Similarities And Differences Between Solar And Wind Environmental Sciences Essay

At present, human beings are living in a society which is developing rapidly, facing a severe crisis of energy. As the population is increasing in a high speed, the ecological environment has been damaged by human activity. At the same time, with industry highly developed, the environment has been polluted seriously. Therefore, other alternative energies should be found instead of fossil fuels, which is green, efficient and renewable. Thus, people began to discover the importance of renewable energy sources, for instants, solar, biogas and water. In fact, the majority of renewable energy sources come from the solar energy, which means they can be exploited for centuries and even millennia. In this essay, wind energy and solar energy are put in a comparison. Both of them are clean energy and environmentally-friendly, although they differ in cost and efficiency.

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The first important similarity of wind energy and solar energy is that both of them are renewable. Solar energy is the most abundant energy resources that human can make use of. It is estimated that during the past thousands of years the sun consumes only 2% of its own energy (Duncan, 2002). In the next few billion years there will not be significant changes to the sun, so the sun can be used as a permanent source of energy. Likewise, wind energy is also unlimited. Because it is generated by air flow on the Earth’s surface. Wind is everywhere, no matter it is in the vast grasslands or mountains. Wind power can be extracted by wind mills. As the wind makes wheels rotating, it is changing the wind power into electric power. Obviously, these two kinds of energy both come from the nature, which are totally recycled.
Another similarity is that both wind energy and solar energy cause almost no pollution to the environment. Compared to the environmental effects of traditional energy sources, the environmental effects of solar energy and wind energy are relatively minor. Coal, oil and other fossil fuels emit harmful gases and residue, while the use of solar energy will not bring about pollution. Moreover, it will not produce any adverse effects on the environment, which is a clean source of energy. Meanwhile, after the extensive use of solar energy, the temperature will be slightly increased, although this temperature will not cause adverse effects on the environment and the ecological balance (Friis-Christensen and Lassen, 1991). Wind power consumes no fuels, and emits no polluted air. Wind energy is abundant, almost endlessly used, widely distributed and clean. Furthermore, both of them don’t produce carbon dioxide, which do not cause the greenhouse effect. All in all, both of them bring peace to the environment.
In spite of these similarities, wind energy and solar energy are different in some aspects. At present, the use of solar energy technologies has the disadvantage of high cost. Topfocus (2007) stated that the cost of generating electricity by solar power is about 7-12 times higher compared to the normal electricity, and 6-10 times higher compared that of generating electricity by wind power. Furthermore, in many rainy areas with short period of sunshine, it is very difficult to completely rely on solar power supply. This means unless there are a large number of solar panels or there is a more sophisticated solar energy technology, it is still difficult to produce a large number of power supplies to meet the daily needs. In addition, solar panels have a limited lifespan, which is about 10-20 years. This means the cost to deal with the technical problems is extremely high (Brignall, 2010). In contrast, the wind turbines have longer lifespan, although it requires a lot of land to build. As long as the turbines have been built, it can be used for hundreds of years. In the short term, the base costs of wind turbines are relatively cheap. (Alvesta, n.d.)
Another difference exists in the efficiency. Using solar energy is more efficient than wind energy. According to Duncan (2000), about 70% of sun’ energy can be received by the earth. In order words, more power can be collected by the solar panels. Furthermore, the materials used on the solar panels are silicon, which has less resistance in the power generation process (Ffbing, 2009). Compared to the solar energy, wind energy has short effective time and need to be built near the sea. When wind power is transformed into electric power, the efficiency is only about 20 % (Chapo, 2006).
In conclusion, after comparing solar energy and wind energy, both of them have advantages and disadvantages. The solar energy solve the problem that human will not afraid there are no energy to use. However, the technologies still need to improve. Using wind energy is cheaper and more direct, although it needs high technology to be more efficient. At present, China’s environmental pollution problems highlight the fragility of ecosystems. A large number of mining and the use of fossil fuels make a great impact on the environment, especially in China’s energy consumption structure. The high proportion of coal, carbon dioxide emissions growing faster, which has a great impact on climate change. Development and utilization of renewable energy plays an important role in optimizing energy structure and protecting the environment, which reduces greenhouse gas and cope with climate changes. In my opinion, the renewable energy will play an important role in people’s life and let human have a better future.
 

The Similarities And Differences Between Dantes Inferno Religion Essay

Sharon Portnoff depicts both the similarities and differences between Dante’s Inferno and Levi’s If This is Man, and emphasizes the reasons Levi uses Dante’s poem in order to convey his experience. She claims that “both Dante and Levi try to put into words what is not normative human experience- Dante’s journey to the afterlife, Levi’s sojourn in a death camp” and these allusions help deepen our understanding of the fundamental aspects of their experiences. Levi cannot find his own words to describe his experience and therefore he uses a work of literature to dramatize his experience. Dante’s inferno was well-suited because Dante travels to a Hell that lacks human companionship; just as Levi travels to a Hell just the same.

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Portnoff points out “Levi’s use of Dante’s poem serves not only to compare the experiences of prisoner and pilgrim, but also to suggest their utter incommensurability”. Dante has the guidance of what is” beyond Hell”, because he is aware of God’s grace and Beatrice’s love, and this is what serves as his “connection to the human”. Levi, on the other hand, had no link to the “human” life and therefore had no way to travel beyond the scope of Hell. Furthermore; in Dante’s Hell the punishments are in unity with the “right order of things” while Levi experiences a Hell that is unfair and not in junction with the “right order of things”. Levi, in turn, was forsaken by not only the world, but also the “humanity of the world” that is depicted by Dante’s journey. Portnoff explains, “Dante survived his journey through Hell in order to teach others about the afterlife, the Nazi’s created a kingdom in which even those who survived cannot write”. Portnoff, in a way, believes it is better that we reveal these inhumane events so that “human” life can carry on. Because Levi encountered experiences beyond the scope of humanity; he depicted the resemblance to Dante’s journey to hell, which ultimately helped deepen the reader’s understanding of his experiences.
Bremrose, Stephen. “Intellections of Immortality in Dante”. Medium Aevum; (2005): 86-108. Academic Search Elite. EBSCOHost. Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO, Butler Library, 1 November 2010 http://web.ebscohost.com (23 pages: cumulative pages-36)
Dante did not just merely believe in the afterlife, but he felt very strongly about the human soul’s immortality. Stephen Bremrose claims that the “true message, promise, and power of Christianity is focused for Dante on the afterlife and is the very essence of his religion” which had so much influence on his works. The question of the souls’ “post mortem” existence is a matter of deep conviction; enough to influence his treatment of heresy found in the sixth circle of hell in the Inferno. The question of immortality was so crucial that those who deny it were selected to represent the sin of heresy and focuses only on those who believe that the soul dies with the body.
According to Bremrose, Dante argues that our “dreams provide us with continual evidence of our immortality because of their divinatory properties” and the source of this “prophesy” must be outside the dreaming mind, and that something must be immortal. “Proportional similarity” does not exist between the mortal and immortal, and therefore souls, because they receive “prophetic illumination in dreams from an immortal source, must themselves be immortal”.
Dante also believed that “nature” has implanted the hope of an afterlife in the human mind- and the human mind alone, and “nature does nothing in vain”. Bremrose explains that “animals live throughout their lives without hope of anything to come; but humans, being the most perfect of all earthly creatures, can become immortal through their souls. Yet if our hope in immortality were in vain, then our “highest part; our reason, would be the source of our greatest defect, and the most perfect creatures would be, paradoxically, the most faulty”. Bremrose argues that humans alone can attain immortality through our souls; and this is depicted through our dreams and reason; and the importance of our post-motem survival was shown by Dante by depicting the sin of heresy as believing the soul dies with the body.
Wetzel, James. “A Meditation on Hell: Lessons From Dante”. Modern Theology; (2002): 375- 394. Academic Search Elite. EBSCOHost. Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO, Butler Library, 1 November 2010. http://web.ebscohost.com (20 pages: cumulative pages- 56)
James Wetzel makes an argument that “it is illusionary to think that we can live by a distinction between who is redeemable and who is not and not fall into the very despair that makes a soul hell-bound”. Persons who do not believe in hell are susceptible to wish others there; while those who do believe often wish they did not have to; therefore making hell a concept that is just as hard to live with as it is do without.
Conforming Hell to a model of “retributive justice” makes Wetzel suspicious because he claims that all sin is not against people, but rather sin is against God. According to Wetzel; God, “by the logic of retribution, would have to be vulnerable to irredeemable harm” and because of this there would only be two kinds of hell- “the hell of having to hate others and the hell of having to hate oneself”.
Wetzel reasons against the libertarian view which suggests that self-determination, when carried out apart from God’s will, is how a human can end up in hell. These “defenders of the doctrine of hell” believe souls are in hell because it was ultimately their choice to be there. This, to Wetzel, is a way to take attention away from the contradictory natures of God, one of “gratuitous mercy and the other of strict justice” and instead believes that “human beings cannot be persons unless they have some power to determine the persons they become.” Wetzel discusses his alternative theology of hell and voiced his suspicions of conforming hell to a model of “retributive justice”; clarifying that in order to not fall into the hopelessness that makes a soul go to hell, one must not accept the illusion that we can live by a distinction between who is redeemable and who is not.
Taylor, Karla. “A Text and Its Afterlife: Dante and Chaucer”. Comparative Literature; (1983) 1- 20. Academic Search Premiere. EBSCOHost. Lindenwood University. St. Charles, MO, Butler Library. 1 November 2010. ( 20 pages: cumulative pages- 76)
Literature is a major source of inspiration for literature. Karla Taylor examined how many readers reject authorial intent in order to determine moral worth and a way of making classical myths “useful” in Christianity. Pagan stories were often taken from their original context because the authors had no access to “Christian truth”. Virgil is the most famous poet whose poems have been reinterpreted. Taylor looks at the “afterlife” of Virgil’s Fourth Eclogue in which is said to be a “veiled version” of Christian beliefs in prophesizing Christ’s birth in which was not his intent, but the allegories transformed into Christian text. Furthermore, an important element in Dante’s Divina Commedia is the influence of texts and their afterlives. Dante’s relationship to Virgil is itself a textual encounter as well as in a major influence in the spiritual influence that lies behind the Commedia.
According to Taylor, Dante’s characters Paolo and Francesca “created an afterlife for the Lancelot romance by repeating it, and so won eternal damnation”; however, Paolo and Francesca themselves have had a significant textual afterlife. The fame of these characters is tied to how thoroughly their love was provoked by what they had read, and how they were in fact “victims” of the book of Lancelot and Guinevere. This can be compared to the character Tristan who argues that “love’s irresistibility absolves her of blame” just as Francesca tries to evade responsibility by claiming “love was conditioned by what she read”. As Gallehault had mediated between Lancelot and Guinevere, the Lancelot romance mediated between Paolo and Francesco; and just as Virgil had his Dido, Dante had his Francesca. Text transcends down through generations and is often taken out of the authorial intent, but the influence works have on future works can be seen through famous poets such as Virgil, Chaucer, and Dante.
Tolbot, Christian. “Infandum: Oral-Sadistic Imagery in Dante’s Inferno, Canto XXXIII”. Modern Psychoanalysis; (2005) 107-128. Academic Search Elite. EBSCOHost. Lindenwood University. St. Charles, MO, Butler Library. 1 November 2010. (22 pages: cumulative- 98)
According to Christian Tolbot, “symbolic communications, parapraxis, a dream, and an enactment bring to light the unconscious origins and meanings of the cannibalistic behaviour of the main character, Count Ugolino”. One analysis of Ugolino’s cannibalism is a reference to the Eucharist; a symbol of cannibalism remade into Christian salvation. According to Christianity, the voice of God says to Augustine, “..Thou shalt feed upon me, like the food of thy flesh into thee, but thou shalt be converted into me'”. This idea is not only consistent with the episode that suggests the Eucharist; but it also explains the meaning behind Ugolino’s treatment of his children upon their deaths: the cannibalism serves as a mourning ritual. Tolbot suggests that by “incorporating the good embodied in his children it overpowers the intense feelings of grief” and also preserves their goodness; almost as if digesting an antidote.
Tolbot claims that Ugolino’s dream is actually the key to his “oral-sadistic character” as he fails to recognize the possibility that he may indeed be the “lord and master” from his dream; who sends his own hounds to hunt down and tear apart the family of wolves. The dream, as Tolbot suggests, may also shed light on Ugolino’s unconscious wish to attack the symbols of innocence and weakness-in both his sons and himself-which are the causes of this feeling of helplessness. Killing his children, and the weak version of himself in his mind, helps him escape the burden of responsibility. By doing so, Ugolino loses his human qualities which gives way to his “dehumanization”.
By cannibalizing his children, Ugolino guarantees that he will forever be forced to repeat his desire in the lowest circle of Hell. There, he is literally frozen in place, unable to make new choices; symbolizing his inner torture. His punishment also reflect the other sinners in the Inferno: who fail to understand the “unconscious dynamics” driving them to sin which, in turn, result in their eternal damnation. Symbolism, dreams, and an enactment explain the unconscious origins of the cannibalistic behavior shown by Count Ogolino in the Inferno.
Chevigny, Paul. “From Betrayal to Violence: Dante’s Inferno and the Social Construction of Crime”. Law & Social Inquiry. (2001): 787. Academic Search Premier. EBSCOHost. Lindenwood University. St. Charles, MO, Butler Library. 1 November 2010. (32 pages: cumulative- 130)
Dante’s views regarding crime have origins in ethical concerns, social and political settings, and the laws of crimes that surrounded him; the three same interrelated concerns – philosophical, socio-political, and legal- help govern contemporary doctrines today. As Dante descended through Hell each of the different levels were seen to grade crimes with penalties in proportion to the magnitude.
Dante’s classifications, according to Chevigny, were based upon “medieval theology and philosophy about ethics” while doctrines today are “based on the notion of desert, or deserved punishments equivalent to the blameworthiness of the criminal conduct”.
Dante found betrayal of trust as the most deserving of punishment; while contemporary law has found crimes of violence to be the most severe. As Chevigny explains, the Inferno points out sin as opposed to crime; and this Christian foundation of political obligation has been replaced in today’s world with “the protection of the rights of individuals”. To Dante, the breach of faith often shaped the severity of the crimes being committed. Betrayal was the most severe in Dante’s time because it was the most premeditated demonstration of free will.
Dronke, Peter. “Francesca and Héloïse”. Comparative Literature (1975):113. Academic Search Premier. EBSCOHost. Lindenwood University. St. Charles, MO, Butler Library. 1 Nomember 2010. (23 pages: cumulative-153)
Peter Dronke categorizes the debaters of the passion between Francesca and Paolo into two broad groups:” the hawks and the doves”. Dronke argues in favor of the “doves”; however, believes the opposed conceptions of Francesca as being a “fragile flower” and “a demon of lasciviousness” are figments of the same condescending view of women; one in which the creator of Francesca could not have shared. In Dronke’s mind, Dante recreated the ambivalence of the romance in the love portrayed in the Lancelot story with “feeling so intense that words cannot convey them”. Instead of implying Francesca was giving a deliberate untruthful account in not mentioning that it was indeed Guinevere who initiated the kiss between her and Lancelot; Dronke believes she left that detail out in order to “stress the beauty of the experience itself”.
Dronke takes the side of the “doves of Romanticism” because the first allusion between Paolo and Francesca shows that they are inseparable- a fact that sets them apart from all lovers mentioned up to this point, including the lovers Paris and Helen. These lovers are undivided in love forever; and yet they are forever cut off from “divine love” and are among the lost ones due to the “metaphysics of justice” in which structures the whole Commedia. Francesca was also the first soul Dante encountered in hell and was the only soul in the whole Commedia who is asked to retrace the events that led to her fall. Francesca’s “Amor” speech was interpreted by Dronke as being a defense of Amor; a justification of her love. Even though there is recognition of guilt; there is no regret for the love that ultimately led to the guilt.
Dronke points out a parallelism between the lovers in Jean de Meun’s Roman de la Rosa and the lovers Paolo and Francesca. Heloise from Roman de la Rosa gives a speech defending the love she knew was wrong in heaven’s eyes and had been liable for the loss of her friendship with God. What separates Francesca from the heroines of courtly romance is exactly what she has in common with Heloise; a rhetorical argument defending nobility of love she knows in God’s judgement to be guilty.  

Relevant Similarities And Differences Between Islam And Christianity Religion Essay

Thesis: Despite the fact that there are many similarities and differences between Islam and Christianity, both religions are significant in todays society, which is reflected in the grand number of followers each has amassed.
In this paper we will examine some relevant similarities and differences between two widely known and practiced religions: Islam and Christianity. Although, these two religions have easily identifiable similarities and differences, they are both large players in the religious world today with an impressive number of followers.
There are many similarities between the two religions, which stems from the fact that the prophet Mohammad based the basic framework on Christianity. Mohammad believed that the Christians had been right with some aspects of Christianity, but they had stopped hearing God’s message. This is where he came in to correctly tell what God wanted the world to do. Therefore, there are some significant similarities to be seen. For example, the angel Gabriel, found in both religions, is a messenger angel on both sides of the house. Also, the message was brought forth in both religions that there was only one true God, and both religions believed that this one God was the creator of the world, and would be the one to judge all of mankind upon their death. Then, this God would decide if the person received heaven or hell.

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Also, each of these religions had been delivered with basic rules of guidance, although the rules in themselves were different. Islam had, from Mohammad, the Five Pillars, while Christians had been given the Ten Commandments, delivered by Moses. Another aspect of each of these religions that is very similar is that each is a “Book” religion. They each have their own book written down by disciples of their respective religion. The Islamic religion has the Koran, and the Christian religion has the Bible.
Because Islam diverged from Christianity’s beliefs, there are also some notable differences between the two. For example, the way in which each religion is expected to pray. Muslims pray alone and in congregation. When congregational prayer is executed, there are many rules and strict adherences to which they abide. They must pray this way a certain number of times each day and faces in a certain cardinal direction. For Christians, the prayer which is done alone is informal and at one’s own discretion, as it is for the Islamic religion. However, congregational prayer for Christians is much less rigorous and strict, and can be done in a number of acceptable ways. Muslims are also expected to take a journey, called a pilgrimage, to their Holy Land whereas, this is not expected of Christians. Another notable difference is the way in which money is given to the church. In earlier days, and in some cases modern days, Muslims giving was in the form of a tax which was mandated. Christians give in the form of a tithe and are asked to give ten percent of their income. A very large and widely disputed part of these religions is the interpretation of the Bible. Some events that are disputed include which son Abraham sacrificed, the Virgin Birth and nature of Jesus, and the interpretation of monotheism and the Trinity. ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ 
Islam and Christianity are religions based on many similar and different beliefs based on the fact that one was borne of the other. For this reason, we can pick up on a number of things that ring true in each religion and a number of things that are completely different between the two of them. Aside from the similarities and differences, each of these religions is still recognized in today’s society despite the fact that they are both centuries old.
Islam vs. Christianity
Despite the fact that there are many similarities and differences between Islam and Christianity, both religions are significant in today’s society, which is apparent in the grand number of followers each has amassed. Islam and Christianity are in themselves, complete religions with many followers. Islam was born of Christianity in that a large part of Islam’s basic belief structure is based on that of Christianity and some portions of the Bible. Because of this fact, there are a number of similarities and a comparative number of differences between the two religions.
The beginnings of Islam are actually deeply rooted in Christianity, based on the conviction by the prophet of Islam, Mohammed that Christians had departed from belief in God’s message as revealed in their scriptures (Pike, 67). Approximately 610, the first of many revelations came to him and these visions were believed to have been delivered from God by the angel Gabriel (Pike, 17). Here we begin to see the similarities between the two religions as Gabriel is also the angel that brings news of Jesus’ birth (Jesus being the founder of Christianity) in Luke 1:26-32, of the Bible. The message that Mohammed received was that there was only one God, not many Gods as the then present day Arabs believed. This God was the creator of the world (Lewis, 8). For Christians the message of a single God was given during the inception of the Ten Commandments in Exodus 20:3 of the Bible, “You shall have no other God before me.” The creation of the world by this singular God is documented in Genesis 1:1. “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.” In the Islamic faith it is believed that this God would judge mankind, which also rings true in Christianity in Hebrews 10:30, “The Lord will judge his people.” For Muslims, followers of the Islamic faith, their single God (known as Allah) was considered just because he would judge every person according to his deeds (Catherwood, 99). In both religions, the result of this judgment day was either heaven or hell. Another similarity between both Islam and Christianity was the idea of forgiveness. Islam teaches that God is always ready to pardon the individual and restore him to the sinless state in which he started life. In Christianity, this same basic concept of forgiveness is accepted (Wiles, 561).
After the death of Mohammed, certain essential principles were singled out from his teachings to serve as anchoring points for the Islamic community. These have come to be called the “five pillars of Islam” (Pike, 99-100). Comparably for Christians, the Ten Commandments are considered daily, divine laws. Also, each of these religions is one that has a “book” by which believers follow. For Christians this is the Bible, which was recorded by prophets and disciples to Jesus including Abraham, Moses, Elijah, and many others. The Bible is for the most part, ordered chronologically and Jesus teaches in parables (Bowie, 66). Likewise for Muslims their book is the Koran, which was a collection of the sayings and deeds of Mohammad, who was believed to be inspired to teach these things by Allah (Lewis, 44-45). However, because the Koran was assembled from remembrances of those who had learned it by heart, the chronological order is not used. The passages or suras were arranged from longest to shortest. In the beginning, for both religions, these teachings were passed along orally, but were later captured via the written word. These books serve as an additional guide for believers and stress the one idea of one God (Pike, 62).
Despite these many similarities between Islam and Christianity many differences exist as well. One of these differences is prayer. Islam recognizes two forms of prayer, one being the personal and more informal form of prayer. The other is a ritual prayer which is often congregational with specific words and postures, to be offered five times a day: sunrise, midday, midafternoon, sunset, and before bed. Before Muslims pray ablutions are performed by washing the hands, feet, and face. A person called the muezzin calls for prayer and chants from a raised platform or minaret tower at the mosque. This prayer is started with the imam, the prayer leader, standing at the front of the mosque facing Mecca, the holy city of Islam. (This is the holy city because it was the death place of Mohammad). Each prayer consists of several units, during which the individual is standing, kneeling, or prostrate. At every change in posture, “God is great” is recited. The chief day of communal worship is Friday and believers gather at the mosque to pray, listen to portions of the Koran, and hear a sermon based on the text. The sermon may have moral, social, or political content. Islam has no ordained clergy, but there are men trained specifically in religion, tradition, and law (Peters, 126-129). For Christians prayer is done alone as well as in a congregation like Islam, but the rigors are far less painstaking. Prayer alone is done at one’s own discretion, but traditionally is done at night or in the morning. Congregational prayer is usually headed by the preacher, priest, or another prominent member of the church. The congregation is usually seated in pews, but this can be done standing as well. Christians have a clergy that have been trained in theology and matters of religion and posses a degree from a seminary. The chief days of gathering is on Sundays, and believers pray, sing, listen to sermons, and read from the Bible during their communal gathering (Morris, 218). As you can see, this is quite different from the Islamic religion.
Another large difference in the two religions is the pilgrimage. For Muslims, the pilgrimage, or hajj, is an annual Muslim rite that every believer is expected to take part in at least once in his lifetime. From the seventh to the tenth day in Dhu al-Hijjah, the last month of the Islamic calendar, thousands of Muslims converge on the city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia to visit the holy shrine of the Kaaba in the Great Mosque, which tradition says was built by Abraham. The pilgrimage was intended to reenact the hegira, the flight of Mohammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 (Catherwood, 100). Christians do not have such a pilgrimage but many do visit the birth place of Jesus, the city of Jerusalem, and consider it an honor to do so. Fasting and the giving of money are two more distinct differences between the two religions. Because the Koran was first revealed to Mohammad in the month of Ramadan, the whole month was set aside as a period of fasting. During each day, from first light to darkness, all eating, drinking, and smoking are forbidden. Upon the end of the fasting period, the second major festival of the Islamic year ensues and lasts several days. In contrast, Christians have the Lenten period, where Jesus was sent to the desert for forty days and forty nights, and was tempted by the devil. During this time, Christians usually give up something of importance, and although some fasting does happen, it is generally not as long as in the Islamic religion. The end of this forty day period is known as Ash Wednesday, which begins the holiest point on the Christian calendar (Good Friday and Easter) (Ware, 146-147). Also, the giving of money is somewhat different. For Muslims, the zakat is an obligatory tax, which is contributed to the state or community. In the modern period, the zakat has become a voluntary charitable contribution (Pike, 100). For Christians, this is known as tithe. Believers are expected to contribute ten percent of there salary to the church for God’s purposes (Morris, 197).
Also, some of the differences between Islam and Christianity are clearly discerned in the holy books of the Bible and the Koran. One such example is the sacrifice of Abraham. This event is interpreted very differently in both religions. Both books make the acknowledgement that Abraham was willing to make a “tremendous sacrifice” (Shamoun, 57). However, the difference between the interpretations lies in the name of Abraham’s son. For example the bible says, “By faith, Abraham, when he was tested, offered up Isaac, and he who had received the promises was ready to offer up his only son” (Hebrews, 11:17). With this the Bible affirms that it was indeed Isaac who was offered up as the sacrifice. In Koran, however, Ishmael is the one who is purportedly offered up for sacrifice as Abraham’s only son (Sura 11: 69-73).
Another incident that is disputed between the two religions is the Virgin Birth and the Nature of Jesus. The Koran does support the virgin birth of Christ, but does not support the notion that Christ was resurrected. The Koran suggests instead that the Virgin Mary gave birth to a prophet, who was free from innate sin because he was virgin born (Dew, 1). The Bible then, supports the notion that the virgin birth existed, and the Virgin Mary gave birth to the son of God, “In this was manifested the love of God toward us, because that God sent His only begotten Son into the world, that we might live through him” (Dew, 1 John 4:9, 1). Islam states that Christ is not divine, it rejects this ideal and is seen in the Koran, “The Messiah, Jesus the son of Mary, was no more than Allah’s apostle and His Word which he cast to Mary; a spirit from Him. So believe in Allah and His apostles and do not say: Three. Allah is but one God” (Dew, Koran 4: 171, 1). Jesus in the Bible, however, is believed to be “God manifest in the flesh” (1 Timothy 3:16). This leads into the Trinity of the Christian faith. Islam is monotheistic in nature, stating, “For God hath said, ‘Take not to yourselves two Gods, for He is one God.” (Dew, Sura 16:53, 1). Christianity is also monotheistic, but that God is made up of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit; otherwise known as the “Trinity”. Christianity says, “The Spirit the Lord Him” (Dew, Isaiah 11:2, 1), which refers to the Holy Spirit, Jesus, and God. Islam does not support this idea and the Koran argues that Christianity supports the notion of polytheism by stating that the Godhead represents three different Gods, not one (Dew, 1).
In conclusion, Islam and Christianity are two intricately woven religions that have some basic framework in common, but their beliefs diverge as well. For example, some of the similarities shared in the two are the angel Gabriel as a deliverer of important news, monotheism, God as the creator of the world, and judgment by God after death. Most of the differences seem to stem from Jesus’ role as a savior. For example, Muslims do not believe that Jesus was anything more than a prophet and therefore, the Trinity can not exist. Also, there are some deviations in similar stories that are related by each religion, like that of Abraham and his sacrificial son. Despite these difference and similarities, we can agree that Christianity and Islam are both significant players in the world of religion and today’s society.
 

Private vs Public Schools: Similarities and Differences

Abstract

Private versus Public schools has been a long debate for years. Many parents have a hard time choosing between the two. This research explores the differences and similarities between Private and Public schools. Although, there are many variations within each sector this paper includes only the five basic factors that contribute to the differences between public and private schools. This research paper includes the differences between funding, teacher pay, class size, testing, and students within each sector. This paper examines a variety of articles and research done by the National Statistics Center for Education. It’s important to know how each sector differs when choosing the right schools for children

Private VS. Public Schools Similarities and Differences

Private schools and Public schools are the two most common academic sectors. There are about fifty-one million students attending the United States public schools in kindergarten through senior year, and about another six million students are admitted in private schools (NCES,2015). Although, only about 6 million students are enrolled in private sectors low-income parents believe that private sectors offer a better education than public schools. There are about 71% of Americans that believe private schools are better at educating children with the best education from kindergarten through senior year. (Saad, 2017). Parents have the perceived idea that private schools provide students with the best education. This is mainly because of how they view the schools. They view the crumbling neighborhood public schools down the block and then look at the gilded private schools in suburban areas and there’s a proneness to imagine both like this and to assume that private schools are better. To truly understand which school is better we must look at the differences amongst the two as well as what they have in common.

 Funding

Many factors affect the role of private and public schools. One of the main differentiating factors is how schools are funded. Public schools rely mainly on local, state, and federal government funds. Private schools are mostly assisted by tuition payments and sometimes by funds from other non-public sources like, endowments, religious organizations, grants, and charitable donations. In some other states, private schools can also receive public funds for certain services (Choy, 1998). In other words, public schools are governmentally funded therefore; being free to all students while private schools charge tuition to every student and are not governmentally funded. Since, Private schools do not receive government funding and must raise their own funds the private school officials get more flexibility into running schools as they see fit. Whereas, public schools must follow strict rules announced by elected school board members.

 Teacher Pay

  Students’ academic achievement depends greatly on the nature and experience of teachers. Its crucial to know that private and public schooling varies in teacher pay. The ability of schools to hire and retain excellent instructors is of great character and is fundamentally linked to relative teacher pay. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in 2011-12 the gap between full time teachers in public and private schools differed greatly. In public schools alone, the mean salary for a teacher was about $53,070 dollars. With a doctorate degree in public schools, the mean salary was about $60,230 dollars. In private schools, the mean salary for teachers was about $40,200 dollars. With a doctorate degree, the average was $52,590 dollars. The variance in pay from the mean salary is nearly $34,893 dollars. Teachers pay varies depending on the level of experience but based on these statistics even with a doctorate degree public schools pay more than private schools. Although, private school teachers get paid less than public school teachers it has been reported that private school teachers are more likely to be satisfied with their working conditions.

 Class size

Class size is a key influence in education. Many parents worry that their children are not getting the required attention they need to succeed. Current researchers from the Department of Psychology and Human development; wrote “Examining the effect of class size on classroom engagement and teacher-pupil interaction: Differences in relation to pupil prior attainment and primary vs. secondary schools”. This experimentation shows that the more students in a classroom the faster students tend to lose focus on the teacher. The likelihood of students to be focused on the teacher when more students are in the classroom remarkably drops. According to the National Center for educational statistics, “public primary schools in the united states had an average class size of 20 for teachers in self-contained classes in 2003-08. In private schools, the average class size for teachers in self-contained classes was 18.” Public schools are becoming exigently overcrowded than private schools as years go by. Parents worry that children in public schools aren’t getting enough one on one interaction with teachers. Smaller class sizes allow teachers to give more individual attention to students and significantly lightens the teacher’s workload.

 Testing

One important factor in public and private schools is testing. Both sectors are required to test the student’s knowledge. Although, private schools don’t have as much standardized testing as public schools do private schools must have a form of test that proves that students are learning. The National Assessment of Educational Progress reported that at the fourth-grade level, all variations of private schools scored higher than public schools. The research also considered the comparisons of scores after the demographic deviations have been controlled. The results varied substantially. It’s crucial to become fully aware that public schools have higher percentages of Hispanic, low income, and special education students. When controlling these demographics research showed that in all categories such as math, science, and reading public schools scored higher or equal to private schools. Even though private schools score higher overall, when you control the demographics public schools score higher than private schools. Standardized test scores is only a small factor in what parents hope schools deliver for children Therefor, Parents must decide if overall this will affect their decision when choosing between private and public schools.

 Students

Many of the ways that private and public schools differ affect the different kind of students the schools receive. The Student population is widely different in both sectors. Private schools have a higher population of all-white students than public schools. About 43 percent of the nation’s private school students attended virtually all-white schools, compared to 27 percent of public-school students (Alexis, 2016). Since, public schools are free they receive a wide variety of racially and ethnically diverse students. Parents and teachers believe that this allows students to develop an understanding of the perspectives from children of diverse backgrounds.

 Conclusion

There are many kinds of differences and similarities between public and private schools. While some systematic differences between public and private schools have been outlined in my research, there are many more variations within each sector. Based on the research conducted in my paper Private and Public school are widely different. In summary, Private schools are not governmentally funded while public schools are. Teachers in private schools get paid less than public school teachers, but they tend to like their working conditions more. Private schools provide smaller class sizes and have less testing while public schools have larger class sizes and more testing. Private schools are more likely than public schools to have a wider range of white students. In my opinion, there is no wrong or right answer between public and private schools. It all comes down to the kind of child you have and what you as a parent want that child to experience.

References

Alexis Buchanan (April 4,2016). The racial makeup of private schools-often-nonprofit is very white. Retrieved from https://nonprofitquarterly.org/2016/04/04/the-racial-makeup-of-private-schools-often-nonprofit-is-very-white/

Allegretto, S. A., & Tojerow, I. (2014). Teacher staffing and pay differences: public and private schools. Monthly Labor Review. Retrieved from http://link.galegroup.com.db07.linccweb.org/apps/doc/A392898799/GRGM?u=lincclin_ecc&sid=GRGM&xid=a639fd3e

Blatchford, P., Bassett, P., & Brown, P. (2011). Examining the effect of class size on classroom engagement and teacher-pupil interaction: Differences in relation to pupil prior attainment and primary vs. secondary schools. Learning & Instruction, 21(6), 715–730. https://doi-org.db07.linccweb.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2011.04.001

Fan F.A. (May 2012) Class Size: Effects on Students’ Academic Achievements and Some Remedial Measures. Retrieved from http://content.ebscohost.com/ContentServer.asp?EbscoContent=dGJyMNHX8kSeprQ4zdnyOLCmr1Cep7JSsqq4SbCWxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMOPX4Xu549%2BB7LH1i9%2Fm5wAA&T=P&P=AN&S=R&D=eue&K=77685410

Great school staff (November 3, 2017). How important is cultural diversity at your school? Retrieved from https://www.greatschools.org/gk/articles/cultural-diversity-at-school/

Patrick J. Wolf (University of Chicago press,2013). Comparing Public schools to Private. Retrieved from https://www.educationnext.org/comparing-public-schools-private/

Saad, L. (2017, August 21). Private Schools First, Public Schools Last in K-12 Ratings. Gallup Poll News Service. Retrieved from http://link.galegroup.com.db07.linccweb.org/apps/doc/A510349569/AONE?u=lincclin_ecc&sid=AONE&xid=2debe95a

School and Staffing survey (SASS). National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Home Page, a part of the U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/surveys/sass/tables/sass1112_2013314_t1s_007.asp

The Condition of Education – Preprimary, Elementary, and Secondary Education – Elementary and Secondary Enrollment – Elementary and Secondary Enrollment – Indicator May (2018) Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/indicator_cga.asp

 

The Similarities and Differences of Civil Wars in El Salvador and Guatemala

 This paper is designed to focus our attention on the similarities and differences of civil wars in places like El Salvador and Guatemala in Central America. Here, we will discover and underline significant points that will give us a clear picture of what makes these two brutal conflicts very similar to each other. We will discuss the period of time when these two big events started in each country separately. Also, we will try to find the main causes of those conflicts and their mission and goals from the government and its opposition sides. Additionally, we will try to understand the strategy of defeating the insurgency by the government forces of El Salvador and Guatemala and the rebellions’ tactics against the government by bringing examples. At the end of this paper, we will observe the consequences that were left during and after that terrible time. And finally, we will talk about the peace agreements that were the necessary step for the government to stop that disaster that took away a huge amount of civilian lives.

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 Let start our discussion with the time when these two civil wars in El Salvador and Guatemala began. Also, we will try to explain who were fighting against. El Salvador is one of the smallest and densely populated countries in Central America. Unfortunately, from 1979 to 1991 El Salvador “the face of the revolution” was involved in the civil war that lasted around 12 years of extreme violence. The Salvadoran Civil War was between the Salvadoran oligarchy in alliance with the military government of El Salvador and the US that formed “the Rapid Deployment Infantry Battalions” (note: many other countries allied with the US by helping military government in Chile provide essential training and tactical advice to the Salvadoran Forces) against the Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (the FMLN was the insurgent group that became a legal political at the end of the country’s civil war in 1992) that was one of the major political parties in El Salvador that was formed from guerilla groups, workers, communists, and socialists. The FMLN participants were ranged from children to elderly, male and female that were trained in FMLN camps in the mountains and jungles. The United States was contributed to that conflict by providing the El Salvador military with significant financial assistance by making herself as the genuine participant during that conflict. Moreover, there was the time when US officers were making critical decisions by running that war in the top level positions of the Salvadoran military. Based on some resources the El Salvadorian movement had some support from urban intellectuals, writers, journalists, professionals, and union members.

 Compare to Guatemalan Civil War we can see that the beginning was on November 13th, 1960 and it ended on December 29th, 1996. This war was also between the government of Guatemala with the help from the US (that were establishing its hegemony over resources and labor in Latin American nations), Israel and South Africa against “Left-wing Politics”. The Guatemalan military and police were working closely with the US agency during this war by giving us a clear picture of how the US was involved in these two conflicts. The State Department by securing the US was in the big interests of getting resources and land from Guatemala. With the monetary support from the US advisers, the Guatemalan government was able to establish a Presidential Intelligence Agency in the National Palace. The 39% of Guatemala’s weapons were imported from Israel. Approximately 300 Israeli advisors were operating directly with Guatemala forces. South Africa also provided Guatemalan military with the advisers, training tactics, and material support. The Left-wing Politics were supporting and fighting for the idea of social equality and egalitarianism that also gives us the similarity of these two civil wars. They were against of the social hierarchy. Most of the time, the “leftist rebel groups” and their ideas were supported by Maya indigenous people and Ladino peasants. As in the movement in El Salvador, the movement in Guatemalan Civil War also had some support from urban middle-class intellectuals, junior army officers, and professionals. Some of the urban intellectuals ware part of MR-13. Another part was in the insurgent movement that called itself as the ORPA (Revolutionary Organization of Armed People).

 The main reasons for those conflicts and defeating tactics against each other. The main reason for the El Salvadoran Civil War was the failure of the government to improve living standards in the country. Also, the reasons why the civil war in El Salvador could not end sooner it is because the government did not want to found a democratic regime, which included the legalization of the FMLN as a political party, civilian control of state security forces, and electoral reform, according to Elisabeth Wood’s article. The main goals of using violent tactics against insurgents for the Salvadoran army and security forces of the United States in 1979 was to prevent a takeover by the FMLN (leftist-led guerrillas and their allied political organizations). Salvadoran army was warned that rebels were limited with military resources and their biggest tactic was laid on “mass organization” that was made up from the students, labor unions, and of course the peasant organizations that could mobilize their power in many cities within El Salvador country that would make able to shut down the whole country via strikes. Many insurgents and peasants jointed FMLN to fight the government military for material gain and benefits. The reason for many civilians to fight the military was “piety” according to some resources. People saw their participation in that war as the way of advancing the personal cause and a communal feeling of godly justice. Insurgents believed in social changes that were reflected in the lack of political, economic and social opportunities toward them during that time. Moreover, insurgent saw their reason of joining the FMLN as the opposition to the powerful elite’s that were treated peasant communities not equally on the everyday basis and the government’s oppressors by hoping to gain respect for their fundamental human rights.

 Compare to Guatemala’s reason we can see a clear similarity where insurgences “the Poor of Guatemala” rebelled against the government oppression and human rights violation. According to some resources the US was involved in the cause of this conflict by helping Carlos Manuel Arana Osorio to become the first military dictator who was representing the Institutional Democratic Party. Guatemala’s military leaders during this conflict were developing tactics with the US assistance for the massive counter-insurgency campaign that left thousands of people as missing. Moreover, the US adopted the tactic of four-decade-long terror and repression to help Guatemala government to stay in power. Intelligence agencies including CIA were focusing on providing direct and indirect support to state operations. Guatemala forces were assisting the US by helping to create a secret military training base on the territory of Guatemala. During the civil war, the Guatemalan military was able to spread its power over the whole country for many years thereby eliminating enemies in all socio-political institutions and Guatemala’s national life control that forced people to fight back. Also, the Guatemalan military was running the counterinsurgency programs autonomously from the Presidential House. In all places around Guatemala, people were put in danger by the government forces that were targeting each character that was suspected of leftist sympathies. The Guerrilla Army of the Poor was part of the tactics of establishing a “social justice: against the inefficiency and ineffectiveness of the judicial and administrative State institutions. For the many years, the insurgency was highly inactive. They were defeated and demoralized almost on all fronts. Their tactics were revised few times where it was targeting civilians and where it members of the security forces. As we can see already the US was part of both these civil wars. Nevertheless, Guatemalan military received more U.S. assistance that was including the help from Israel and South Africa compare to El Salvadorian one.

 The strategy that was used during these conflicts: Based on the valid researches the Salvadoran Armed Forces were using the strategy of defeating the FMLN that were very similar that were used by counterinsurgency in Guatemala. This strategy of defeating FMLN was adapted from the US that was used during the Vietnam War and taught by American military advisors. The main idea of that strategy was laid on eliminating the insurgency by destroying its support base in the countryside. The main target was the civilian population that was killed in the purpose of removing any possible bases of support for building knew rebels organizations. The code name of one of the strategies against FMLN was “draining the sea” where the guerrilla was moving between the people as the fish swims in the sea. There were used different other strategies. One of them was “sweep” operation that was based on killings of anyone captured by the army. During this war, some involved strategies came directly from the US government by providing the Salvador military with the “Atlacatl soldiers” that were trained and controlled by the US during that conflict. If we consider another side of this conflict then we will be able to see the strategy from the FMLN was based on the considerable support in the countryside by forced recruitment of young men into rebel groups. Despite everything, in the FMLN’s strategy also was the place for the violence against civilians that were generally planned to target the El Salvadoran government. The FMLN was killing mayors who cooperated with the Salvadoran military and other officials. The FMLN was trying to use the strategy of focusing their attention on destroying bridges, cutting power lines, damaging coffee plantations. They were doing everything to damage the economy that supported the government. Moreover, during the war, the FMLN adopted imported arms that helped them to become more strategic and better planned.

 Compare to Guatemala case we can see that the government forces of Guatemala were using the strategy of defeating the rebellions that were based on genocide the Maya population and the brutal violations of human rights against civilians. During the Guatemalan Civil War, there were used numerous strategies that were based not just on focusing on targeting the individual rebellion groups but the slaughtering of the peasantry and massacres of entire villages. In 1980 military’s strategy of deafening rebellions were considered on the level of genocide that was defined by the huge amount of the killed and disappeared people that were approximately 200,000. The US Central Intelligence Agency was using B-26 bombers that were presented as Guatemalan military jets to help the Guatemalan military to bomb the rebel bases. According to some substantial evidence, the US military advisors were involved in the formation of death squads as well that took away countless civilian lives. Because of these actions from the Guatemalan government forces, the rebels were forced to change their strategy by occupying the hills of eastern Guatemala and Honduras in the case of restoring the kernel of its force that later was named as “MR-13”. During this war, MR-13 were targeting the offices of the United Fruit Company that were controlled by the American corporation. Also, MR-13 was able to establish the Rebel Armed Forces (FAR) in helping with Guatemalan Labor Party, middle-class intellectuals and students in the case to control the rebalance in different places of the country. Compare to El Salvadorian “Atlacatl soldiers”, Guatemala’s military also had the special operations wing of the Armed Forces of Guatemala that was called as Kaibiles and were trained internationally. It was one of the worlds’ toughest, best trained and most ruthless commando forces. This operation wing has consisted with 85 % of Guatemalan soldiers and 15 % of the US and others countries. The Guatemalan Armed Forces were using the counterinsurgency “sweeping” strategy as it was used in El Salvador against MR-13 that had the code-name “Operation Falcon” that was conducted with support from the US military assistance as well. The US government and US-based multinationals were taking the strategy of exerting strong pressures to maintain the country’s archaic and unjust socio-economic structures.

 The consequences during the war: The Civil War In EL Salvador caused a huge amount of deaths and migration of its population to different places. This war violated the human rights in many aspects that were included in terrorizing and targeting of civilians by “death squads” ( an armed group that was designed to kill or makes people disappear for the political, ethical purposes). This war was using the recruitment of child soldiers by the military that violated the idea of human rights. There is not an exact amount of people that were killed and disappeared during that conflict but based on some reports the war took away more than 75000 human’s lives. During that conflict around 5% of the civilians’ murder were committed by FMLN guerrillas and around 85% death of (peasants, teachers, students, journalists, and other civilians) were laid on Salvadoran Army, death squads, and three main security forces (National Guard, National Police and Treasury Policy). All groups of citizens that were planning to help or provide any other support to FMLN were put on the risk of death that caused the expanded violence toward all citizens from the military side. Additionally, Salvadoran military promoted the idea where nobody could “question official policy” or otherwise that person will be put on the stage of the life risk. During this war, the FMLN was taking over the control of many poor neighborhoods thereby causing them inevitable death by forcing the military to bomb those positions. The FMLN was able to attack and destroy Air Force Base in San Salvador by causing the damage to the economic infrastructure for many millions of dollars. By the end of the war, the Commission of the Truth for El Salvador registered around 22000 complaints toward political violence during that war where 85% were referred to the Salvadoran Army and security forces. Throughout this conflict between government, paramilitary forces and the FMLN there were produced the human rights violations, that was the subject of torturing, mutilation, forced disappearance, killing, and mass rape. Most of the kills were made from massacres, executions, landmines and mass bombing. The widespread violence forced over one-sixth of the whole El Salvador population to flee to different countries. According to some reports around 400000 of refugee was fled to the US.

 Compare to Guatemala we can see that during the civil war, the Guatemalan military intelligence services and intelligence organizations were responsible for massive killings and disappearances of most opponents within the states. The state of Guatemala was one of the first in Latin America who used the force disappearances against its opposition that took away approximately 40000 to 50000 lives during the beginning this struggle. According to some sources, the Guatemala military, police and intelligence services were responsible for 93% of the human right abuses where around 3% were committed by the guerrillas. In help with the military intelligence and Judicial Policy, there were the waves of unexplained “disappearances” and killings in Guatemala City and other places of the countryside. Many students were assassinated by the “death-squad”. During this conflict, the Guatemalan Army formed the “Special Commando Unit of the Guatemalan Army” that carried out abductions, bombing, street assassinations, torture, and total executions of the real and suspected communists. According to Human rights sources during this conflict 5,000 Guatemalans were killed by the government for “political reasons” thereby making Guatemala one of the worst human rights violator after El Salvador. By the end of the war, the estimated amount of killed and disappeared people were around 200,000. Most of those kills were the official-sanctioned terror by government forces. Under the ”beans or bullets” strategy several hundred Indian villages were obliterated and their inhabitants, presumed to be guerrilla sympathizers, either killed or forced into exile. Hence, in Guatemala military’s strategy of deafening rebellions were considered on the level of genocide that was defined by the huge amount of the killed and disappeared people compare to El Salvadorian one where the number of innocent killed people were much less and were not depended on the group, religions, political, and race-ethnicity. One of the main reason why the Guatemalan war last much longer compare to El Salvadorian one was that the United States was the one who was helping to start that war but was less interesting in bringing it to the end.

 The end of the civil war: The huge amount of FLMN unsuccessful threats convinced the El Salvador government that the FLMN cannot be defeated totally by using violence. They decided that negotiation for the settlement with the FLMN would be a necessary step toward resolving the existing problem. The first peace settlement was presented by the FMLN in 1982 for creating a Communist dictatorship but was refused by El Salvador’s National Federation of Lawyers that claimed that the elections could not be free. Then peace proposal was in 1984, 1985, and 19878 also without effect. The final peace negotiations between El Salvador military and FMLN began in 1990. It was successfully reached only on January 16, 1992, with the final agreement that was reflected in the “Chapultepec Peace Accords” that was signed by the combatants in Mexico City. During the fulfilling of the peace agreements, there were made few changes in the demobilization of Salvadoran military forces. The Treasury Police and National Guard were annihilated where military intelligence functions were transferred to civilian control.

 Compare to Guatemala the peace process was arranged throughout 1994-1996 by the United Nations. The final step was made in March 1995 when the government and the URNG ( the Guatemalan political party that was as the guerrilla movement until 1996 after the peace process in Guatemalan Civil War) signed agreements on human rights, resettlement of displaced persons, historical clarification. and indigenous rights. During that agreement, they also took their attention on the socio-economic and agrarian agreement. One of many reasons why Elizabeth Wood thinks that El Salvadorian peaceful agreement in 1992 was successful is because, in 1994, El Salvador held its first elections. The FMLN was the part of the political parties during that election in the case to ensure that the elections were fair. Compare to Guatemala’s result where even after the peace agreement there was the place for profound nor resolved issues. For example, the country still remained significantly divided. Also, the country suffered from violence, weak role of the civilian police force against crime, high levels of inequality, and the Guatemala indigenous pollution was still excluded from the political, economic, and social structures of Guatemala.

 Conclusion: based on this paper we can underling the similarities in the strategy of defeating insurgency during the El Salvador and Guatemala civil Wars. Also, we notice that insurgences from El Salvador and Guatemala were having the same cause of fitting the government that was based on egalitarianism and the social changes that were reflected in the lack of political, economic and social opportunities toward the people. Additionally, we see that insurgencies in both countries were using the violence against civilians as well. According to Human rights sources during this conflict 5,000 Guatemalans were killed by the government for “political reasons” thereby making Guatemala one of the worst human rights violator after El Salvador. Both countries were heavily criticized for its unwillingness to investigate or prosecute cases of human rights violations after wars. As we can see from these two conflicts the US government was part of these conflicts on the side of the government by organizing, funding, and equipping them. In both wars, the US advisors were able to involve almost the same counterinsurgency strategies and techniques that were used in Vietnam. Additionally, we can see from this paper that the peace process in both countries was refused a few times by the government before they reached the success.

Citation:

Rohter, Larry. “A War So Long Its Origins Are Dimmed.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 20 Sept. 1996, www.nytimes.com/1996/09/20/world/a-war-so-long-its-origins-are-dimmed.html.

“Central America Wars, 1980s.” Peace History, peacehistory-usfp.org/central-america-wars/

“El Salvador Profile – Timeline.” BBC News, BBC, 16 May 2018, www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-19402222

“El Salvador.” CJA, cja.org/where-we-work/el-salvador/

“El Salvador.” Mass Atrocity Endings, sites.tufts.edu/atrocityendings/2015/08/07/el-salvador/

“Central America Wars, 1980s.” Peace History, peacehistory-usfp.org/central-america-wars/

“Why You Need to Know about Guatemala’s Civil War.” Public Radio International, www.pri.org/stories/2016-12-29/why-you-need-know-about-guatemalas-civil-war

Stansifer, Charles L., and Oscar H. Horst. “Guatemala.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 5 Sept. 2018, www.britannica.com/place/Guatemala/Civil-war-years

Alwani, Kiran, and Corrin Bulmer. “Guatemala’s Civil War Ended 20 Years Ago Today. Here Are 4 Things to Know about Its Path to Democracy.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 16 Apr. 2016, www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2016/04/16/guatemalas-civil-war-ended-20-years-ago-today-here-are-4-things-to-know-about-its-path-to-democracy/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.818d75313f3a

“El Salvador: Quest for Justice.” GCC News | Al Jazeera, Al Jazeera, www.aljazeera.com/programmes/peopleandpower/2013/08/201381310843483272.html.

Newman, Lucia. “Guatemala’s Feared Special Forces.” GCC News | Al Jazeera, Al Jazeera, 15 Aug. 2011, www.aljazeera.com/blogs/americas/2011/08/61171.html.

 

Similarities and Differences of the French and American Revolutions

The French revolution was marked by an event in the European history back in the year 1789. The French revolution ended in late 1790 after Napoleon Bonaparte accented (Lynch, 1973). During this time, the French political landscape was redesigned marked by the wide uprooting of major institutions including the feudal system. With widespread discontent in the absolute monarchy and the poor economic policies, the French upheaval degenerated with a chaotic bloodbath signifying the will of the people in power shaping. France becomes highly involved in the American Revolution as the 18 the century ended (Sando, & Agoyo, 2005). Therefore, both the American and the French revolution exhibited similarities and differences.

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 In the 13 colonies where the colonials operated, it was clear that the common people wrote many grievances against the rulers. In the United States of America, the declaration of the famous independence was published. In France also, the famous Cahiers De Doleances texts were published and they directly maintained grievances of the common people. The Cahiers de Doleances was a compilation of grievances by the common French citizens complaining against the ruthless king Louis XVI (Lynch, 1973). On the other hand, there was manuscript by the American colonists with grievances by the common people towards King George III. The formation of the United States of America inspired the French revolution. Most scholars believe that the revolutions were a solid first step in the creation of ripe conditions for constitutionalism, patriotism and the struggle for freedom. Further similarities suggest that this mirror struggles initially appeared top produce profound elements with intricate differences for both the revolutions. Technically, goal for independence accelerated these revolutions. On the contrary, the initial American upheaval was primarily fought to remove unfair taxes that were imposed on them by the British rulers. Henceforth, France sparked their revolution in an interest for an independent way of living after decades of class separation (Sando, & Agoyo, 2005). Meanwhile, for both was a challenge by the Republicans to the monarchies all over the world. North Americans exhibited interest in the French revolution with believing that this was the experience with Britain following the events backs in the years 1789 (De Tocqueville, 1998). Surprisingly, not all the Americans approved the Frances method; however, majority largely remained supportive all through the revolutionary period. Equality and the rights of man, which was emphasized on the bill of rights, were vital revolutionary tenets. These principles sprung major theories presented with sentiments of sovereignty and equal opportunities for all. Like the American manuscripts, the French declaration proclaims presumption of innocence and prohibits the application of ex-facto.

 The Pueblo revolt was literally a fight for survival for pueblo citizens who had passed through extreme abuses in the arms of the Spanish regime. Arguably, the American Revolution occurred because of several issues and the major cause was the resistance to the heavy taxes that were imposed on the common people. Eventually, the Americans gained independence from the British colonists and so did the pueblos. Unfortunately, the Spanish made a comeback and re-established themselves but this time treating the Pueblos in a much better way. In a similar sense, they were components of empires that had successfully revolted. Concisely, the Spanish explorers enslaved the common pueblo citizens trying to dilute their religious acts at the American southwest region at around 1500 (Lynch, 1973). This became the first upheaval organized on the American soil against a foreign power. In a surprise attack and through the leadership of Po’Pay a medicine man they successfully managed to defeat the Spaniards and chased them away from the territory. However, the medicine man became proud and began to behave like a dictator.

 The Spaniard’s actions altered the life of many natives in a variety of ways (Lynch, 1973). Through their plight, they started dominating into the lives of the native forcing alterations in, politics, social manners and causing a lot of religious oppression. Their actions caused a lot of terror within the people as they continued to do an alteration of culture, for example, the ways of marriage. Underage kids were taken for industrial work whereas women were sexually harassed and assaulted. If an individual resisted their legs were cut off and persons above the age of 15 years became enslaved.

 Maintaining order in America was a challenge. Even though Britain had acquired Canada from France, the efforts towards establishing peaceful relations with Indian tribes were weakening. Consequently, Britain kept a standing army in America. This move led a number of challenges with the colonialists. Besides, the Indian uprising during the Ohio frontier caused a proclamation in 1763, which prevented colonialists from settling at the west of the Allegany Mountains (De Tocqueville, 1998). This move would further lead to conflicts with land speculators and land-hungry settlers. Some British leaders also felt the urge to enhance control over their empire. American colonialists were known for evading laws controlling navigation and imperial trade. Besides, the American colonialists traded with the French during the war.

 History documents that in the period between 1765 and 1783, America witnessed significant expansion in various spheres towards the West. America employed different methods to overpower rivals (De Tocqueville, 1998). The methods included dealings in unfair land purchases and formation of treaties. Unfair land purchases helped governments get military service with minimal financial constraints. Furthermore, the fighters engaged natives and Brits’ in a life and death war. Consequently, different cities emerged during the period.

 During the American Revolution, people used carts and wagons to move things to different places. The roads were poor and carts had to be pulled by several horses. However, during the expansion towards the west, rail network expanded and agricultural land improved (Sando, & Agoyo, 2005). During the civil war, America lacked an expansive rail network to the west of Mississippi River. Rather, most of the railway development was done in the eastern part. The west was, however, considered as a frontier during the 1765s and the 1783s (De Tocqueville, 1998). Americans then embarked on a mission to achieve manifest destiny. They used the land acquired through treaties to construct an extensive railway network that would serve the entire American continent. The main objective of the mission was to connect the Eastern and Western coast of America. This move would enhance communication, transport and trade in the entire region

 The Congress viewed the transcontinental railroad network, during the westward expansion, as a development that would simplify Americans settlement in the western territories. Furthermore, trade and communication would increase and thus more economic growth. In 1783, the Congress came up with an act that would see the completion of the railroad network (De Tocqueville, 1998). The central Pacific railroad company and the union pacific railroad company were tasked with constructing a railroad network from the west to the east. The two companies took a total of seven years to complete the project. The union pacific railroad company began building the rail network in 1865, from Omaha, Nebraska running westwards (De Tocqueville, 1998). On the other hand, the central Pacific railroad company began constructing the rail network at Sacramento, California heading eastwards.

 Most of the employees of union pacific railroad company were Irish Americans while those of central Pacific railroad company were Chinese immigrants, African Americans, Mexican Americans, and Native Americans. The completion of the transcontinental railroad network eased the movement of Americans across the nation. People would easily move from New York City to San Francisco in a week.

My thoughts

 The states ignore indigenous communities of the United States. People’s voices and cries are rarely considered in the entire mainstreams (Sando, 2005). The rules always disregard their issues. It is prudent that the United States of America has not yet fully recognizes humanity. Indigenous communities have greatly suffered several years of injustices and incarceration by the government of the United States. By adding the American dimension of the native populations to framing a precise analysis, the criminal system grants a new insight towards the suffering of the natives and gives essential teachings for alternatives (Sando, 2005)

Analysis

 Majority of the serious offences that indigenous community has committed are always handled in the national rank. Generally, this still entails a more severe punishment. Researchers have shown that it is more likely for a Native American to be shot by the police than other racial people are. Although a large number of Americans, minorities do not have the communitarian infrastructure to facilitate mitigation of the crime, indigenous Americans are always deprived. The civil rights of the native communities are not considered. The administration of the United States should take disparities based on race to in the criminal system (De Tocqueville, 1998). Research has shown that the indi8geniouh s lining in prisons has risen at a higher rate. The fear of victimization by the police has induced tension o the people. As the indigenous communities live in fear of incarceration, they as well struggle to get what they call justice with a hope that some days they will be free from imprisonment

 The indigenous communities of the United States relate with the native Hawaiians in some ways. Children in both communities combine their leadership skills, abilities and ideas to settle their disputes family organizations are always shared among family members. Such values including sharing work, respect among others (De Tocqueville, 1998). While children assume family responsibility at their early stages hence being collectively responsible for life tasks the only way that both communities who have already been incarcerated are to return to their cultural values and traditions.

 Consequently, it is untrue to say that all past events had some role in the present. According to the “American Revolution,” there is a logical error in a view that African-Americans would be worse off if there were no slavery which helps clarify the above stand (Lynch, 1973). In the end, the position taken in the article is unclear as it presents both dimensions of the discussion without evidently supporting either. It is misleading to claim that counterfactuals set more than a century ago have no impact on the way people exist today.

 Most individuals are compelled by the necessity to initialize the capacity of economic necessity. Such individuals involve inequality of status and ethics. To submerge these actions historians develop a unique objective of transforming social connections from an exploitative nature to a Flourish able nature (De Tocqueville, 1998). Chaos and isolation will prevail in an international system Where there seems to be inequality in the distribution of resources and lack of a good democracy. Ultimately, (De Tocqueville, 1998) pledges for a culture that is founded in truth and honesty. ‘We can only achieve the highest grades though teaching inequality and exploitation’. ‘Democracy will prevail in a society which is familiar with issues revolving around, empire and racism’.

References

De Tocqueville, A. (1998). The Old Regime and the Revolution, Volume II: Notes on the French Revolution and Napoleon (Vol. 2). University of Chicago Press.

Sando, J. S., & Agoyo, H. (Eds.). (2005). Po’Pay: Leader of the first American revolution. Clear Light Pub.

Lynch, J. (1973). The Spanish American Revolution, 1808-1826. Revolutions in the Modern World. New York, WW Norton & Company, Inc.

 

The similarities between

The Similarities Between
From Tuesdays with Morrie, by Mitch Albom, it was apparent that Morrie shaped his life based on many of his beliefs. He gained those beliefs from other religions and their cultures, one of those being the religion of Islam. During Morrie’s many lessons with Mitch, they talked about different concepts of death and how it differs between religions. What death is and how people cope with it. Death was one subject that Mitch did not like to discuss, but because of his limited amount of time with Morrie he got past it and learned the importance of his teacher’s last lesson.

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In Islam, people believe that living and dying is the submission to the will of God. In fact, German philosopher Goethe stated, “If Islam means submission to the will of God, then in Islam we all live and die” (Deathreference.com). This means, many people who choose to study Islam think of it as being a live-die religion. If one submits themselves to Allah, then on his time will they live for a period of time and die at another period of time. Muslims, or people of the Islamic faith, believe in dying during the time of their fate. This submission varies upon Islamic scholars; some believe it is in their will to devote a specific amount of time to prayer with the time provided for them. Others believe in piecing themselves away from Allah, the Muslim God, and placing themselves above him.
There are two subgroups of Islam. The fittest are those who strongly worship God and his morals. On the other hand, the negative prototypes are those who value their own laws above Allah’s. Neither submission is favored, but it is observed of those whose worship is based on the religion of Islam. Morrie was a very egotistical old man at times, and other times, a very sad one. Morrie mourned at times because he felt pity for himself. He felt as if it was not his time, other times he felt that God would not give him a disease he was not fit to overcome. In the end of Tuesdays with Morrie, Morrie still won, because he learned from his dying and was thankful for God’s fate. The fact that Morrie knew approximately when he was going to die gave him time to cope and inspire others.
In the Islamic holy book, the Quran, it teaches that every individual struggles with good deeds and bad deeds, but spiritually it is up to them how they react to their situations. In Islam, this inconsistent struggle is known as “Jihad” (Deathrefernce.com). Morrie was a winner because he used his fate wisely by teaching others and telling the world of his disease along with ways people could cope with death. Morrie was like any other individual, throughout his life he struggled with the good and bad, from the death of his mother and father and his brother’s Polio to the births of his two sons. There were many ways Morrie could have lived his life but he chose to use the struggles of his past to sculpt his future.
Like every other being, death is a greatly recognized situation. Many people handle death differently. Muslims believe in preparing for death before it is too late (Deathreference.com). Morrie understood this statement and used it to come up with a lot of his aphorisms. One of his aphorisms, “Learn how to live, and you’ll know how to die; learn how to die, and you’ll know how to live,” seemed to be greatly influenced by The Quran’s book of warnings. Islam believes in charity, the process of doing something for others. Although Morrie was not physically able, before he passed he did give back to charity and he sculpted another life besides his while doing so, Mitch’s. In Islam, Muslims accept death and they think of it at as “one’s appointed time” (Deathreference.com). In Islam this is known as “Ajal”. Morrie learned to live by dying and how to die by living, and from that he gained the awareness of how he was going to die and an estimated time of when he would die.
When a Muslim dies it is either frowned or smiled upon but it is in their religion to attend any Muslim’s funeral. Before these funerals many activities occur, the people left behind of the deceased prepare the body by washing, perfuming and shrouding it (Deathreference.com). Similar to the most common performed funerals, a funeral prayer is said. After the Muslim body is buried in the graveyard, without casket, a person informs the dead of what has happened; he has died. In Islam, after life is believed if the deceased can pass a test on the Day of Judgment. Muslims believe that afterlife is the process in which a person’s soul is either sentenced to life in Paradise or life in Hell.
Thus this being known, Muslims do not believe in the process of reincarnation, this belief is highly unfortunate to the Muslims. The people of Islamic belief do not believe that a person can be reborn and live another life throughout another body. Only possible, a person’s spirit can go on, but after death their physical bodies are lost forever. “If one is to believe in reincarnation, it would mean that we should treat the poor, the destitute, and the suffering as if they deserve their misfortunes, and have no sympathy for them because they are only getting their punishment; and we should have high regard for the rich and the comfortable because they are receiving their reward for past good deeds. Such an attitude would be inhuman and against the basic teachings of Islam” (Muslim.org).
Morrie believed that if cremated, they would burn his legs separately and the rest of his body would be at piece, due to the nature of his illness. If Morrie was cremated everything would be burned to ashes, his soul, his hands, his arms, and his legs. Had Morrie chosen to be buried, sooner or later his spirit would leave his body and his bones would be left in his coffin to deteriorate and decompose. As read on Muslim.org, “In Islam, they teach that a human being not only has a body, but it also has a ‘spirit’ given to him or her by God” (Muslim.org). “During his life, man’s deeds shape and mould his spirit, for better or worse, according to his deeds. When a person dies, the physical body is finished, but the spirit remains as he or she had molded it by their deeds when alive. That is the life after death” (Muslim.org).
Most Muslims share the same practices, the primary being The Five Pillars. Although, only one of the five pillars was shown to be at least similar to Tuesdays with Morrie, it was Pilgrimage. Within the pillar of pilgrimage, every Muslim is to make the trip to Kaaba at Mecca. If one is able, physically of economically, they are to try and do so at least once in their lifetime (History.com). After coping with ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis), also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, Morrie Schwartz was confined to his wheel chair and declined from dancing ever again. As the disease progressed Morrie relied on a ventilator to breathe for him. If physically possible, Morrie would surely make a second pilgrimage to his old campus or dance club again too enjoy reliving old times.
As previously stated, A Muslim’s death is either smiled or frowned upon. It was myth that “Islam is completely incompatible with acts of terrorism; it is against Islam to kill innocent people” (thereligionofpeace.com). In the Islamic nation it has been recorded that, very frequently, Muslims will kill other Muslims in the name of their God. This usually occurs because these Muslims consider their victims nonbelievers of the religion, Posers. An actual Muslim will go to Paradise despite their reason for death if they were truly Muslims. A nonbeliever will usually be sentenced to time in hell after death. For a Muslim to kill another “unbeliever” in the name of Allah, this is considered Takfir (thereligionofpeace.com).
In review, Morrie’s beliefs were very similar to the people of Islam. Not only could many of the spoken topics been related to the words of Morrie but, hence, they were accurate. In Islam death is not gone about as an inhumane stage of life, more is it worshiped and highly provisioned. Occasionally, Muslims make it routine to visit other Muslim funerals. In their religion, this may be is considered compassion, and by attending each Muslim gains a new experience and some way of coping death. Of course the fear of dying ranges between religions and for Muslims they keep a bias opinion on death, but for every Muslim actually dying is one step closer to those who may receive a wonderful life in Heaven or a terrible life in Hell. Besides death there are many other beliefs behind the Islamic nation. Islam basis it’s religion on their God Allah, and what he worships they respect.
Works Cited
“Encyclopedia of Death and Dying.” Death Reference. Advameg, Inc., 2009. Web. 7 Dec. 2009. http://www.deathreference.com/Ho-Ka/Islam.html
Isha’, Ahmadiyya. “Beliefs.” The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement: Presenting Islam as peaceful, tolerant, rational, inspiring. Islam Lahore Inc. U.S.A., ND. Web. 9 Dec. 2009. http://www.muslim.org/islam/int-is35.htm
“The History of Islam: Practices and Institutions.” 5 Pillars of Islam. A&E Television Networks, 2009. Web. 9 Dec. 2009. http://www.history.com/content/ramadan/the-history-of-islam/5-pillars-of-islam
“The Myths of Islam.” The Religion of Peace. The Religion of Peace, 2008. Web. 9 Dec. 2009. http://www.thereligionofpeace.com/Pages/Myths-of-Islam.htm
 

Similarities Between Islam And Christianity Religion Essay

In this paper we will examine some relevant similarities and differences between two widely known and practiced religions: Islam and Christianity. Although, these two religions have easily identifiable similarities and differences, they are both large players in the religious world today with an impressive number of followers.
There are many similarities between the two religions, which stems from the fact that the prophet Mohammad based the basic framework on Christianity. Mohammad believed that the Christians had been right with some aspects of Christianity, but they had stopped hearing God’s message. This is where he came in to correctly tell what God wanted the world to do. Therefore, there are some significant similarities to be seen. For example, the angel Gabriel, found in both religions, is a messenger angel on both sides of the house. Also, the message was brought forth in both religions that there was only one true God, and both religions believed that this one God was the creator of the world, and would be the one to judge all of mankind upon their death. Then, this God would decide if the person received heaven or hell.

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Also, each of these religions had been delivered with basic rules of guidance, although the rules in themselves were different. Islam had, from Mohammad, the Five Pillars, while Christians had been given the Ten Commandments, delivered by Moses. Another aspect of each of these religions that is very similar is that each is a “Book” religion. They each have their own book written down by disciples of their respective religion. The Islamic religion has the Koran, and the Christian religion has the Bible.
Because Islam diverged from Christianity’s beliefs, there are also some notable differences between the two. For example, the way in which each religion is expected to pray. Muslims pray alone and in congregation. When congregational prayer is executed, there are many rules and strict adherences to which they abide. They must pray this way a certain number of times each day and faces in a certain cardinal direction. For Christians, the prayer which is done alone is informal and at one’s own discretion, as it is for the Islamic religion. However, congregational prayer for Christians is much less rigorous and strict, and can be done in a number of acceptable ways. Muslims are also expected to take a journey, called a pilgrimage, to their Holy Land whereas, this is not expected of Christians. Another notable difference is the way in which money is given to the church. In earlier days, and in some cases modern days, Muslims giving was in the form of a tax which was mandated. Christians give in the form of a tithe and are asked to give ten percent of their income. A very large and widely disputed part of these religions is the interpretation of the Bible. Some events that are disputed include which son Abraham sacrificed, the Virgin Birth and nature of Jesus, and the interpretation of monotheism and the Trinity. ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ 
Islam and Christianity are religions based on many similar and different beliefs based on the fact that one was borne of the other. For this reason, we can pick up on a number of things that ring true in each religion and a number of things that are completely different between the two of them. Aside from the similarities and differences, each of these religions is still recognized in today’s society despite the fact that they are both centuries old.
Islam vs. Christianity
Despite the fact that there are many similarities and differences between Islam and Christianity, both religions are significant in today’s society, which is apparent in the grand number of followers each has amassed. Islam and Christianity are in themselves, complete religions with many followers. Islam was born of Christianity in that a large part of Islam’s basic belief structure is based on that of Christianity and some portions of the Bible. Because of this fact, there are a number of similarities and a comparative number of differences between the two religions.
The beginnings of Islam are actually deeply rooted in Christianity, based on the conviction by the prophet of Islam, Mohammed that Christians had departed from belief in God’s message as revealed in their scriptures (Pike, 67). Approximately 610, the first of many revelations came to him and these visions were believed to have been delivered from God by the angel Gabriel (Pike, 17). Here we begin to see the similarities between the two religions as Gabriel is also the angel that brings news of Jesus’ birth (Jesus being the founder of Christianity) in Luke 1:26-32, of the Bible. The message that Mohammed received was that there was only one God, not many Gods as the then present day Arabs believed. This God was the creator of the world (Lewis, 8). For Christians the message of a single God was given during the inception of the Ten Commandments in Exodus 20:3 of the Bible, “You shall have no other God before me.” The creation of the world by this singular God is documented in Genesis 1:1. “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.” In the Islamic faith it is believed that this God would judge mankind, which also rings true in Christianity in Hebrews 10:30, “The Lord will judge his people.” For Muslims, followers of the Islamic faith, their single God (known as Allah) was considered just because he would judge every person according to his deeds (Catherwood, 99). In both religions, the result of this judgment day was either heaven or hell. Another similarity between both Islam and Christianity was the idea of forgiveness. Islam teaches that God is always ready to pardon the individual and restore him to the sinless state in which he started life. In Christianity, this same basic concept of forgiveness is accepted (Wiles, 561).
After the death of Mohammed, certain essential principles were singled out from his teachings to serve as anchoring points for the Islamic community. These have come to be called the “five pillars of Islam” (Pike, 99-100). Comparably for Christians, the Ten Commandments are considered daily, divine laws. Also, each of these religions is one that has a “book” by which believers follow. For Christians this is the Bible, which was recorded by prophets and disciples to Jesus including Abraham, Moses, Elijah, and many others. The Bible is for the most part, ordered chronologically and Jesus teaches in parables (Bowie, 66). Likewise for Muslims their book is the Koran, which was a collection of the sayings and deeds of Mohammad, who was believed to be inspired to teach these things by Allah (Lewis, 44-45). However, because the Koran was assembled from remembrances of those who had learned it by heart, the chronological order is not used. The passages or suras were arranged from longest to shortest. In the beginning, for both religions, these teachings were passed along orally, but were later captured via the written word. These books serve as an additional guide for believers and stress the one idea of one God (Pike, 62).
Despite these many similarities between Islam and Christianity many differences exist as well. One of these differences is prayer. Islam recognizes two forms of prayer, one being the personal and more informal form of prayer. The other is a ritual prayer which is often congregational with specific words and postures, to be offered five times a day: sunrise, midday, midafternoon, sunset, and before bed. Before Muslims pray ablutions are performed by washing the hands, feet, and face. A person called the muezzin calls for prayer and chants from a raised platform or minaret tower at the mosque. This prayer is started with the imam, the prayer leader, standing at the front of the mosque facing Mecca, the holy city of Islam. (This is the holy city because it was the death place of Mohammad). Each prayer consists of several units, during which the individual is standing, kneeling, or prostrate. At every change in posture, “God is great” is recited. The chief day of communal worship is Friday and believers gather at the mosque to pray, listen to portions of the Koran, and hear a sermon based on the text. The sermon may have moral, social, or political content. Islam has no ordained clergy, but there are men trained specifically in religion, tradition, and law (Peters, 126-129). For Christians prayer is done alone as well as in a congregation like Islam, but the rigors are far less painstaking. Prayer alone is done at one’s own discretion, but traditionally is done at night or in the morning. Congregational prayer is usually headed by the preacher, priest, or another prominent member of the church. The congregation is usually seated in pews, but this can be done standing as well. Christians have a clergy that have been trained in theology and matters of religion and posses a degree from a seminary. The chief days of gathering is on Sundays, and believers pray, sing, listen to sermons, and read from the Bible during their communal gathering (Morris, 218). As you can see, this is quite different from the Islamic religion.
Another large difference in the two religions is the pilgrimage. For Muslims, the pilgrimage, or hajj, is an annual Muslim rite that every believer is expected to take part in at least once in his lifetime. From the seventh to the tenth day in Dhu al-Hijjah, the last month of the Islamic calendar, thousands of Muslims converge on the city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia to visit the holy shrine of the Kaaba in the Great Mosque, which tradition says was built by Abraham. The pilgrimage was intended to reenact the hegira, the flight of Mohammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 (Catherwood, 100). Christians do not have such a pilgrimage but many do visit the birth place of Jesus, the city of Jerusalem, and consider it an honor to do so. Fasting and the giving of money are two more distinct differences between the two religions. Because the Koran was first revealed to Mohammad in the month of Ramadan, the whole month was set aside as a period of fasting. During each day, from first light to darkness, all eating, drinking, and smoking are forbidden. Upon the end of the fasting period, the second major festival of the Islamic year ensues and lasts several days. In contrast, Christians have the Lenten period, where Jesus was sent to the desert for forty days and forty nights, and was tempted by the devil. During this time, Christians usually give up something of importance, and although some fasting does happen, it is generally not as long as in the Islamic religion. The end of this forty day period is known as Ash Wednesday, which begins the holiest point on the Christian calendar (Good Friday and Easter) (Ware, 146-147). Also, the giving of money is somewhat different. For Muslims, the zakat is an obligatory tax, which is contributed to the state or community. In the modern period, the zakat has become a voluntary charitable contribution (Pike, 100). For Christians, this is known as tithe. Believers are expected to contribute ten percent of there salary to the church for God’s purposes (Morris, 197).
Also, some of the differences between Islam and Christianity are clearly discerned in the holy books of the Bible and the Koran. One such example is the sacrifice of Abraham. This event is interpreted very differently in both religions. Both books make the acknowledgement that Abraham was willing to make a “tremendous sacrifice” (Shamoun, 57). However, the difference between the interpretations lies in the name of Abraham’s son. For example the bible says, “By faith, Abraham, when he was tested, offered up Isaac, and he who had received the promises was ready to offer up his only son” (Hebrews, 11:17). With this the Bible affirms that it was indeed Isaac who was offered up as the sacrifice. In Koran, however, Ishmael is the one who is purportedly offered up for sacrifice as Abraham’s only son (Sura 11: 69-73).
Another incident that is disputed between the two religions is the Virgin Birth and the Nature of Jesus. The Koran does support the virgin birth of Christ, but does not support the notion that Christ was resurrected. The Koran suggests instead that the Virgin Mary gave birth to a prophet, who was free from innate sin because he was virgin born (Dew, 1). The Bible then, supports the notion that the virgin birth existed, and the Virgin Mary gave birth to the son of God, “In this was manifested the love of God toward us, because that God sent His only begotten Son into the world, that we might live through him” (Dew, 1 John 4:9, 1). Islam states that Christ is not divine, it rejects this ideal and is seen in the Koran, “The Messiah, Jesus the son of Mary, was no more than Allah’s apostle and His Word which he cast to Mary; a spirit from Him. So believe in Allah and His apostles and do not say: Three. Allah is but one God” (Dew, Koran 4: 171, 1). Jesus in the Bible, however, is believed to be “God manifest in the flesh” (1 Timothy 3:16). This leads into the Trinity of the Christian faith. Islam is monotheistic in nature, stating, “For God hath said, ‘Take not to yourselves two Gods, for He is one God.” (Dew, Sura 16:53, 1). Christianity is also monotheistic, but that God is made up of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit; otherwise known as the “Trinity”. Christianity says, “The Spirit the Lord Him” (Dew, Isaiah 11:2, 1), which refers to the Holy Spirit, Jesus, and God. Islam does not support this idea and the Koran argues that Christianity supports the notion of polytheism by stating that the Godhead represents three different Gods, not one (Dew, 1).
In conclusion, Islam and Christianity are two intricately woven religions that have some basic framework in common, but their beliefs diverge as well. For example, some of the similarities shared in the two are the angel Gabriel as a deliverer of important news, monotheism, God as the creator of the world, and judgment by God after death. Most of the differences seem to stem from Jesus’ role as a savior. For example, Muslims do not believe that Jesus was anything more than a prophet and therefore, the Trinity can not exist. Also, there are some deviations in similar stories that are related by each religion, like that of Abraham and his sacrificial son. Despite these difference and similarities, we can agree that Christianity and Islam are both significant players in the world of religion and today’s society.
 

Romanesque and Gothic Architecture Similarities

Romanesque architecture between 800 and 1150AD was popular in Western Europe which then rose to the gothic style. Pre-Romanesque style developed by using elements of roman design in the Christian churches in the states of Western Europe. By the end of the pre-Romanesque period Roman elements had fused with Byzantium elements from the Middle East, these influences became known as the Romanesque, meaning “in the manner of Rome”.

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The appearance of the Romanesque style was multi storey entrance facades of geometric appearance buildings. Stone was a very popular material used in the buildings. Huge vaults and arches was one of the main characteristics of the time. Masonry vaulting since the beginning of Christian architecture had only been used in buildings of relatively small scale. Romanesque churches, on the other hand, sustained massive barrel vaults, making it compulsory to reinforce the load-bearing walls in order to carry the lateral outward thrust. The frequent presence of galleries above the aisles, sometimes with half-barrel vaults, is in all probability rooted in structural considerations connected with the problem of abutment. The use of wall openings to a minimum, due to the same concern, contributed to the sober yet soberly impressive character of the light. Each individual building has a clearly definite form which often consists of very regular and symmetrical plans so the overall appearance is known as a form of simplicity. Romanesque architecture mainly depends on its walls which are known as piers. Piers are sections of the wall that appear mostly at the intersection of two large arches, which are those crossing under the nave and the transept which is always in a circular shape, each arch is supported on its own supporting rectangular pier which is found at each right angle. Most of the buildings are mostly made from wooden roofs, mostly of a simple truss, tie beam or king post form. When the case of trussed rafter roofs occurs they will then be lined with wooden ceilings. The most important feature of Romanesque churches was the towers. Romanesque church facades were always built to face the west end of the building and are usually symmetrical and has a large central doorway made mostly by its moldings or porch and a arrangement of arched-topped windows which can be seen above the doorway. In Italy there is a single central ocular window which is most probably known as the most common decorative feature, as well as the arcading.
One of the most important structural developments of the Romanesque era was the vault. Originally intended as an alternative to fire prone wooden roofs, vaults became a major innovation in architectural features. The cross vault was used throughout Europe even though it was heavy and difficult to construct so thus it was replaced with the rib and panel vault.
The Church I chose the Sant’Ambrogio was originally built during the 4th Century but was excavated beneath the existing building. With the west facing façade, the use of vaulting is clearly seen throughout the church, down either side of the isle and leading to the nave. Although stone is not the main material used it can be seen in certain aspects of the church. The large central portal includes carvings.
Gothic architecture, known at the time as the French style, started in the first half of the 12th century and continued well into the 16th century. Gothic architecture was made up from the previous architectural genre, Romanesque. For the most important part, there was no difference between the two, as there was later to be in Renaissance Florence with the sudden restoration of the Classical style by Brunelleschiwhich came from the early 15thcentury. Eventually Gothic architecture was brought south to Italy by the French.
The characteristics of Gothic Style features include those of the pointed arch, the ribbed vault and the flying buttress traceried windows. The thin walls, slender columns, and the very large areas of glass in Gothic buildings gave an impression of lightness. It consisted of a central nave flanked by aisles, with or without transept, and was finished by a choir surrounded by an ambulatory with chapels. The ribs which held up the vaults were aligned to make a pattern of a diamond on the ceilings. These elements were however no longer treated as single units but were properly integrated within a joined spatial scheme. The exterior view was mostly dominated by the twin towers. The facade was pierced by doorways often decorated with varies sculptures and at a higher level appeared a central stained glass rose window. Due to the outward pressure of the vaults there became a need for buttresses. Windows were very important in the churches. Each stained glass had a message in it which was taken from a bible piece to pass across a message. Gothic architecture is unique in many different ways but mostly by its use of materials. Regional influences played a huge role in the design variations and preferences for the different building materials. While in France the most common materials used were limestone, England witnessed a great use of red sandstone and coarse limestone with marble which was known as Purbeck architectural features. Similarly, while in Northern Germany and the Baltic nations, the tradition was that of mainly using bricks, in Italy, the most preferred material was marble. Timber was also one of the materials used, which is seen in the hammer-beam ceilings and rafters.
Some of the structural innovations included, the use of a reinforcing block or wall of masonry adding support to the great vaults & arches. Moulded or otherwise decorated band or series of bands around an opening of an arch. Supportive arch constructed within a wall, often above an architrave, serving to absorb weight upon a passageway or portal below.
Notre dame in Paris is one of the finest examples of churches in the gothic period. Its sculptures and stained glass show the heavy influence of naturalism. It was among the first buildings in the world to use the flying buttress. The building was not originally designed to include the flying buttresses around the choir and nave. After the construction began and the thinner walls grew ever higher, stress fractures began to occur as the walls pushed outward. In response, the cathedral’s architects built supports around the outside walls, and later additions continued as such. Also the front having two towers popular of gothic style as well as the popular central stained glass rose window.
Romanesque and Gothic Architecture is very similar in many forms, even though they are very similar in many aspects they also have their own characteristics. Gothic Architecture did get most of its forms from the Romanesque area, things like vaults and arches although they were evolved to be used in gothic buildings.
Similarities between gothic and Romanesque includes the use of the arch, which was first seen in the Romanesque churches throughout Europe and then later in gothic buildings, but had been adjusted to a more pointed arch compared to the rounded Romanesque form. Another form found both in Romanesque and gothic architecture is the towers although very irregular in Romanesque they were a form of asymmetrical balance in Gothic architecture. Also the use of stone as a material was also started during the Romanesque period and continued into the gothic time such as timber used for the roof trusses. Another feature would be the use of columns, used in both types of architecture they were changed from the Romanesque to gothic. The multi story Facades were used in both Romanesque and Gothic architecture. Vaulting used during these periods were started with the rib and panel vault in the gothic period but then perfected during the gothic period with the split vault. The rose or wheel windows started making an appearance in during Romanesque time but the final central rose window was perfected above the main entrance door usually facing to the west (started during Romanesque) during the gothic period.
Each of these eras had their own structural innovations that changed the way architects and builders designed and built the buildings and most can even be seen in architecture today. One of the most important being the vault created during the Romanesque time but altered and perfected during the gothic period. The gothic period brought the use of Masonry in walls to create support in the vaults and arches.Romanesque was designed to be more for protective purposes than for any aesthetic quality, as gothic cathedrals. Monasteries housed the relics of saints, and during the Romanesque period the cult of relics became a major cultural factor influencing architecture. Gothic style has three main characteristics that make it its own unique style: highness, vertical lines and flying buttresses. Romanesque buildings were solid, heavy because of the thick walls, and, as a result of the comparatively small windows, dimly lighted. They had a heavy frame structure. Gothic cathedrals were built with a slender skeleton, made up with pointed arches and flying buttresses, which gives impressions of harmony and luminosity.
 

The Similarities Between Victor Frankenstein and The Monster

Throughout the development of English literature there are often times when rival enemies inadvertently share striking similarities between one another, a situation clearly analyzed between Victor and the Monster in Mary Shelley’s captivating novel, Frankenstein. The vivid similarities between the two tragic characters are driven by their dreary isolation from the secluded world, which refuses to accept those who are different into society, by hatred, and most importantly by the absence of motherly figures in both Victor’s and the Monster’s lives. As Victor had stated, “I seemed to have lost all soul or sensation but for this one pursuit.” (Shelley, 38) as he described that he lost all touch with the world due to his work. Perhaps even the old saying “like father, like son” can inevitably describe the flawless resemblances between the two seemingly lost characters. However, regardless of even some of the slight differences the two may portray, when comparing their experiences and human-like actions, it is clear that their similarities are undoubtedly proven and reflected upon throughout the novel.

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The ironic isolation with the rest of the world that the two characters undergo plays a major role in contributing to their powerful comparison. Both figures seem to strongly despise one another yet strangely enough, they both also despise themselves for their wrong and disastrous actions. The isolation began with Victor’s decision to separate himself from the rest of society when he become enthralled with his scientific research and experiments. “And the same feelings which made me neglect the scenes around me caused me also to forget those friends who were so many miles absent, and whom I had not seen for so long a time.” (Shelley, 40) As for the Monster, he detaches himself and becomes a frantic outsider when he realizes his appearance only drives those who he cares for most, further away from him. However, the Monster’s isolation is based more on appearance rather than his decisions and work, for his deformed structure and frightening face are his greatest agonies. “When I looked around I saw and heard of none like me. Was I, a Monster, a blot upon the earth from which all men fled and whom all men disowned?” (Shelley, 98) Lastly, looking past the text one can see that both characters desire to play their own cards on life, taking it away and bringing it back whenever they want. Victor is prepared to bring life to the dead while the Monster on the opposite hand, is willing to take away life from the living out of rage and misfortune. “Life and death appeared to me ideal bounds, which I should first break through, and pour a torrent of light into our dark world.” (Shelley, 37) In a tragic twist, both of these deprived characters have been isolated, abandoned, and have simply became outcasts of present society. 
Family ties and vengefulness are truly one of the most significant aspects affecting the resemblance of both Victor and the Monster. At a young age, Frankenstein was left without his mother after her death and as a result, he never got to experience the true feelings of a mother’s warm touch and love. “She died calmly…it is so long before the mind can persuade itself that she whom we saw every day and whose every existence appeared a part of our own can have departed forever and the sound of a voice so familiar and dear to the ear can be hushed, never more to be heard.” (Shelley, 29) Just like Victor, in his own time, the Monster never got to experience not only the love of a mother but the love of a father as well. Without these two feelings the Monster was never able to understand what happiness might have truly meant. As a result, the lack of these feelings in their lives caused the two to be driven with more rage then patience and love. Another likeness between Victor and the Monster is them both being very resentful. The Monster shows his dark-side when he decides to demolish the cottager’s house, the only thing that expressed in him his affectionate human-like feelings. Moreover, Victor shows the same anger when he refuses and rejects the attempt to connect and understand the life of his creation. Perhaps it truly was the lack of love from one’s mother and that from both of one’s parents that caused the similarities in loneliness, anger and strive for revenge between the two main characters.
Victor and his creation are two characters which despite of their differences still resemble a strong and vivid connection. These driven characters thrive for the same goals, feed of similar pain, and feel the same loneliness, remorse and isolation as one another. These similarities are so extreme that it is for no reason that most of the world recognizes the creature by the name of Frankenstein himself. Isolated by society, abandoned by their childhood figures, and driven by rage, Victor and the Monster may be more alike than we can simply prove.