are well on the right path to improved personal productivity. Again, the 80/20 rule points too in a amount time you could end up very productive. Therefore, don’t use becoming side-tracked by non-essential intruders like procrastination.
Consider the existing adage, “why defer tomorrow you skill today!” Also, be mindful that throughout a day, unexpected things purchased up and require our time. However, it’s usually the exception and never the rule. If you need your productivity to soar, focus on one goal around the goal of completing your tasks on-time!
Now you know that you strive to be, it’s a good time and energy to determine in which you are now pertaining to reaching your goal. Do you think you’re already inside 20% of efficient, productive workers, are you currently inside 80% of not-so-productive workers, or are you somewhere in-between?
How much does your annual or quarterly review reveal about your personal productivity? So what can your peer reviews show? Regardless of your present standing, take a genuine glance at the work you have done lately. You might not demand a full overhaul of one’s work habits but instead you could only need to fine-tune a couple of areas.
Feel free. Why not start today? Apply the 80/20 rule at the office and in some cases both at home and just watch your personal productivity soar!
Time Management Principles
Essentially the most fearsome things facing consumers ‘s all of what which seem to conspire to distract use from what we should are supposed to be doing. From mobile phones on the internet to TV, irrespective of where we go there will be something to try and do aside from our assigned tasks, and it is so easy to goof off and obtain nothing done.
Here are a couple principles to help you manage your time to help you utilize it as effectively as possible.
First off, it is important to recognize that we as individuals have a fixed length of time and a large number of stuff we can easily do by using it. Thus, we’ve got to prioritize and use our time for it to do the things which may help use to obtain our goals and accomplish the tasks which might be most important to us.
An important time management planning skill will be the capability to break big tasks into more palatable pieces. We often are facing huge projects or jobs which will take many the perfect time to complete. Thankfully that lots of times were given a lot of amount of time in order to accomplish these projects. The bad thing is the fact that often we have been intimidated by the these big projects so we don’t start them until the eleventh hour, which means that we are left racing to acquire whatever to control your emotions in time and still having a poor taste in our mouth. So, work out how much of your livelihood you’re able to do everyday every week, basically exactly what is going to take to accomplish it, and then choose a day to begin.
This leads into your significance about making a plan and sticking to it. Understand what have a plan that you simply follow, you will be disorganized and you will probably struggle to maximize your time and energy. You will have a seat to function on something but you won’t have a clear concept of things to do, and quite often which means the next occasion, you won’t possess the hear by sitting and you will probably loosen up in any respect. This might be prevented by proper planning.
These are just a couple of personal time management ideas, they must be enough to get you started. The main thing is you remove whatever is distracting and find down to business with anything you should achieve.
Determing the best Time management planning Principles
Doing your best with your time and energy is usually essential if you would like be truly successful in your everyday living while still having some balance in every your roles. You cannot obtain the time that you just spend, or waste, on something back.
Instead, you should ensure that you spend every possible moment being as productive as possible. People who find themselves not really acquainted with time management principles might find it challenging to maximize from a time.
However, when you get accustomed to seeing your time slowly tick away, you will want learn how to take advantage of out of your time.
Learning the best way to prioritize your everyday “To Do” list will be the number 1 time management skills skill you could have. Being aware of what tasks have to be completed first can help you get everything carried out in your little friend length of time you have.
It does not matter a high level be home more mother, someone working full-time in the job, an executive or CEO, a make money online entrepreneur, or perhaps a retired senior, you will always should make one of the most of each hour of your respective day. The most wealth in life is being able to take enough time to relish all of your activities and being liberal to have a ball with your leisure along with your daily work activities.
Likewise, if you do not manage your time and effort well, you will discover yourself overwhelmed with activities to do without extra time to get them completed in.
“Time is surely an equal opportunity employer. Each man has the exact same variety of hours and minutes each day.
Rich can’t buy additional hours. Scientists can’t invent new minutes. So you can’t not waste time to shell out it on at a later date.
Having said that, time is amazingly fair and forgiving. Regardless how enough time you’ve wasted in the past, you’ve still got a total tomorrow!”
~ Denis Waitely ~
Another biggest time management principle that one could have is to find added time.
This might seem impossible, but is in fact very possible. You will find added time by spending a shorter period doing menial tasks.
Keep a journal to see what we spend your time on every single day a week or two weeks. Then determine if you’re centering on the tasks that bring you joy or successes you might be targeting in your everyday living.
Should you may spend to much time on activities that are not working toward your longtime or lifestyle goals, you possibly can review when your need to do them, at least review how much actual time you will allocate to the task.
You don’t need to clean your car each day, and also you does not have to proceed to the store daily either.
Simply combine all of your repeated tasks whenever feasible into just getting done a couple of times 7 days. This can help you save hours of your time in just a few short months.
Furthermore, it mandates that you adjust several levels in your daily schedule.
The 3 Principles Of Productivity – Are you aware?
The tendency for most people is always to assume that the subsequent software program them to buy, your next computer they purchase, the subsequent smartphone them to use, will suddenly grow their productivity due to advanced technology.
The truth is that this technology itself will never allow you to be more productive. What will allow you to be more productive is definitely the technology in a manner that is dependant on timeless principles, principles that never change no matter advancements in technology.
One of many important principles you simply must bear in mind is to carry your calendar, your contacts as well as your tasks to you wherever you are going. Whether you employ a smart phone or maybe a paper planner to accomplish that, it matters not just as much as the commitment you will be making to live that principle.
So, next time you think that purchasing a new tool will make you more productive, take into account that they’ll only allow you to productive if you live good principles of good time management planning and productivity. This chapter will familiarizes you with those principles. It’s inside habits you develop in places you will experience a long-lasting change.
The 3 Principles of Productivity and Personal time management:
1) Space
2) Mind
3) Time
1) Space:
What this means is your workspace: the physical items around you. How well will you be when using the physical space that you’ve? Look for “gathering points”: piles of papers, stacks of bills, drawers stuffed with miscellaneous items, even telephone voicemail box, your email inbox and receipts stuffed on your bottom line are extremely deemed as “gathering points”. We have to reduce the quantity of gathering points you’ve got so as to lessen the number of switches that occur within your day. Remember, every gathering point you make makes you be less efficient, make more mistakes and increase your stress levels.
An illustration:
Suppose you and I have been in a competition, an orange gathering competition. We need to both gather oranges from trees and them into one basket. Us both have to get together 100 oranges each and set them into one basket. The first one to complete the task wins.
Now, assume you have to gather the oranges from 20 different trees i ought to gather oranges from only 5 different trees. Who is going to win competition? It’s very simple right?
When you have to make more trips forwards and backwards between all those trees to have the oranges into that basket, you’re going to possess a lot more switches. You will waste a lot of time and energy moving back and forth between the many different “gathering points” (1 tree = 1 gathering point) for oranges. I must make less trips planning to fewer trees (less gathering points). So, I am going faster and I win other sellers.
The same principle happens in your entire day. If you have lots of gathering points, you will spend a lot of time and heading back and forth with shod and non-shod. By reducing the amount of “gathering points” you have, you gain precious time within your day helping you to target more essential plus more valuable activities.
2) Mind
Stop with your mind to be a “gathering point”. If you utilize your brain like a gathering point, this means you allow many to-dos, tasks and projects to swirl around in your head. Think about the last hour. Offer did you interrupt yourself each time a new thought popped in your thoughts? All of those little self interruptions became a “switch”.
A switch causes things to be more difficult time, makes you make more mistakes and it’ll raise your stress levels.
A mind stuffed with to-dos and action items is constantly in a state of switching which can be terribly inefficient, stressful to cause plenty of mistakes.
Possess seen instances of folks who damage their personal relationships mainly because their thoughts are loaded with too many unresolved thoughts. We have also seen those who don’t get enough sleeping hours given that they hit the sack during the night time contemplating everything that they need to do and awaken each day thinking about all the jobs that they have to do.
Solution: Empty the pockets of this mind when you go to bed.
3) Time
Your third and final principle that you simply have a home in order to master your time and energy, works with the way you view time itself. Especially, “never pay interest with your time”. So what can What i’m saying is when I say “interest on time”? Perhaps you’ve heard the phrase “time=money”. I’m not sure if time always is cash except time certainly behaves like money because it’s a scarce resource.
Lots of people have observed first-hand, the negative consequences of commencing debt with money. The absolutely no.1 results of visiting debt with money is that you have to re-pay it with interest. Put simply, if you buy something on credit, in lieu of budgeting for doing this and paying cash all upfront, you can be paying additional ultimately.
Would you be surprised if I mentioned you could borrow time?
In reality, I’d personally reckon that so many people are borrowing time each day. Now, I’ am not stating that you’ll be able to magically get 25 hours everyday
 

Reflection on Communication in Intensive Care Setting

LPD 3 SUMMATIVE ESSAY
My identified learning need is enhancing my ability to communicate articulately and assertively with the multidisciplinary team (MDT) members, as I portrayed lack of assertiveness and competences in communicating with other healthcare professionals on my previous clinical practice experience. Hence, it is essential to improve this identified aspect of my practice as it compromises patient safety and limits my professionalism. Thus, I will critically reflect upon the identified learning need and how it impacts on my patient’s care, my personal and professional development as a nurse. Furthermore, I will critically reflect and analyse on how the learning need identified was met in my final year placement. In order to structure my reflection, I have decided to use Gibb’s (1988) reflective model which consists of description, feelings, evaluation, analysis, conclusion and action plan (Gibb’s 1988). I will apply relevant parts of this model when required.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

Also, in accordance to the Nursing and Midwifery Council (2008) Code of professional conduct, confidentiality shall be maintained in the essay and all names and trust identifiers will be anonymous to protect identity. Additionally, In reference to the Post- registration education and practice (PREP) guidelines (2011), I have spent 52 hours using different databases to research for relevant articles and government policies to enable me to write the essay. The conclusion of the essay will discuss my reflection skills and acknowledgement of my level of assertiveness and competence, showing my personal and professional development.
As a student nurse, I go to clinical areas to gain experience and acquire key nursing skills that will enhance my nursing practice. For the final stage of my second year placement in the year 2013, I was allocated to an intensive care setting where treatment and monitoring was given to critically ill patients. I mainly assisted and worked with my clinical practice mentor. I had been caring for an intubated patient during my shift under strict supervision from my mentor. Although I had been caring for the patient for the duration of my shift, I was unprepared to pass on the necessary patient details to the relevant healthcare professionals. The incident occurred when my mentor insisted I followed her to the MDT meeting where a group of professionals collaborated together to make decisions regarding that specific patient’s treatments and improvements (Richards & Edwards, 2012). I thought I was just accompanying her to observe the inter-professional collaboration that was taking place. Unfortunately, my mentor asked me to handover the patient I had been caring for to the MDT.
As a result, I instantly became nervous and shaky, to the point that I struggled to articulate my first sentence coherently and I was unable to communicate assertively with the MDT members. Although I correctly delivered the basic patient’s information, I instantly panicked and gave confusing information regarding the patient’s reasons for admission and care plan. Unfortunately, it was clear to both my mentor and the other members of staff that I was flustered and needed assistance. My mentor then took over and continued with the patient’s information. As a result, I felt I was intimidated by the hierarchy, I felt nervous, embarrassed and upset by my own inability to communicate effectively with the MDT. I thought that I could not be a professional nurse if I let my nerves get in the way of my nursing care. Also, I felt frustrated when my mentor put me on the spot and I could not communicate effectively. Afterwards I also felt that she had not given me adequate time to settle my nerves and compose myself before the MDT meeting. On searching the literature, I realised that feeling nervous is a natural reaction for student nurses when interacting with other clinicians and even experienced nurses were once nervous students (Cardillo, 2010). This made me feel less embarrassed and gave me the impression that everybody has experienced these feelings at one stage or another. However, other literature does not support this belief. In fact, several recent studies show that the experience of nervousness could be due to the student being frightened and not committed in carrying out tasks (Youngberg, 2014). In my case, I did not feel it was through lack of commitment. Confidence comes with experience; however, being prepared and organised is the key to my gradually becoming more confident. Hence, to avoid this repeating itself, I will start preparing myself mentally assuming I have to handover patients’ care to other clinicians.
As I reflected on the incident, I realised I lack assertiveness in communicating with the MDT and I did not have enough confident to set an appropriate inter-professional working as it is the key to patients improvements (Royal College of Nursing (RCN), 2010). Also, reflecting back, I realised that I was really worried about the communication difficulties I encountered in the MDT meeting. Many researchers advocate the importance of maintaining an effective communication among the MDT as it is a fundamental nursing skill which plays a major role in the development for student nurses (Moss, 2008). I realised that I needed to improve on this learning need as my inability to communicate assertively and effectively with the MDT impacted on my nursing care to the patient because not going in-depth and not providing the accurate patient information limited my nursing care to the patient.
The concept of poor communication among the MDT is highlighted in a phenomenological study by Leonard, Graham and Bonacum (2011), where the authors explored communication failures as the leading causes of inadvertent patients harm. The article was of particular interest to me as it emphasised on sustaining improvement for student nurses in communicating among the MDT because it compromises patient’s safety, and the need for improvement. It is also relevant as it sufficiently discusses the issues surrounding my identified learning need and the need for improvement. In the article, the authors proposed that effective communication among the MDT is essential for delivering high quality care and safe of care to patients. Also, the points the authors raised is a very significant issue to consider, because the in 2014, RCN verified that communication issue have been identified as contributing to a large number of patient safety incidents in the United Kingdom. Thus, they require all nurses and trained student nurses to effectively hand the care of patients over to another clinicians, with an accurate communication and co-ordination to improve patients’ quality of care.
Although Sharif and Masoumi (2010) qualitative research states most second year nursing students often experience anxiety and nervousness when interacting with other clinicians compared to final year students, which there is a bit of agreement on, I strongly believe my experience reflects more on Leonard, Graham and Bonacum’s (2011) findings as I was unable to communicate assertively with the MDT during the meeting, which limited by nursing development. It impacted on my clinical ability when I failed to provide the accurate patient information to the MDT. This resulted in creating confusion to the other healthcare professionals as what I stated about the patient did not match with the information the MDT had on their patient handover sheet. Resulting in one of the healthcare professionals asking if am providing them with the accurate patient details which led to a break down in the inter-professional collaboration (Vincent, 2011). This did not just impacted on my nursing care to the patient but also impacted on my personal and professional development. As stated by the Dougherty and Lister (2011), a good nurse is the one who knows what he or she is doing as there is an expectation that nurses and trained nurses must show assertiveness and competencies in carrying out duties. There is a reflection to this approach to my personal and professional development recognising that being assertive and competence does not just mean how you carryout tasks, but understanding the rationale behind it and the impacts it may have on patients (Masters, 2014).
This demonstrates how relevant and essential it is to communicate assertively with the MDT as reflecting back on my learning need, not being able to collaborate inter-professionally with the MDT limited my professional development and hindered my patient not receiving a high standard care from me. Although Leonard, Graham and Bonacum’s (2011) findings adequately outline and provide insights into the importance of being assertive among the MDT, the results of their study do not show the significant increase in the enhancement of patients’ care due to the small amount of sample size the authors used. The data was collected from a medium size hospital where performance of the reporting system might be different from other hospitals. This was seen as a weakness, but I felt the article was helpful as it is relevant to my learning need and reminds me of how poor communication impacts negatively on patients safety (Burnard & Gill, 2013).
Also, in a qualitative study by Krautscheid (2012) the author explored the need for improving communication among other clinicians for student nurses, preparing them for practice. In the article, the author identified that most student nurses have a great deal in communicating effectively to other healthcare professionals, which should not be so as it compromises patients care. There is an agreement on this research even though a study by Burton (2013) identified that not all student nurses’ presents lack of assertiveness in their training but I feel my clinical experience reflects more on Krautscheid (2012) findings as my inability to communicate assertively with the MDT limited my nursing development because it impacted on my clinical ability when I failed to show a competence workforce to the other clinicians in the MDT meeting, which also limited my nursing care to the patient as I did not deliver a high standard of care to the patients’ development. For instance, if high-quality care is been delivered to patients by the ones looking after them, it increases the opportunity for patients to benefit from therapeutic nursing (Freshwater, 2007) as evidence demonstrates that this does contributes to the highest degree of patient care (Scott, 2008). Therefore, by not communicating assertively with the MDT limited my personal and professional development as the issues surrounding it was not being confidence, prepared , proactive and not portraying an accurate level of competencies hindered my patient not receiving an excellent standard of care from me.
As a result, not providing the accurate information about the patient to the MDT compromised the patient’s care. Youngberg (2014) affirms that effective clinical practice involves instances where critical information must be communicated accurately with a team and as a nurse, exploring ineffective communication in a teamwork does not only puts patients safety at risk but also demonstrates not being competence. As such, this highlights the needs to be more assertive and competence in communicating with the MDT as student nurses also plays a vital role in the multidisciplinary team approach to patient care (Miller, 2009), and effective involvement enhances patient outcome (Hughes & Quinn, 2007). Although Krautscheid (2008) research shows lack of detailed information on how to effectively deal with miscommunication, its qualitative design allows insight into the need of improving communication among healthcare providers. I found the results of the thematic analysis linked to my own clinical experience including the feeling of being nervous. The author provided a relevant and a valid article as a large sample size of 285 student nurses was used and had significant results which were inherently repeatable. The article was helpful in reminding me how important effective communication implements the aspects of patient safety. Hence, it is significant to enhance on my identified learning need.
On reflection it was clear that my lack of assertiveness in my ability, when put on a spot by my mentor contributed to my feelings of inadequacy. Through reflection and what my mentor did enabled me to clarify that my weakness was not skill or knowledge level. But my inability to communicate articulately and assertively with the MDT during the meeting was due to being intimidated by the hierarchy. This led to a lack of assertiveness, and confidence in my skill level and clinical knowledge, which also enabled me to know the need to change my practice. Furthermore, after the incident, I received feedbacks from my mentor who stated I should be more proactive in the future, show a competence workforce and develop a tool that will enable me hand in the care of a patient accurately in the future. As explained by West (2012), teamwork is vital if care is carried out efficiently in clinical areas as effective communication creates a positive contribution to patients’ outcome.
Thus, I decided to action plan on this reflective experience to develop my nursing knowledge in my final year clinical placement. I looked at various nursing journals and government policies detailing how to communicate effectively with the MDT and use the advice I gained to plan out how to do so. As shown in Watts (2011) phenomenology study, student nurse can further develop their skills in understanding and applying latest research evidence by looking into journals, clinical guidelines and policies to enable them develop their skills. NMC (2010) further supported this statement stating that, trained nurses and nurses need to keep updating their basic knowledge and skills, and be fully equipped and work effectively to deliver essential care to patients.
Therefore, to develop my confidence and communicate assertively, I adapted the Situation, Background, Assessment and Recommendation (SBAR) tool which was published by the Institute of Healthcare Improvement in the year 2004. I chose this tool because it has proven to be an effective communication tool (RCN, 2014). It was also seen to be an easy to remember method that enabled me to frame conversations and to clarify what information should be communicated between members of the team and how. This was a relevant tool to adapt as it assisted me develop teamwork and have confidence to deliver safe quality care. Also, there is a good evidence to suggest that communication improves when nurses used structured format such as SBAR (RCN, 2014). In 2010, the National Patient Safety Agency suggested that effective communication among MDT is a key factor in enhancing clinical practice and patient outcome. Therefore, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) (2010) supported these findings and recommended that nursing and medical staff should use the SBAR tool in structuring patients’ clinical information to other clinicians, supported by written plan as this will prevent healthcare providers from giving unclear patients’ documentation and miscommunication of patients’ details. As a result, they released these guidelines for nurses and medical staff to adhere to in order to enhance patients safety as communication failures causes inadvertent patient harm. This is a reliable guideline as it is a national policy and discusses the need to adapt the SBAR tool.
Upon using the SBAR tool, I became proactive and requested the assistance of my first final year clinical mentor to assess my communication skills and knowledge base as it is something I won’t to improve on. By doing this, I was able to reinforce my communication skills and most importantly developed my self confidence as I ensured that I was always prepared, organised and able to successfully communicate assertively with other clinicians during my third year clinical placement while completing the necessary skills unassisted to become more independent as a final year student nurse. Webb (2011) comments that one of the basics of good nursing is effective communication between clinical staffs as failure to communicate efficiently with the MDT destroys the delicate nurses’ inter-professional relationship. As a result, through reflection, practice and the use of my mentor and awareness of factors that affects my assertiveness in communicating with the MDT, and the adaptation of the SBAR tool, I was able to confidently and assertively communicate with other clinicians.
As seen in O’Daniel and Rosenstein (2011) study, to enhance the ability of nursing students, they must have a strong focus to develop skills that will enhance their own professional identity. This is significant as this approach ensures that student nurses become aware of their own competencies, and resulting confidence in their value as a team member. Reflecting on my identified learning need and adapting the SBAR tool have made me attempt to protect my patients from harm and have improved me as a nurse. In addition, I feel I have become more assertive in communicating with other clinicians as assertiveness is an important behaviour for a nurse, which is necessary for effective inter-professional communication (Cardillo, 2010).
This implies to the Chief Nursing Officer’s (2012) 6 C’s which states communication is central to successful relationships and effective team working. Thus, improving on my ability to communicate assertively with the MDT is essential and have made me a committed nurse who desires the very best for all her patients, and provide them the very best of care and not to put them at risk. This is in accordance to the NMC Code of Professional Conduct (2014) which states nurses are accountable for their practice. Thus, they must maintain professional knowledge and competence and act to identify and minimise risk to patients. I believe upon reflecting on my identified learning need and improving on it, I am now a better nurse as I have learnt how to do things differently, and deliver the most up to date evidence based care to enhance my patients care and my nursing development.
Reflecting back on my final year clinical experience, I have now identified a new learning need which needs development. In reference to the PREP (2011) guidelines and the NMC Code (2008), nurses need to be responsible and accountable for keeping their skills and knowledge up to date through continuing professional development, and must aim to improve their performance to enhance patients’ safety and care. Thus, my new identified learning need is to be able to develop more competent in recognising and addressing challenges relating to patients care. This is essential to develop as according to the NMC (2014), all nurses must be fit to practise and show professionalism by being able to identify and address ethical challenges that relates to patients and decision making about their care, and act within the law to assist with acceptable solution. Consequently, it is vital to develop on this.
This essay has critically reflected and analysed on a personal learning experience from a clinical practice. The key points that have been discussed in the essay are that of the importance of communicating assertively with the MDT and how student nurse and nurses can improve their communication skills and maintain assertiveness to enhance patients’ safety. This is because we as nurses must provide a gold standard of care for our patients. Thus, upon improving on my identified learning need, I have been able to enhance my nursing practice in order to deliver safe care to my patients.
 

Health and Safety in a Childcare Setting

Analyse the working practices that need to be in place in the nursery setting to ensure that children are protected.
In every nursery setting there should be a practiced working pattern and a setting. For example there should be practise of food hygiene, safeguarding and health and safety. These are very important because children will be on the safe side. Health and safety – In this case the managers and staff should make sure that health and safety checks are carried out as required. In case of an accident failure to check equipment have serious connections. Staff and children should know which areas of the building they have access for. The general environment should be clean and safe for example, all COSHH equipment used should be kept in a locked cupboard. Food Hygiene- when giving children food, one should check the expiring dates and check the expiring dates and check the temperatures of the fridges and freezers. Adequate welfare facilities should be available for health and safety. It is important to put on protective clothes especially when you are cleaning the toilets always wear gloves. At nursery should consider safeguarding on children. This is whereby staff should know who is going to drop and pick children, also nursery main doors should always be locked, handles should be fitted where children can’t reach, and CCTV should be at the nursery always because of abuse. Staff should be trained how to give children medication. Also check the risk assessment of the provision that the safeguarding policy and plans work. The gate should always be shut, and use password to open the gate and doors. For toddlers should use small gates. Always lock the confidential information in a lockable cupboard and only management or responsibly person should have access to the keys. Confidentiality is very important. The other thing which need to be considered at nursery is food hygiene, in this case staff should check the expiring date of the food and check the temperatures of the fridge and the freezer, and always cover the food when it is open and put a date when the food has been opened. Tinned food should be eaten and finished once they are opened. Always wash your hands before you touch food. Clean the tables before and after serving the food. As staff should know which food is suitable for each and every child (Allergy). Always clean the dishes after every meal and dry them and put them away. Fruits should be washed before you eat. Should teach children how to wash hands after visiting the toilet. Also staff should cook food properly with correct cooking temperature. With all these aspects I think the nursery will run smoothly.
2. Explain the various health and safety requirements that are necessary for children attending the setting and describe the ways in which these health and safety requirements need to be adopted to cater for differing age groups.
Health and safety in the nursery environment requires adoption for each different age groups of children that are catered for. In the nursery staff should be very careful with sharp objects like knives, forks and razor blades, because these objects can harm children. Therefore should always put them away as soon as you finish using them. Toys should be put back in their irrespective boxes, some toys are sharp so as staff you must be there to keep an eye when children are playing with toys. Select toys which are suitable to each age group. All substances should be locked up in the cupboards. COSHH control of substance hazardous to health. What might you see in the nursery covered by COSHH is cleaning equipment, chemical sharp objects. Make sure children are supervised when they are doing activities. Staff should clean the floors using chemicals which are not dangerous, but should use like Dettol and antibacterial cream. Make sure the floor is dry enough so that children won’t fall down. After serving the food take away knives and out them were they cannot reach. When sharpening the pencils staff should be very careful because some children can be affected with the dust which comes from the pencils. Make sure all plug sockets are covered because when children touched they will be in danger. Windows should be secured because children will be tempted to climb through them. Kitchen and office areas should have safety gates which remain locked to prevent access to dangerous areas. Doors should contain filled safety guards to prevent children from trapping their fingers. With toys always lock the boxes and cupboards should close the toilet and bathroom doors.
3. Evaluate the procedures required to cover good hygiene and explain how this should be implemented in the nursery setting. This can be presented within a table. There are many procedures required to cover good and hygiene of which am going to write some of them in form of a table.

Good hygiene

How to implement

Washing hands before or after food

Make sure sinks are reachable by children

Washing hands after visiting the toilet. Flush the toilet after you use it.

Toilets and chambers should be of small size , so that children will be able to reach

Children should dry their hands after using the toilet.

There should be paper towels in the bathroom always.

Disposal of nappies and waste

Make sure there is correct bins to dispose them eg waste yellow lockable bins.

Cleaning or clearing of plates after eating

Reachable tables for children

Always wash hands before preparing food using soap

Make sure the children are prompted to do this by teachers

Wash fruits before you eat

Make sure the teachers teach children about hygiene and prompt them to do so.

Clean the floors

Use correct mops to clean floors like blue mops for corridors, green mops for kitchen and red mops for bathrooms.

Cut the meat and the vegetables on boards

Use the right boards e.g. for meat use red board, for vegetables use green boards. Bread use white board.

Cleaning the wounds

Make sure teachers follow the proper and correct first aid rules and all the accidents are recorded in the accident book.

Making the mattress and beds for children

Make sure the use clean linen and make sure that all spoiled linen are washed correctly like separated from non spoiled lined and correct washing temperature like Sluice program in the washing machine.

4. Identify and describe what should be included in a first aid kit for a nursery and discuss why paediatric first aid training for nursery staff is important
In every nursery there should be a first aid kit , in the kit it includes 20 adhesive dressings, plasters in assorted sizes, six medium sterile ,two large sterile dressing , one sterile eye pod, six triangular bandages, six safety pins, disposable gloves , two roller bandages , a pair of scissors, alcohol-free wound cleansing wipes , adhesive tape, plastic face shield or pocket mask, notepad and pencil alcohol gel, other useful items blankets survival bag, torch whistle warning triangle and high visibility jacket to keep in the nursery.

Find Out How UKEssays.com Can Help You!
Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs.
View our services

We should have these things in the nurseries because it will help the staff to cater for the first aid needs of the children attending the nursery before they go to hospital for example when children had wounds staff should use gauze pads as swabs to clean around wounds. Use adhesive tape to secure dressings or the loose ends of bandages, staff should notice that if the children are allergic to the adhesive tape can use a hypoallergenic tape. Always wear gloves whenever you dress wounds or when you handle body fluids or other waste materials, use latex-free gloves because some people are allergic to latex. The gloves are necessary for staff to wear when you are dealing with any body fluids; this is to control the cross contamination and good hygiene. Bandages are used to give support to injured joint secure dressings in place maintain pressure on wounds and limit swelling. Pins and clips are used to secure the ends of bandages.They are some useful items which include kitchen film or clean plastic bags can be used to dress burns and scalds. Non-stick dressings can be kept for larger wounds, keep alcohol, gel to clean your hands when no water is available. To prevent cold injuries always wrap on ice pack in a cloth do not leave it on for more than 10 minutes. Scissors should be used to cut bandages. It is important for staff to be first aid trained for the need to know exactly what to do in an emergency whether they are alone or with other members of the staff. So by staff undertaking paediatric first aid course they will have a peace of mind of knowing that they have the knowledge and skills to tackle a medical emergency. Staff who have had first aid training are trained how to attend to children when they collapsed or when they cut themselves using sharp objects. Also staff will be trained how to cope with stressful and physically demanding procedures. First aid certificates should be renewed every 3 years. From the completion date of the previous qualification. In nursery setting paediatric first aid qualification satisfies ousted requirements. First aid certificates are required to be checked by Ofsted during an inspection and will need to be produced for all trained first aiders.  

Agenda Setting, Framing and Priming

Introduction
The 2016 Presidential election in the United States is one of the most controversial elections the country has endured. For many people, the results were a considerable shock. For others, the results spoke to a hand in the swaying of the people: fake news. However, everyone agreed that the media had a big influence on the minds of the voters due to the way they took to reporting on the candidates. The way the various forms of media influence the political arena in the United States by swaying the opinions of voters. Agenda setting, framing and priming are the ways that the various forms of media can influence the way that politics and candidates are viewed to voters in America (Ottati et al., 2016, p. 2). Those three concepts provide the way the public receives the message. Agenda setting refers to how the media determines what we are thinking about, not what to think but what to think about it; priming refers to the more prominent the issue, the more in becomes in consciousness so issue will influence people’s assessment of politicians and framing tells us how we should make sense of the issue (Moy et al., 2016). Social media, print media, and news media influence the political process inadvertently and advertently. The focus of the paper is the impact of media on the political process, the positive or negative effects, and the outside influences on what the media reports with regards to the political process in America.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

Mass Media
The various forms of media help to build or destroy the political figures in democracies. This is done by focusing on certain issues that are considered newsworthy. However, where this news is encountered, the content and the educational level of the public viewing the information, plays a role in how the message will be received (Allcott & Gentzkow, 2017). The media is a way for candidates to connect with voters and is thus utilized in a variety of ways. However, those ways may go for or against any one political candidate or party. There are media outlets that have been known to be either “left” or “right” and whose reporting is reflexive of those views. For the people that are loyal to those stations, the news gives them what to think about. The various forms of media; social, print, and news media each bring their unique factors to the political arena.
The News
For many people, the news is where they get their information about the world. However, the definition of “news” has changed. More than 70% of people are using Facebook for their source of news (Wright, 2017). Facebook has more than a billion users across the world. In the United States, for Facebook to be a news source is something that can be rattling. Twitter and Instagram are also used as primary news sources for 34% and 20% of people (Wright, 2017). The number of people getting their news from one source is a problem with different branches.
The reason this can
represent a problem is because Facebook utilizes algorithms that will suggest
pages for a person to “Like” based on their interests. A person that is into
right-wing-pseudoscience will be suggested pages and people that will only
agree with them. This creates an atmosphere where a person will be inundated
with only one point of view for any given topic. When it comes to politics, the
algorithms help to divide the voters effectively by and only present each side
with a self-serving point of view. Many people will only believe what is being
stated by those with the same viewpoints and will rarely look at what the other
side has to say.
Real and Fake News
Another problem with many people getting their news from one source is the source itself. Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram, are not news websites. These websites were intended to foster, maintain, and establish connections and friendships using an electronic, internet-based medium. However, people are allowed to share links to websites on their own newsfeed, which is also shared to people on their friends list. When people share things on their wall that is from a news page operating on Facebook, that story is often able to be shared again and again. This can make a particular link go “viral”, which means that it has become trending and therefore has been shared by many people.
Many of the links that are shared by people, especially during the 2016 presidential election, were not real news sites. Many were websites sharing fake stories, with URLs that were made to look like reputable news sites. These sites’ stories were shared by people that thought these were reputable sites. The stories were written to divide voters and to mislead people into thinking something that isn’t true (Butler, 2017, Allcott & Gentzkow, 2017). Fake news websites popped up all over the internet and were shared on various social media websites millions of times before people caught on to what they were.
The fake news articles exposed flaws in the way many people scrutinize, or the lack of scrutiny that people place on news articles and their sources. More than half of the people that saw the fake news articles believed what the articles stated (Allcott & Gentzkow, 2017). That speaks to the way that people viewed the articles. Research into how middle-school to college aged adults view news articles showed that they were not able to critically assess what they were encountering (Butler, 2017). Many of those people were old enough to vote. This gives insight into the need for a better educated population. A more educated populace will have been able to understand the influence behind the ads and also be able to distinguish fake news from real news.
The fiasco also showed
the massive influence that social media plays in the news circuit. It showed
that users of social media played a big part in swaying public opinion in one
direction or another. Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram have become de facto
news for many people. After the exposure of the fake news websites, social
media giants have begun to crack down on the links and ban them from being
shared. However, the damage has been done, fake news articles favoring the
winning candidate circulated nearly four times (30 million) as much as the
opposing candidate (8 million) (Allcott & Gentzkow, 2017). There will be
ways around initiatives that are in place as interventions for fake news
articles.
How the News Influences Politicians
The way a person reacts to the news depends on their position in the arena. Everyone has a position in the political arena, either as voters, political leaders, reporters, bloggers, etc. A person can reside in more than one spot, and multiple spots at any given time depending on their income level, occupation, and political ties (Van Aelst & Walgrave, 2016, p. 166). Therefore, if a person has enough connections and influence, they are able to react to news at a higher level than a person without such advantages. The news, as reported, can influence politicians as well. Politicians in countries like the United States (where news worthy stories influence the political climate), often react to information from the news by, “strategically display simple and unidimensional rhetoric due to newsworthiness considerations,” (Amsalem et al., 2017). This means that they will peddle whatever soundbites that need to be said in order to maintain their position, direct the public attention and the attention of the media. For some politicians, that means to double down on whatever point that is of debate at the time. This goes even if the politician is responding to something that factual from the media, many will double down against the facts that are being displayed.
Agenda Setting
As mentioned above,
agenda setting refers to the way the media determines what the public is
thinking about. With regards to the political process, this is a vital
aspect.  There are many issues that face
the United States and need to be handled. News and print media can report on
any aspect of this process and make it seem as if that is the main story. For
the citizens, that may not be the best way to give information. However, it
helps to set the tone for elections, propositions and other political outcomes
that are decided democratically.
Media and Political Agenda Setting
The credulous viewer
will not question many things in regard to what they are being told. This makes
manipulating the media a part of political agendas. Media agenda setting refers
to the media creating the news to issue to think about. The information for the
media, with regards to politics, originates from various sources; both
confidential and on the record. When it is a source that is considered to be
reputable, the information is considered credible and so it is presented to the
public. The public is then the thinking about what it is supposed to think
about based on what the media deems important.
There are specific
actors in this process of media agenda setting. The media, the source of the
information and the viewers and readers of the information (Ottati et al.,
2016, p. 2). These come together to set the agenda for whatever the target of
the set-up is for. This process can be hijacked and is subject to outside
sources.
Political agendas can
take advantage of the media agenda setting by giving the media information that
will sensationalize another situation which may be favorable in drawing public
attention from something else (Thesen, 2013). For instance, opposing parties
will respond to bad news that can be the fault of their opposition. Increasing
the visibility of the issue will help bolster their own position and agenda.
This, in turn, will help sway the public’s attention to faults of the
opposition. Depending on the side the storm one stands, there will be a loser
and a winner in that specific political battle. Voters will express how they
view each candidate at the ballots, while each side uses some of the same tools
to achieve different outcomes.
Elite Rhetoric
When a politician responds to information distributed by various media channels, there can be a few outcomes; the political party or politician can take responsibility and rectify the information or they can bring something new to the light that the media may take advantage of. The impression and use of elite priming to bring specific topics to the attention of the media which puts the issues into the awareness of the public (Baybars & Baruh, 2011). The way politicians respond to the media’s agenda has an effect on what issues to bring forth or double down on. The elites focus on certain issues in discourse to influence public opinion and rhetoric.
The Goal of Agenda Setting
The main goal of media
and political agenda setting is issue prioritization. This prioritization will
help campaigns keep focus, give the public something to focus on, and also give
voters issues to think about. The media agenda and political agenda setting are
focused on the same goal but for different aspects. However, the media agenda
can be influenced by other agendas and goals which makes the process circular
in some instances (Ottati et al., 2016, p. 2). The influence of the media can
be directed by the political agendas which makes the media less influential in
its own right and more of a puppet tool for political agenda.
Priming
The second, and interchangeable step in this process is priming. Priming, is a label given to the process of an issue becoming more prominent in the public domain to the point it affects the public’s assessment of politicians due to the effects of agenda setting (Moy et al., 2016). The issues during the United States Presidential Election in 2016, there were a number of issues that spread like wildfire that did not have much relevance to the candidates’ political stance on many issues. However, there existed many newspaper, magazine articles and television news segments that could have directly impacted the way that the voters perceived the issue by distributing the story to the population. Agenda setting is the first step in the process because it gives the audience what to think about, priming follows up by enhancing what the audience has been told is an important issue.
Basic Assumptions and Uses of those Assumptions
Priming is something that is done and it is very subtle in most instances. However, priming works using the brain’s tendencies to take shortcuts. The brain stores many things and concepts that we come across in memory. The stronger memories are connected to different concepts with strong connections to other things. For every memory, there is a node which are connected to other nodes using what are called semantic pathways (Katrin-Arnold, 2010). Priming works with agenda setting by activating the entire schema of nodes that were setup through the agenda setting process. The way a specific event is covered in the media can activate the shortcuts created by semantic pathways because it ignores other events (Katrin-Arnold, 2010). In the past presidential election in the United States, one candidate’s email fiasco was focused on more than the other major candidates rape allegations, fraud lawsuits, and misogynistic viewpoints in the media so when it came time to vote, the voter’s minds were connecting one candidate with the deaths of soldiers and the other candidate with positive change (Patterson, 2016).
The Credibility of the Media
With priming in media being controlled by both inside and outside sources, it is hard to see where the evidence and credibility lies. Political agenda setting will influence what is primed to the audience as if there were no influence. This means that the credibility of the media is very questionable. It also shows that the influence of the media is great, but only as great as the information that comes in and that information is controlled by the way the players react and what is on their agendas.
Framing
The final part of the process is framing. Framing is the part of the concept that gives meaning to the information that has been set by the agenda and primed by the media to keep it in the forefront of the minds of the populace (Moy et al., 2015). This is one of the main steps of the concept because it solidifies what is being pushed through agenda setting and what has been primed to be noticeable. Framing is a process like the other steps in the concepts. This means that there are steps in the process.
The Framing Process
How something is framed determines how effective the campaign will be from agenda setting and priming. The process of framing considers to factors; the actors that determine the way to frame the information; frame building; and frame setting (Strömbäck, & Esser, 2014 p. 139). The building of the frame is where the different actors determine how to frame the information in the news. This process can take a while or be abandoned due to the different actors that influence the final product. Once the frame is built, meaning, there is an agreement on publishing a story about a particular aspect of politics or the political process, the next step is to set the frame.
As previously mentioned, the brain has a way of connecting knowledge that we have previously encountered. Once the information is primed, there has to be meaning given to it for the human brain to grasp onto. Once the frame is set, the way that the situation is viewed is going to be controlled by the individual and what schema is set off by the frame. The frame is influenced by the goals of the media agency presenting it and also by the politicians that have their own agendas that may be circular due to sometimes the information being caused by a reaction to something within the political party (Strömbäck, & Esser, 2014 p. 139).
The Democratic Process and Media Influence
The democratic process encompasses the political process because the United States is a democracy. The United States is a representative democracy more specifically. That means that the citizens elect officials that will represent their interests in the political arena (Coffé & Michels, 2014).  A direct democracy is slightly different. In a direct democracy, the people vote directly on issues that affect them. These two systems have their flaws but may respond differently to the way that the media interacts with the political process.
Direct Democracy vs. Representative Democracy
Direct democracy seems to offer citizens more freedoms than a representative democracy. This may be due to the fact that citizens get to vote on issues directly without a middle man to drag their feet. However, a direct democracy still has flaws. In the United States, many states have a type of direct vote based system set up. Counting the District of Colombia, there are 24 states with a type of direct majority rules system in place (The Conservation, 2016). These states offer various approaches to partake in the authoritative procedure. This incorporates coordinate votes on activities with a procedure called poll activities where voters are able to go vote with clients. However, the voting process can still be influenced by agenda setting priming. This is because there are few ways to stop wealthy citizens or those with political power from affecting the political process to their own agenda (Ottati et al., 2016, p. 2). This is why the direct democracy will not work as a major political concept in the United States. There is also the issue of influencing the political process through.
The current process, using the representative democracy, presents the same problems. There are wealthy people, influential companies and politicians that can wield their influence on the political campaigns. This means that regardless of the form of democracy, agenda setting, priming and framing will be concepts that go along with the media and media influence. With a representative democracy the effects would be longer because the elected officials would add extra steps to the process.
Method
This research is done as a quantitative literature review. The method included using a database (Google Scholar) to find peer reviewed academic articles that support the research questions, and were unbiased were unbiased. The data was compiled and the evidence was used in the paper.
Findings
Through analyzing the evidence from the different recent research articles, it was determined that the impact that the media has on politics is actually a circular system. The system depends on the reaction of the different actors that participate in each sector; media and politics. This means that as politicians speak, their words are utilized in and out of context. The work is published in a newspaper, in articles, and in the news. When politician see this, if it is negative, they will either fight it or double down on whatever they are sticking. This prompts the media to put those stories in the front of their media outlet which in turn prompts political rhetoric and the cycle goes over and over, incestually feeding themselves until the political climate is back to normal.
Discussion
The media seems to be a larger influence because it is the people see the most. Through newspapers, internet sites, television and radio, media gives the impression that it has knowledge of all things. This has not turned out to be the case through the findings. The media is something of a scapegoat because politicians use the media to their advantage all the time. By using elite rhetoric, the media can be manipulated to display and report what the politicians want whenever they want to. The media is simply a tool like everything seems to be for political leaders.
Conclusion
The political process and media influence are things that will continue as long as the current political and economic climate exists. However, the effects of agenda setting, priming and framing will lose as the educational level of the population rises. A rising educational level mean that citizens will be able to recognize what, or who is correct (Dutton et al., 2017).
The media influence on politics is circular and requires politicians to feed it, the politicians react to the media’s action and then control what the media dishes back. The incestuous cycle is furthermore complicated with the number of businesses that participate. These aspects allowed for the proliferation of information.
The positive effects of agenda setting, priming, and framing can be seen when there is positive motivation for the concepts. However, most news is not news, The media has an influence on politics, but that influence is dependent on who is acting on the side of the fence.
The impact of media influence on the political process is something that has been measured and studied since there has been a political process. Having an educated population and being able to recognize the way influence works will help to evolve passed this stage of society and reliance on outside influences to make decisions that affect society as a whole do not have to deal with.
References
Allcott, H., & Gentzkow, M. (2017). Social Media and Fake News in the 2016 Election (No. w23089). National Bureau of Economic Research.Amsalem, E., Sheafer, T., Walgrave, S., Loewen, P. J., & Soroka, S. N. (2017). Media Motivation and Elite Rhetoric in Comparative Perspective. Political Communication, 1-19.Baybars, B. & Baruh, L. (2011). If it was not for terrorism: crisis, compromise, and elite discourse in the age of “war on terror”. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. 92-100Butler, A. (2017). Unvarnished truth of social media: Why critical media literacy is needed (now more than ever). Critical Media Literacy Conference. 20.Coffé, H., & Michels, A. (2014). Education and support for representative, direct and stealth democracy. Electoral Studies, 35, 1-11.Dutton, W. H., Reisdorf, B. C., Dubois, E., & Blank, G. (2017). Search and Politics: A Cross-National Survey.Katrini-Arnold, A. (2010). Media effects II: Priming. The World Bank. Retrieved from blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/media-effects-ii-priming.Moy, P., Tewksbury, D., & Rinke, E. M. (2016). Agenda‐Setting, Priming, and Framing. The International Encyclopedia of Communication Theory and Philosophy.Ottati, V., Wilson, C., & Lambert, A. (2016). Accessibility, priming, and political judgment. Current Opinion in Psychology, 12, 1-5. Patterson, T. E. (2016). News Coverage of the 2016 General Election: How the Press Failed the Voters.Strömbäck, J., & Esser, F. (2014). Mediatization of politics: Towards a theoretical framework. Mediatization of politics: Understanding the transformation of western democracies, 3-28, 139-153Thesen, G. (2013). When good news is scarce and bad news is good: Government responsibilities and opposition possibilities in political agenda‐setting. European Journal of Political Research, 52(3), 364-389.Van Aelst, P., & Walgrave, S. (2016). 9. Political agenda setting by the mass media: ten years of research, 2005–2015. Handbook of Public Policy Agenda Setting, 157-176Wright, L. L. (2017). A Snapshot of Social Media Storytelling Apps: How One Class Covered a Typical News Event Through Social Channels. Teaching Journalism & Mass Communication, 7(1), 92.
 

Positive Communication in Pre-School Setting

1. Maintaining effective communication and avoiding any barriers
It is essential to have effective and positive communication within a pre-school setting for the staff, the children and their families or carers in order to develop solid and caring relationships.
It is important for pre-school managers to develop a strong working relationship with staff with effective communication. This will create a much happier and productive working environment for all staff, which in turn will encourage an effective and positive relationship with the children within the setting and their families or carers.
In order to keep all up to date with current issues within the setting, e.g any child protection issues, medical diagnosis needs of a child, any new children starting within the setting, any new policies introduced by the setting, it is necessary at all times to keep communication between all staff and management up to the minute and current. This can be carried out either verbally or non-verbally, for example via e-mail, memos etc.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

Nurturing and maintaining good communication levels between staff and management also helps staff to know what is required of them and for the manager to be aware of any feelings, anxieties or uncertainties the staff may have within the setting, which then can be discussed and addressed. It is important to ensure that the staff see this communication as positive and not just the manager ‘checking up on them’.
If a manager does not have this positive and effective level of communication with their staff, this could cause problems within the setting that go un-noticed and could have a negative effect for the children and families or carers.
‘The relationships that my staff and I have with the children and their families are what make or break the business. Relationships are difficult and not always positive. The important thing is to talk. If you want staff to be nurturing then you need to nurture them – show you appreciate them, make sure they’re not overloaded and ensure that they know they can talk freely’. (Sue Chesson, Skips Nursery).
As the manager of the setting it is important to try to identify and eliminate any barriers that staff may feel towards effective and useful communication.
Barriers to communication can include verbal barriers, for example a noisy environment, cultural or personality barriers and the environment of the setting being segmented making it difficult to have effective two way communication. Other areas of verbal barriers may include when a member of staff is stressed which in turn could cause a fractious atmosphere within the setting or a member of staff could possibly not understand the communication that is trying to be conveyed.
Non-verbal barriers mostly consist of ‘body language’ barriers, for example a lack of eye contact between the members of staff, unhelpful or misread facial expressions and different perceptions of body language and gestures.
One of the most common communication problems within a preschool setting is simply a failure for people to listen to comments or instructions being made.
2. The appraisal process
The main aim of the appraisal process is to have a two way discussion between manager and employee to identify any issues relating to the role expected of the employee and to identify any strategies necessary to improve performance within the setting. Discussions should also be made as to the wellbeing of the employee, within the setting and personally. Appraisals should also be designed to include discussions on when employee has done well in their role so that they feel that their hard work and effort has been recognised, which will then encourage good morale and motivation.
The appraisal process within the pre-school setting is very important and is a very effective way to review and employee’s performance over the last year and to identify any strengths and weaknesses and any concerns and barriers there may be with the employee’s performance.
It gives the manager and member of staff the opportunity to discuss any further training and development which would be beneficial to both the employee’s long term potential and the pre-school setting and identify appropriate targets for the future.
Appraisal meeting with staff and manager should be positive and productive and encourage effective working practice and strengthen the working relationships.
Formal appraisals are normally carried out once a year between the manager and employee and should cover items such as working relationships, professional knowledge, communication and organisational skills.
It is an opportunity for an employee to raise any issues they may have and any ideas they may have in their role and in the setting. The employee should be provided with guidance notes and an Appraisal Form prior to the meeting to assist them identify the areas they wish to discuss with the manager. There should also be an Appraisal Policy within the setting which should be available to the employee to read and discuss upon commencement of employment.
Although the annual appraisal meeting is a very effective and productive way to communicate with staff, it must be remembered that some staff may find it daunting and be apprehensive about the process. It is important that the manager tries to dispel any concerns the member of staff may have and convey the meeting as positive and productive for all parties involved.
Apart from the annual appraisal meeting, important issues that may raise time to time within the setting would be best addressed at the time rather than be allowed to continue, for example if a member of staff is using inappropriate language within the setting.
Discussions between the manager and the employee should also take place informally throughout the year in order to monitor any targets, training and development which has been set within the appraisal meeting and/or any new issues which may have arisen since the meeting.
3. Disciplinary and Grievance procedures
The disciplinary procedure within the pre-school setting is there to ensure a fair and effective method for dealing with any matters arising relating to the performance, capability and conduct of any employee.
The grievance procedure is designed to enable an employee to raise any complaint they may have relating to their employment within the setting to the manager.
The disciplinary process must be adhered to and the setting is expected to comply with the principles as set out by the ACAS Code of Practice on Disciplinary and Grievance Procedures.
Upon the onset of any disciplinary procedure being taken with an employee is it important that the manager follow the process as follows:-
1. The manager should carry out a full and fair investigation into the allegation to establish the facts.
2. The employee should be informed immediately of the case against them and provided with all evidence of this.
3. If the manager establishes that it is necessary to pursue a disciplinary meeting the manager must prepare a written statement of the employee’s alleged misconduct relating to the setting.
4. The employee should also be issued with a letter giving clear and concise advice on the allegation made against them. The letter should be given to the employee at least 72 hours in advance of the meeting and include full details of date, time and location of the meeting and who will be in attendance.
5. The employee should be advised of their right to be accompanied at the meeting by a recognised trade union representative or a work colleague.
6. During the meeting the manager should inform the employee of the allegation against them and provided with any evidence and or witness statements obtained regarding the matter. The employee should be given full opportunity at the meeting to respond to the manager over the allegations.
7. During the meeting the manager must decide whether or not a disciplinary penalty is to be issued. The outcome of the meeting must be confirmed in writing to the employee giving them full details of the appeal process available to them.
8. Following a disciplinary meeting there are usually three outcomes:
No action taken or deemed necessary
A Warning issued to the employee
Dismissal of the employee
9. If the employee feels that they have been disciplined unfairly the manager should ask the employee to appeal in writing to the pre-school, detailing the grounds for their appeal. The employee must follow this procedure within seven days of the disciplinary meeting.
10. Following this an appeal meeting should then be arranged with the employee where possible with a different panel to that of the original disciplinary meeting.
11. Managers are also able to follow an informal grievance procedure where an employee and manager can discuss any issues on a day to day basis in a more comfortable environment and therefore hopefully resolve any problems that may have arisen within the setting with the employee.
It is the responsibility of the manager to ensure that disciplinary and grievance procedures are carried out in an open and transparent manner with good and clear communication between all parties involved. The process should also be no-discriminatory and all matters should be dealt with quickly and within any specified times.
Where at all possible the manager should attempt to deal with the disciplinary action informally to avoid the need for formal disciplinary action and possible employment tribunal.
4. Recruitment and selection process
The first process within the pre school setting for recruitment and selection of staff is to evaluate the role of the job being advertised including the job’s purpose within the setting, the tasks that will be required of the job holder.
It is very important to consider what skills will be required to carry out the role. Decision on salary offered, hours of work, holiday entitlement and other terms and conditions must be made in order to be able to effectively create a job description for advertising. This will then give candidates a clear indication of what role they would be expected to play within the setting and what their key responsibilities will be.
Advertisement of the vacancy should be made in various locations enabling applicants from all different groups the opportunity to apply.
It is important to inform applications that you are an equal opportunities employer and that you welcome and encourage applicants from all sections of the community.
The format of advertising and applying should be clear as to the role being offered and give details of the renumeration package. The advertisement should include the following job description and person specification :

The name of the pre-school

Description of the position vacant

Skills required for the position by the applicant

Details of essential requirements of the applicant

Whether position is temporary of permanent

Full details on how to apply for the position

Contact details of the pre-school

Closing date for applications

Creating an application information pack for applicants to fill out helps the process of recruitment as all information received from candidates will be received in the same consistent format. This also gives the applicant full details of the job description and person specification required. It should also include guidelines on how to complete the application and the pre-schools terms and conditions relating to the role.
Once all applications have been received by the pre-school it is then the process of short listing the applicants which are believed to be suited to the role. This process must not be discriminatory in any way, e.g. exclude applicants because of race, age, religion, sexual belief, etc.
Following the process interviews can then be offered to applicants. All applicants which have not been successful in the short listing process should be informed in writing.
All interviews should be conducted in a fairway for all applicants. Interviews can be very daunting and nerve-wracking for people so you should try to make them feel at ease during the interview.
Staff Policies
Upon recruitment of a suitable applicant, the applicant should be given a copy of the Pre-school policies and encouraged to read them in order to become familiar with them.
They should also be given the Employee Handbook which provides them with all the information regarding the pre-school policies, procedures and guidelines.
It is a good idea to recruit an existing member of staff where possible to mentor the new member of staff which will give them an opportunity to get familiar with the day to day running of the pre-school and the other staff and children within the setting.
All new staff should be made aware of the pre-school health and safety policy, fire safety policy, children’s medication policy and information on any children with allergies.
Particular emphasis should be placed on staff development to ensure skills are kept up to date and a high quality of care can be provided to the children and their parents/carers.
The possibility of promotion within the pre-school should be made available to all staff and run in conjunction with the Appraisal process.  

The Strategy of Setting Price for Products and Services

Introduction
Pricing is a basic and interesting topic in the business. This paper will be described the strategy of setting prices for products and services; especially it will focus on one specific strategy called price discrimination, which is to charge different prices to different customers for the same or similar product and service. Price discrimination is one of the most effective strategy to maximize a company’s profits when compared with a single pricing. However, it represents a transfer of value from consumers to companies and people may argue it benefits less to customers than to companies. In the following, three types of price discrimination will be described, and real examples will be used to illustrate them. The advantages and disadvantages of price discrimination as well as its benefit to consumers and society will be discussed.
The first type of price discrimination
The first type of price discrimination is based on two concepts: reservation price and consumer surplus. For a product and service, the reservation price is defined as the maximum price that a customer is willing to pay (Pindyck & Rubinfeld, 2001, p.371), and the consumer surplus is difference between the reservation price and the price the consumer actually pays (Hubbard & O’Brien, 2012, p.98). The goal of the first type of price discrimination is to capture the consumer surplus and turn it into its profit for a company.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

For example, a tea shop sells a good brand of tea. For a cup of the tea, the competitive price (offered by many competitive suppliers) and the monopoly price (offered by few dominant suppliers) are $3.50 and $4 respectively. It is supposed that there are three customers to buy the tea, and the reservation price of these three customers are $6, $5 and $3.5 respectively. Based on the competitive market price ($3.5), their consumer surplus would be $2.5, $1.5 and $0 respectively. By using the first type of discrimination, the tea shop can ask different prices to these three customers which is $6, $5 and $3.5. By doing so the shop will sell three cups of the tea, and all consumer surplus ($4) would be captured. However, if the shop sets a single price $4, then it can only sell two cups of tea, and the third customer would be eliminated from service. Therefore, not only the profit is reduced but also the number of customers served is reduced as well.
Although it sounds great that a company can increase their profits and the quantity of products sold as well as the number of customers serviced, in practice it is hard to conduct. There are two reasons: first, it is difficult to know each customer’s reservation price; second, in order to know customer’s reservation price, companies need a lot of efforts in marketing research and investigation, which adds extra cost to the product and then reduces the product’s profit. Therefore, it is more suitable for some professional people such as dentists, lawyers and accountants, as they know their customers relatively well. For example, a lawyer may offer a reduced service fee to low-income client, but may charge a higher service fee to upper-income clients as they have the ability to pay. The possible problem is some customers who pay higher price may object price discrimination and argue that it represents a transfer of consumer surplus from customers to companies, which benefits less to customers than to companies such resulting an unfairness to rich people.
The second type of price discrimination
A company can discriminate prices according to the quantity purchased. The practice of setting different prices per unit for different quantities is called the second type of price discrimination or “block” pricing (Pindyck & Rubinfeld, 2001, p.374).
There are many companies who use this type of price discrimination such as grocery stores, suppliers of electricity, water and natural gas. For example, for electric power, consumers are charged different price per kilowatt depending on the quantity consumed. It’s usual, as an instance, the first 100 kilowatts of electricity consumed are charged at a higher rate, and after the first 100 kilowatts, consumers are charged at a lower rate per kilowatt.
This price strategy allows a company to convert part of consumer surplus into producer’s profit, and at mean time it increases the product’s quantities sold and the number of consumers served. Even though it has greater benefit to the company, it cannot be widely used in some business regions or areas. For examples, in China, it has huge population but limited water and power resources, so single pricing for power and water would be more suitable than price discrimination. The price discrimination may encourage people to use more power and water; such may result in resources shortage and air pollution, and eventually may damage the environment. Therefore, price discrimination should be applied under conditions, and only if it is used correctly, then it would create positive impact on the environment and society.
The third type of price discrimination
Third-degree price discrimination is based on two steps: dividing consumers into two or more groups and charging different prices to each group (Pindyck & Rubinfeld, 2001, p.376). One group may have the ability to pay a higher price such as upper-income customers; another group may only be able to pay a lower price such as students and seniors. Companies also would charge customers a higher price if the customers’ demand for it is inelastic such as a service is urgent and it must be done immediately, and charge other customers a lower price if their demand for the service is elastic. This strategy may cause price competition among suppliers to offer discount to different groups, such competition may result in lower price for products. If it is used by few suppliers in some period of time, then it may encourage consumers to buy more products. However, if it is used from wide range of suppliers over long period of time, then it may make the product permanently reduce price, and some companies may have difficulty to get profits.
To practice this type of price discrimination companies often set prices based on the consumers’ occupation, age, income, preference, time of use. Some of them will be discussed in the following:
(a) Based on occupation and income: Hubbard and O’Brien (2012) noted, “In mid-2009, Apple was selling an iMac desktop with a 24-inch display …for $1,499” to general public, “but university students and faculty members could buy the same computer from Apple for $1,399” (p.498). In this example, apple assumed the manufacturing cost of a computer is $400, so selling one iMac to university user would get profit $999, and selling one iMac to general user would get profit $1,099. In that period Apple sold 20,000 iMac to university users and 30,500 computers to general public users. The total profit from these sales is $53,499,500 ($999*20,000 + $1,099*30,500). However, if Apple used a single pricing, and if it also charged $1,399 in the general public market, it would sell 32,500 iMac (Hubbard & O’Brien, 2012, p.499), and then the profit from these sales would become $52,447,500 ($999*20,000 + $999*32,500). The difference of the profit made between using price discrimination and setting single pricing is $1,052,000 ($53,499,500 – $52,447,500). This example shows this strategy increased Apple’s profit. However, from another point of view that the total iMac sold was reduced from 52,500 (single price) to 50,500 (price discrimination), price discrimination reduced the number of products made/sold, and in turn it may influence the number of people employed and also may generate negative effect on the society.
(b) Based on preference and time: one example is that early adopters of new products would pay a higher price, such as new type cell phones, new books, new released music DVDs. Airlines usually charge ticket differently according to time. During the holiday such as Christmas and New Year, the tickets price is normally higher than other times. Customers sometimes are argue that the airline gets extra profit by exaction of customer’s surplus and leaves very little to customers.
Conclusions
This paper provides analysis on three types of price discrimination. Price discrimination is one of the most effective strategy to maximize a company’s profit when it is compared with a single pricing for the products and services. All three types of price discrimination raise a company’s profit, and they all have both positive and negative effect on the society. I personally think that price discrimination is a reality and it is acceptable to many customers in most situations. It exists in our daily life, and it is used widely in various industries.
References
Aguirre, I., Cowan, S., & Vickers, J. (2010, September). Monopoly price discrimination and demand curvature. The American Economic Review, 100(4), 1601-1615. doi: 10.1257/aer.100.4.1601
Armstrong, M. (2006, October). Price discrimination. Retrieved from http://else.econ.ucl.ac.uk/papers/uploaded/222.pdf
Hubbard, R. G., & O’Brien, A. P. (2012). Microeconomics (4th edition). Prentice Hall.
Pettinger, T. (2013, March 6). Examples of price discrimination. Retrieved from http://www.economicshelp.org/blog/7042/economics/examples-of-price-discrimination/
Pindyck, R. S., & Rubinfeld, D. L. (2001). Microeconomics (5th edition). Prentice Hall.
Round, D. K., & McIver, R. P. (2006, Spring). Teaching third-degree price discrimination. The Journal of Economic Education, 37(2), 236-243. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/30042708
Shmanske, S. (1991). Price discrimination and monopolistic competition. Studies in Economics and Finance, 14(1), 25-48. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/eb028698
 

Hierarchy of Human Needs and Goal Setting Theory

Introduction
As the increasing concern of how to achieve performance excellence through employees, most of the organizations now pay more attentions on the means of motivating employees, such as incentives, rewards. Kreitner (2004) quoted Mitchells definition of motivation which refers to those psychological processes that cause the arousal, direction, and persistence of voluntary actions that are goal directed. Different motivation theories guide the ways of encouraging people to make effort and exploit their ability for the organizations goal and meeting their own needs; also, they suggest the factors resulting in job satisfaction and their influence on employee performance (Armstrong, 2006). This essay attempts to explore the motivator and the process of motivation by a critical review of motivation theories; moreover, it examines the theories through a questionnaire research in terms of what people are motivated and how they are motivated. Thereby, it leads to a further discussion of the application of motivation theory in practice.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

Literature Review
As Armstrong (2006) states motivating people refers to encourage them to work toward the expected direction, motivation in organizations aims at creating a context and undertaking a motivation process in which individuals work and provide the performance according to the managerial expectations. The process of motivation is described as a needs-oriented model that goes through four stages: need, goal setting, action and achievement (Armstrong, 2006). It is suggested that people are aware of the unsatisfied needs consciously or unconsciously; and then the desire of satisfying the needs enables the establishment of goal (Latham, 2007). To achieve the goal by taking actions is believed will meet the needs. If the goal is obtained successfully, the same actions are likely to be repeated for satisfying the needs (Latham, 2007). In this way, the process of the motivation is completed.
The theory of motivation is divided into two main categories C content theory and process theory. Content theory interprets the insights of peoples needs and explores the factors that motivate people (Foster, 2005). It emphasizes the intrinsic elements that energize, direct and endure behaviour; also, it explains how these elements are valued as internal motivators by individuals (Porter, Bigley & Steers, 2003). There are four primary content theories of motivation at work, including Maslows hierarchy of need, Alderfer’s ERG (existence-relatedness-growth) theory, Herzbergs motivator-hygiene model and McClellands learned needs theory (Porter, Bigley & Steers, 2003).
Content theory C Maslows Hierarchy of Human Needs
Among these theories, Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs is the most famous one connecting peoples needs to motivation. According to this theory, individuals needs are categorized as deficiency needs and growth needs. Deficiency needs are the basic needs that must be satisfied; it contains three levels C physiological, safety and security, belongingness. The physiological needs are at the bottom of Maslows hierarchy theory. That is to say, all other needs are out of peoples consideration until the physiological needs are satisfied (Latham, 2007). The implication of physiological needs at work may include lunch break, rest break, sufficient wage to support daily essentials (NetMBA, 2007). Safety and security needs arise for protecting oneself from threats and harm either physically or emotionally on condition that physiological needs are satisfied. In the context of work, safety and security needs can be reflected through a safe working environment, retirement benefit, job security, etc (NetMBA, 2007). Since the two lower needs are satisfied, people are continuously seeking higher needs; thus the desire of interaction and communication with other people emerges. Belongingness needs covers this extent of peoples needs that receiving and giving love, and belonging to a group.
Growth needs refer to the advancement and achievement of individuals potential; it includes self-esteem and self-actualization (Foster, 2005). Growth needs are indeterminate but higher than deficiency needs. Maslows theory assumes that higher needs will be the focus of the individuals attention and become dominant when the lower needs are satisfied (Armstrong, 2006). Self-esteem needs classified as internal and external. The desires for achievement, confidence, freedom and independence come from oneself. The external esteem is about the desire of attention, importance, recognition and reputation (Armstrong, 2006). Self-actualization implies the needs to maximum ones potential and advance skills, and the needs to achieve higher goals that one considers one is capable for it (Armstrong, 2006). Self-esteem and self-actualization lie on the top two layers of the pyramid of Maslows theory. Although they may be difficult to accomplish, they are the greatest drive for individual behaviour.
However, Maslows theory is also questioned by other scholars for two points. Firstly, as Armstrong (2006) points out, the priority of different needs is varied with individual. Maslows hierarchy of needs theory indicates that people follow this hierarchy of needs steadily. Nevertheless, different people may have different need to be satisfied as their priority. There are two researches conducted among a group of managers from different organizations for examining Maslows theory. Lawler and Suttles research found managers predominant needs at the higher level are varied with individual (Koontz and Weihrich, 2006). In another research, Hall and Nougaim found little evidence to support the theory of hierarchy as managers increasing attention on growth needs is mostly determined by the changes in upward careers instead of the satisfaction of lower-order needs (Koontz and Weihrich, 2006).
Process theory C Goal Setting Theory
As it has been mentioned, content theories are about what people are motivated. Simply, process theories suggest the means that people are motivated. They concentrate on the process of peoples decision-making and the actions they take in order to attain the expected goals (Huczynski and Buchanan, 2007). Process theory of work motivation has three major theories: equity theory, expectancy theory and goal-setting theory.
Goal-setting theory states individual motivation and performance can be enhanced through setting a specific goal on condition that the goal is challenging but committed, and along with a feedback on performance (Griffin and Moorhead, 2009). From the management perspective, goal is used as an effective means to manage motivation and to control organization performing in relation to the expected result (Griffin and Moorhead, 2009). It also helps organizations to interpret and forecast employees work behaviour as the theory assumes behaviour is the outcome of sensible goals and purpose(Koontz and Weihrich, 2006). Goal-settig theory contains four major propositions: challenging goals, specific goals, participation and knowledge of results (Huczynski and Buchanan, 2007). The four major propositions are regarded as the fundamental elements of goal-setting theory that mostly contribute to higher level performance (Arnold and Silvester, 2005).
Challenging goals are more likely to cause desirable performance. Once people commit the goal and believe it is achievable, they become goal-oriented; and they take actions for goal achievement (Arnold and Silvester, 2005). Difficult goals require more effective outcome of behaviour than easy ones. Further, specific goals administer to higher level performance than general ones; for reasons of providing precise plan that people work upon. Participation in goal-setting theory is an important part as it is a proper way to get agreement on setting higher goals (Arnold and Silvester, 2005). In this way, people are willing to make effort to accomplish the goals. Knowledge of results or feedback is playing the role of informing people of the results and maintaining motivation for higher goals (Armstrong, 2006).
Theoretically, goal-setting is an effective method for organizations to managing work motivation and achieving high goals. However, it is doubted of its effectiveness out of laboratory setting (Arnold and Silvester, 2005). Austin and Bobko point out goal-setting is likely to focus on quantity of work rather than quality of it as quantity is more measurable and clearer than quality when setting goals (Arnold and Silvester, 2005). Moreover, there may be conflicts among different goals in the real work context. To decide which goal is prior means to ignore or reserve the other goals. Thereby, the application of goal-setting is weakened (Arnold and Silvester, 2005). Besides, goal-setting theory is limited to individual work and performance. In practice, group goals and performance, especially a companys goals and performance account for more importance (Arnold and Silvester, 2005). Crown and Rose found setting group goals can enhance the performance of the group; and the group goals are consisted of individual goals agreed by individuals (Arnold and Silvester, 2005). Therefore, goal-setting theory is suggested to be applied to group or organizations as whole rather than stick on individual levels.
Research Data Analysis
The research aims to find out what people are motivated in the workplace and in which way they are motivated on the basis of Maslows hierarchy of needs theory and goal-setting theory. The data is collected through questionnaire from ten respondents.
The first part of questionnaire is developed for exploring the motivators according to Maslows theory. The core proposition of Maslows theory is that peoples needs have five stages from low to high forming the hierarchy. Five specific items indicate the five levels of needs: reasonable wage, job security, employee relationships, achievement and recognition, opportunity of upward career (see appendix 1, Question 2). The research data presents that respondents give priority on different items. Reasonable wage implies the physiological needs which are the basic needs that must be satisfied. There are sixty percent of respondents ranking it as their priority; twenty percent rank job security (which represents safe and security needs) as their primary needs. Interestingly, twenty percent of respondents rank the theoretically top needs opportunity of upward career (which represents self-actualization needs) as their prime needs.
For a further investigation on this question, a cross-tabulation is used in order to find out the relationship between the priority of needs and the role in a group. The data shows who play the role of doer and shaper in a group consider physiological needs are primary; who take the leader positions in a group attach more importance on higher needs, e.g. self-esteem and self-actualization needs. Moreover, the responses on Question 4 (see appendix 1) show there are certain percentage of respondents are willing to work under unfavourable conditions when they believe there is something valuable to them. From this point, it can hardly support Maslows theory that people have higher needs when their lower needs are satisfied. Reviewing Armstrongs doubt on Maslows hierarchy of needs, he points out that the priority of different needs is varied with individual. Therefore, peoples needs do not follow Maslows hierarchy strictly. Also, the data reveals that physiological needs, safe and security needs, and self-actualization needs are the top motivators among the respondents.
The second part of questionnaire attempts to understand how people are motivated to deliver high-level performance. The questions are designed base on the theory of goal-setting. Seventy percent of responses show goals are able to improve the performance (see Appendix 1, Question 5). The other responses upon the points that specific goals, participation and knowledge of results lead to enhancement of performance positively support the theory of goal-setting (see Appendix 1, Question 7, 8&9). That is to say, most of respondent believe challenging goals and specific goals helps them to deliver an enhanced performance, and participation in goal-setting endows them the willingness to work toward the goals; finally feedback is regarded as a vital means to know how well they have been, also a form of motivator. Question 6 (see appendix 1) exposes the potential issue of application of goal-setting theory. It cannot be denied the possibility that people would accept higher goals if their lower needs are at risk of satisfaction. When such situation occurs, people acceptance of higher goal is reluctant. This may fails to produce an expected performance as the goal probably is exorbitant or the person is less motivated.
Austin and Bobko argue that goal-setting theory concentrate on quantity rather than quality (Armstrong, 2006). The responses collected from ten respondents also point to this limitation. This issue can be perceived in different contexts. For instance, quantity can be understood as the number of product produced by individual workers or groups. In this situation, the goals set for individual or group have limited effectiveness on product quality. Yet, when quantity stands for the amount of money, for example sales amount, goal-setting theory is still effective on work motivation relating to the organization performance.
An Evaluation of Motivation Theory in Practice
In the literature review part, the proposition of Maslows hierarchy of needs represented the content theory of motivation has been explained. Also the limitation of this theory is discussed. Through the research, the weaknesses of Maslows theory are further exposed; especially the concept of hierarchy of needs is strict. Nonetheless, Maslows theory of needs helps organizations to have the idea of the basic nature of human motives (Porter, Bigley and Steers, 2003). Knowing the needs theory, Managers are able to manage work motivation by creating a work environment that aims to satisfy employees needs (Clegg, Kornberger & Pitsis, 2005).
Goal-setting theory is introduced to organization management as known as Management by Objectives (Clegg, Kornberger & Pitsis, 2005. It is broadly applied in the organizations for its strengths of guiding and directing individuals to work toward the goal; and of providing indicators for performance evaluation (Clegg, Kornberger & Pitsis, 2005). Goal setting is a process of advancing, negotiating and set objectives that challenge the individuals as well as the organizations. Therefore, as Crown and Rose state, setting group goals is more important than individual goals (Arnold and Silvester, 2005). The group goals are consisted of several individual goals that are agreed by individuals (Arnold and Silvester, 2005). Therefore, the process of achieving group goals actually is the process of attaining group members individual goals. Thus, individual performance and group performance can be advanced through goal achievement.
Conclusion
Motivation is described as a process that needs-oriented pass through four stages: need, goal setting, action and achievement. Content theory helps to identify the elements that are able to motivate people. Maslows hierarchy of needs theory recognized five levels of peoples needs. By knowing the needs, organizations are able to motivate employee to deliver high level performance through satisfying their needs. Process theory is regarding to the methods of motivation. Goal-setting is an effective way in modern organization management. It identifies the relationship between goal and performance. It advocates that challenging and specific goal, participation and feedback can result in high level performance. Although goal-setting theory is argued that it focuses on individual goal and performance, it also can be employed in groups or organization. Further, setting group goals can improve the whole performance rather than individual. Therefore, it is sophisticate and effective way for work motivation in modern organizations.
REFERENCE
Armstrong, M., (2006), A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, 10th ed, Kogan Page Limited
Arnold, J. and Silvester, J., (2005), Work Psychology: Understanding Human Behaviour in the Workplace, 4th ed, Pearson
Clegg, S., Kornberger, M., and Pitsis, T., (2005), Managing and Organizations: An Introduction to theory and Practice, SAGE
Foster, N., (2005), Maximum Performance: A Practical Guide to Leading and Managing People at Work, Edward Elgar Publishing
Griffin, R. W. and Moorhead, G., (2009), Organizational Behaviour: Managing People and Organizations, 9th ed, Cengage Learning
Huczynski, A. and Buchanan, D. A., (2007), Organization Behaviour: An Introduction Text, 6th ed. Pearson
Kreitner, R. and Kinicki, A., (2004), Organizational Behavior, 6th ed, McGraw-Hill
Koontz, H. and Weihrich, H., (2006), Essentials of Management, 7th ed, Tata McGraw-Hill
Latham, G. P., (2007), Work Motivation: History, Theory, Research and Practice, SAGE Publication, Inc.
Porter, L. W., Bigley, G. A. and Steers, R. M., (2003) Motivation and Work Behaviour, 7th ed, McGraw-Hill
NetMBA, (2007), Maslows Hierarchy of Needs, NetMBA.com, Last accessed on 1st November at URL: http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/ob/motivation/maslow/
 

Benefits of Positive Relationships in Childcare Setting

 
1. Recognise how positive relationships promote children’s- well -being
Building positive relationships with young children is an essential task and a foundational component of good teaching. All children grow and thrive in the context of close and dependable relationships that provide love and nurturance, security, and responsive interactions. A positive adult-child relationship built on trust, understanding, and caring will foster children’s cooperation and motivation and increase their positive outcomes at school (Webster-Stratton, 1999). Good. In a review of empirically derived risk and protective factors associated with academic and behavioural problems at the beginning of school, Huffman et al. 2000) identified that having a positive preschool experience and a warm and open relationship with their teacher or child care provider are important protective factors for young children. These protective factors operate to produce direct, ameliorative effects for children in at-risk situations (Luthar, 1993). Next, we describe some of the key ingredients for relationship building.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

In order for adults to build meaningful positive relationships with children, it is essential to gain a thorough understanding of children’s preferences, interests, background, and culture. For very young children and children with special needs, this information is most often accessed by observing what children do and by speaking directly to parents and other caregivers. With this information, adults can ensure that their play with children is fun, that the content of their conversations is relevant, and those they communicate respect for children’s origins. Whenever possible, this kind of information exchange should be as reciprocal as possible. That is, adults should be sharing their own interests, likes, backgrounds, and origins with children as well. Good.
Practical Strategies for Building Positive Relationships
• Distribute interest surveys that parents fill out about their child
• Greet every child at the door by name
• Follow a child’s lead during play
• Have a conversation over snack
• Conduct home visits
• Listen to a child’s ideas and stories and be an appreciative audience
• Send positive notes home
• Provide praise and encouragement
• Share information about yourself and find something in common with the child
• Ask children to bring in family photos and give them an opportunity to share it with you and their peers
• Post children’s work
• Have a “Star” of the week who brings in special things from home and gets to share them during circle time
• Acknowledge a child’s effort
• Give compliments liberally
• Call a child’s parents to say what a great day she or he having in front of the child
• Find out what a child’s favourite book is and read it to the whole class
• Have sharing days
• Make “all about me” books and share them at circle time
• Write all of the special things about
A child on a T-shirt and let him or her wear it
• Play a game with a child
• Play outside with a child
• Ride the bus with a child
• Go to an extracurricular activity with the child
• Learn a child’s home language
• Give hugs, high fives, and thumbs up for accomplishing tasks
• Hold a child’s hand
• Call a child after a bad day and say
“I’m sorry we had a bad day today –
I know tomorrow is going to be better!”
• Tell a child how much he or she was missed
Some useful techniques that can be applied. Although this knowledge is good, I would have liked you to focus more on the benefits to children of different types of relationships, such as friendships etc.
2. Analyse the importance of the key worker system for children
“Key Worker”. The “Key Person” role is to build positive relationships with particular children, and work closely with the families of those children. The term “Key Worker” refers to a role which involves communicating with different professionals to ensure that services coordinate and to work at a more systemic, strategic level within nurseries (Elfer, Goldschmied &Selleck, 2005). The “Key Person” role is the focus of this particular study.
The current government guidance on the role of the Key Person seems to place great weight on attachment theory as a driving point for the development of positive relationships in the Early Years. It is important to note that this research does not seek to examine different “attachment types”. Rather, it seeks to understand the adults’ perceptions of their roles in Early Years settings and the ways in which they ensure positive experiences for their key children. However, attachment theory, as the theoretical foundations of this study, cannot be ignored. John Bowlby’s (1969) theory of infant attachment sought to understand the relationships between infants and their caregivers. Further developments through Bell and Ainsworth’s (1970) Strange Situation led to the identification of attachment types, and a plethora of studies researching the relationships between these types and a child’s future development. Recognition of the impact of early attachments on outcomes for children as they develop is well established as noted by Thompson (2008). Thompson looks at factors most directly associated with Bowlby’s original ideas, for example; relationship functioning, emotional regulation and social-cognitive capabilities. The conclusion is that the literature continues to support the argument that children labelled as ‘securely attached’ experience more positive outcomes in many areas. Thompson notes that the reasons behind this are not clear, though he draws attention to the literature which suggests sensitivity is an important factor. This may be quite relevant to understanding the relationships between Key Persons and children in Early Years settings, as the Key Person’s sensitivity to the child’s needs may be paramount to the dynamics of their relationship. Current guidance and the EYFS
Good points highlighted above and relevant link made to attachment theory.
As mentioned previously, attachment theory appears to have had a rather significant impact on current guidance, policies and practice with children and young people (Slater, 2007). It is also integral to the work of agencies such as Sure Start and social care. In order to understand what some practitioners may already know, it seems important to review some of the guidance that the government provides for early education settings. The Department for Education have recently changed the information on their website; however, following a recent consultation on the EYFS, there does not seem to be any indication of significant change to the Key Person role. Information previously available stated that:
• “A Key Person helps the baby or child to become familiar with the setting and
To feel confident and safe within it.
• A Key Person develops a genuine bond with children and offers a settled,
Close relationship.
• When children feel happy and secure in this way they are confident to explore and to try out new things.
• Even when children are older and can hold special people in mind for longer there is still a need for them to have a Key Person to depend on in the setting, such as their teacher or a teaching assistant.” –
These guidelines came under the “Positive Relationships” principle, and whilst online access to this has now been archived, the translation of these points in to practice formed the initial focus of this piece of research. Due to this, they have remained within this paper.
3) Explain the benefits of building positive partnership with parents for children’s learning and development.
When staff shares positive bonds with children’s families, it helps the staff feel more connected, valued, rewarded and appreciated. Staff can more easily respond to children’s needs by understanding a child’s relationship with their parents, carers and siblings. Staff can also develop a deeper understanding of how each family would like their child to be raised. Having a ‘bigger picture’ of a child’s world allows staff to relate to children in a way that makes them feel understood which then strengthens relationships. Relationships and partnerships assist staff feel confident and satisfied in their role of supporting the child and their development. Good points.
Mutual benefits of partnerships
Working together can help families and staff trust one another and communicate openly. When information is shared, families and staff are able to gain a deeper understanding of:

how to work together to support children
children’s behaviour at home and at the early childhood service
the most effective ways to support children’s learning
what children enjoy and what their strengths are resources for addressing children’s difficulties.

Interacting within a partnership helps
Families and staff:

feel welcome, respected and valued
feel comfortable, confident and supported in their roles
feel a sense of satisfaction from the trust others place in them
work through differences, allowing adults to continue working together to support children
benefit from the resources, ideas and energy that others provide
benefit from shared decision-making
see things from other people’s perspective
develop strong connections with children

9) feel a sense of satisfaction when children explore, learn and develop their skills
10) have more opportunities to discuss child development
Babies and young children learn to be strong and independent through loving and secure relationships with parents and carers and other family members such as grandparents. When children are looked after outside the home they can develop security and independence through having a key person to care for them. Children’s learning is helped when they feel safe and secure and when their parents and the people in settings they attend work together to ensure that the child’s needs are met. A key person such as a child minder provides a reassuring link with home so that children can cope with being separated from the special people in their lives.
Attachments are the emotional bonds that are made between young children, their parents and other cares such as the Key Person. All of these important people have a special role to play in providing the right kind of environment for children where they will flourish. Environments are not just physical spaces because they are the atmosphere created through warm and caring relationships, where children are respected and valued and their well-being comes before anything else. In these environments children’s voices are listened to and they thrive socially and emotionally.

Describe how to develop positive relationships within the early years setting, making reference to principles of effective communication

Effective communication with both children and parents are very important in order to develop positive relationships. Children who feel valued and who enjoy being with you will respond better. Due to this, they are likely to enjoy playing and learning and are more likely to behave well. The basis of forming a relationship with children is to consider what their needs may be and to adapt the way in which you work to meet these needs.
It is important to recognise if children have any difficulties in communication.
There are many types of difficulties that need to be recognized:

Speech and language delay
Dyspraxia
Muscle weakness or deformity
Emotional problems
Ear infection
Expressive difficulties
Receptive difficulties
Stuttering

Children who have difficulties in communication should be supported. The practioner should:

Be patient
Allow children time and space in which to speak
Do not talk over children
Do not speak for the child
Do not interrupt the child
Consider using pictures for children so they can communicate their needs.