A Short Introduction To The Quran Religion Essay

Muslims regard Islam as a total ideology of life, and Al-Qur’an is the holy book consists of universal message for entire humanity. It’s a source of life guidance, solution, healing and mercy for believers.
“Alif-Lâm-Râ. A book which We have revealed unto you (O Muhammad SAW) in order that you might lead mankind out of darkness (of disbelief and polytheism) into light (of belief in the Oneness of Allah and Islamic Monotheism) by their Lord’s Leave to the Path of the All-Mighty, the Owner of all Praise.” [Ibrahîm: 1]
The Qur’an is an sources of wide range knowledge includes civilization, morals, social justice, administration, leadership, economics, spiritualism, marriage, family. This Book promotes personality development through parables and metaphors.

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“We have indeed sent down (in this Quran) manifest Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, lawful and unlawful things, and the set boundries of Islamic religion, etc. that make things clear showing the Right Path of Allah). And Allah guides whom He wills to a Straight Path (i.e. to Allahs religion of Islamic Monotheism).” [An-Nuur: 46]
“Indeed in their stories, there is a lesson for men of understanding. It (the Qur’an) is not a forged statement but a confirmation of that which was before it and a detailed explanation of everything and a guide and a mercy for the people who believe.” [Yusuf: 111]
The Holy Qur’an is a divine scripture that was revealed in the Arabic language over fourteen centuries ago.
“We have sent it down as an Arabic Qur’an, in order that ye may learn wisdom.” [Yusuf:2]”
“Do they not then consider the Quran carefully? Had it been from other than Allah, they would surely have found therein much contradictions.” [An-Niisa:82]
Tawheed (Oneness of God) comes first, however the Qur’an use “We” which refers to God himself. It does not suggest plurality; rather it presents the highest status in the language. Arabic, Persia, English, Hebrew and many other languages use term “We” to address royal figure, highest status, and dignity.
The Qur’an are evidently self-explanatory. Speaking of authenticity of the Qur’an, this book has presented its own answer and challenges to the unbelievers through several verses.
“Alif-Lâm-Râ. These letters are one of the miracles of the Qur’ân, and none but Allâh (Alone) knows their meanings.” [Al-Hijr:1]
“Say: “If the mankind and the jinns were together to produce the like of this Qur’ân, they could not produce the like thereof, even if they helped one another.” [Al-Isrâ’: 88]
“And if ye are in doubt as to what We have revealed from time to time to Our servant, then produce a Sura like thereunto; and call your witnesses or helpers (If there are any) besides Allah, if your (doubts) are true.” [Al-Baqarah: 23]
“Or do they say: “He (Muhammad SAW) has forged it?” Say: “Bring then a Sûrah (chapter) like unto it, and call upon whomsoever you can, besides Allâh, if you are truthful!” [Yûnus: 38]
“Or they say, “He (Prophet Muhammad SAW) forged it (the Qur’an).” Say: “Bring you then ten forged Sûrah (chapters) like unto it, and call whomsoever you can, other than Allâh (to your help), if you speak the truth!” [Hûd: 13]
During lifetime of Prophet (pbuh), the Idolators’ claim that the Qur’an was taught by a human, they referred to a foreign (i.e., non-Arab) man who lived among them as the servant of some of Quraysh clan who used to sell goods by As-Safa. They claim that possibly the Prophet (pbuh) used to sit with him sometimes and talk to him a little. However he was a foreigner who did not know much Arabic, only enough simple phrases to answer questions when he had to. So in refutation of their claims of fabrication, Allah said:
“And indeed We know that they (polytheists and pagans) say: “It is only a human being who teaches him. The tongue of the man they refer to is foreign, while this (the Qur’an) is (in) a clear Arabic tongue.” [An-Nahl: 103]
In “The Choice: Islam and Christianity Vol. 2” by Ahmad Deedat, the Arab Christians in the Middle East had a try to produce Qur’anic verse alike, not to be outsmart, launched -a sixteen-year project lately and generated selected portions of the New Testament in Arabic, with a large verses adopting of words and phrases word to word from the Arabic Qur’an. In this brassy plagiarism, every chapter of this new Arabic New Testament of theirs begin with the first verse of the Holy Qur’an –
“In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.” [Al-Fatiha: 1]
None has been capable to produce Qur’anic alike, not even a single verse. Thousands people memorized the Qur’an during the lifetime of the Prophet (pbuh), then this memorization went across from teacher to student, from one nation to another, from generation after generation. Today there are over nine million Muslim living worldwide. Every single Muslim has memorized at least several parts of the Quran in the original Arabic that it was manifested in over fourteen centuries ago; word to word, and many who have completely memorized the entire Qur’an in Arabic, Prophet (pbuh) did fourteen centuries ago.
Finally …”And among His Signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the difference of your languages and colors. Verily, in that are indeed signs for men of sound knowledge.” [Ar-Ruum: 22]
 

Short Message Service

Short Message Service (SMS)
Short message service (SMS) is a mechanism of sending and receiving short messages between the subscribers. The messages can be sent from GSM mobiles and also from devices like internet. It is a mature technology supported by most of the mobile sets and over GSM networks. SMS is carried out in the scope of 3G. SMS does not involve message transfer directly from sender to receiver. It is a store-and-forward service i.e. the message from sender is stored in an SMSC from where it is forwarded to the recipient. This method is advantageous because the recipient mobile needs not to be active or in range of the sender mobile. If in ay case the recipient mobile does not respond the message is store in SMSC and can be send later. After the message is successfully transferred a delivery report is also send to the sender to ensure the successful communication to the desired recipient.
In order to avoid overloading in the system the standard defined for maximum numbers of characters in an SMS are 160 characters for Latin alphabets and 70 characters for non-Latin alphabets like Arabic or Chinese.
5.1History of SMS
In late 1980’s, the telecommunication experts felt the need of sending short messages along with the service of making calls. The result of this discussion was that the first ever Short Message was successfully send on December 3, 1992, in United Kingdom over a Vodafone GSM network. The first message stated as “Merry Christmas”. It was due to this success that later Short Message Service started in UK and Norway. Initially the messaging growth is very slow around 0.4 messages per month but according to an estimate in 2003 its growth has increased to 168 billon messages over the world. The early adopters of SMS were teenagers followed by adults, business people and are now used by all sections of the society.
The huge amount of SMS sends or receives now days provoked a new form of SMS communication which gave rise to abbreviations and acronyms. This form of communication save time and is understood by most of the people.
Started from the objective of sending or receiving messages SMS is now used for many other purposes. Form bidding amount to TV show voting, cooking recipes to cricket match score, weather news to horoscope everything can be viewed on the mobile screen in the form of an SMS.
A service started from 0.4 messages per month is now a billion dollar industry. During the last 16 years the average of sending SMS has gone very far. And it will surely increase in the years to follow.
5.2SMS Architecture
The basic of launching SMS service was to exchange limited amount of information between the mobile users. This limited form of Text service is now the backbone for many complex services like downloading, tracker system and many more. The basic functionality of the components supporting SMS in GSM architecture are as follows.
5.2.1SME (Short Message Entity)
Short Message Entities are the elements that can send or receive short messages. The SME that generates a short message is called originator SME and which receives messages is called recipient SME.
MS
BTS
PSTN
Internet
Email gateway
BTS
TE
BTS
BSC
ME
HLR
MSC
SMSC
SIM
Figure 5-1: SMS Enabled GSM Architecture
5.2.2 SMSC (Short Message Service Center)
The main function of SMSC (Short Message Service Center) is to relay short messages between SME’s and secondly to store and forward the messages if the recipient mobile is not active.
5.2.3MSC (Mobile Switching Center)
MSC deals with the switching between mobile stations or between mobile stations and fixed networks.
5.2.4GMSC (Gateway Mobile Switching Centre)
The email gateway provides an email to SMS interoperability. This can be done by interconnecting the SMSC with the internet. Email gateway allows to send messages from a SME to an internet host and the reverse is also true.
5.2.5 HLR (Home Location Register)
HLR is the database of the GSM network containing information about the subscriber. HLR maintains the mapping between the IMSI and MSISDN.
5.2.6VLR (Visitor Location Register)
VLR is the database which contains information about the users who are attached to the mobile network. It is used to indicate the user’s geographical location. VLR is integrated with MSC through which it communicates with the other networks like PSTN (Packet Switched Packet Data Network), ISDN, SCPDN and PSPDN.
5.3Pros and Cons of SMS
The incontestable advantage of SMS is that it is the essential part of in all GSM networks. This service is supported by 100% of the GSM handsets. A message send from any GSM network can be delivered to any other subscriber attached to the same or different network. It also permit to send one message to multiple senders. It is less costly as compared to the billing system of the local and international calls.

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The main drawback of SMS is its limited capacity. It limited is restricted to 160 characters. For sending long messages concatenation has to be done. The other drawback is that only text can be included in the messages. It does not support sending complex services like image, audio video. Furthermore due to high traffic sometimes, the message delivery is not guaranteed.
 

Relationship Between the Enigmatic Quality of Modernist Short Stories and Abrupt Endings

Discuss the relationship between the enigmatic quality of modernist short stories and their abrupt endings.

Frank Kermode argues in his book The Sense of an Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction that ‘‘…whether you think time will have a stop or that the world is eternal; there is still a need to speak humanly of life’s importance in relation to it – a need in the moment of existence to belong, to be related to a beginning and to an end.’.[1] With a literary traditionary that seeks to provide closure and understanding within this narrative, modernist short stories disrupt this sense of security by ending abruptly.. As a result of constraints on the narrative due to their length, and the complexity of issues addressed within this confined space, both the protagonists within the short stories and the readers themselves do not gain full understanding of events with ease, if at all, which makes the stories themselves enigmatic. Abrupt endings in modernist short stories leave the reader with unanswered questions and removes the readers’ sense of security that they gain from viewing their lives as a firm narrative of beginning and end and thus more accurately mirrors the unpredictable nature of life. I will consider Samuel Beckett’s Dante and the Lobster andKatherine Mansfield’s Bliss in light of these statements and examine how the enigmatic nature of the complex allusions made within the texts are reinforced by the abrupt ending of the narrative.

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Within the confined space of the modernist short story the protagonists cannot experience revelations to the fullest extent and gain complete understanding. Thus it is the role of the reader to decipher the ultimate truth and leaves the reader pondering the multiple plausible endings to the narrative. This lack of understanding within the consciousness of the protagonist is presented through their immobility within the narrative. With this full understanding one can assume that the protagonists may gain a new found mobility that is not presented within the narrative of the short story and it abruptly ends before the protagonists’ full realisation. Katherine Mansfield’s Bliss presents a women who occupies a liminal space between childhood and womanhood. The short story opens with ‘Although Bertha Young was thirty she still had moments like this when she wanted to run instead of walk, to take dancing steps…, to bowl a hoop, to throw something up…,or to stand still and laugh at – nothing – nothing, simply.’.[2] This opening phrase presents Bertha’s overwhelming energy and feeling of bliss through asyndeton and the use of listing as it quickens the pace of the line and mimics Bertha’s overflow of emotion. This feeling of elation is in opposition to the content as the narrator is describing what Bertha wishes to do but what she cannot. Bertha is immediately introduced to the reader as a protagonist without independence or social mobility. Mansfield’s name choice associates Bertha with her productive capabilities and within the narrative she is repeatedly presented within her home and thus she is inextricably linked with domestic life. Despite this she appears unable to fulfil her role as wife and mother. Despite being Little B’s mother the Nanny is presented as adopting a more involved role in the raising of the child, to the point of not wanting Bertha to interfere with her upraising. Even upon the discovery of her husband’s affair Bertha does not react initially and continues her unexciting conversation about a mundanely named poem ‘Why Must it Always be Tomato Soup?’.[3] Bertha’s lack of independence and the restrictive nature of her role of wife and mother prohibits her from expressing discontent. Had Mansfield not ended the short story abruptly but continued to a narration to the point of resolution and happiness for her protagonist, the negative presentation of the immobility of her protagonist may have lost its effectiveness.

Similarly, Dante and the Lobster opens with the idea of stasis. Belacqua is described as being ‘stuck’ and ‘so bogged that he could move neither backward nor forward.’.[4] Beckett’s protagonist is named after a character in Dante’s The Divine Comedy who is representative of indolence, this use of intertextuality contributes to the enigmatic nature of the short story as it is the role of the reader to infer the higher meaning that the limited textual space does not allow for. Dante’s Belacqua does not attempt to climb up Mount Purgatory and reach heaven, nor does he travel down towards hell. Sam Slothe argues ‘Dante’s Belacqua is stuck in a lethargy that delays his spiritual progress. On the other hand Beckett’s Belacqua is stuck on a loftier clime.’.[5] The ‘loftier clime’ represents Belacqua’s repeated inability to gain full understand of either the literature he studies or the situations he encounters within the narrative. This lack of understanding demonstrates the stagnancy of his situation. Belacqua’s lack of development is demonstrated by his willingness to abandon his studies ‘when he heard the midday strike. At once he switched his mind off its task.’ despite the earlier statement that ‘he pored over the enigma, he would not concede himself conquered…’.[6] Frank Kermode looked at the long literary tradition of fictions that portrayed the end of human existence. He argues that ‘Such models of the world make tolerable one’s moment between beginning or end, or at any rate they keep up drowsy emperors awake.’.[7] This implies the security humankind gain from believing they are part of a narrative controlled by some higher power, can lead them to become less proactive in improving or changing their situation as they believe, to an extent, that theirs and the world’s fate are predestined. Both Dante’s and Beckett’s Belacquas are presented as intellectually and spiritually ‘stuck’ yet unmotivated to improve their situations. Beckett was concerned with the meaninglessness and futility of life and the abrupt ending of the story reinforces the enigmatic nature of human existence by removing the false sense of security provided by the idea of a predestined end. This in turn presents as convoluted form of encouragement to adopt a mindset of self-determination opposed to lethargic complacency.

William Warde looks at how “new criticism” was used to understand the complex structure of short stories and it ‘concerns itself with the work of art as object and emphasizes image and symbol, especially as used thematically and mythically so that a large significance…can be revealed in a seemingly trivial or insignificant incident.’.[8] This is evident in Bliss with the symbolism of the pear tree. The tree is first introduced through the description ‘At the far end, against the wall, there was a tall slender pear tree in fullest richest bloom; it stood perfect…’.[9] Mansfield consistently represents a distance between Bertha and the pear tree which represents her inability to gain full understanding of its meaning. The metaphorical meaning of the pear tree is not explicit within the text, yet the protagonist’s initially blissful state causes her to assume it is ‘a symbol of her own life.’.[10] Yet when admiring the pear tree with Pearl, a women who Bertha’s feeling towards are ambiguous, Mansfield describes the tree in terms of fire and heat imagery. Mansfield uses the simile ‘like the flame of a candle, to stretch up…to grow taller and taller as they gazed – almost to touch the rim of the round, silver moon.’.[11] The presentation of a growing fire and the presentation of the women physically ‘side by side’, connected through plural pronouns such as ‘they’ and ‘their’, it appears that Mansfield is suggesting a shared and growing passion between the two women. In light of this, the positioning of the pear tree at the furthest part of the garden from her suggests Bertha’s inability to express or engage in these repressed homosexual feelings.

In Mansfield’s Bliss there is ambiguity surrounding the nature of Bertha’s fascination with Pearl which the narrative length and abrupt ending do not allow to come to pass fully. The narrator informs the reader that ‘Bertha had fallen in love with her, as always did fall in love with beautiful women who had something strange about them.’. [12] The notion of love when framed against the claim that Pearl is ‘strange’ could imply her strangeness is derived from awareness of her homosexual tendencies, tendencies which would have been considered taboo for much of Mansfield’s contemporary audience. However, this strangeness may also allude to a mild jealously Bertha has for this more interesting and exotic women. Bertha associates Pearl with symbols of modernity, for example she makes the statement that Pearl ‘lives in taxis.’. [13] By aligning Pearl with modern life she is demonstrating an independence the ‘strange’ woman enjoys that middle-class family life would not allow. Despite Bertha’s claim of happiness she describes how she and Harry ‘had this absolutely satisfactory house and garden.’.[14] The use of the unemotive adjective ‘satisfactory’ implies a lack of excitement in her life, something that is furthered through the short story as it follows the mundane social gathering. This notion of mediocrity of Bertha’s life is reinforced by her husband’s unimpassioned compliment that her soufflé was ‘very admirable’.[15] This notion of jealousy is supported by the discovery of Pearl’s affair with Harry as Bertha had previously claimed that her and her husband ‘were as much in love as ever…’.[16] Nonetheless, after the discovery of the affair Bertha remains calm and continues to engage in menial conversation with Eddie. It is only when Pearl initiates physical contact and holds ‘her hand a moment longer…’ that Bertha is overwhelmed with emotion and runs to the window to see her beloved pear tree.[17] It appears that the reader, the narrator and Bertha do not have full understanding at the end of the short story. Warde argues ‘these stories also contain tremendously complex internal structures, growing out of and reflecting the growing problems of the twentieth-century experience.’[18] These unresolved ambiguities make Bliss enigmatic in itself and Mansfield, by ending the short stories before understanding is complete, leaves the ending not confined to one concrete finish but multiple possible endings.

Beckett utilises the narrative restrictions of short story to leave the reader with a complex amalgamation of allusions and intense descriptions of Belacqua’s meal preparation and consumption without explanation of how they link until the abrupt ending. Beckett presents Belacqua struggling with the translation of the Italian ‘pietà’, unfortunately he discovers that there is no direct translation into English, it can only be translated as either pity or piety. This encompasses Belacqua’s struggle between understanding the text in a poetic way or in a religious way. This concept of pity is something that is alluded to elsewhere in the text and subconsciously concerns Belacqua despite having allegedly ‘switched his mind off its task’.[19] During the description of Belacqua’s various gastronomical exploits the narrative is interrupted with allusions to the imminent execution of a murderer named McCabe. There is an inherent violence in the description of Belacqua’s toast making process, the narrative describes how ‘he would very quickly that fat white look off its face…’ and how the bread needed to be ‘done to a dead end…’.[20] Beyond this violence, Belacqua attributes life-like attributes to his food. Belacqua makes reference to the bread’s ‘face’ and describing how the gorgonzola was ‘sweating’ and ‘alive’, these life-like attributes are framed as what he finds appealing in his food. Beckett’s presentation of Belacqua’s unusually violent approach to his food and his preoccupation with the translation of ‘pietà’ is only understood as the short story ends. Up until this point comments on McCabe have been subtly filtered through the narrative, yet now he considers ‘poor McCabe’ whilst ‘gripping his parcel’ containing the lobster and pondering the question ‘Why not piety and pity both, even down below?’.[21] In light of the imminent death of McCabe following his petition for mercy being rejected, and the painful death of the lobster, the inability to translate ‘pietà’ is given meaning. Slote argues Belacqua ‘would be unstuck if there would be a word that would mean both pity and piety…But, as it is, there is not, as is evinced in the lobster’s slow death.’.[22]

The abrupt departure from the short story mirrors the reader’s abrupt entrance into the protagonist’s day. The complex narrative technique Beckett employs in Dante and the Lobster contributes to its enigmatic quality. The narrator’s voice and the protagonist’s voice are often conflated and it difficult to determine whose thoughts are being presented. Occasionally Belacqua’s thoughts are expressed explicitly ‘So, he thought, having regulated the flow of the grill…’, yet at other points the narration is focalised through Belacqua and the other characters, and less frequently the narrator’s own voice is presented ‘I need scarcely say…’. Notably it is the narrator’s voice that interrupts the narrative which causes the short story to abruptly end. As Belacqua fails to understand the passages of Dante’s The Divine Comedy, he also fails to comprehend the method by which lobsters are cooked. Despite realising the painful way in which the lobster will come to its end, for Belacqua the revelation is not fully complete as he naively thinks it will be a ‘quick death’, something that the narrator interrupts the story to aggressively rebuke. The narrator informs the reader that Belacqua’s wishful thinking is wholly incorrect with the monosyllabic ‘It is not.’. It is only with the interruption of the narrative through the narrator’s voice that offers absolute understanding of the cruelty of the cooking process.

Abrupt endings allow the modernist writer to make a comment through structure and form that the length of narration does not allow. Full understanding of events would attribute a completeness that may not necessarily be desired. Part of the enigmatic quality of modernist short stories arises from the author’s inability to fully express controversial thought and practices within the narrative because of the time period in which they were writing. William Warde writes of how writers such as Mansfield have adopted the Chekhovian “slice-of-life” style of short story ‘which reflect the confusing and complex formlessness of life itself; yet in their unique view of reality these stories imply a conscious plotting that is not antithetical to the view of plots with beginnings, middles and ends.’[23] The enigmatic quality of short stories attributes it a sense of realism, and the abrupt end solidifies the presentation of the unpredictable and complex nature of human existence.

Bibliography

Beckett, S. ‘Dante and the Lobster’ in Evergreen Review,vo.1, No.1(1957) https://evergreenreview.com/read/dante-and-the-lobster/ (Last accessed 16/1/19)

Childs, P. (2011) Modernist Literature: A Guide for the Perplexed, (London: Contimuum International Publishing Group)

Mansfield, K. ‘Bliss’ in Katherine Mansfield’s Selected Stories, ed. O’Sullivan, V. (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2006) pp.145-155

Head, D. (2009) The Modernist Short Story: A study in theory and practice, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)

Kermode, F. (1967) The Sense of an Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction, (New York: Oxford University Press)

Slote, S. (2010) ‘Stuck in Translation: Beckett and Borges on Dante’, Journal of Beckett Studies, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp.15-28

Warde, W. B. (1976) ‘The Short Story: Structure of a New Genre’, The South Central Bulletin, Vol. 36, No. 4, pp.155-157

Short and Long Term Effects of Japan’s Occupation of Korea

RQ: What were the short-term and long-term political, social, and economic effects during the occupation of Korea by Japan from 1910-1945? 

 

Argument: Although the horrific acts of the Japanese people almost destroyed the Korean people as a nation, Korea emerged from this time of struggle stronger than ever.  Now, they are ranked 12th in the GDP Ranking of the World after only 70 years of rebuilding themselves.

Organization:

–          Short-term social effect: Koreans were not allowed to speak their language in schools and were abused in their own country-including forceful worship of Japanese gods and women served as sex slaves (400)

–          Short-term economic effect: Korea was modernized but was still under the control of the Japanese (400)

–          Long-term political effect: 3 separate sovereign nations now because the government was torn, Korea was split into North and South (400)

–          Long-term social effect: Koreans who still remember their past experiences still carry negative sentiments towards Japanese people but the younger generation is more tolerant (400)

–          Long-term economic effect: Since then, South Korea’s economy has skyrocketed and is now the 4th richest nation in Asia (North Korea has not prospered as much) (400)

–          Korea’s influence (K-pop, K-drama, food, Olympics) (200)

–          The current relationship between Korea and Japan (200)

–          Restatement of argument and conclusion (200)

 

Thesis:

–          Although the Korean people/identities were destroyed during the Japanese occupation through means of government takeover, social abuse, economic restrictions, and causing a political split, they rebuilt themselves and are now one of the most influential nations in the world

Introduction:

 Korea, otherwise known as “The Hermit Kingdom”, was a targeted nation throughout much of history.  Mongolia, China, Japan, and other nations surrounding the small country sought to invade and take from it.  Suffering from numerous invasions and destruction, Chosun (Korea’s dynasty at the time) closed its borders.  When European nations during the Age of Exploration who sought to trade and conquer were met with Chosun’s seclusion, they dubbed the tiny nation “The Hermit Kingdom”.  Despite this, Korea still faced invasion and attack from outside forces until 1910, where they underwent the most devastating invasion of all.  The Japanese Empire, through years of intimidation, annexed Korea.  The Korean people’s identities were shattered and they were abused in their own homes.  The invasion left Korea completely changed forever.  For 35 years, the Korean people suffered.  But in 1945, Korea was liberated as a result of the end of WWII.  With Korea left without a leader, many parties scrambled to be on top.  There were two leaders who rose up and represented different ideals.  Kim Il Sung, from the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, and Syngman Rhee, from the Republic of Korea.  The two sides fought during the Korean War.  This led to the split of Korea; the creation of the North and the South.  The war ended in an armistice that lasted for many years.  Despite these setbacks, the Korean people persevered and now, South Korea has become one of the wealthiest nations in the world.  Just a couple of years ago, even the thought of North Korea and South Korea coming together to meet was unheard of.  Recently, not only has North Korea been more open and engaged in the international community, they have had several meetings with both South Korea and the US.  The Korean people are a reflection of how people can recover despite past struggles and hardships.  Although the Korean people/identities were destroyed during the Japanese occupation through means of government takeover, social abuse, economic restrictions, and a political split, they rebuilt themselves to be one of the most influential nations in the world.  In this Extended Essay, I will address the question: What were the short-term and long-term political, social, and economic effects during the occupation of Korea by Japan from 1910-1945? 

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 In order to analyze the effects of the occupation, one must understand the history and background of Japan and Korea’s relationship.  For centuries, the two nations fought and rarely got along.  Japan was more powerful and had a greater army than Korea did.  As a result, it was Japan who sought dominance over the small hermit kingdom.  Tensions between the two nations were always high and many wars ensued.  Despite the efforts to resist control, Korea (known as Joseon at the time) started to fall into Japan’s hands during the Kanghwa Treaty of 1876 (explain).  Since Korea followed the isolationist policy, they blocked out all foreign ideas and culture from their kingdom.  But many Western nations sought to trade with them during the mid-nineteenth century.  Initially, Korea was under the protection of China.  China did not force their militaries or government over Korea and let Korea rule themselves somewhat autonomously.  However, China was falling to Western influence.  The Opium Wars reduced China’s large kingdom down to half.  Korea, seeing this, turned to Japan for protection.   At the same time, Japan was also falling under Western influence.  So, Japan used the Kanghwa Treaty to garner more control of Korea just as Westerners did to them.  They wanted to remove Chinese influence in Korea to make occupation easier for them. 

From 1904-1905, the Japanese and Russians fought the Russo-Japanese War.  Czar Nicholas of Russia sought to use Korea’s peninsula as a navy and trade base.  But the Japanese were afraid of growing Russian influence and wanted to stop them.  This war was seen as one of the final catalysts of Japan’s occupation of Korea. 

In 1905, Japan and the US signed the Taft-Katsura Agreement.  At this point, Japan was the only nation fighting for the rule of Korea.  The Taft-Katsura Agreement allowed the US to recognize Japan’s colonization over Korea and in turn, Japan’s recognition of the US’s takeover in the Philippines.  The Koreans felt that this violated the previously agreed Korean-American Treaty of Amity and Commerce of 1882 (explain).  The US indirectly allowed Japan to take control of Korea because the treaty promised peace between them.  But with the Taft-Katsura Agreement, this peace was broken by a third party (Japan). 

Eventually, this led to the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty of 1910 and started the era of desolation for Koreans.  Essentially, Japan tried to steal Korea’s identity.  The Annexation Treaty stated that the Emperor of Korea had to give full sovereignty over to the Emperor of Japan.  How did Japan establish full control over Korea?  By targeting their culture.  The Korean people could not speak their language and hundreds of thousands of historical documents were burned.  Many Korean women were turned into sex slaves for the Japanese military.  Japan stole Korea’s land by settling and growing new trees/plants in place of Korea’s natural and indigenous environment.  Even Korea’s religion was targeted.  Japan forced Koreans to worship their gods in order to fully assimilate and change them.  Korean names were changed to fit Japanese names.  It wasn’t Korea anymore, it was a colony of Japan. 

 Although Japan had complete control over Korea, the hermit kingdom was not planning to go down without a fight.  During the 35 years Japan occupied Korea, there was a series of unsuccessful resistance movements led by those desperate for liberation.  The first of many revolts was the March 1st Movement.  In 1919, 33 activists gathered and read off grievances against the Japanese government to protest.  They claimed that the Japanese were destroying the Korean identity and stealing what was once theirs.  Some grievances included discrimination, heavy taxes, and suppressed Korean language and culture.  The March 1st Movement sparked the Korean Independence Movement.  From then on, there were many liberation-focused groups fighting for independence.  Religious parties (Catholics, Methodists, and Presbyterians) created liberation armies such as the Donghak Peasant Revolution and the Korean Independence Army to combat the Japanese.  However, many of these resistance fighters were massacred by Japanese soldiers.  The soldiers wanted to suppress the Korean identity and turn them into slaves for Japan.  Almost 2,000,000 Korean people participated in 1,500 protests.  7,000 were killed, 16,000 were wounded, and almost 1,000 Korean buildings were burned down.  The March 1st Movement had such a great impact on the liberation era in Korea that it became a holiday in both the North and the South.

 The short-term political effect of the Japanese takeover of Korea was that at the time, Korea’s government was run by Japanese officials.  In 1895, the last Queen of Korea, Empress Myeongseong (otherwise known as Queen Min), was assassinated.  Due to Japanese influence and fear of takeover, Queen Min was desperate for an ally.  She turned to Russia and tried to gain favor from them to aid Korea in the struggle against Japan.  When the Japanese found out of Queen Min’s resistance efforts, a man named Miura Goro enacted “Operation Fox Hunt”.  The plan was to enlist both Japanese and traitorous Korean assassins to kill Queen Min.  Following the assassination, Emperor Gojong (Queen Min’s husband) founded the Korean Empire.  This new era took the place of the Joseon Dynasty and was an effort to modernize and Westernize Korea.  However, with constant economic and military pressure from the Japanese, the Korean Empire was quickly dissolved.  With the Taft-Katsura Treaty in 1905, Korea was made a protectorate of Japan.  Japan sought to implement many reforms in Korea with the intent of decreasing Korea’s power.  One such reform was the reduction of the Korean Army.  Military units spread throughout Korea were eliminated and the army was reduced.  By doing this, Japan removed any possibility of a rebellion and resistance of Korean forces.  After 1906, Japan’s employment rate in Korea’s government skyrocketed.  In 1908, 40.7% of government officials were Japanese.  With the new governmental reforms, Japan created new positions and kicked out old Korean officials.  Koreans who spoke Japanese were given priority in government jobs as an effort to gradually integrate the Japanese language into Korean society.  By doing so, they carved away a bit of the Korean people’s identity over time.  Seven out of thirteen governors were replaced and out of 143 magistrates, 49 were removed, 44 were appointed, and 27 transferred to other parts of the government.  In 1909, Japan also had the policy to have at least one Japanese official in each magistracy.  Japan also centralized the government to have a more concentrated influence over institutions like the court and police.  The Japanese gendarmerie took over Korea’s policing power and each prefecture had a head inspector.  In 1910, Japan successfully annexed Korea with the Japan-Korea Treaty.  In the treaty, it stated that “His Majesty the Emperor of Korea concedes completely and definitely his entire sovereignty over the whole Korean territory to His Majesty the Emperor of Japan.” and that “His Majesty the Emperor of Japan accepts the concession stated in the preceding article and consents to the annexation of Korea to the Empire of Japan.”.  The treaty was agreed upon through force.  Emperor Gojong had no intention of signing it but had no choice.  He was powerless against the Japanese influence and strength.  The police and military had immense power.  Many future laws and regulations were implemented by force.  At this point, much of the country was run by the gendarmerie and military.   This was only a short-term effect because the government takeover ended in 1945.  However, it still made an enormous impact on Korea.  For the time, the Korean people were oppressed and powerless.  Because its core strength, its government, was eliminated, the Koreans could do nothing. 

The short-term social effect of the occupation was the broken Korean identity.  The Japanese wanted to assimilate the Koreans as best they could to absorb them as part of themselves. 

The heart of a nation is its language.  When Japan occupied Korea, one of the first things they did was to subdue the Korean language.  One way of doing this was through censorship through the Advisory Police Board.  This committee was created in 1906 “to examine the draft of each paper or to prohibit the publication of the same if facts were misinterpreted or comments made injurious to public peace”.  In 1907, the Shinmun Ji Bop, or Newspaper Law, created restrictions on Korea’s freedom of the press.  The law allowed Japanese officials to seize and check newspapers.  Every newspaper required permission from the Minister of Home Affairs in order to be published.  Since Korean newspapers were censored, many were discontinued.  Only one, the Taehan Maeil Sinbo continued to deliver news in Korean.  From 1910-1921, the Japanese burned 200,000 ancient Korean historical texts.  These records were lost and much of the historical information we have today is written by others like the Japanese, not the Koreans.  Another way the Japanese restricted the Korean language was by limiting speaking Korean in schools.  While the language was still allowed, Korean was only allowed in the Korean language classes.  Many businesses and shops had signs in Japanese as well.  In 1937, Japanese officials decreed that students could not speak Korean in schools and that all classes were to be taught in Japanese.  In 1939, Sōshi-kaimei, or the changing of the family name, was implemented by the Japanese.  Sōshi-kaimei pressured Koreans to change their last names to a Japanese one.  Nearly 84% of Korean families chose to do so in order to escape Japanese discrimination.  The Japanese tried to assimilate Korea even through religion.  In 1925, they forced Korean students to worship at Shinto Shrines.  The National Mobilization Law of 1938 forced Christians to bow down to idols through military threat.  This forced worship destroyed the Korean’s religion and culture.  By worshipping other gods, the Christian God’s laws were disobeyed.  But they could do nothing, they were physically forced to worship.  Those who did not were sent to prison.  The Japanese people thought of this as uniting the Korean and Japanese together as part of their “Korea and the Homeland, Together, as One” campaign.  Buildings were demolished and built in Shinto-style to further weaken Christianity’s image.  Perhaps the most devastating social effect the occupation had on the Korean people were the use of sex slaves. 

Andrea Matles Savada and William Shaw, editors. South Korea: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1990.

NAME CHANGE AND SHINTO SHRINES

 

Effect of Short Range Correlation

The effect of short range correlation on the nuclear charge density distribution, elastic and inelastic electron scattering coulomb form factors of 16O nucleus
Abdullah S. Mdekil
Abstract
The effect of the short range correlation on the charge density disribution, elastic electron scattering form factors and inelastic Coulomb form factors is studied for the two excited states (6.92 and 11.52 MeV) in is analyzed. This effect (which depends on the correlation parameter) is inserted into the ground state charge density distribution through the Jastrow type correlation function. The single particle harmonic oscillator wave function is used with an oscillator size parameter The parameters and are considered as free parameters, adjusted for each excited state separately so as to reproduce the experimental root mean square charge radius of In inelastic coulomb (longitidinal) form factors of 16O, two different models are employed for . In the first model (model A), is considered as a closed shell nucleus. Here, the model space in does not contribute to the transition charge density, because there are no protons outside the closed shell nucleus . In the second model (model B), the nucleus of is assumed as a core of with 2 protons and 2 neutrons move in and model space. It is found that the introduction of the effect of short range correlations is necessary for obtaining a remarkable modification in the calculated inelastic Coulomb form factors and considered as an essential for explanation the data amazingly throughout the whole range of considered momentum transfer.
Keywords: charge density distribution, elastic charge form factors, inelastic longitudinal form factors, short range correlation.
1-Introduction
Electron scattering provides more accurate information about the nuclear structure for example size and charge distribution. It provides important knowledge about the electromagnetic currents inside the nuclei. Electron scattering have been provided a good test for such evaluation since it is sensitive to the spatial dependence on the charge and current densities [1, 2, 3].
Depending on the electron scattering, one can distinguish two types of scattering: in the first type, the nucleus is left in its ground state, that is called “elastic electron scattering” while in the second type, the nucleus is left on its different excited states, this is called “inelastic electron scattering” [4, 5].
In the studies of Massen et al. [6-8], the factor cluster expansion of Clark and co-workers [9-11] was utilized to derive an explicit form of the elastic charge form factor, truncated at the two-body term. This form, which is a sum of one- and two-body terms, depends on the harmonic oscillator parameter and the correlation parameter through a Jastrow-type correlation function [12]. This form is employed for the evaluation of the elastic charge form factors of closed shell nuclei and in an approximate technique (that is, for the expansion of the two-body terms in powers of the correlation parameter, only the leading terms had been kept) for the open and shell nuclei. Subsequently, Massen and Moustakidis [13] performed a systematic study of the effect of the SRC on and shell nuclei with entirely avoiding the approximation made in their earlier works outlined in [6-8] for the open shell nuclei. Explicit forms of elastic charge form factors and densities were found utilizing the factor cluster expansion of Clark and co-workers and Jastrow correlation functions which introduce the SRC. These forms depends on the single particle wave functions and not on the wave functions of the relative motion of two nucleons as was the case of our previous works [14-20] and other works [6,21,22].
It is important to point out that all the above studies were concerned with the analysis of the effect of the SRC on the elastic electron scattering charge form factors of nuclei.
There has been no detailed investigation for the effect of the SRC on the inelastic electron scattering form factors of nuclei. We thus, in the present work, perform calculations with inclusion this effect on the inelastic Coulomb form factors for closed shell nucleus. As a test case, the is considered in this study. To study the effect of SRC (which depends on the correlation parameter on the inelastic electron scattering charge form factors of considered nucleus, we insert this effect on the ground state charge density distribution through the Jastrow type correlation function [12]. The single particle harmonic oscillator wave function is used in the present calculations with an oscillator size parameter The effect of SRC on the inelastic Coloumb form factors for the two excited states (6.92 and 11.52 MeV) in is analyzed.
2. Theory
Inelastic electron scattering longitudinal (Coulomb) form factor involves angular momentum and momentum transfer and is given by [23]
(1)
where and are the initial and final nuclear states (described by the shell model states of spin and isospin ), is the longitudinal electron scattering operator, is the center of mass correction (which removes the spurious states arising from the motion of the center of mass when shell model wave function is used), is the nucleon finite size correction and assumed to be the same for protons and neutrons, A is the nuclear mass number, is the atomic number and is the harmonic oscillator size parameter.
The form factor of eq.(1) is expressed via the matrix elements reduced in both angular momentum and isospin [24]
(2)
where in eq. (2), the bracket ( ) is the three- symbol, where and are restricted by the following selection rule:

(3)
and is given by
The reduced matrix elements in spin and isospin space of the longitudinal operator between the final and initial many particles states of the system including configuration mixing are given in terms of the one-body density matrix (OBDM) elements times the single particle matrix elements of the longitudinal operator [25]
(4)
where and label single particle states (isospin included) for the shell model space. The in eq. (4) is calculated in terms of the isospin-reduced matrix elements as [26]
(5)
where is the isospin operator of the single particle.
(6)
The model space matrix element, in eq. (6), is given by
(7)
where is the spherical Bessel function and is the model space transition charge density, expressed as the sum of the product of the times the single particle matrix elements, given by [26].
(8)
Here, is the radial part of the harmonic oscillator wave function and is the spherical harmonic wave function.
The core-polarization matrix element, in eq. (6), is given by
(9)
where is the core-polarization transition charge density which depends on the model used for core polarization. To take the core-polarization effects into consideration, the model space transition charge density is added to the core-polarization transition charge density that describes the collective modes of nuclei. The total transition charge density becomes
(10)
According to the collective modes of nuclei, the core polarization transition charge density is assumed to have the form of Tassie shape [27]
(11)
where is the proportionality constant given by [14]
(12)
which can be determind by adusting the reduced transition probability to the experimental value, and is the ground state charge density distribution of considered nuclei.
For the ground state charge densities of closed shell nuclei may be related to the ground state point nucleon densities by [28, 29]
(13)
in unit of electronic charge per unit volume (e.fm-3).
An expression of the correlated density (where the effect of the SRC’s is included), consists of one- and two-body terms, is given by [13]
(14)
where is the normalization factor and is the one body density operator given by
(15)
The correlated density of eq. (14), which is truncated at the two-body term and originated by the factor cluster expansion of Clark and co-workers [10-12], depends on the correlation parameter through the Jastrow-type correlation
(16)
where is a state-independent correlation function, which has the following properties: for large values of and for It is so clear that the effect of SRC’s, inserted by the function becomes large for small values of SRC parameter and vice versa.
The one-body term, in eq. (14), is well known and given by
(17)
where is the occupation probability of the state and is the radial part of the single particle harmonic oscillator wave function.
The two-body term, in eq. (14), is given by [13]
(18)
where
(19)
The form of the two-body term is then originated by expanding the factor in the spherical harmonics and expressed as [13]
(20)
where
(21)
and is the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients.
It is important to point out that the expressions of eqs. (17) And (20) are originated for closed shell nuclei with where the occupation probability is 0 or 1. To extend the calculations for isotopes of closed shell nuclei, the correlated charge densities of these isotopes are characterized by the same expressions of eqs. (17) and (20) (this is because all isotopic chain nuclei have the same atomic number but this time different values for the parameters and are utilized.
The mean square charge radii of nuclei are defined by
(22)
where the normalzation of the charge density distribution is given by
(23)
3-Results and discussion
The ground state CDD is calculated by eq.(13) together with eqs. (14), (17) and (20). The calculated CDD without (with) the effect of the SRC [i.e., when the correlation parameter is obtained by adjusting only the parameter (the two parameters and ) so as to reproduce the experimental root mean square (rms) charge radii of nuclei under study. The elastic electron scattering charge form factors which is simply the Fourier transform of the ground state CDD.
In Fig. 1, we compare the calculated CDD [Fig. 1(a)] and elastic charge form factors [Fig. 1(b)] of with those of experimental data (the open circles). In Fig. 1, we compare the calculated CDD [Fig. 1 (a)] and elastic charge form factors [Fig. 1 (b)] of with those of experimental data (the open circles). The dashed curves are the calculated results without the inclusion of the effect of the SRC obtained with and fm. The solid curves are the calculated results with including the effect of the SRC obtained with fm-2 and fm. It is important to point out that the parameters and employed in the calculations of the dashed and solid curves are chosen so as to reproduce the experimental rms charge radius of Fig. 1 (a) illustrates that the calculated CDD of the dashed curve (without the effect of the SRC) is in such a good agreement with that of the experimental data, and the solid curve (with the effect of the SRC) is not in such a good agreement with that of the experimental data, especially in the central region ( fm) of the distributions. The inclusion of SRC has the feature of reducing the central region of the distribution as seen in the solid curve of this figure. Inspection to the Fig. 1 (b) gives an indication that the solid curve is better describing the experimental data than that of the dashed curve, particularly in the region of momentum transfer fm-1. The rms charge radius calculated with the above values of and is 2.621 fm, which is less than the experimental value by 0.097fm, which corresponds to a decrease of nearly 3.6 % of the experimental value.

Fig. 1. The calculated CDD and elastic charge form factors are compared with those of experimental data. The dashed curve corresponds to the values for the parameters and fm, the solid curve corresponds to the values for the parameters fm-2 and fm while the open circles and the triangles in Figs. 1 (a) and 1 (b) are the experimental data taken from [30] and [31], respectively.
The effect of the SRC on the inelastic Coulomb form factors is studied for the two excited states (6.92 and 11.52 MeV) in. Core polarization effects are taken into consideration by means of the Tassie model [eq. (11)], where this model depends on the ground state charge density distribution. The proportionality constant [eq. (12)] is estimated by adjusting the reduced transition probability to the experimental value. The effect of the SRC is incorporated into the ground state charge density distribution through the Jastrow type correlation function [12]. The single particle harmonic oscillator wave function is employed with an oscillator size parameter
The charge density distribution calculated without the effect of the SRC depends only on one free parameter (namely the parameter), where is chosen in such away so as to reproduce the experimental rms charge radii of considered nuclei. The charge density distribution calculated with the effect of the SRC depends on two free parameters (namely the harmonic oscillator size parameter and the correlation parameter), where these parameters are adjusted for each excited state separately so as to reproduce the experimental rms charge radii of considered nuclei.
Two different models are employed for. In the first model (model A), is considered as a closed shell nucleus. In this model, the proton occupation probabilities in are assumed to be and Here, the model space in does not contribute to the transition charge density [i.e. ], because there are no protons outside the closed shell nucleus . Accordingly, the Coloumb form factors of come entirely from the core polarization transition charge density. In the second model (model B), the nucleus of is assumed as a core of with 2 protons and 2 neutrons move in and model space. In this model, the proton occupation probabilities in are assumed to be and Here, the total transition charge density [eq. (10)] comes from both the model space and core polarization transition charge densities. The OBDM elements of are generated, via the shell model code OXBASH [32], using the REWIL [33] as a realistic effective interaction in the isospin formalism for 4 particles move in the and model space with a core.
In Table 1, the experimental excitation energies (MeV), experimental reduced transition probabilities (fm) and the chosen values for the parameters and for each excited state (used in the calculations of model A and B) in and are displayed. The root mean square (rms) charge radius calculated in both models with the effect of SRC is also displayed in this table and compared with that of experimental result. It is evident from this table that the values of the parameter employed for calculations with the effect of SRC are smaller than that of without SRC ( fm) . This is attributed to the fact that the introduction of SRC leads to enlarge the relative distance of the nucleons (i.e., the size of the nucleus) whereas the parameter (which is proportional to the radius of the nucleus) should become smaller so as to reproduce the experimental rms charge radius of the considered nuclei.
Inelastic Coloumb form factors for different transitions in are displayed in Figs. 1 and 2. The calculated inelastic form factors obtained with model A are shown in the upper panel [Figs. 1(a)-2(a)] of the above figures whereas those obtained with model B are shown in the lower panel [Figs. 1(b)- 2(b)] of the above figures. It is obvious that all transitions considered in, presented in the above figures, are of an isoscalar character. Besides, the parity of them does not change. Here, the calculated inelastic form factors are plotted versus the momentum transfer and compared with those of experimental data. The dashed and solid curves are the calculated inelastic Coloumb form factors without and with the inclusion of the effect of the SRC, respectively. The open symbols are those of experimental data taken from [34, 35].
Table1. The experimental excitation energies and reduced transition probabilities, the chosen values for and as well as the rms charge radius calculated with the effect of the SRC of 16O.

Long Term And Short Term Goals General Studies Essay

Long term goals could be described as a desired end effect for example; becoming a computer engineer is a long term goal for someone not in a related field. A good example of a short term goal would be that a person needs to fulfill an academic process giving that person the tools to obtain that career. Long term goals could be described as destinations and short term goals could be described as the route taken to lead someone to their destination.
Values control a person’s life rules therefore dictating their options for long term goals. Values are very important to goal setting because it is a part of what drives a person to decide on what their long term goals are and what they will do to achieve those goals as well as act as a motivator to drive them to complete their goals.
Creating short term goals are like plotting a route on a map. Once you have determined a person’s long term goals it is important to set waypoints to guide that person to their destination. This is how setting short term goals should be approached. There are similar systems for planning in the military called backwards planning. It is helpful to work backwards from your long term goals. For example; to get a job at a software firm a person must have a degree in a field needed by the software firm. To get a degree one must go to school and pass all the required classes to obtain the degree. In order to pass the classes that person must sign up for those classes. From this point the short term goals start to appear more like daily tasks, this is because short term goals can vary from daily to weekly to monthly.
Some tactics used to achieving these goals are to define in detail goals that a person wants to achieve both short and long term this includes creating a time table for that person to check their progress and to see where they stand. It is also important to have partners that can help keep one another accountable for reaching their goals. Personally, this is a good tactic because people can help each other to strategize and brainstorm to create better detail for their goals. Finally it is important to anticipate problems; this is done by reviewing goals and developments that may impact progress. If a problem can be anticipated it a person has more time to react and adjust or prepare for a possible hitch in their plan.

Check Point: Creating Goals.

Objective of Exercise: Creating Goals
Review the reading and respond to the following questions in a 350- to 500-word response to the Individual forum by Week 5 Day 4.

What is the difference between short- and long-term goals?

How does a person align his or her long-term goals to their personal values?

What are some strategies for prioritizing short-term goals?

What are some techniques for maintaining focus to achieve goals?

40 Points Possible

Points Possible

Points Earned

Comments

Identify the difference between short- and long-term goals?

10

10

Describes how a person aligns his or her long-term goals to their personal values?

10

10

Describe some strategies for prioritizing short-term goals?

10

10

List some techniques for maintaining focus to achieve goals?

10

10

Mechanics10 Points Possible

Points Possible

Points Earned

Comments

Rules of grammar, usage and punctuation are followed. Word count is met.

10

10

Total Points

50

50

Submitted on Time:

Adjusted Points

50

Comments:

Feedback: Excellent Robert – You have identified the differences between long and short term goals. How they can be applied and how to maintain focus to reach the goals.

Shelinda –
No Name on Checkpoint

Identify the difference between short- and long-term goals?

10

Describes how a person aligns his or her long-term goals to their personal values?

10

Describe some strategies for prioritizing short-term goals?

10

List some techniques for maintaining focus to achieve goals?

The difference between short-and long term goals is that a short term goal is something you’re planning on doing within the next month and long term goal is what you’re planning on having in the next year or so. I’m going to school now and and in two years i’ll have my degree after that I will be working and saving my money up and in two more years I will have my own beauty shop. I am already doing my short time goal because I gave myself by December to be in college and i’m actually in college, I also plan on maintaining my dreams by never giving up and keep my mind focus on my future.

Check Point: Creating Goals.

Objective of Exercise: Creating Goals
Review the reading and respond to the following questions in a 350- to 500-word response to the Individual forum by Week 5 Day 4.

What is the difference between short- and long-term goals?

How does a person align his or her long-term goals to their personal values?

What are some strategies for prioritizing short-term goals?

What are some techniques for maintaining focus to achieve goals?

40 Points Possible

Points Possible

Points Earned

Comments

Identify the difference between short- and long-term goals?

10

5

Short term goals should not exceed six months. You have at least one stretching out to 2011.

Describes how a person aligns his or her long-term goals to their personal values?

10

0

Not answered

Describe some strategies for prioritizing short-term goals?

10

0

Not answered

List some techniques for maintaining focus to achieve goals?

10

0

Not answered

Mechanics10 Points Possible

Points Possible

Points Earned

Comments

Rules of grammar, usage and punctuation are followed. Word count is met.

10

0

No name on CP -3. Does not meet word count. Typo and word use errors

Total Points

50

5

Submitted on Time:

Adjusted Points

5

Comments:

Feedback: Hi Shelinda – Your short term goals are not specific to your long term goal. Your short term goals reach too far into the future. Please look over the reading material and my handouts regarding goals.

Cindy Ewing
The difference between short- and long-term goals, are that long- term goals are set to be reached in six months or more. A long term goal may be a goal that would take two years. Short-term goals are like taking small steps to get to the end of my long term goal. It is like a baby, one must learn to crawl before one can walk, Taking baby steps before one can run. My goal will be easier to achieve if I take small steps, or set short-term goals.
My personal value is achieving my associate degree. I value this because, it is just for me. It is something that I wanted to do for a long time. I value what my degree will mean to me and where it will take me within the next three years. Along the way I will learn other valuable education tools to reach my goal.
To prioritize my goal, I need to focus on my long-term goal; I need to know what value I have placed on that goal. The value I have placed on my goal is that I will be able to change my career, better myself, and achieve something that I have made excuses for why I could not do it. I need to prioritize my fulltime job, my responsibility of being a manager, my family, my schooling. All of these elements play apart in me achieving my goal. I need to list how much of the extra time I spend at work can I eliminate, I have an assistant, I need to shift some of my duties, my family is my support system, so there is understanding there that my school will take much of my free time.
A friend of mine, they had a goal to buy a house within one year. They taped a picture of a house similar to what was wanted to the refrigerator. This serves as a reminder everyday why a night out, or a weekend get-away, or a shopping spree did not factor in at the time. That goal was reached for them in the time frame that was set. I can do the same with my goal. The career I want after earning my degree can be posted on my refrigerator. This will remind me why I should not do some of the things I have been use to doing. Skip the movies, or watching a television show, beside I can record it for later viewing.
With my values in place, my priorities in order I am sure to succeed in meeting my goal.

Check Point: Creating Goals.

Objective of Exercise: Creating Goals
Review the reading and respond to the following questions in a 350- to 500-word response to the Individual forum by Week 5 Day 4.

What is the difference between short- and long-term goals?

How does a person align his or her long-term goals to their personal values?

What are some strategies for prioritizing short-term goals?

What are some techniques for maintaining focus to achieve goals?

40 Points Possible

Points Possible

Points Earned

Comments

Identify the difference between short- and long-term goals?

10

10

Describes how a person aligns his or her long-term goals to their personal values?

10

10

Describe some strategies for prioritizing short-term goals?

10

10

List some techniques for maintaining focus to achieve goals?

10

10

Mechanics10 Points Possible

Points Possible

Points Earned

Comments

Rules of grammar, usage and punctuation are followed. Word count is met.

10

10

Total Points

50

50

Submitted on Time:

Adjusted Points

50

Comments:

Feedback: Excellent Cindy – You have identified the differences between long and short term goals. How they can be applied and how to maintain focus to reach the goals.

Dreama Lane
The difference from short and long term goals is; short- term goals are stepping stones toward the reach of a long- term goal. As in saying that you will have to break down your plans to reach the full long- term goal; long-term goals are attaining goals over a long period of time. You have to establish determination to make the effort of consistently to reach the goal. A person can align their long- term goals to their personal values by choosing what’s more important in their goals. The more your goals reflects your values, the successful your motivation and desire to meet them.
Some strategies for prioritizing short- term goals are: you can break the goals down in to groups that represent the first important steps of the short- goals. It will show the steps the time frame. Prioritizing will help you evaluate and handle the goals in order. Figure out what goals are very important, weigh your oppositions. By completing the goals you have to be attentive and focus all your energy on them. you can consider the evaluation of your values, your personal dilemma, and time commitments.
After you accomplish the goal you would like to reach, define your goal achievement strategy, what will it take for you to reach your goals. Establishing what you have to do to carry the goal out, if you have to put this goal as first priority keep in mind that you have to take one step at a time.
You can set a time limit for when you want to achieve any goals. Keep track of your progress so you can know how much further you have to go to reach the objective time period. Strive to achieve to move forward no matter what, follow your guide for completion to stay on top, even if you have to mark it down with a check list.
Don’t put all your eggs in one basket, be prepared to have a back up plan, in case your plans don’t fall in order. You will have to re-evaluate your priorities until you can find what works best for you. It’s best to anticipate for minor glitches, follow your steps map out the plan to help you reach the goals.

Check Point: Creating Goals.

Objective of Exercise: Creating Goals
Review the reading and respond to the following questions in a 350- to 500-word response to the Individual forum by Week 5 Day 4.

What is the difference between short- and long-term goals?

How does a person align his or her long-term goals to their personal values?

What are some strategies for prioritizing short-term goals?

What are some techniques for maintaining focus to achieve goals?

40 Points Possible

Points Possible

Points Earned

Comments

Identify the difference between short- and long-term goals?

10

10

Describes how a person aligns his or her long-term goals to their personal values?

10

10

Describe some strategies for prioritizing short-term goals?

10

10

List some techniques for maintaining focus to achieve goals?

10

10

Mechanics10 Points Possible

Points Possible

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Rules of grammar, usage and punctuation are followed. Word count is met.

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8

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Feedback: Excellent Dreama – You have identified the differences between long and short term goals. How they can be applied and how to maintain focus to reach the goals.

Harris Williams
Topic: Goal Setting
A long-term goal is goals that can be achieved in a six-month or longer period. A short-term goal is a goal that is expected to be achieved within 6 months or less. In my opinion, the difference in long and short-term goals is the amount of time that it takes to achieve the goal. For example, if a person is thinking about going back to school to get his or her masters degree, and presently the person only has an associate’s degree. In this scenario, the person’s short-term goal would probably be the steps it would take to enroll at their school of choice. The long-term goal would be to earn the masters degree.
For a person who is seeking to set a long-term goal, it would be a good idea to plan how you plan to achieve your goal. By it being a long-term goal, planning will be very important, because you need to realistically know that your goal can be reached and how you will fit it into your daily schedule.
Some ways to prioritize your short term goals would be to make sure everything else that is of value to you is fitted into your schedule. It is very important to balance out school, work, and family time.
Often times when people set goals, we really intend on achieving them, especially in the beginning, when the goal is set. Some of the goals we set whether long or short are reachable, but there is a valuable step in setting goals that we often do not do, it is called planning. To plan a goal, it would be helpful to write them down, make a few copies of your goals, post your goals in places where you will notice them, always have a realistic goal that is possible to reach. If your goal is impossible to reach, you could be wasting valuable time that could be put into a possible goal. For example, a realistic short-term goal could be to wake up every morning and do ten push-ups before I go to work, this can be achieved. An unrealistic short-term goal would be to get my masters within the next 2 years without an associate’s degree.

Check Point: Creating Goals.

Objective of Exercise: Creating Goals
Review the reading and respond to the following questions in a 350- to 500-word response to the Individual forum by Week 5 Day 4.

What is the difference between short- and long-term goals?

How does a person align his or her long-term goals to their personal values?

What are some strategies for prioritizing short-term goals?

What are some techniques for maintaining focus to achieve goals?

40 Points Possible

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Identify the difference between short- and long-term goals?

10

10

Describes how a person aligns his or her long-term goals to their personal values?

10

10

Describe some strategies for prioritizing short-term goals?

10

10

List some techniques for maintaining focus to achieve goals?

10

10

Mechanics10 Points Possible

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Rules of grammar, usage and punctuation are followed. Word count is met.

10

10

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50

50

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50

Comments:

Feedback: Superb Harris – You have identified the differences between long and short term goals. How they can be applied and how to maintain focus to reach the goals.

Stefanie Wright
The differences in short term goals and long term goals are; long term goals you plan to attain over a period of six months or longer. Short term goals are smaller steps you take to get to your long term goal. A person would align their long term goals to their personal values by establishing what their long term goals are, and applying their personal values to them. For example my long term goal is to further my education and working full-time and being a mom. I have to keep my work ethic in mind as well as my family values in order to manage all three. Some strategies for prioritizing short term goals would be to evaluate everything you want to achieve pick out what goals are most important and focus on those goals. Some techniques for maintaining focus to achieve goals as listed in Keys to College Studying. Define your goal achievement strategy, map out steps and focus on events that are under your control. Set a timetable, make a time line that is realistic that shows specific deadlines. Monitor your progress, compare your planned time line and steps to actually where you’re at see if you need to adjust some things. Be accountable and Responsible, make yourself accountable by reporting to yourself or others to keep on track. Anticipate problem
 

Short Medium And Long Term Sources Of Finance

There are many sources of finance, which would all provide the business with a quick source of money, which will have to be paid back. But the amount the company needs can limit them to a range of sources of finance and methods of repayment e.g. interest. The sources of finance can be split up into three types; long term, medium term and short term. Long term finance is mainly for companies who need a large sum of money, which would be difficult to be paid back, this would be used to provide start-up capital to finance the business for its whole lifespan, finance the purchase of assets with a longer life, such as buildings and provide expansion capital for large projects, such as building a new factory or taking over another business. The repayment as it is so much would be paid over a number of years rather than straight away. Medium term finance is again for high sums of money needed but not as high as long term, these usually would be used to finance the purchase of assets with a two to five year life, such as vehicles and computers, to replace an overdraft which is difficult to clear and is proving expensive and to finance a change in strategy, such as to switch marketing focus from Britain to the whole of Europe etc. But the repayment would be faster than long term, such as in a couple of years etc. Short-term finance is when a company needs money quickly for immediate things, which are temporary; the repayments are much quicker than the others. They would be used to bridge temporary finance gaps, to get through periods when cash flow is poor and to cover temporary needs for extra funds due to unexpected problems or opportunities.
There are possible sources of finance, which available to a Limited company.
Sources of Short-term Finance
There are a number of sources of short-term finance which are listed below:
1. Trade credit
2. Bank credit
– Loans and advances
– Cash credit
– Overdraft
– Discounting of bills
3. Customers’ advances
4. Instalment credit
5. Loans from co-operatives
1. Trade Credit
Trade credit refers to credit granted to manufactures and traders by the suppliers of raw material, finished goods, components, etc.
2. Bank Credit
Commercial banks grant short-term finance to business firms which is known as bank credit.
(i) Loans
When a certain amount is advanced by a bank repayable after a specified period, it is known as bank loan.
.
(ii) Cash Credit
It is an arrangement whereby banks allow the borrower to withdraw money upto a specified limit. This limit is known as cash credit limit. Initially this limit is granted for one year. This limit can be extended after review for another year. However, if the borrower still desires to continue the limit, it must be enewed after three years.
(iii) Overdraft
When a bank allows its depositors or account holders to withdraw money in excess of the balance in his account upto a specified limit, it is known as overdraft facility. This limit is granted purely on the basis of credit-worthiness of the borrower .
(iv) Discounting of Bill
Banks also advance money by discounting bills of exchange, promissory notes and hundies. When these documents are presented before the bank for discounting, banks credit the amount to cutomer’s account after deducting discount.
3. Customers’ Advances
Sometimes businessmen insist on their customers to make some advance payment. It is generally asked when the value of order is quite large or things ordered are very costly. Customers’ advance represents a part of the payment towards price on the product (s) which will be delivered at a later date.
4. Instalment credit
Instalment credit is now-a-days a popular source of finance for consumer goods like television, refrigerators as well as for industrial goods.
5. Loans from Co-operative Banks
Co-operative banks are a good source to procure short-term finance. Such banks have been established at local, district and state levels. District Cooperative Banks are the federation of primary credit societies.
18.5 Merits and Demerits of Short-term Finance
Short-term loans help business concerns to meet their temporary requirements of money. They do not create a heavy burden of interest on the organisation. But sometimes organisations keep away from such loans because of uncertainty and other reasons. Let us examine the merits and demerits of short-term finance.
Merits of short-term finance
a) Economical : Finance for short-term purposes can be arranged at a short notice and does not involve any cost of raising. The amount of interest payable is also affordable. It is, thus, relatively more economical to raise short-term finance.
b) Flexibility : Loans to meet short-term financial need can be raised as and when required. These can be paid back if not required. This provides flexibility.
c) No interference in management : The lenders of short-term finance cannot interfere with the management of the borrowing concern. The management retain their freedom in decision making.
d) May also serve long-term purposes : Generally business firms keep on renewing short-term credit, e.g., cash credit is granted for one year but it can be extended upto 3 years with annual review.
After three years it can be renewed. Thus, sources of short-term finance may sometimes provide funds for long-term purposes.
Demerits of short-term finance
Short-term finance suffers from a few demerits which are listed below:
a) Fixed Burden : Like all borrowings interest has to be paid on short-term loans irrespective of profit or loss earned by the organisation. That is why business firms use short-term finance only for temporary purposes.
b) Charge on assets : Generally short-term finance is raised on the basis of security of moveable assets. In such a case the borrowing concern cannot raise further loans against the security of these assets nor can these be sold until the loan is cleared (repaid).
c) Difficulty of raising finance : When business firms suffer intermittent losses of huge amount or market demand is declining or industry is in recession, it loses its creditworthiness. In such circumstances they find it difficult to borrow from banks or other sources of short-term finance.
d) Uncertainty : In cases of crisis business firms always face the uncertainty of securing funds from sources of short-term finance. If the amount of finance required is large, it is also more uncertain
to get the finance.
e) Legal formalities : Sometimes certain legal formalities are to be complied with for raising finance from short-term sources. If shares are to be deposited as security, then transfer deed must be prepared.
Medium term finance
Bank term loan – This is possibly the simplest form of loans available to businesses. The average bank manager dealing with a medium sized firm and responsible to head office for the performance of the branch uses a set of well-defined criteria when making a loan. A bank loan is for a fixed amount at a fixed rate of interest. There is likely to be a demand for regular payments.
The advantages of a bank term loan is that financial planning is made easier as repayments are made in regular instalments and the interest rate are often fixed, but the disadvantages are the smaller the business the higher rates paid due to presenting a higher risk of things going wrong.
Long term Finance
Sale of Shares – This is the issuing of shares of the business to other investors who want to buy into the company.
The main advantage of issuing shares is that the shareholders have limited liability if the business fails. Personal possessions are not at risk and their liability is limited to the actual capital invested. Also the capital is raised by issuing shares (which are a proportion of what the company is worth) to investors, who are encouraged to buy by the promise of receiving dividends or profits on their shares. Also shares can be sold as preference shares which offer a fixed return as profits change from year to year, according to how well the company has done.

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The disadvantages of selling shares are the administrative costs of issuing shares are high. Also it is difficult to estimate the market price of shares, though this problem can be avoided if tender issues them, where investors state how much they are willing to pay for them. Also the price of the shares can go up or down and shareholders may have to sell at a lower price than they bought it. Also the shares of an Ltd will have to be sold privately, which costs money and investors would might not want to invest due to the lack of hassle from buying into a Plc.
Reinvested Profits – This is the money that the business makes being re-invested into the business to aid its plans.
The advantage of this is capital can be raised by the company reinvesting or ploughing back the profits made at the end of the year, after expenses and dividends to shareholders have been paid.
The disadvantage of this is profits may be scare or non-existent, especially in times of recession.
Mortgage Loans – This is a loan where the lender insists on some asset of the business being tied to the repayment of the loan. In the event of bankruptcy or liquidation that lender will then have priority on the money from the sale of that asset for the repayment of the loan. The asset is always land or property.
The advantage of this is capital is often supplied by pension or insurance funds for a loan over 25 – 30 years for buildings or land, with the asset as security.
The disadvantage of this the loans are usually only given when large sums are required. Venture Capital Loans – Venture capital is risk capital, usually in the forms of loan and shares as a package, to provide a significant investment in a medium or large business.
The advantages of this are capital is supplied by venture capital firms who accept a certain degree of risk being inevitable. Also most venture capitalists also provide help in the form of back up management and financial expertise. Also the governments Enterprise Investment Scheme offers incentives to private investors willing to invest in unquoted companies.
The disadvantages are that most venture capitalists are only interested in loans for more than £50000 and some only consider ventures where more than £250000 is involved, as the administration costs are not worthwhile on smaller projects. Also they charge a negotiation fee for arranging the finance and they generally expect a non – controlling equity stake of 20 – 40% in the firm’s capital, as a return of their investment.
Debenture Loans – A debenture is a long-term loan, which does not have to be repaid until an agreed date. Debenture holders are entitled to a fixed rate of the return year and have priority over all the shareholders.
The advantage of this is that individuals can supply capital to a company in the form of a long-term loan called debentures, which have to be repaid on an agreed date. These payments take priority over payments to all other shareholders.
The disadvantage is that the company has to offer some security for the loan, which can be sold if the company cannot meet the payments. In the case of a fixed debenture this is a specific asset such as a building or land.

(Source – Advantages/Disadvantages – Understanding Industry by Ian Marcousé pg 85-86, Definitions – Business Studies Pg 297 – 301 – Susan Hammond & A-Z Business Studies pg 148, 167 – David Lines, Ian Marcousé & Barry Martin)
 

Analysis of Henry James’ short story ‘Daisy Miller’

It is very interesting to analyze this short novel “Daisy Miller” written by Henry James. This novel has a lot of fascinating things ready to be discovered and understood, and behind the story of the novel a lot of symbols are hidding ready to be dyscovered and understood. This symbols are revealing a new perspective upon the story, a new way of understanding the narrative.

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Another interesting thing noticed in “Daisy Miller” is the permanent contrast that is being created, like a symbolic opposition between summer and winter, hot and cold, youth and old age, flower (daisy) and winter, life and death. Daisy Miller herself is an image situated in the middle of contrastive opinions, she plays the part of the innocent girl, being permanently judged by society, judged by Winterbourne, although deep inside she is innocent and pure; so, an incongruity between reality and appearance is being created.
Another interesting aspect of this novel is the setting. From the beginning of the book, the author makes a great introduction by situating the action, placing the reader slowly in the situation. Firstly the location is being named: “At the little town in Veney, in Switzerland”, so, the place is set. The narrative technique used by the author in the first paragraphs is a very interesting one. The image is firstly enlarged and then slowly with every word, the background converges, persisting on the description of the hotel and the tourist, ending by setting the time: “a beautiful summer morning” and then concentrating on one of the novel’s character: Winterbourne. So, a part of the action takes part in Switzerland and another segment of the novel’s action takes place in Rome. These two settings are notarbitrary chosen, both have a deep significance. These places are symbols of other literary works or genres. Firstly both are tight related with Romantic poets whom Winterbourne deeply regard. “Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein takes place largely in Switzerland, and Mary Shelley wrote it during the time that she, Percy Bysshe Shelley, and Lord Byron sojourned at Lake Geneva. Mary Shelley and John Keats are both buried in the Protestant Cemetery, which becomes Daisy’s own final resting place”  .
Chapter three starts with the sentence: “Winterbourne, who had returned to Geneva the day after his excursion to Chillon, went to Rome towards the end of January”  . This sentence points exactly the three main locations where the action of the novel takes place and where the characters of the novel express their relationships and their attitudes.
Not randomly chosen, the capital of Italy, Rome might be seen as a mute character, a silent witness of the action or as a background that links contrastive matters. Rome is the city of Renaissance, the city where art bloomed, a city where the artist might easily find the place to express. Here, Daisy behaves in a very libertine way; she doesn’t care about any social or ethical values, maintaining her innocence and her integrity without anybody, especially Winterbourne to notice that. Daisy, like an artist, is only judged and condemned and only after her dead she is being understood and appreciated.
In Rome there was a lot of talking about the so called “Roman fever”; this line has a double significance, although firstly it could be understood as the mothers’ worry about their daughters, this expression symbolize a disease: malaria, the malady that was haunting the city, and who finally kills Daisy.
Another important setting of the novel’s action is the Coliseum; this is the background where a very important scene takes place. Here Daisy has the final encounter with Winterbourne, here she contacts the fever, malaria and after that she dies. This place is not randomly chose. In ancient times, the Coliseum was a place famous for different fights and contests. But also, the Coliseum is well-known as the place “where centuries of Christian martyrdoms took place”  . Considering this background from a symbolic perspective the Coliseum becomes a place where an innocent girl was killed without having any guilt and being pure and sinless just like the Christians in the ancient times.
It is typical for Henry James to represent the society of people interested in ideas and refinements of subtle manner. He often was considered as being a cosmopolite because he liked travelling so much and he often moved between America, England and Europe.
The conflict between Americans and Europeans can be found as one of the main themes in the background of his novel. This theme has at its basis a modernistic concept specific to the age.
The American origin plays a great role in the novel because all the characters that bare this nationality are the greatest characters, that mature and finally achieve a greatness at the end of the novel.
The usual image that we find is the one of the American that loses a part of that initial innocence when encountering the figure of the European with life experience.
When it comes to James’ structure of the novel, we can find that almost all of them are structured in the same way. We have a central thing that “supremely matters”, as James himself said, that all the lines point at. In “Daisy Miller” , this supreme matter is Winterbourne lust for the discovery of Daisy’s innocence. As a consequence we have the circular structure of the novel as an approach to the central subject.
Henry James offers us situations of a society that he was part of and we can see that in his novels, every incident has its function in providing us more information about a situation or a character. Although we may be tempted to say that he had a sort of “realism ” in his works, the only reality we can find is the description of a society of conflict.
 

Analysis of John Steinbeck’s Short Story ‘Flight’

In the short story “Flight” by John Steinbeck, the character Pepes ignorance and immaturity lead to his own downfall. In his escape from Monterrey, Pepe makes many mistakes that ultimately lead to his death. Ignorance and immaturity can also be traced to the character Lennie in Steinbecks classic novel Of Mice and Men. Lennie’s mental disability leaves him with the ignorance and immaturity of a child, and he makes a series of mistakes that result in his own demise.

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In “Flight”, Pepe’s ignorance and immaturity are his “fatal flaws”. They cause Pepe to make mistakes that bring about his death. In the beginning of the story, Pepe is described as both gentle and affectionate. His only fault is laziness, and he seems to be a bright and happy boy. Pepe’s mother sends him on an errand to the town of Monterrey to purchase medicine. However, upon his return from Monterrey, Pepe has changed. He has lost all of his innocence and he tells his mother that he killed a man in a bar fight. Pepe tells his mother that he murdered the man because “The man said names [Pepe] could not allow” (33). The fact that Pepe murders a man because of this shows Pepe’s immaturity and impulsiveness. Soon after, Pepe flees into the mountains and begins a journey to evade the band of men seeking revenge for Pepe’s victim. Pepe makes another mistake while he rides his horse through the forest. Pepe becomes ignorant of the situation and rides his horse “Half over in his saddle, dangling one leg loosely” (37). Pepe’s lax attitude allows one of his pursuers to come extremely close to Pepe, and his slip up almost costs him his life. After some time, Pepe’s horse is shot dead by one of the men chasing him, and he has to continue on foot. Pepe engages in a firefight with one of his pursuers, and a piece of granite wounds his arm and hand. Eventually, Pepe exchanges shots in a final stand against his enemies, and he dies by a bullet. Throughout the story, Pepe makes mistakes that could have easily been avoided. Pepe’s ignorant and immature mistakes while on his journey result in his own death.
In John Steinbeck’s novel Of Mice and Men, Lennie’s ignorance and immaturity lead to mistakes that cost him his life. Lennie’s first mistake comes in the town of Weed. He and his friend George work on a ranch as ranch hands. One day, Lennie makes an impulsive mistake when he grabs a girl’s dress. Lennie claims that he “Jus’ wanted to feel that girl’s dress – jus’ wanted to pet it like it was a mouse” (11). This is a childish and immature action and as a result Lennie and George are chased out of Weed and are left jobless. Lennie and George soon make their way to another ranch near the town of Soledad. The pair work there for some time, and all seems well. They come closer and closer to their dream of buying their own land, when the story takes a dramatic turn. Towards the end of the novel Lennie sits in an empty barn and morosely strokes a puppy that he killed because he pet it too hard. A flirtatious woman only known as Curley’s wife walks in and tries to speak to Lennie. George told Lennie not to speak to Curley’s wife under any circumstances previously, but Lennie forgets George’s advice and talks to her anyway. Curley’s wife learns that Lennie likes soft things, and lets Lennie stroke her hair. Lennie pulls her hair too hard, and Curley’s wife struggles against Lennie’s iron grip. The woman screams and Lennie panics; suddenly he breaks the woman’s neck. Despite George’s advice, Lennie speaks to Curley’s wife, and this highlights his ignorance. The rest of the men find out that Curley’s wife is dead and George realizes that his and Lennie’s dreams have been crushed. It dawns upon George that there is only one solution to the problem and he shoots Lennie in the back of the head, thus killing both Lennie and his dream of owning his own land. Lennie’s immaturity and ignorance result in his own death, drawing a parallel to Pepe in “Flight”.
There are many literary criticisms to be found on both “Flight” and Of Mice and Men. The story of Pepe is generally found to be Steinbeck’s interpretation of the transition from boy to man. The theme of naturalism and realism is evident when Pepe’s transformation from boy to man results in the loss of his own life. The critic Michael Meyer writes “Pepe is relatively immature for his age” (1). This immaturity results in ignorance, both of which result in Pepe’s death. As for Of Mice and Men, Lennie is often considered by many as a character who is doomed even at the beginning of the story. One critic writes “[George and Lennie] are doomed from the start because of Lennie’s fatal flaw” (Hickey, 1). Lennie’s mental disability impairs his judgment, and renders him oblivious and childish. Lennie is an innocent character, but he makes mistakes that are unforgivable. Both Pepe and Lennie are foils, two completely different people that share the same immaturity and ignorance.
Both “Flight” and Of Mice and Men were written by John Steinbeck, who was a renowned American author. Most of Steinbeck’s stories including “Flight” and Of Mice and Men take place in this area. Steinbeck worked on a ranch after dropping out of Stanford University. His ranch experience influenced many of his books including Of Mice and Men. Steinbeck also had a great love for nature, as is evident in “Flight”. Steinbeck’s writing style was characterized by naturalism and realism, and these themes can be found in both Of Mice and Men and “Flight”. Steinbeck includes the characteristics of ignorance and immaturity in his stories as facets of realism. These two aspects are used to make Lennie and Pepe seem more real; they are imperfect characters.
In conclusion, the elements of ignorance and immaturity play a major part in both “Flight” and Of Mice and Men. These elements can be traced in “Flight” to the character Pepe. Pepe. Ignorance and immaturity can also be traced in Of Mice and Men to the character Lennie. Both of these elements fall under realism, a center point of John Steinbeck’s literary works. Steinbeck’s characterization of Lennie and Pepe and his writing style render both “Flight” and Of Mice and Men profound and classic literary works.
 

The Short and Long Term Implications of the 2017 Vintage

 

THE SHORT AND LONG TERM IMPLICATIONS OF THE 2017 VINTAGE

 

 

[1]

 

 

Introduction

 

In the past decade the supply and demand for wine has been influenced by the global financial crises, rising global temperatures, extreme weather events, laws regulating planting of new vineyards and high consumption in new regions of the world where economic laws were liberalised.

 

The global financial crisis saw demand for wine reduced to a situation whereby there was an oversupply of wine in the market.

 Production levels were low in 2012 as indicated by data provided by the OIV. In 2011/2012 harvest, the European Union programme which regulated the viticultural production potential in the EU ended.[2]  The implementation of this regulation saw a limitation of annual growth of planted vineyards per member state by 1% and the management of old rights held in portfolio.

In 2012, areas in France like Alsace, Bordeaux and Burgundy produced low yields due to frost and high rainfall, violent storms and hail in spring. The Bordeaux season started wet and cool leading to uneven flowering and an uneven crop. Long dry stretches led to vine stress which resulted in uneven ripening.

According to the International Organisation of Vine and Wine (OIV), global output had fallen from 264.2ml in 2011 to 248.4ml in 2012.

FIGURE 1 – Wine production[3]

The world’s top 3 producers of wine, France, Italy and Spain were ravaged by frost, hail, drought and high temperatures in 2017, the lowest crop in 50 years. This followed poor harvests for both Chile and

OIV estimates that there has been a 8.2 % drop in production in Western Europe in 2017.

 

FIGURE 2 –  World wine consumption[4]

OIV [5] reports that world wine consumption in 2017 is estimated at 243mhl, an increase of 1.8mhl compared with 2016.

There was a rise in consumption in the past decade. Growth in the middleclass and professional segment of the Chinese, Turkish, Mexican and Indonesian market contributed to the spike in consumption. Chinese consumption rose was due the growth of its domestic consumption from 246.9 ml to 964 ml in the past decade. This spike is attributed to the result of a government campaign promoting wine as a healthy alternative to the local spirit of Baiju and other spirits whilst taxes on imported wine being reduced. National holidays and the tradition of gift giving along with a spike in consumer purchasing power saw an increased demand for imported wine.[6]

 Liberalisation of many economic policies in many non-traditional wine drinking countries also contributed to higher consumption levels. However, these high consumption levels have seen a slight decline in the past few years because of higher prices in the bulk wine market, competition with growth in the spirit, craft beer and cider sectors.

The 2017 vintage should not be looked at as a “one off”. The sharp drop in production will affect the global wine market in the short and long term and wine production in certain regions of the world are to survive in the long run, changes will have to be implemented by the lawmakers and winegrowers immediately.

 

 

The 2017 Vintage

“2017 must be one of the most disaster strewn years since phylloxera.”[7]

 

          Frost affected vines [8]                                                                Heater lit early morning in Chablis. [9]

 

FIGURE 3 – Wine production (excluding juice and musts) – OIV

2017 was an extremely challenging year for all those involved in wine production in the Northern Hemisphere and certain areas of the Southern Hemisphere.

Global production was down 8.6% from 2016 or approximately 2.9 billion bottles.[10] The European Union saw historically low 2017 yields due to climatic conditions (OIV). Extreme weather conditions like frost, hail, high temperatures, drought and fires devasted many areas in Western Europe and parts of the Southern hemisphere but the main effect was the steady increase in temperature.

2016 saw France experience awful weather in parts of Burgundy, Chablis, Loire with those regions losing over 50% of their crop to frosts and flooding). France had its lowest harvest on record with volumes being significantly down, in 2017 OIV data shows that France had a 19 % drop in production on 2016   because of April frost, August heatwave and limited rainfall which prevented grapes from reaching its optimum size.[11].

Europe experienced a heat wave in June and then in August an anti-cyclone “Lucifer” brought unparalleled heat with some areas in France seeing successive days of 40◦C plus temperatures. The heat not only harmed the vines but heightened pre-existing drought conditions.[12]

The regions that were severely affected were Bordeaux, Loire Valley, Chablis, Beaujolais, Cote Chalonnaise, South Rhone, Languedoc and Roussillon. In Bordeaux almost 40% of the potential crop was lost due to frost and low temperatures.

Hail damage in Côtes de Bourg.[13]

Production levels in Italy levels dropped by 17%.[14]

Frosts in April, high temperatures (43◦C) and a long heatwave and drought in the summer saw an early harvest with volumes being down.

Frost hit areas of Veneto, Piemonte, Franciacorta in Italy, many regions in Italy have not had any rain since May.  Areas like Tuscany, Sardinia, Emilia-Romagna, Toscana and Veneto were most affected by drought and the high temperatures. Due to extreme dry conditions, fires were reported threatening vineyards in Sicily, Sardinia and Campania[15].

Volumes in Spain dropped by 20% [16] because of spring frosts and high temperatures. Frosts in Rioja saw low yield with almost 25-40% down in that region.[17] Certain areas suffered from 6 months of water shortage and high temperatures.[18]

Frosts were devastating in Germany which saw a 15% drop in production volumes. Austria saw volumes increase on 2016 by 23%.[19]

Volumes were low in Greece, down 5% from 2016 because of inclement weather[20] especially in Santorini. Volumes were down in Hungary by 11% due to frosts in April, affecting red wines.[21] Slovenia saw a massive crop (35%) destroyed due to frost and volumes were down by 33%.[22] In Turkey Volumes were down by 5% in comparison to 2016 because of frost and hail.[23]

 

 

Vines destroyed by fire in Napa Valley.[24]

In the United States, devastating forest fires ravaged the wineries in California. Although 90% of the crop was harvested, fires and smoke taint were an issue for the later ripening varieties such as Shiraz and Cabernet.

Production was low because of the influence of El Nino. [25]. Wine production in Argentina(11.8mhl) grew by 2.4% in relation to 2016. Following on from a devasting 2016 harvest, Brazil recovered to post a slight rise in volume (3.4mhl).  Chile’s production of (9.5mhl) was small, having not recovered form a poor harvest in 2016.

 

Heat affected vines in Australia [26]

South Africa’s production reached 10.8mhl, registering an increase of 2.6% despite an ongoing drought.

Australia’s volumes grew 13.5mhl whilst New Zealand remained unchanged with production reaching 2.9mhl. Volumes for 2017 have seen a dramatic 24% drop registering lowest levels in the past 5 years.

 Whilst these countries have suffered the effect of unstable weather in the past (2012), what has set the alarm bells ringing is that these countries account for 50% of the world wine production and a drop in volumes of this nature has a “disproportionate impact on global supply”[27] and the implication of such an acute drop will affect the wine industry in the short term and in the long term.

 

The Supply Crunch

The acute drop in production of 8.6% in 2017 has revealed issues that will confront producers and production yields in the short term and long term.

Short Term Implications:

In the short-term bulk wine prices and fine market prices have risen because of low levels of production due to extreme weather events in France, Italy, Spain, Chile and Argentina and lower yields available.

The impact has been felt at the lower end of the market with rising bulk wine prices due to low supplies leaving margins for growers squeezed because of currency fluctuations in the Euro and US dollar and fear of taxation laws changing because of Brexit.

 Emerging markets have started taking a share from the EU because of low yields thus tilting a shift to sourcing wine from the Southern hemisphere and non-traditional wine countries.

The price of en primeur wines or the fine wine market also rose as yields were down. Although production was down by 40 % in Bordeaux, the top 150 chateaux in Bordeaux were not affected by extreme weather events mainly because of their location and position of vineyards whilst the rest of Bordeaux’s wine growing area was devastated.

The effect of these price increase means that the consumer ultimately will have to pay more. There is a common fear amongst the top wine producers that they would lose their hard-earned customers because of these price increases. The price of bulk wine and fine wines will always be influenced by yield levels in any given year. The fine wine market sector will always be able to command prices but it is the lower tiered wine market that will see consumption levels drop if there is a continual rise in prices. As demand exceeds supply the availability of certain brands will lead to higher prices and the customer will seek other wines as substitutes.

Long Term Implications:

The rise in Global temperatures has and will affect the wine industry with major consequences.

Future vintages are affected by the preceding years low yields and the long-term vine balance will therefore be affected.

For example, if the temperature drops severely (-20◦) – the vines become dormant and they cannot store carbohydrates or prepare for the next year. Frost and hail in April in the Northern hemisphere or October in the Southern hemisphere will affect bud burst and fruit set for the next year.  Wine growers will have to make changes in their vine training methods, canopy management if yields are on the decline.

There will be a shortening of the wine season because of the rise in temperature and harvest will occur in September rather than the traditionally in October.

Drought is a long-term implication. Water sources will have to be found as wine growers cannot rely on timely rainfall and will have to introduce irrigation. Global temperature levels will rise from between 1.0 -3.7◦[28] rainfall or precipitation patterns will change, extreme weather events will a regular feature which will then pose a threat of fires.

Low levels of consumption will be noticed in lower priced wines.[29] “Europe will lose its dominance in the bulk wine market which currently accounts for over 70 % of the total overall imports in comparison to its 90% share it had at the turn of the century.

Supplies will increase from the Southern hemisphere and move to new regions. Global wine supply has been dominated by European vineyards which represented 60% of production.  As noted earlier, the biggest issue for these producers is dealing with the impact rising temperatures, extreme weather events and reduced volumes on the one hand and on the other buyers needing to fill the gap from elsewhere.

An important impacted area will be that wine style and quality. The characteristics of a cool climate variety are different from the characteristics of the same variety grown in a hot climate

A majority of the cool climate grape varieties have exhibited changes in their phenological stages. Because of the warmer conditions, the grape is changing in its composition. They contain more sugar, more alcohol land less acidity.  Most importantly the profile of the grape is altering because of the rise in temperatures.

The wine variety of wine currently grown in a certain area will not “taste” the same with rising temperatures. Thus, what is regarded as a cool climate variety will in years begin to taste like a hot climate variety.  Consequently, a Burgundian grape variety will probably resemble a variety from Bordeaux[30]

 

 

 

 

Personal Commentary

A rise in global temperature and extreme weather conditions has affected global wine production and supply of wine. The impact felt today will certainly be colossal in years to come.

Sustainable changes will have to be implemented immediately in light of the current climatic conditions in the following areas:

Viticulture and Risk management:

With vine training, trellising practices have to be changed. Changes made to different training systems and row orientation adopted[31]

Pruning done so that the head of the vine will be as high as possible.  Changes to canopy management with the introduction of shorter canopies with less leaf removed to protect grapes from sunburn implemented.[32]  Rootstocks will have to be changed introducing a longer cycle and clonal variety selection to be orientated towards late ripening clones with heat tolerant grape varieties selected.

Wine owners will have to invest in wind turbines and have access to helicopters, make candles, lanterns and fires a priority against frost so that freezing air is pushed away from vineyards[33].

New Wine regions:

The current wine growing regions are located between the 35th and 50th parallels in the Northern hemisphere and between the 30th and 45th parallels in the Southern hemisphere.

As the global temperatures have risen and will continue to rise, new frontiers have opened up with production moving North in the Northern hemisphere where wineries have been established in Sweden and England (where temperatures have increased by almost 3 Deg). In England, cool climate varieties like Dornfleder and Huxelrebe were grown however winemakers are now planting grape varieties like Merlot, Chardonnay with the rise in temperatures. Wineries are moving South in the Southern hemisphere like Tasmania and Hawkes Bay.

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New wineries will be located in areas of high altitude, where access to water will be a priority and where irrigation will be permitted. The current import and export market will change. Newer wine producing regions will be exporting more and Traditional or “old wine world” countries will be importing more newer varieties and also lesser known varietals with different specificity.

Replacement varieties and Appellation laws.

The Appellation system are a set of laws governing specific regions tying specific wines or grape varieties to their geographical location and boundaries based on the concept of terroir. Terroir, a French term that indicates a wines uniqueness to the soil, landscape, climate and viticultural practices.

Because of a rise in temperature, certain regions will become inhospitable to growing certain varietals. Hence wine growers will have to grow climate specific varieties to replace the varieties traditionally planted that are beginning to show signs of change.

With continued climate change, certain varieties in certain regions will start to fail” says Elizabeth Wolkovich, Professor of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology at Harvard university.[34] Pinot Noir grown in Burgundy and Champagne produces a lighter and elegant wine. If temperatures rise then the varietal specificity will change turning the Pinot Noir grown to a fuller bodied, fruit driven wine thus changing the “taste” of a Burgundian Pinot Noir. If a new grape variety is to be introduced and planted to make the vineyard sustainable, challenges arise in marketing this new variety. This creates a new regional identity. Making such changes will have a profound effect on the production governed by the Appellation system in certain regions of the world.

The shift in global warmth patterns may move premium grape growing regions out of areas currently devoted to that activity and simultaneously cause a shift in current grape variety.[35].

Appellation laws currently restrict wine makers in certain areas with the use of irrigation.

Although irrigation was allowed in certain AC vineyards in 2007 in France[36] where individual permits have to be applied for (from 15th June -15th August), a more permanent efficient system like drip irrigation is still not permitted to be used currently but will have certainly have to change with the shift in climatic conditions.

Flexibility in light of the current changes in climate will have to be introduced to the Appellation restrictions for the survival of Terroir.

Appellation laws will have to be modified if the traditional wine making countries are to keep up with production and not lose out to the expansion of wineries in the Southern hemisphere.

The emergence of new varietals and new wine regions with climate adapted wineries, and with traditional wine producers in Europe introducing viticultural changes and irrigation, it is hoped that extreme weather events will be managed and not influence production levels as it did in 2017.

Bibliography.

Articles

Reports

International organisation of Vine and Wine -OIV 2017 World Vitiviniculture situation

State of vitiviniculture world market-April 2018

Global Economic vitiviniculture data -24 October 2017

Ciatti Global Market Report /January 2018

Vinex -The Northern hemisphere 2017 harvest -An overview

Rabo Bank -Wine Quarterly Q4 2017

Websites

 https://www.winespectator.com/webfeature/show/id/Frost-Hail-Inflict-Heavy-Vineyard-Damage-Across-France-Italy.- Photo by: Philippe Desmazes/AFP/Getty Images

2 EU regulations No 1308/2013 Source OIV

3 OIV -State of the vitiviniculture market. April 2018

4  International organisation of Vine and Wine .State of the vitiviniculture market .April 2018

5 International organisation of Vine and Wine – State of the vitiviniculture world market. April 2018

6 “Chinese wine Industry: Current and future trends”

   Tatiana Bouzdine-Chameeva; Jaques -Olivier Pesme; Wenxio Zhang.

7 Andrew Jefford. https://www.decanter.com/tag/march-2018

8 https://www.decanter.com/wine-news/fatal-frost-hits-champagne-vineyards-367272/

 9 https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/gallery/2017/apr/28/winemakers-light-fires-to-fight-frost-in-pictures#img-2 Photograph: Christian Hartmann/Reuters

10 https://www.bibendum-wine.co.uk/news-stories/articles/wine/forces-of-nature-winemaking-in-the-face-of-climate-change/

11 Bibendum(http.bibendum-wine.co.uk).

12 Ciatti Global Market Report/ January 2018

13 https://www.decanter.com/wine-news/bordeaux-assesses-bordeaux-hail-damage-394566/ Côtes de Bourg / France Info