Ban on Single Use Plastic: An Evaluation

In every country around the world plastic is a relevant part of human beings everyday life. The ban of single use plastic has been a topic of discussion for years as most of these items are not recycled and are used only for a short time. The impact that single use plastic has on the environment is devastating. However, there are still companies that do not agree with banning single use plastic, as it will affect the workforce. The world must ban single use plastic, as it has no benefit other than convenience for the public, yet it is destroying our fragile ecosystems.

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 There are hundreds of millions of plastic products that are made each year (Dal Porto 10). The demand for plastic continues to rise and in turn has created devastating affects on our fragile ecosystems. Most plastic isn’t recyclable which means that these products end up in landfills and about 10 million to 20 million tons ends up in our oceans (Dal Porto 10). If the plastic is petroleum based this means that it is not biodegradable (Dal Porto 10). Although it is not biodegradable it does break down into tiny pieces, which reaches our oceans, drinking water, sea creatures and even our blood streams (Dal Porto 10). The average lifespan of a plastic bag is only 12 minutes, and most of these ends up in a landfill, which can remain for 1,000 years (Woodward).

There are many countries around the world that have pledged to ban single use plastic. In fact there are 127 countries that have implemented some type of policy in regulating plastic bags (Woodward). Kenya has one of the strictest laws when it comes to banning single use plastic. In Kenya producing, selling or even using plastic bags puts you at risk for imprisonment and a hefty fine (Woodward). Single use plastic such as plates, cutlery, and straws will be banned from the European Union market starting in 2021 (Alperowicz). Currently there are several garbage patches in our oceans. One of the largest is called the Great Pacific Garbage Patch and it is more than twice the size of Texas (Woodward). Plastic bags that end up in the ocean are endangering sea creatures. Sea creatures are eating the plastic bags or they are becoming entangled and are unable to free themselves. Roughly 100,000 marine mammals are killed each year due to plastic bags in the ocean (Woodward). Our oceans are not the only water source that is being affected by single use plastic. The Great Lakes in the United States contain one fifth of the fresh water on Earth and of the trash that is found in this are 80% is plastic (Bartolotta and Hardy 576).

There is some opposition when it comes the ban of single use plastic. Plastic bag manufacturers and recycling industries employ about 24,600 people across the United States (Dal Porto 11). These industries argue that there could be devastating effects on the workforce as well as the economy. In 2005 the American Progressive Bag Alliance was founded in order to support plastic bag manufacturers and their products (Dal Porto 11). This alliance promotes recycling, encourages bag reuse and even educates people about the benefits of using plastic bags (Dal Porto 12). In many countries there is a charge for buying reusable bags in order to cut down on plastic waste, which does not always go over well with consumers. Another reason that people do not think that banning single use plastic will benefit the planet is due to the fact that disposable plastic bags require fewer resources, such as: land, water and CO2 emissions (Stanislaus).

Although there are two sides to this argument the ban on single use plastic should move forward and should be enacted in all countries around the world. There will be ways to create sustainable jobs in order for our economy to thrive as well as our environment. The ban of single use plastic will benefit the planet as well as our workforce. Companies will be able to create more eco-friendly products so that jobs do not suffer, and the planet could recover and sustain. By demanding people to recycle plastic there will be less plastic that ends up in a landfill or into our water systems.

Annotated Bibliography:

Dal Porto’s article on banning single use plastic is a peer-reviewed article that states clear facts on why this ban is necessary. The article also poses the opposition of the argument.

Alperowicz, Natasha. “EU parliament backs proposal to ban single-use plastics from 2021”. Chemical Week, October 22, 2018 – October 29, 2018. https://advance-lexis-com.ezproxy2.apus.edu/api/document?collection=news&id=urn:contentItem:5TNX-CC51-DYRW-V18G-00000-00&context=1516831. Accessed May 5, 2019.

Alperowicz article goes into detail about the EU’s plans to ban single use plastic by 2021.

Woodward’s article goes into depth about the devastating affects that plastic has created for our fragile ecosystems. This article also highlights countries that are taking a stand against these items.

Bartolotta, Jill, and Hardy, Scott. “Barriers and Benefits to Desired Behaviors for Single Use Plastic Items in Northeast Ohio’s Lake Erie Basin.” Marine Pollution Bulletin 127 (2018): n. pag. Web.

This article shows the reader that allow oceans are affected by single use plastic there are also devastating affects on the Great Lakes when it comes to plastic waste.

Stanislaus gives a great argument on why getting rid of single use plastic will not necessarily benefit the planet. I chose this due to the fact that it shows the other side of the argument.
 

Single Molecule Magnets and Single Chain Magnets Analysis

The structures and magnetic properties:

molecular nanomagnets
phenolic oxime complexes

GUAN Shengyang
Table of Contents (Jump to)
1 Introduction
1.1 Research background
1.2 Introduction to nanomagnets
1.2.1 Single molecule magnet
1.2.2 Single Chain magnet (magnetic nanowires)
1.3 Structure of phenolic oxime and complexes
2 Researches
2.1 Iron complex
2.2 Manganese complexes
2.3 Complex containing cobalt and sodium ions
2.4 Complex containing lanthanide
3 Conclusion
4 Bibliography
Abstract
The basic concepts needed to understand and model singlechain magnets will also be reviewed.
1 Introduction
1.1 Research background
The researches on molecular nanomagnets began from 1990s, when the first single molecule magnet (SMM) [Mn12O12(O2CPh)16(H2O)4 was researched by Christougroup of University of Florida. [GS1]This mixed-valent manganese complex was found to have an abnormal high spin ground state of S=10[GS2] and highest blocking temperature (below which temperature could the nanomagnets show magnetic properties) in its family ([Mn12O12(O2CR)16(H2O)4], R = various). A large number of SMMs have been reported since then. These[GS3] kind of complexes display the classical property of magnetization hysteresis[GS4] and quantum properties of quantum tunnelling of the magnetization (QTM). These initial discoveries provide a molecular approach to nano-scale magnetism.

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Following investigation of single molecule magnets (SMMs) and single chain magnets (SCMs) explorers their potential applications in high-density information storage[GS5], quantum computing[GS6], magnetic refrigeration [GS7]and so on. However, to date, nanomagnets discovered have very low blocking temperature (TB). So it is very important to choose appropriate chelate ligands and corresponding metal centres to construct a proper complex with properties to improve blocking temperature (TB) for practical application.
Phenolic oxime is a family of compounds with generic structure shown in Figure 1. The phenolate and oxime function groups could form intramolecular hydrogen bonding with its neighbour. These hydrogen bonding resulting in strong coordination effect on metal ions. Such property makes phenolic oxime a good extractant for copper[GS8] in mining industry. Detailed discussion of the phenolic oxime complex structure will be introduced in SECTION 1.3 .

Figure 1 general structure of phenolic oxime
In this review, knowledge of nanomagnets will be introduced firstly to provide an overview of this field. Then the structure and magnetic properties of compounds with phenolic oxime ligand will be introduced. New techniques applied in synthesis will also be included. It is hoped that this review could be used to assess the potential of phenolic oxime ligand in high performance nanomagnets.
 
1.2 Introduction to nanomagnets
1.2.1 Single molecule magnet
It is helpful to describe the basic theory of SMM with an example. The first single molecule magnet (SMM) [Mn12O12(O2CCH3 )16(H2O) 4] 4H2O·2CH3CO2H[GS9] was determined to have an S=10 ground spin state, which is contributed by the antiferromagnetic interactions between 4 MnIV ions and 8 MnIII ions[GS10]. However, not like normal size magnet, SMM shows slow magnetic relaxation below a characteristic blocking temperature. This phenomenon is explained by the exist of an energy barrier in reorientation process of magnetic moment. Sessoli et.al. confirmed there exists a relatively large zero-field splitting in this molecule by high-field EPR experiments with a CO2 far-infrared laser. This axial zero-field splitting leads to a splitting of the S=10 state into 21 levels: -10 , -9 , -8, -7, -6 , -5…0, 1, 2, 3…8, 9, 10. Each level is characterized by a spin projection quantum number ms, corresponding potential energy:
……………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………..(1)
D:axial zero-field splitting parameter. In [Mn12O12(O2CCH3 )16(H2O) 4] 4H2O·2CH3CO2H D=-0.5cm-1

Figure 2 Figure 1. PovRay representation of the core of[Mn12O12(O2CCH3 )16(H2O) 4] 4H2O·2CH3CO2H, showing the relative positions of the MnIV ions (shaded circles), MnIII ions (solid circles), and µ3-O2– bridges (open circles[GS11]).

Figure 3: Plot of potential energy of different spin state versus magnetization direction
From Figure 3, it could be known that the splitting of potential energy levels resulting in a potential energy barrier in the process of changing the magnetic moment. For the example SMM, this barrier equals to E(ms=0)-E(ms=│±10│)=100D. Due to the small value of D, this barrier could be easily crossed in room temperature. If sample SMM is magnetized at 1.5K, the magnetic relaxation time becomes too long to measure. When fitted into Arrhenius relationship:
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………(2)
The magnetic anisotropy of the SMM is caused by the structure of the eight MnIII ions. Each MnIII ion with in octahedral crystal shows Jahn–Teller distortion. These distortion[GS12] together with spin-orbital interaction give rise to the easy axis type of magnetoanisotropy.
To conclude, a typical SMM consists of an inner magnetic core with a surrounding shell of organic ligands. The desired SMM requires well isolated system which exhibit high spin ground state (S) with a high magnetic anisotropy of the easy-axis (Ising) type. The difficulty is: high spin ground state often requests for several nucleuses, but the magnetic orientation of each nuclei tends to obey Maximum Entropy Models. In this way, the highest magnetoanisotropy of a molecule couldn’t be achieved easily. Some researches show that replacing magnetic core with lanthanide[GS13] ions or using single nuclearity spincluster [GS14]could avoid this problem. Their approaches will be discussed in SECTION 2.
1.2.2 Single Chain magnet (magnetic nanowires)
While clusters of SMM can be considered as zero dimensional material, it is possible that one dimensional materials such as nanowires exhibit slow magnetic relaxation and hysteresis effects which are not associated with three-dimensional (3D) order. At 1963, Glauber[GS15] predicted one dimension Ising model (easy axial) would show magnetization relaxation under low temperature. Due to insufficient knowledge in this area and stringent conditions required in the synthesis procedure, chemist wasn’t be able to find any evidences to support or against the prediction, until Gatteschi et al successfully synthesis [Co(hfac)2(NITPhOMe[GS16])] in 2001.

Figure 4 Structure of NITPhOMe=4′-methoxy-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide

Figure 5 Drawing of unit cell of[Co(hfac)2(NITPhOMe)2]. Large dark spheres represent the metal ions. Hydrogen, fluorine, and most of the methyl carbon atoms have been omitted for clarity
The structure of the SCM consists of Co(hfac)2 and radicals arranged in helices alternately( Figure 5). In this one dimensional structure, the magnetic core (octahedral cobalt(II) centres) has overall S=1/2 and shows easy axis of magnetization in the chain direction[SG17]. Detailed analysis of spectrums could be found in Caneschi’s report in 2001.
To conclude, three essential conditions are need for design SCMs: 1) the ratio of the interaction and interactions is very large. 2) the material must behave as a 1D Ising ferro- or ferrimagnet. This requires the building block or the core of the chain have large ground state spin. 3) the interchain interactions should be minimized to avoid the magnetism of the material be associated with three-dimensional (3D) order. This final condition also apply for SMMs.
1.3 Structure of phenolic oxime and complexes
Metal complexes with a planar, electronically delocalized structure have proven particularly attractive for development of cooperative electronic properties because of the strong molecule–molecule interactions that can arise from π-stacking of the planar units
2 Researches
2.1 3d nanomagnet
Many 3d nanomagnets have been synthesized and researched on since the first SMM was discovered.
f hexanuclear MnIII SMMs based on the complex [MnIII6O2(sao)6(O2CH)2(EtOH)4](saoH2=salicylaldoxime[GS18])9-12
Spin Switching via Targeted Structural Distortion
2.2 Iron complex
Variation of alkyl groups on the ligand fromt-octyl ton-propyl enabled electronic isolation of the complexes in the crystal structures of M(L1)2contrasting with π-stacking interactions for M(L2)2(M = Ni, Cu). This was evidenced by a one-dimensional antiferromagnetic chain for Cu(L2)2but ideal paramagnetic behaviour for Cu(L1)2down to 1.8 K.
2.3 Complex containing cobalt and sodium ions
2.4 Complex containing lanthanide
Although many magnetic transition metal complexes have been synthesised, the temperature required for transition metal complex to exhibit magnetization relaxation (i.e. blocking temperature) is too low. Hence lanthanide metals were introduced to the complex to increase the blocking temperature.
4 Bibliography

[GS1]R. Sessoli, H.-L. Tsai, A.R. Schake, S. Wang, J.B. Vincent, K. Folting, D. Gatteschi, G. Christou, and D.N. Hendrickson, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115 (1993) p. 1804.
Sessoli, R.; Tsai, H.-L.; Schake, A.R.; Wang, S.; Vincent, J.B.; Folting, K.; Gatteschi, D.; Christou, G.; Hendrickson, D.N.J. Am. Chem. Soc.1993, 115, 1804-1816. [GS2]同上æ-‡
[GS3]Resonant magnetization tunnelling in the half-integer-spin single-molecule magnet [PPh4][Mn12O12(O2CEt)16(H2O)4]
“Spin Tweaking” of a High-Spin Molecule: An Mn25Single-Molecule Magnet with anS=61/2 Ground State
New Routes to Polymetallic Clusters: Fluoride-Based Tri-, Deca-, and Hexaicosametallic MnIIIClusters and their Magnetic Properties
Molecular Cube of ReIIand MnIIThat Exhibits Single-Molecule Magnetism
Syntheses, structures and single-molecule magnetic behaviors of two dicubane Mn4complexes
[GS4]Macroscopic Measurement of Resonant Magnetization Tunneling in High-Spin Molecules

 
 

Arguments Against India As A Single Nation Religion Essay

I have tried to understand this topic and share my insights for the same. I have tried to deconstruct the topics in different subject areas. I tried getting an opinion on those subject areas and then link them to have a holistic view of the topic.
Before I share my comments on the dictum ‘Unity in Diversity ‘, let’s look at India in general.
India is imagined in a plethora of ways. The political ideology always has an impact on the nation. A nation exists because of the people. The pathos and ethos which binds them together and makes them move towards an ideal state of affair is long and testing. There are moments of glory in the history of a nation when all political parties rejoice and encourage activities which benefit the image of a nation. For instance, The Nobel prize awarded to Amartya Sen in 1998 when he transformed economics into a moral science in which he targeted many public policies like education and hunger. The same policy has been adapted to the framework of India and used for development by ruling politics. There is need of Innovators and entrepreneurs like Sen who can lead India to a state of absence of malnutrition, illiteracy and poverty. Behind the deathly blows of caste rivalries and religious feuds is a stark reality of limited resources. Behind the demand of a separate land – is the desire for recognition and growth opportunities. Only, if the political system could design policies to combat it!
I strongly believe in the dictum ‘Unity in Diversity’. I would like go about in a theoretical and later, practical way in justifying the same.
India is a vast country in which people belonging to different religions, castes and creeds live together. Though usually they live in harmony and co-operation with each other, sometimes the harmony is disturbed and disturbance creates many social problems. In order to bring the people belonging to different religions together and in a bid to bridge the gap in cast differences, the country’s social reformers have made positive attempts to forge unity in diversity.

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India is the cradle of many cultures. In this ancient land, the people belonging to different cultures are living together preserving their own culture and cultural unity, In spite of the fact that there is an apparent disunity in the country, basically there is cultural unity which is visible in every walk of life. It is on this account that it is said that in India there is unity in diversity.
India is a land of many religions. There might be different factions and sub sections from the main streamline and that might prima facie give an idea of religious disunity, but on the whole there is unity in so far as each religion is concerned. We basically believe in the theory of dharma and karma. The theory of rebirth and purification of soul, salvation and the philosophy of hell and heaven hold s good every where. Respect for mosques, temples churches, Gurudwaras and religious gods and goddesses is prevalent.
A multitude of gods and religious practices, the existence of hundreds of groups called castes, variety of foods and clothing and different types of kinship organization, which one finds in India, create an impression of a bewildering variety impossible to classify and of a society divided into innumerable tiny compartments. Many anthropologists, especially those dealing with the phenomenon of casts, have described this a illustrating the fissiparous tendency of the Indian society, while others have called it horizontal segmentation of the society.
Indian philosophy is a product of the Indian society, and reflects the various cultures which have blended together after the time the Aryan entered India. The developed and elaborate rituals on the one hand, and the monistic philosophy on the other, are not an evolution of purely Aryan tradition, but a product of the fusion of the Aryan and the non-Aryan. While the region west of Punjab and including the present Delhi region seemed to be the region of the development of early Aryan thought, the central and the eastern Gangetic plain to the north of the river Ganga was the region of the rise of new specta, culture -contact, culture-confilict and final fusion.
Changes have occurred in the overall conception of the gods and modes of worship, and ideas of purity. There are also in existence different modes in different regions. These changes are not due merely to internal evolution. Neither are they due to continuous fission of religious bodies. Independent groups living in the same continent were practicing different modes of religion. The overall changes are due to gradual ascendance of new , non-Vedic ideas, and the existing differences are due to interaction of independent groups who kept their separateness and reacted to each other’s cultural capital in different ways.
The early Aryans themselves racially mixed, and showed a certain catholicity in taste, but the later conquerors, like the Mughals and the fairer British, have made public preference to fairness of complexion in women, though extreme fairness of skin in men is not valued much, at least in the south. Details of formal art forms, like rhyming, are different for different regions. In classical poetry there was no end-rhyming. In Prakrit poetry, especially in Marathi and sometimes in Ardhanagadhi, one finds the end-rhyme. Apparently, this practice influenced Marathi poetry, too. In the neighboring Karnataka, however, we have line which have a rhyme in the beginning and not at the end. All these differences, and also those in dress, ornaments, decoration of house, and food are partly regional, and partly found also in different castes of the same region. It is necessary to study this multiplicity region by region, and it will unfold a tale of cultural conservatism as also cultural borrowings and changes due to cultural adjustments between separate ethnic groups.
The peculiarity of Indian social life is that ethnic groups have lived separately from one another. They have devised a mode of inter-group behavior which avoids mutual interference or merging so that the identity of the original group is not lost. There has been fusion. There has also been fission within large groups, but the main cultural feature is the retention of group integrity. This type of social organization made it possible for certain groups to progress while certain other groups became progressively primitive.
Although India’s present Constitution has many flaws like separate provision for different castes and creeds, particularly those who are backward and are schedules in the Constitution, the recent industrialization processes and agrarian reforms have brought about a new secular outlook which has given rise to the promotion of a new culture. The new generations of all cases, communities, religions, and sects are getting chance to come together in farms, factories, educational institutions, universities and government bodies for employment. This coming together has caused a blending of different cultures, emanating from difference communities or tribes, under the impact of modernization. Traditional rituals of the older generation are no more in vogue in the new secular communities which are coming up. The unity of interests and attitudes in economic, social and political fields is helping to accelerate the social processes which are giving common values, cultural traits, art forms, architecture, music and dramatics. All modern art activity is assimilating the basic cultural values of all tribes, and giving rise to what may be called national culture. However, our national problems lie in inability to distinguish between cultural imperatives and administrative and economic necessities to find out how a nation be built up from the foundation of cultural multiplicity. Each religion preaches purity of character, benevolence and piety along with honesty. Religious books are shown respect and honor by all. The people go on pilgrimage with respect and reverence. There is always devotion in prayers and so on. Basically all religions believed in religious toleration. In this way there is religious unity in the country.
In India there is now great cultural unity. Indian philosophy of life, literature, customs and traditions are basically the same. The institutions like those of marriage etc. are found throughout the country. There are certain rituals and sanskaras which are observed throughout the country. Similarly there are many festivals which are celebrated with great zeal and vigor throughout India.
We find a kind of emotional unity in the country. The very name of India or Bharat Mata brings us emotionally closer to each other. Though in India there are different languages and each language has its own literature, yet Sanskrit brings all emotionally together. We treat and consider Sanskrit as the mother of all Indian languages and that brings us emotionally together.
Permanent elements of Indian culture are:
Maximum stress is laid on spirituality and not just on the earning of wealth.
Maximum stress has been laid on religion. Dharma or righteousness is promoted. A dharma or injustice should be checked. We are also reminded that even gods take birth as human beings to check the spread of a dharma and kill those who stand in the way of dharma.
All along India culture has taught us to follow religious toleration. It implies that every religion must be given an opportunity to observe its ideology and viewpoint. It also means that every other religion must be shown respect for what is good in that. There should be no violence in religious affairs.
Capacity to absorb all good cultures should have that capacity. Hinduism comes to the forefront in this respect. It has always either completely absorbed them or largely influenced all cultures.
Indian culture is very wide I its approach to every problem. It lays stress on religion, spiritualism and salvation, without ignoring material and married life. It has always said that the people should be led according to Dharma.
Stress on freedom of thought and expression, Hindu culture has always believed that culture becomes rich when the people have freedom of expression. Thoughts and expressions will enrich the culture and that will become dynamic.
The unity to the desired extent is not achieved as there arise serious hindrances to national unity.
Regionalism is not great hindrance. It implies that the region is above the nation. It should only be developed and the people of that region along should be given the benefits of their development. The region should have maximum autonomy in running its own administration. Regionalism should promote love for the region as well as for the nation as a whole.
Now coming to the arguments put forth by Ramchandra Guha in his thoughts about India being an unnatural nation , or being a single divided nation. I think he does have enough examples to illustrate the fact that , yes India is a divided nation after all. The main aspect to understand here is , which factor is more overbearing.
Nations are made of two things- Memories and Amnesia. The forgotten memories are best buried together by opposing groups and the good memories must be shared and cherished. Only then is kinship born .However, reality is different. Even if some people forget misfortunes, the rest never do. They pass it on to their successors, shaping their minds to avenge it.
In India, secularism made its appearance not only as a concomitant of modernity and nationalism but also as an answer to communalism, another mode political with its pretentions to nationalism. The Hindu nationalism was a natural growth from the soil of India” Jawaharlal Nehru wrote in the secular, modernist position and “Muslim nationalism – it inevitably comes in the way of the larger nationalism which rises above differences of religion and creed.” While an ideal nation has images, policies and practices and its state continues to be debatable the nation state now has a powerful and tangible material, intellectual and spiritual force. Whenever an independent nation state is established, the connect with nationalism takes a backseat. This is due to the availability of resources for the oppressed, minority or unheard part of the population.
Both Gandhi and Nehru believed that the idea of a nation as a singular space. Inspired from thinkers like Leo Tolstoy, Thoreau and Ruskin, Gandhi’s impeachment of modern civilization was a political project on behalf of India as a nation. An Important historical moment is the round table conference in London 1931-32, held for drawing the constitution for a future independent India. Gandhi went on a fast unto death in protest at Ambedkar’s attempt to have untouchables recognized as a minority community like the Muslims and Sikhs. This period is of great significance because it reflected the competing ideas about the legitimate place – the citizenship – of the “community” and the minority “within what it meant to be Indian. Notions of fossilized communities, a majority Hindu population as well as liberal democratic ideals, had existed side by side in India for much of the nineteenth century.
Prior to the insidious entry of the British, India was a wealthy nation also known as “sone ki chidiya”. The garments, the jewels and the food items were in surplus and of extremely good quality. India was imagined to be a prospering entity under rulers. The political instability gave way to British Raj, with the set up of the East India Company. The 200 years of British raj, had new systems introduces in the society like the land revenue system and postal system. These changed the lifestyle of Indians. Although the British did not consider Indians as civilized but the belief was that India is a close-knit nation and so they came up with the system of divide and rule.
The much touted Swayamwar (selection of spouse by a princess in an open forum) is indicative of this deficiency and our total disregard for forging unity.
Whereas matrimony amongst the royals in the Europe has always been an instrument of forging strategic alliances, Swayamwar invariably created more enemies than friends. All rejected princes and kings felt insulted, nursed a grudge and waited for an opportunity to take revenge to redeem their self-esteem. History bears testimony to the fact that every Swayamwar was followed by acrimony and internecine wars.
Reverting to the role of the British, they never divided us to rule, simply because they did not need to. We have always been and continue to be a divided lot. Formation of states on linguistic basis was never attempted by the British. The Mandal Commission was not constituted or implemented by them. Nor was the Babri Masjid demolished by the British. The current agitation in Maharashtra has not been initiated by the East India Company. Caste based reservations and quota system, the prime splitter of the Indian body politic, were not invented by the erstwhile rulers. Nor are they preventing us from enacting a uniform civil code.
The list is endless. We have a knack and penchant for generating innovative issues to divide ourselves. We are doing our best to ensure that we remain embroiled in petty bickering and internal dissentions.
To us, our region, religion, caste and sub-caste are more important. Worse, we flaunt this narrow identity and give it precedence over nationalism. If after 60 years of independence, Kashmir and the North East are still not emotionally integrated with the country, the failure is ours.  
Undoubtedly, the politicians are the fountainhead of all fissiparous tendencies. One does not have to be a visionary to predict the danger of abetting illegal migration from Bangladesh for garnering votes. North Indians in Mumbai are not welcome but illegal Bangladeshis can stay. If political leaders can imperil national security for the sake of power, they can stoop to any level.
Sadly, they cannot be expected to change as they believe in the ends and not the means employed. To them, vote bank politics preclude letting countrymen stay united. Additionally, spineless and politicized bureaucracy simply follows their dictates and cannot be expected to deliver either.
Immense damage is also being inflicted on the unity of the country by the media through its irresponsible and thoughtless reporting. For the sake of cheap sensational news, petty vandals are given the coverage befitting a mass leader. Every news item is reported with a religious, caste or creed slant – ‘a dalit girl molested in a Delhi bus’ (as if other women are not molested in Delhi buses) or ‘church guard killed’ (in reality an argument between two security guards had turned violent) or ‘Muslim driver runs over a boy’ (his being a Muslim is of no relevance).
Thus I think ,
With all its problems and troubles, India always finds a way to hold itself together. India now has become extremely mature and practical about things. It does wait for a Cricket World Cup , Or a patriotic Bollywood movie to express its feeling of oneness , but the realization that being together , united , is the only way to progress and prosper has been established.
So though I agree with M. Guha’s arguments of India not being a single nation , I think that’s essentially how India has been and will be. But the truth lies in the fact that we find our won ways to display unity and move ahead in our attempt to progress. India has learned to live with the fact that it’s a nation full of diversity and the tolerance levels hence created have made sure the diversity camouflages under the spirit of accepted oneness or uniqueness.
 

Production of Single Cell Protein

ABSTRACT
The possibility of using Koji making fermentor for, Arachniotus citrinus and Candida utilis, single cell protein (SCP) production was investigated. The MBP was produced from deoiled rice bran in 300 Kg Koji making fermentor after optimize fermentation conditions in 250 ml flasks by solid state fermentation. The A. citrinus supported maximum values of substrate to water ratio (1:2), 0.05% MgSO4.7H2O, 0.075% CaCl2. 2H2O, 0.25% KH2PO4, C:N (12:1), 1ml molasses (10% solution), 0.6 ml yeast sludge, and 2 ml corn steep liquor while 2ml molasses (10% solution) and 0.25g urea for C. utilis for maximum crude protein productivity. The SCP in the 300 Kg Koji making fermentor contained crude protein, true protein, protein gain, ether extract, ash, crude fiber, and RNA content of 30.13 %, 23.74 %, 2.97 %, 14.71 %, 6.77 %, 3.383% respectively. The dried SCP showed a gross energy value of 3675 Kcal/kg and contained increase the levels of all essential and non-essential amino acids. The results suggest that A. citrinus and C. utilis cultures can be used for the production of SCP without extensive modification in Koji making fermentor on large scale solid state fermentation.
Keywords: Solid state fermentation; Rice bran; single cell protein; Arachniotus citrinus; Candida utilis; Koji making fermentor
1. Introduction
A growing alarm for the severe food scarcity for the world’s increasing population has led to the utilization of non-conventional food sources as potential alternatives. Developing countries like Pakistan urgently need to increase livestock and poultry production to enhance meat, milk and egg supplies to meet protein requirement of increasing population. In Pakistan, poultry industry has played a main responsibility in providing animal protein (in the form of eggs and meat) to common man. But feed industry is facing massive shortage of both plant and animal based feed ingredients. These are the main constraints in the development of poultry industry. (Rajoka et al., 2006)

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One possible alternative is to ferment cheap non-conventional agro-industrial by-products to produce single cell protein (SCP). These residues through fermentation will reduce the pollution as well as provide a potential source of carbon and energy for production of SCP which is an economical, quite comparable to animal protein and potential supplemental protein source. The SCP can replace costly conventional protein sources like soybean meal and fishmeal for feeding poultry, livestock and humans (Singh et al., 1991; Pacheco et al., 1997, Anupama and P. Ravindera., 2000).
Solid state fermentation (SSF) refers to the cultivation of microorganisms (mainly fungi) on a solid medium, with a moisture content that ensures growth and metabolism of microorganisms [5]. (Del Bianchi et al., 2001). In SSF, the solid material acts as physical support and source of different nutrients. SSF systems offer several economical and practical advantages such as: higher product concentration, improved product recovery, very simple cultivation equipment, reduced waste water output, lower capital investment and lower plant operation costs (Muniswaran et al., 1994). In SSF of agro-industrial byproducts can be increase their nutritional chemical composition, example, by increasing protein content [6,7]. (Rudravaram et al., 2006; Ravinder et al., 2003), improve the phenolic content and antioxidant potential of fermented foods by using different microorganisms. (Lin et al., 2006; Zhang et al., 2008, Lee et al., 2008, Randhir et al., 2004, Lateef et al., 2008; Bhanja et al. (2008).
The yeast Candida utilis has been frequently used in SCP production because of its ease of isolation, can grew very well at room temperature, ability to utilize a variety of carbon sources such as rice polishings (Rajoka et al., 2006), potato starch waste waters (Gélinas and Barrette, 2007), salad oil manufacturing wastewater (Zheng et al., 2005) and molasses (Nigam and Vogel, 1991), to support high protein yield, its minimal energy requirements and. It has been used for production of several industrial products both for human and animal consumption (Zayed and Mostafa, 1992; Pacheco et al., 1997; Kondo et al., 1997; Otero et al., 1998, Adoki, 2002). It has also been used as a host to produce several chemicals, such as glutathione (Liang et al., 2008), monellin (Kondo et al., 1997) and ethyl acetate (Christen et al., 1999).
Mycelia tips of fungi easily penetrate in hard substrate and produce much higher amount of the SCP as compared to submerged fermentation.6 A novel native fungal strain, Arachniotus citrinus is a white rot mesophillic fungus and has been used for the SCP on small scale by using different agro industrial wastes.7 [Shaukat et al., 2006] Previous studies of Arachniotus citrinus also proved that it has effective cellulases, glucoamylase producer in waste bread medium. strong resistance profile of from A. citrinus against proteases was observed. Jabbar et al., 2004; However, there is no literature reported to optimize the culture conditions for A. citrinus and C. utilis in rice bran on large scale by using Koji making fermentor for its reutilization in poultry rations and its biological evaluation in chickens. The main goal is to develop an optimal process on large scale SCP for rice bran with high protein content for poultry and livestock feed industry.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1. Rice bran
Rice bran was obtained from National Feed Industries, Lahore, Pakistan. It was then sealed in polyethylene bags and stored at 4°C for further use.
2.2. Determination of different components in rice bran
The proximate analysis of rice bran was conducted to estimate its nutritive composition by following the methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC,1994). Triplicate samples of rice bran were analyzed for moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, total ash, nitrogen free extract and cellulose contents.
2.3. Organism
Arachniotus citrinus and Candida utilis (a gift from the National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad, Pakistan) were obtained. Both microorganisms were maintained on potato dextrose agar (PDA) slants at 4°C and regular shifting on the PDA slant at the interval of 15 days to keep them viable. Both Arachniotus citrinus and Candida utilis were used to prepare seed culture by transferring a loopful of cells to 200 ml seed culture medium in a 1000 ml Erlenmeyer flask. The medium for Arachniotus citrinus was containing (g/L) rice bran, 20; CaCl2. 2H2O, 0.025; MgSO4.7H2O, 0.025; KH2PO4, 2; Urea 18.9 and grown at 35°C with pH 4 while the medium for C. utilis was containing (g L-1) KH2PO4,5.0; (NH4)2SO4, 5.0; CaCl2, 0.13; MgSO4, 0.5; yeast extract, 0.5 and grown at 35°C with pH 6 on an orbital shaker (150 rpm for 24 h). 13,14
2.3.1. Effect of moisture content on Arachniotus citrinus SCP production
Factors such as moisture content, ionic concentrations of MgSO4.7H2O, CaCl2 .2H2O, KH2PO4 , carbon to nitrogen ration(C:N), molasses (10% solution), yeast sludge, and corn steep liquor for Arachniotus citrinus and molasses (10% solution) and urea for C. utilis affecting the SCP production were standardized by adopting the search technique by varying one factor at a time. The optimized parameter of one experiment was followed for succeeding experiments.
In the first experiment, the effect of moisture content (ranging from substrate to water ratios of 1:2, 1:1, 1.5:1, and 2:1) on fungal SCP production, 5 g of rice bran was steamed, inoculated and incubated for 3 days at 35 °C for the optimization of water content. All media were adjusted to pH 4.0 with 1 M NaOH or 1 M HCl. A portion of SCP was used for the estimation of crude protein and true protein by following the methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC, 1994). The protein gain in the fermented rice bran was calculated according to Equation 1, while, the correction factors of 5.7 for rice bran and of 6.25 for fermented biomass calculations.
Protein Gain %=[(NF-NF0) X6.25] X100
(NF0X5.7)
Where NF = nitrogen content in fermented rice bran on as such basis, NF0= nitrogen content in unfermented bran.
The moisture content favoring maximum fungal SCP production was followed for subsequent experiments.
2.3.2. Effect of ionic concentration on fungal SCP
To find out the influence of different ionic concentrations of MgSO4.7H2O, CaCl2 .2H2O and KH2PO4 on A. citrinus SCP production, SSF was carried out for 3 days at 35°C with pH 4 at ionic concentrations of MgSO4.7H2O (0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.1%), CaCl2 .2H2O (0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.1%) and KH2PO4 (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 %). The ionic concentrations giving high amount of SCP were taken as an optimum and applied for subsequent evaluation. All other chemicals were of analytical grade.
2.3.3. Effect of molasses
The effect of different levels of 10% molasses (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 ml) on fungal SCP was also evaluated by conducting experiments for incubation period of 3 days at 35°C with pH 4. The other parameters were kept at their optimum levels.
2.3.4. Effect of yeast sludge
Experiments were conducted to find out the effect of various concentrations of yeast sludge on SCP production of A. citrinus by conducting SSF on sterilized 5g rice bran in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask for 3 days at 35°C with pH 4. Optimum levels of all the other derived parameters were used. The yeast sludge giving maximum SCP production was determined as an optimum level of yeast sludge.
2.4. Effect of corn steep liquor
The effect of various concentrations of corn steep liquor (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 ml) on fungal SCP was also evaluated by conducting experiments at 35°C with pH 4 for incubation period of 3 days. The other parameters were kept at their optimum levels. Corn steep liquor was obtained(a gift) from the Rafhan Maize Products (Pvt) Ltd, Faisalabad.
2.5. Effect of various concentrations of molasses and urea on Candida utilis SCP production
To demonstrate the influence of various concentrations of 10% molasses (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 ml), and urea (0, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25, and 0.3g) on yeast SCP production, experiments were conducted on 5g sterilized rice bran with C. utilis for 3 days at 35°C with the pH of 6.0. The media were adjusted to pH 6.0 with 1 M NaOH or 1 M HCl.
2.6 Large scale single cell protein production by solid state fermentation
The optimum conditions determined for SCP production by SSF of A. citrinus and C. utilis (in 250ml Erlenmeyer flask) were extended to ferment 300 kg rice bran in a Koji making fermentor (Fujiwara Techno- Art Co. Ltd, Japan) for the production of SCP(Fig 1). A simple SSF process was followed. Major components of the rotary bed koji maker are a round bed with a perforated bottom plate for up-flow aeration; a set of adjustable speed mixer for plowing up rice bran during SSF; a set of screw for sterilized substrate feed-in and SCP discharge, an air sterilizer and a humidifier. Temperature and humidity sensors are inserted for monitoring and control the temperature and humidity, respectively. pH was monitored frequently by using pH meter. There was some modification (the Koji bed was covered with cheesecloth) for large scale SCP production of A. citrinus and C. utilis in a more hygienic and controllable conditions with mechanized koji making facilities. The SCP product obtained on large scale was analyzed after drying at 70 °C in a hot air oven (AOAC Methods, 1994) and RNA content was analyzed as described previously (Pacheco et al., 1997; Rajoka et al., 2006).
2.6.2. Gross energy
It was determined by Parr oxygen method using Parr oxygen bomb calorimeter. The calorific value was calculated from the heat generated by the combustion of known weight of the sample in the presence of 20 atmospheric pressure of oxygen reaction.
3. Results and Discussion
Rice bran is a by-product of the rice milling industry and used in animal feed, in fertilizer and by the cosmetics industry. It has a high nutritive value and serves as a valuable feed for cattle, poultry, and pigs. The protein content (10-15 %) of rice bran supply almost the same amount of protein as wheat and oats and even its protein is of considerably better quality than maize. The chemical composition of rice bran used in this experiment for SCP protein contain moisture content 2.50%, crude protein 13.50%, crude fat 3.01%, crude fiber 11.82%, ash content 11.40%, carbon content 40.35% and cellulose 9.70%. Because of the high nutrient contents, it was selected as a potential alternative substrate for the production of SCP by using A. citrinus and C. utilis. The primary objectives of this study were to evaluate the potential of A. citrinus for SSF by using rice bran and production of fungal and yeast C. utilis biomass protein on large scale. Maximum microbial biomass protein from A. citrinus was obtained at optimal temperature 35 °C, pH 4 and incubation time 3 d while for C. utilis optimal temperature 35 °C, pH 6 and incubation time 3 d were selected (data not shown).
3.1. Effect of moisture content
Solid-state fermentation is a well adopted method for cultivating fungi on agro-industrial wastes. It offers benefits for production of numerous enzymes and various chemicals. Solid-state fermentation has lower energy requirements, smaller effluent volumes, higher productivity, simple and easy operation of solid state fermentors. SSF is significantly affected by different factors such as selection of a proper strain, substrate and other processing parameters for fermentation such as moisture content, temperature, pH, incubation period, ionic concentrations of different anions and cations, different sources of carbon and nitrogen etc. In this study, different levels of moisture content were used to determine the optimum level of water to obtain maximum yield of fungal A. citrinus SCP.
The results of our study indicated that the maximum level of SCP production (in terms of crude protein %) was observed at substrate to water ratio of 1:2 by using fungal A. citrinus in SSF. A significant decrease (pIt was already reported that at 6% moisture (w/v) corn stover had increased the microbial biomass protein production by sequential culture fermentation with Arachniotus sp., at pH 4, 35 °C for 72 h and then followed by C. utilis fermentation at pH 6, 35 °C for 72 h (Ahmad et al., 2010). Zambare., (2010) found that Aspergillus oryzae had increased the glucoamylase enzyme production at 100% (v/w) initial moisture by using different agro-industrial wastes of SSF. Sharma and Satyanarayana., 2012 found the highest production of a pectinase enzyme of Bacillus pumilus dcsr1 at moisture ratio of 1 : 2.5 by using different agro-residues in SSF.
Generally low moisture content has been reported for maximum fungal growth, more utilization of substrate and significant advantage is lowering the risk of bacterial species contamination. This variation in moisture content might be due to differences in fermenting fungal specie, and substrate. The reduction in SCP production at 1:1 of moisture content might be due to non-availability of nutrients due to lower moisture content and of lower water activity that affected the microbial activities because of limitation in the nutrient solubilization, lower degree of substrate swelling and decrease in diffusion of gas to the cell during fermentation (Nagadi and Correria, 1992; Ellaiah et al., 2004). Even higher concentrations of moisture also affected the microbial enzymes metabolic activities as a result of substrate stickiness, less porous nature of substrate and very limited oxygen transfer during the process of SSF in fermentor (Kumar et al., 2003; Pandey et al., 2000).
Effect of different ionic concentrations of MgSO4.7H2O, CaCl2 .2H2O, and KH2PO4 on SCP production
All the required metallic elements Mg, Ca and K can be supplied in the form of the cations of inorganic salts and they are normally required in relatively large amounts. Significant variation (pA significant difference (p
The maximum levels of true protein% were observed at 0.025% and 0.05%. The average value of TP% was 17.08 ± 0.06. When we compared with the highest value of TP% with different levels of MgSO4.7H2O, it was found that the TP% was lower at 0.0% (1.87%) while it was decreased at 0.05% (0.23%), 0.075% (4.85%) and 0.1% (9.76%) of MgSO4.7H2O. When we compared the effect of different levels of MgSO4.7H2O on true protein%, we found that there were increased in TP% at 0.025% (1.37%) and 0.05% (1.66%) while there were decreased at 0.075% (3.03%) and 0.10% (8.04%) as compared to control 0.0% MgSO4.7H2O.
The highest protein gain% was observed at 0.05% MgSO4.7H2O 88.46 ± 0.11 while it was lower at 0.0% (3.91%), 0.025% (0.55%) and decreased at 0.075% (10.0%) and 0.10% (21.02%) as compared to 0.05% MgSO4.7H2O. When we compared the influence of different inclusion levels of MgSO4.7H2O on protein gain%, we found that there were increased in PG% at 0.025% (2.69%) and 0.05% (3.26%) while there were decreased at 0.075% (7.06%) and 0.10% (18.44%) as compared to control 0.0% MgSO4.7H2O.
Production of A. citrinus biomass protein was greatly influenced by different levels of CaCl2.2H2O. A significant increase in SCP production was observed in SSF by increasing the initial levels of CaCl2.2H2O from 0.025% to 0.075%. Maximum production of SCP was observed at 0.075% CaCl2.2H2O (24.66% ± 0.00). However, at 0.10% CaCl2.2H2O SCP production was decreased significantly (Table. 3).
Significant variation (pThe maximum levels of true protein% were observed at 0.05% and 0.075% (average value 17.26 ± 0.01). When we compared the highest value of TP% with other levels of CaCl2.2H2O, it was found that the TP% was lower at 0.0% (1.01%), 0.025% (0.64%) and 0.05% (0.28%) while it was decreased at 0.01% (1.45%) of CaCl2.2H2O. However, when we compared the effect of different levels of CaCl2.2H2O on true protein%, we found that there were increased in TP% at 0.025% (0.35%), 0.05% (0.93%) and 0.075% (1.22%) while there was decreased at 0.10% (0.05%) as compared to control 0.0% CaCl2.2H2O.
The highest protein gain% was observed at 0.075% (90.69% ± 0.05) CaCl2.2H2O while it was lower at 0.0% (2.28%), 0.025% (1.43%) and 0.05% (0.61%) and decreased at 0.10% (3.21%) as compared to 0.075% CaCl2.2H2O. When we compared the influence of different inclusion levels of CaCl2.2H2O on protein gain%, we found that there were increased in PG% at 0.025% (0.86%), 0.05% (1.70%) and 0.075% (2.33%) while there was decreased at 0.10% (0.95%) as compared to control 0.0% CaCl2.2H2O.
The maximum level of fungal SCP production was observed at 0.25% KH2PO4 level. A significant increase (pSignificant variations (pA similar trend was observed in true protein% and protein gain%. The maximum level of true protein% was observed at 0.25% KH2PO4 (20.39% ± 0.02). The true protein% of different levels of KH2PO4 were observed at 0.0% (15.49%), 0.05% (14.46%), 0.10% (11.47%), 0.15% (7.55%) and 0.20% (2.79%) as compared to 0.25%. However, when we compared the effect of different levels of KH2PO4 on true protein%, we found that there were increased in TP% at 0.05% (1.21%), 0.10% (4.75%), 0.15% (9.40%), 0.20% (15.03%) and 0.25% (18.34%) as compared to control 0.0% KH2PO4.
The highest protein gain% was observed at 0.25% (126.69% ± 0.17). The protein gain% of different levels of KH2PO4 were observed at 0.0% (28.57%), 0.05% (26.71%), 0.10% (21.58%), 0.15% (13.75%) and 0.20% (5.00%) as compared to 0.25% KH2PO4. When we compared the influence of different inclusion levels of KH2PO4 on protein gain%, we found that there were increased in PG% at 0.05% (2.60%), 0.10% (9.79%), 0.15% (20.74%), 0.20% (32.99%) and 0.25% (40.00%) as compared to control 0.0% KH2PO4.
These finding agree with the studies of Baig et al (2002); Xu and Yun (2003); Xiao et al (2004), Athar et al., 2009 and Ahmad et al., 2010. At these concentrations of 0.05% MgSO4.7H2O, 0.075% CaCl2.2H2O, and 0.25%KH2PO4 maximum SCP was produced.
It has been reported that mineral ions play a pivotal role in fungal growth and in their secondary metabolite formations. Chardonnet et al.(1999) found that external Ca2+ can play an indirect role in fungal growth by altering internal Ca2+, which controls the cytoplasmic Ca2+ gradient, and the activity of fungal enzymes involved in cell wall expansion. The direct effect of Ca2+ on the fungal cell wall may also be a significant factor in cell membrane permeability interactions. In contrast, Papagianni (2004) found that increased concentrations of Ca2+ inhibit the synthesis of fungal biopolymers might be due to effect on enzymes such as b-glucan synthesis. For higher CaCl2.2H2O concentrations, the calcium ion content of the cell wall increased, resulting in reduced protein and neutral sugar contents. Mg2+ is also an essential metal ion to all fungi. It act as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions, stabilizes the plasma membrane, and its uptake is ATP dependent. Potassium ion is very important for the regulation of osmotic strength and intracellular pH while phosphorus plays an important role in all phases of cellular metabolism (Conn and strumpf,1976; Verchtert, 1990).
PO4-3 (phosphate), in the form of K- salt, was added because K+ is required for the absorption of phosphate. On the other hand, when Na2HPO4 and (NH4)2HPO4 were added to bacterial, yeast and fungal cultures, poor growth rates and higher resting oxygen consumption were observed as compared to K fed microbes(Conway and Moore,1954). This could be probably due to the death of fermenting microorganisms caused by reverse osmosis in the presence of higher concentrations of ions. A combination of Ca2+ Mg2+ and K+ ions gave rise to enhanced mycelia growth of A. citrinus in SSF of rice bran.
Effect of carbon: nitrogen ratio on SCP production by fermentation with A. citrinus
The Carbon to Nitrogen (C/N) ratio is important in a biological process. Microorganisms require a proper nitrogen supplement for metabolism during fermentation. It is a major nutrient for fungal growth. High concentrations of nitrogen have increasing the fungal growth and biomass yield. It is necessary to maintain proper composition of the growth media for efficient fermentation process so that the C:N ratio remains within desired range. Microorganisms generally utilize carbon 25-30 times faster than nitrogen during anaerobic digestion.
The C: N ratio of 12:1 produced maximum SCP production (29.91 ± 0.02) by fermentation with A. citrinus (Table. 5).
A significant variation (pThe maximum level of TP% was observed at C: N of 12:1 (29.94% ± 0.04). However, when we compared the effect of different ratios of C:N on TP%, we found that there were decreased in TP% at 15:1 (40.40%), 17:1 (28.72%), 19:1 (36.13%), 21:1 (37.54%) and 23:1 (41.11%) as compared to C: N of 12:1.
The highest PG% was observed at C: N of 12:1 (133.33% ± 0.22). When we compared the influence of different ratios of C:N on PG%, we found that there were decreased in PG% at 15:1 (27.16%), 17:1 (1.29%), 19:1 (15.89%), 21:1 (19.63%) and 23:1 (28.86%) as compared to control C: N of 12:1.
in agreement with Kiani (1989), Gutierrez et al (2004) and Zheng et al (2005) Rajoka et al., 2004, Athar et al., 2009; Ali et al., 2010 . This could be due to the fact that when C:N was 12:1, maximum production of biomass protein was produced. If the ratio was increased above this level, excess urea was produced which was responsible for the increase in pH and ultimately reduced the production of single cell protein.
Replacement of one nitrogen source for another in the medium causes a change in protein synthesis as well as product formation. To explore the influence of nitrogen sources on production of crude protein and RNA, were compared to, urea, and corn steep liquor (which are cheap nitrogen sources) when added to rice polishings medium. The results (Table 1) show that these nitrogen compounds influenced the production of protein productivity and RNA content to varying degrees. Generally, the results confirmed that corn steep liquor, a low-cost by-product of the starch industry, supported the maximum kinetic parameters of crude protein compared to those of other nitrogen compounds. The organism produced lower SCP from sodium nitrate and ammonium nitrate and was attributed to low nitrate reductase activity in the organism.
However, the maximum EPS production was achieved when yeast extract was employed as nitro-gen source An appropriate amount of C: N ratio is the key to get maximum yield of SCP.19,20 Urea is a low cost fertilizer and supported maximum SCP production which was in agreement with previous studies.21,22
Effect of supplementation with molasses (10% solution) on SCP production by fermentation with A. citrinus
Fermentation was carried out at different concentration of cane molasses (10% solution) to standardize the optimum level of molasses. High levels of SCP formed at 1ml of molasses (10% solution). Further addition of molasses results in decreased SCP production (table. 5). Significant variations (pA similar trend was observed in true protein% and protein gain%. The maximum level of true protein% was observed at 1 ml of 10% molasses (22.26% ± 0.15). The true protein% of different levels of 10% molasses were observed at 0.0 ml (3.68%), 2 ml (3.14%), 3 ml (8.04%), 4 ml (19.72%), 5 ml (34.54%) and 6 ml (54.08%) as compared to the highest production of SCP at 1 ml of molasses (10% solution). However, when we compared supplementation of different levels of molasses (10% solution) for SCP production, we found that there were increased in production of SCP at 1 ml (3.82%) and 2 ml (0.55%) levels. However, further addition of molasses (10% solution) at 3 ml (4.80%), 4 ml (16.65%), 5 ml (32.04%) and 6 ml (52.33%) decreased the SCP production when we compared these levels with control 0.0 ml molasses (10% solution).
The highest protein gain% was observed at 1 ml of 10% molasses (147.32% ± 0.86). The PG% of different levels of 10% molasses were observed at 0.0 ml (5.73%), 2 ml (4.87%), 3 ml (13.94%), 4 ml (33.77%), 5 ml (59.66%) and 6 ml (94.01%) as compared to the highest production of SCP at 1 ml of molasses (10% solution). However, when we compared supplementation of different levels of molasses (10% solution) for SCP production, we found that there were increased in production of SCP at 1 ml (6.08%) and 2 ml (0.93%) levels. However, further addition of molasses (10% solution) at 3 ml (8.71%), 4 ml (29.74%), 5 ml (57.2%) and 6 ml (93.65%) decreased the SCP production when we compared these levels with control 0.0 ml molasses (10% solution).
Flasks experiments using molasses and sucrose for enzyme production showed a pH increase during the fermentation. High pH affects the enzyme stability. Consumption of sucrose or glucose as carbon source is not cost-effective in the production of microbial biomass protein. Low cost substrates such as cane molasses can be used for the production of microbial biomass protein for animal feed supplements.23,24 In addition, molasses is widely available from the sugar industry and consist of water, sucrose (47-50%, w/w) which is the disaccharide most easily exploited by yeast cells. It also contain 0.5-1% nitrogen, proteins, vitamins, amino acids, organic acids and heavy metals.25 Therefore, it is a very attractive carbon source for SCP production economically. In this study, molasses were added to the fermentation medium to enhance the SCP production. Among different concentrations of molasses, 1 and 2 ml molasses gave higher SCP production by fermentation with Arachniotus sp. and C. utilis, respectively (Fig. 6 and Fig. 7). The results of our experiment were agreed with the previous studies.17, 26 The present results showed the potential of Arachniotus sp. and C. utilis to grow on cheap substrates like rice bran along with molasses for SCP production.
Effect of Yeast Sludge
Significant variation (pHo
 

Simulation of Single Cylinder SI/HCCI Internal Combustion Engine using AVL BOOST

Technology has made it possible to design and simulate various engineering models. Based on various formula and conditions the software can predict how a design would perform with great accuracy. One such software is AVL BOOST which is a fully integrated advanced level tool for running simulations on virtual engine. It involves simulation of engine cycle and gas exchange for an entire engine model. It has not only reduced time and cost involved in designing of engine models but also given the user the flexibility to optimize the design by changing parameters or inputs without going into laborious calculations. In short AVL Boost is one of the reliable and efficient tools which give the designer enough confidence to finally have a prototype of the design by drastically reducing the chances of failure [9].

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1.1. Aims and Objectives:

 The aim of this report is to build a model of single cylinder SI and HCCI engine in BOOST using the geometries and valve timings provided and to use experimental data to determine combustion profile for the models. The models are calibrated based on in-cylinder pressure trace, IMEP and maximum pressure. The results are then evaluated using experimental data. Engine parameters are changed to make it more efficient and cleaner and an exhaust after treatment is incorporated.

2.1. Spark Ignition (SI) Engine:

Combustion is ignited by a spark in SI engines and almost stoichiometric air/fuel ratio is used to allow spark to ignite better and for the flame to propagate better [14].High lift was used in SI mode i.e. cases 4-7 and the fuel used was gasoline which has a stoichiometric air/fuel ratio of 14.7. The actual values of air/fuel ratio were calculated using given values of lambda in each case and the IVO and EVO for each case was input using given data.

2.2. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine:

 Auto-ignition takes place in HCCI due to compression, the charge is premixed, and the combustion is lean. The engine is un-throttled which reduces throttling losses and combustion temperatures are low which reduce NOX and the quick combustion makes it comparable with the Otto Cycle [7].Hence the throttle and spark timing was removed for HCCI cases i.e. cases 1-3 and low lift was used. The air fuel ratios were calculated using stoichiometric values and the IVO and EVO was calculated using given data.

2.3. Input Data:

2.3.1. Technical Specification:

Table 1: Basic Geometry

Parameter

Value

Bore

90.0mm

Stroke

88.9mm

Con-rod Length

160.0mm

Compression Ratio

11.5:1

2.3.2. Calculation of Required Input Data:

 Stroke volume was calculated using Eq (1)
Vd=πB24 ×L=565630mm3
      [4] (1)                    

The clearance volume was calculated as:
Vc=VdrC–1
=
565630mm311.5–1=53869mm3 [4]
(2)
S=acos⁡θ+L2–asin⁡θ212
, a=44.45mm (3)
V=Vc+πB24L+a–S
                    [4] (4)

By plotting logarithm of fired cylinder pressure and that of instantaneous volume and by taking the average of the two slopes the polytrophic constant was calculated for all the seven cases. Graphs for HCCI engine case 1and SI engine case 4 are shown in figure 1 and figure 2.Figure 1: Log P vs. log V for case 1 (HCCI)Figure 2: Log P vs. Log V case 4 (SI)
dQdθ=γγ–1 pdVdt+1γ–1pdPdt
                        [4](5)

γ was used in the above equation to calculate heat release rate. Using the polytrophic constant calculated for all seven cases, the heat release rate was also calculated for each case and the normalized heat release was input into AVL BOOST.

Figure 3: AVL BOOST Setup

The model was setup in BOOST using given data, the engine geometry and intake and exhaust geometry. The cylinder piston area, cylinder head surface area and liner area were calculated using AVL BOOST HELP and the intake and exhaust valve coefficients for both SI and HCCI was calculated using BOOST HELP and literature review.

2.4. Model calibration and validation

2.4.1 SI calibration and validation

In order to calibrate the SI case 4, the throttle angel was changed until the IMEP, Pmax and PCad matched the experimental data. Pressure vs. CAD plot was generated in BOOST which was exported in excel. A plot was also created from the provided experimental data. A comparison was made between the two which showed the pressure profile resembled perfectly and the crank angle at which the pressure peak occurred, the magnitude of the pressure peak and IMEP was same for both.

Figure 4: Pressure vs. Crank angle Curve Case 4 (Experimental Data)

To validate the SI model, the remaining SI cases with their corresponding heat release and air/fuel ratio were fed to the model and only the throttle angel variable was changed. Upon comparison of generated data vs. experimental data it showed that the in-cylinder pressure trace, IMEP, Pmax and crank angle data and IMEP matched, hence validating the model.

SI engines are calibrated based on throttle valve as it controls the amount of air and hence the fuel amount entering the system while maintaining a constant air/fuel ratio, mostly stoichiometric conditions, and thus controls the engine power. By increasing the throttle position more air is allowed to enter which in turn allows more fuel into to the system to maintain stoichiometric conditions and vice versa [22].

2.4.2 HCCI model calibration

To calibrate the HCCI engine the throttle was removed, and low lift was used. The low lift helps trap more residual gases to facilitate combustion and to extend the operating range of the engine [17].The air/fuel ratio and normalized heat release graph for case 1 was put in BOOST and the cylinder wall temperatures were changed until the correct IMEP, Pmax and Pcad were achieved. The wall temperature of
1000C
was used for case 1. Kezhuo Wang (2018) in his CFD simulation of HCCI engine studied influence of cylinder wall temperature on engine performance. In his investigation he varied cylinder wall temperature from about
300C
to
1800C
and found out that decreasing cylinder wall temperature decreases maximum temperature of the engine cylinder. At temperature lower than
900C
the engine misfired since heat release rate was quite low giving us the idea of lowering in cylinder temperature to minimum of
1000C
to avoid misfire and to to reduce emissions and increase efficiency for HCCI [20].

The pressure vs CAD was plot in BOOST and was exported to excel to compare the values. The graph below shows the Pmax and Pcad for case 1match the experimental data hence calibrating the model.Figure 5: Pressure vs Crank angle Curve Case 1 (Experimental Data)

To validate the model the data for the remaining HCCI cases was input in BOOST and only the wall temperatures were changed to get the correct values, hence validating the model.

HCCI engines are calibrated based on wall temperatures as HCCI combustion depends on chemical kinetics which is influenced by wall temperatures [21].The wall temperatures effect the charge near the wall and hence effect the combustion duration, ignition rate and heat lost to the walls [5].If the wall temperature is lowered the peak value of heat release rate is significantly decreased. On the other hand, increasing the temperature would delay the rate of pressure rise during combustion [12].The heat transfer happening inside the cylinder is affected by the temperature of its walls which in turn affects the air fuel mixture that enters it thus affecting the combustion process. Decreasing wall temperature results in delay in ignition timing thus extending duration of ignition [20].

 3.Results and Optimization of Engine:

3.1. Results:

Table 2: Experimental data vs AVL Boost Data

The PMax, PMax (CAD) and IMEP from the      BOOST data matches the experimental data for both the SI and HCCI cases with an error of less than 10% thus validating both models.

It was noted that as the throttle angel was reduced in SI engine (part load operation), the pumping losses increased, which could be seen by the PV graphs plotted in excel. This is because as the throttle restricted the amount of air entering the engine, the volumetric efficiency reduced. The intake air pressure dropped below atmospheric pressure thus increasing the cylinder pressure resulting in the piston working against this pressure difference in order to take more air in.

On the other hand, it was noted that the pumping losses in HCCI engine are significantly lower compared to SI engine. This is mainly attributed to the lean combustion used in HCCI engines. Since the ratio of air is greater in lean combustion, this means that the pressure in the intake manifold is high to allow more air into the cylinder thus reducing pumping losses [7].According to the results the greater the air/fuel ratio the higher the volumetric efficiency was.

3.2 Optimization of Engine:

3.2.1 SI Engine Optimization:

Several factors were changed for optimizing the performance of SI engine for case 4. The compression ratio, engine speed, exhaust runner lengths and IVO were varied to get optimum results.

By increasing the compression ratio to 15:1, the BMEP, Brake power, torque and thermal efficiency increased while the Bsfc, NOX and CO2reduced. The improvement is attributed to the better fuel evaporation and better mixing at high compression ratios [15].

The rpm was increased to 2500rpm. The positive valve overlap was also increased by opening IV early. This led to a reduction in NOX and HC emissions, because early intake opening leads to backflow of residual gases into the intake port which is recirculated in the next cycle into the cylinder leading to their combustion. As engine speed was increased the high overlap was beneficial as it increased volumetric efficiency due to ram effect [6].

Changes to the engine geometry were made by reducing the exhaust pipe length to 44mm which led to better efficiency, torque and power. This is due to wave tuning. When the pressure wave in the exhaust manifold is tuned correctly it returns to the cylinder before valve is closed thus producing a negative pressure at the valve opening. This phenomenon is called scavenging which pushes more amount of residual exhaust gas out thus improving efficiency[3][13].

The combined effect of all the parameters can be seen in the table below.

NOx

(ppm)

vol

eff%

BTE

%

Bsfc

(g/kwh)

Brake

Power(kw)

CO2

%

Before optimization

4236

77.5

37.4

226

8.94

0.548

After optimization

721

86

43.6

194

11.1

0.009

The results show an increase in volumetric efficiency, brake power and BTE. The BSFC decreases as a result of increase in brake power. The increase in brake power also increases the BTE.
NOx
and CO2 are reduced.

3.2.2 HCCI Engine Optimization:

Several parameters were changed for optimization of case 1 HCCI. The efficiency in HCCI engine can be increased by optimizing NVO to trap hot residual gases(internal EGR) in the cylinder [23].By closing the exhaust valve early, the hot gases can be used to facilitate the auto-ignition process and reduce combustion timing[24].The hot residual gases heat up the fresh incoming charge thus increasing their temperature and facilitating combustion. Hence EVC and IVO were optimized to get higher volumetric efficiency, higher brake power, lower Bsfc and reduced NOx.

The combustion in an HCCI engine is dependent on the mixture chemistry in the cylinder. By reducing engine speed, the pre-combustion reactions during compression stroke are improved due to more residence time, thus combustion occurs early improving power and efficiency [16]. There is also greater breathing characteristics at reduced rpms which can be attributed to lesser flow friction and enhanced wave dynamics. Hence the rpm was reduced from 1500rpm to 1200rpm which led to an improved volumetric efficiency, thermal efficiency and brake power. The bsfc was also reduced.

Compression ratio has a strong effect on ignition timing and charge temperature in HCCI engines [10]. The compression ratio was also increased to 13.5:1.

The table shows the combined effect of reducing rpm to 1200rpm, increasing the compression ratio to 13.5:1 and optimizing negative overlap.

CO

(ppm)

Bmep

bar

Vol

Eff%

BTE

%

BSFC

(g/kwh)

Brake

Power(kw)

Before

optimization

2.13

1.53

15.9

33.4

285

1.08

After

optimization

3.63

3.01

28.9

34.9

254

1.70

The results show an increase in volumetric efficiency, brake thermal efficiency and brake power. The Bsfc reduces as a result of increase in brake power. The increase in brake power also increases the BTE. However, there is also an increase in CO levels. This shows that there is a tradeoff between optimum performance and reduced emissions.

4. Model/Software Limitations:

The model has limitations which cannot incorporate certain elements which are present in the operation of engines in real life. Two of which are turbulence and heat loses. Since the Reynolds number is very high inside the internal combustion engines while they are operating, turbulence is developed. Various other complex motions such as swirling flows and tumbling are produced after the introduction of air fuel mixture. As a result of turbulence and complex motions and their interaction with the valve motion, heat transfer inside the engine becomes unsteady and undergoes local changes. Reynolds number increases with increase in engine piston speed and thus turbulence increases which influences the heat transfer inside the engine [12].Effect of turbulence in the real-life 3D engine is quite different and all the heat loses in real life engine cannot be incorporated in the model. Turbulence affects the flame speed by assisting in mixing thus accelerating chemical reactions in SI engine [8].whereas in HCCI engine turbulence affects Rate of Heat Release [19]. Assuming a streamline flow of gasses ignores the changes that happen in reactivity of fuel through actual non-streamline flow. The assumption that the process is isentropic does not account for the loss that would happen due to friction, noise or other heat transfer loses [1]. The software is very much limited to inputs and the design that is made by the user. 

5. Exhaust After treatment:

NOx concentration in the exhaust gas depends on peak value of cyclic temperature and amount of oxygen available inside the combustion chamber. Hence in order to reduce
NOx
in the exhaust one can either reduce the peak temperature or reduce available oxygen in the combustion chamber. This can be done by diluting fuel air mixture through addition of substances that are non-combustible before it enters the engine cylinder. Water injection, catalytic converter and Exhaust gas recirculation are among the techniques used for this purpose. Water injection decreases specific fuel consumption, as a result this method cannot be used beyond a certain limit [2]. Catalytic convertor on the other hand reduces
NOx
emissions by changing the chemical properties of the exhaust gases. Most of the emissions are eventually converted into carbon dioxide and water vapor [2]. Exhaust gas recirculation is one method that is of more interest since it is effective in reducing harmful gases for both SI and HCCI engines where 10-30 % of engine exhaust gas is recirculated and sent back to the engine inlet manifold. Since the fresh air at inlet is mixed with exhaust gas it reduces oxygen concentration and simultaneously reduces maximum burning temperature thus reducing
NOx
[2]. The method is efficient to an extent where
NOx
emission can be reduced from 25.4% to 89.6% [11].

There are certain challenges related to usage of EGR and the major one is that it decreases the performance of the engine. Various researchers have come up with different approaches in order to overcome this shortcoming such as EGR hydrogen reforming and treating the stream before it enters the inlet manifold. In case of HCCI engine Lü and coworkers (2005) proposed cooling of EGR in order to prolong combustion time. One most used method to recover the reduced performance is application of turbo charging that avoids self-ignition levels from being reached during the process. By increasing compression ratio through turbo charging
NOx
formation increases as peak temperature is increased but at the same time addition of inert gases through EGR reduces it. Thus, in order to reach best results, one is required to optimize value of recycled gas amount and compression ratio [18].

6. Conclusion:

Both models were run successfully and were calibrated and validated with respect to given experimental data by making specific adjustments during initial modelling and simulation. The intent of improving emissions and optimizing the model is evident throughout the project.AVL BOOST proved an efficient tool in effectively simulating the models with good accuracy bearing in mind various limitations that the software has. 

 The software could have been more user friendly if recommendations or suggestions were presented by it especially during model development and calibration. More perfect outcome would have been achieved if phenomena such as turbulence and values of heat loss could have been incorporated in the process making the models closer to real life. Even though there are certain benefits of using 1 D software such as AVL BOOST that are related to simple and fast calculations but developing a working model requires good in-depth knowledge of input parameters. 

7. Project Management:

In order to achieve the given goals, the project was divided into various segments as shown in the Gantt chart in the end. Since it involved modelling, simulation, calibration and validation there were different steps in the process which needed revisiting. One of the most crucial activities was literature review for model development which was efficiently distributed between the team and led to positive discussions till an approach was developed at each stage of the project. Efficient time management and segregation of tasks ensured successful and on time achievement of the stated milestones.

 

References

[1]    Aceves, S. M., Flowers, D. L., Martinez-Frias, J., Espinosa-Loza, F., Christensen, M., & Johansson, B. (2005). Analysis of the Effect of Geometry Generated Turbulence on HCCI Combustion by Multi-Zone Modeling. Rio de Janeiro: SAE.

[2]    Amritkar, A. B., & Badge, N. (2016). Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) in Internal Combustion Engine. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, 1180-1185.

[3]    Aradhye, O., & Bari, S. (2017). Continuously Varying Exhasut Pipe Length and Diameter to Improve the Performance of a Naturally Aspirated SI Engine. ASME International, 8.

[4]    B.Heywood, J. (2018). Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals. Ohio: McGraw-Hill Book Company.

[5]    Chang, J., Filipi, Z., Assanis, D., Kuo, T.-W., Najt, P., & Rask, R. (2005). Characterizing the thermal sensitivity of a gasoline homogeneous charge compression ignition engine with measurements of instantaneous wall temperature and heat flux. International Journal of Engine Research, 289-310.

[6]    Choi, K., Lee, H., Hwang, I. G., Myung, C.-L., & Park, S. (2008). Effects of various intake valve timings and spark timings on combustion, cyclic THC and NOX emissions during cold start phase with idle operation in CVVT engine. Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 2254-2262.

[7]    Dahl, D. (2012). Gasoline Engine HCCI combustion extending the High Load Limit. Goteborg: Chalmers University of Technology.

[8]    Hynes, J. (1986). Turbulence effects on combustion in spark ignition engines. Leeds: University of Leeds.

[9]    LIST, A. (2018). AVL BOOST™ Combustion and Emissions. Retrieved 11 24, 2018, from www.avl.com: https://www.avl.com/simulation-solutions-for-construction-equipment/-/asset_publisher/gYjUpY19vEA8/content/avl-boost-combustion-and-emissions

[10] Najafabadi, M. I., & Aziz, N. A. (2013). Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion: Challenges and Proposed Solutions. Journal of Combustion, 14.

[11] Onawale O, T. (2017). Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Performance of Petrol Engine. Journal of Engineering and Technology, 14-17.

[12] Park, H. J. (2009). Development of an In-cylinder Heat Transfer Model with Variable Density Effects on Thermal Boundary Layers. Michigan: The university of the Michigan.

[13] Sawant, P., Warstler, M., & Bari, S. (2018). Exhasut Tuning of an Internal Combustion Engine by the Combined Effects of Variable Exhaust pipe Diameter and an Exhasut Valve Timing System. MDPI, 1-16.

[14] Stone, R. (1992). Introduction to Internal Combustion Engines. Middlesex: Macmillan.

[15] T., A., C. O, F., & G. Y. , P. (2012). Influence of compression ratio on the performance characteristics of a spark ignition engine. Advances in Applied Science Research, 1915-1922.

[16] Thring, R. H. (1989). Homogeneous-Charge Compression-Ignition(HCCI) Engines. SAE International, 12.

[17] Uyumaz, A., & ÇINAR, C. (2016). Understanding the Effects of Residual Gas Trapping on Combustion Characteristics, Engine Performance and Operating Range in a HCCI Engine. International Journal of Advances in Science Engineering and Technology, 6-12.

[18] Vianna, J., Reis, A., Oliveira, A., & Fraga, A. (2005). Reduction of Pollutants Emissions on SI Engines – Accomplishments With Efficiency Increase. ABCM , 217-222.

[19] Vressner, A., Hultqvist, A., & Johansson, B. (2007). Study on Combustion Chamber Geometry Effects in an HCCI Engine using High-Speed Cycle-Resolved Chemiluminescence Imaging. SAE International.

[20] Wang, K. (2018). HCCI engine CFD simulations: Influence of intake temperature, cylinder wall temperature and the equivalence ratio on ignition timing. The Ohio State University.

[21] Wilhelmsson, C., Vressner, A., Tunestål, P., Johansson, B., Särner, G., & Aldén, M. (2005). Combustion Chamber Wall Temperature Measurement and Modelling during Transient HCCI Operation. SAE Technical Paper Series, 13.

[22] Xu, C. C., & Cho, M. H. (2017). The study of an Air intake on the Throttle of the Engine by CFD in Spark Ignition Engine. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 5263-5266.

[23] Yang, J., Culp, T., & Kenney, T. (2002). Developmant of a Gasoline Engine System Using HCCI Technology- The Concept and the Test Results. SAE International, 16.

[24] Zhao, F., & Asmus, T. W. (2003). Chapter 4 : HCCI Control and Operating Range Extension. In F. Zhao, T. W. Asmus, D. N. Assanis, J. E. Dec, J. A. Eng, & P. M. Najt, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines. SAE.

 

How a Single Directive Monopolized Nuclear Armageddon

Executive Order 8807: How a Single Directive Monopolized Nuclear Armageddon Under the Executive

Introduction:

On the morning of August 9th, three days after the detonation of Little Boy above Hiroshima, Major Charles Sweeney was ordered to drop Fat Man on the second target city, Kokura. Japan had not responded to the first strike, and consequently, a second attack was deemed necessary. Ordained by President Truman, the city’s fate appeared sealed and the lives of its 130,000 residents wholly doomed. However, upon his arrival, Sweeney noticed that the city was enshrouded in a seemingly impenetrable bastion of clouds.[1] He circled Bockscar high above the city for more than an hour with the bomb bay doors poised open, ominously dangling the aircraft’s plutonium payload. Sweeney waited for the clouds to dissipate for over an hour, but they never did. On that humid, summer morning, the unconscious forces of nature had intervened, reprieving the inhabitants of Kokura. Since he could not achieve a visual confirmation of the target city, he was forced to divert his course southward, to the alternate target of Nagasaki — where a total of seventy-five thousand would die instead. At 11:02, 40,000 in Nagasaki were vaporized in an instant, with the city’s mighty infrastructure completely razed.[2] The earth, now blighted and irradiated, condemned even the survivors of the initial blast to an inescapable, painful death due to radiation poisoning. Despite the two nuclear detonations, the Japanese Minister of War urged his people to continue fighting. Japanese military tradition proscribed the act of surrender, condemning it to be as immoral as desertion. This code was so deeply embedded in the Japanese psyche that soldiers were known to swim out into the open sea to drown or even eviscerate themselves to avoid being captured alive. However, on August 14th, 1945, Emperor Michinomiya Hirohito countermanded his war minister’s decision, and Japan unconditionally surrendered. Indeed, in the face of defeat during battle, soldiers and civilians had emphatically leaped from cliffs in the emperor’s name, but in his formal declaration of surrender, Hirohito lamented that the enemy had indelibly shattered the precepts of war and, for the first time, used cruel bombs.[3]

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America had mastered a new weapon, one which could mimic the fusion of our Sun’s infernal core and blast the Earth with winds stronger than Neptune’s. The casualties were numerous and global society had been irrevocably altered, for the world balked in the face of a weapon capable of wholly annihilating its creators. Many proclaim that the creation of atomic weaponry originated from the Manhattan Project, and while this is true, the United States’ initial push for the development of nuclear weapons can actually be traced back to Executive Order 8807 (herein referred to as EO 8807). This executive order formally established the Office of Scientific Research and Development — an agency tasked with researching nuclear fission for the purposes of weaponization. The order’s inceptive goal would eventually be realized, however the true gravity of EO 8807’s influence would reverberate throughout modern history, far past the climax of the war.

This paper argues that the specific language of EO 8807 empowered the Presidency to sequester the functions of the Office of Scientific Research and Development under his direct control, by minimizing oversight from Congress and the Judiciary. The implications of this directive brought the President far closer to ongoing nuclear research than the other two branches of government. Eventually, when the first nuclear weapons were finally constructed, the path already paved by EO 8807 allowed the presidency to wholly absorb the institution and assert a firm grip on their usage. While the president is the undoubted commander of the military, nuclear weapons are intuitively distinct from traditional weaponry like tanks, firearms or even conventional bombs — mainly due to their capacity to raze entire countries in seconds. Thus, in the special case of such a volatile weapon, many would agree that control should be diffused across a much larger sample of people, limiting the prospect of an impetuous strike. However, EO 8807 created a precedent which legitimized the domination of the nation’s nuclear stockpile by the president, a norm which would endure throughout American history. By the virtue of one executive order, the nature of American foreign policy would be irrevocably altered, and the executive would magnify its military strength far beyond the scope of any other nation. Not only did it engender a dangerous precedent of nuclear assault, EO 8807 inadvertently bestowed the might of America’s nuclear arsenal exclusively in the hands of one actor, the Commander in Chief.

On Executive Orders: A Dynamic Directive:

Before expounding the ramifications of EO 8807, it is pertinent to first examine the general utility of an executive order and the breadth of power which it unilaterally affords. Given that authority is vested in a single actor as opposed to a bilateral assembly, the Executive Branch has traditionally enjoyed a greater degree in policy-making freedom compared to its legislative and judicial counterparts. Thus, much of the executive’s potency is determined by the radiance of the president’s individual character. As William Howell noted in his prolific Power Without Persuasion, executive power is measured by each president’s skill, reputation, and prestige — coalescing in their unique ability to individually drive legislative agendas through Congress, bargain with bureaucrats, and breed loyalty within their specific administrations.[4] Furthermore, such manifestations of governmental actions are only circumscribed by the efficacy of a President’s own charisma. Fittingly, for a branch vested with such political agility, its leader brandishes one of the government’s most obscure, yet versatile weapons — the executive order.

While there exists no statutory basis for the executive order, and consequently no legal definition, it can be generally said that executive orders are “intended to direct or instruct the actions of executive agencies or government officials, or to set policies for the executive branch to follow.”[5] The potential applications of these directives are quite vast, and presidents have utilized this inherent elasticity to prescribe a wide range of policy ordinances, from the enduring policies of the New Deal to the forced desegregation the military. The executive order itself originated from a rather loose interpretation of Article II of the Constitution. Traditionally, presidents have maintained that the specific language of this article grants the executive express power to legislate any action necessary to preserve the vitality of the nation, so long as it does not contravene the provisions specific to the Constitution — and the Judiciary has largely upheld this interpretation, allowing this tool’s utility to augmented as the role of the President evolved.[6] However, the scope of a president’s executive order is not limited to merely galvanizing policy directives to influence the agendas of subservient agencies. Historically, the equivocal nature of the executive order has also empowered the presidency to conquer new institutions under the domain of the executive or fasten its command over preexisting ones. The saliency of this capacity was highlighted by George Bush’s flurry of executive orders in the wake of the September 11th attacks, which consolidated and greatly expanded the executive’s jurisdiction over domestic terrorism.[7] Indeed, the dynamism intrinsic to the executive order has allowed presidents to rapidly mobilize significant policy changes with minimal external intervention. However, this degree of policy-making autonomy has also alarmed critics to the potential profligacy of such a political device, since the obviation of abuse is contingent solely on the prudence of the incumbent.

Implications of a Lone Executive:

The unilaterality accorded by an executive order offers a considerably more efficient and fluid avenue for policy-making than the conventional route of pushing legislation through Congress. However, this boon to quick executive action also mirrors the directive’s greatest controversy. Indeed, concerns regarding the executive order’s partisan utility often question whether such a potent policy-making directive should be monopolized solely by a single actor.[8] One of the most troubling aspects of the executive order is that it empowers the executive to circumvent traditional congressional procedure, especially in instances of severe gridlock. Such action undermines the basic need for bipartisan cooperation, intrinsic to the system of checks and balances, and it may even beguile the temptation for inimical abuse. The enormity of this possibility is even more compelling when considering some of the presidency’s more egregious executive orders. A conspicuous example of this is EO 9066, which authorized the indiscriminate incarceration of Japanese-Americans during World War II, despite their status as citizens.[9] Fortunately, such extreme cases are rare given the democratic accountability of the office, however, even on a basic level, the degree of autonomy ingrained in the executive order can increase the chance of unanticipated repercussions. This latter concern is a far more realistic threat, for the dearth of intervention from other the branches magnifies the potential of this outcome. Executive Order 8807, the subject of this essay, is a prime example of this consequence, for its immediate purpose was clear and perhaps even necessary, however, its latent implications would redefine the role of the Commander in Chief and potentially endanger the security of the globe.

Executive Order 8807:

On August 2nd, 1939, President Roosevelt received the Einstien-Szilard Letter, urging the United States to develop a nuclear program, lest Nazi-Germany develop atomic bombs first. Persuaded by the urgency of the situation and the preeminence of the letter’s writers, Roosevelt signed Executive Order 8807 which formally created the Office of Scientific Research and Development (herein abbreviated as OSRD). The specific language of the order legislated that “There shall be within the Office for Emergency Management of the Executive Office of the President, the Office of Scientific Research and Development, at the head of which shall be a Director appointed by the President. The Director shall discharge and perform his responsibilities and duties under the direction and supervision of the President… [the Director of OSRD shall] initiate and support scientific research on the mechanisms and devices of warfare with the objective of creating, developing, and improving instrumentalities, methods, and materials required for national defense”.[10] The specific language of the order entitled the president to independently appoint the head of OSRD, ensuring an intimate and confidential relationship between the office and the executive. This enabled OSRD to deviate from the typical mold of a governmental agency, both in its structure and authorizations. Firstly, the office was allowed to bypass traditional systems of congressional budgeting, for it was permitted to demand funding directly from the Congressional Appropriations Committee, significantly increasing its budget ceiling. Secondly, since it was under the direct scrutiny of the president, OSRD enjoyed an unprecedented level of autonomy in its research and in its acquisition of independent contracts and new patents.[11]

Since the scourge of war demanded a heightened level of security, OSRD was enshrouded in secrecy, and its tasked research was largely insulated from the public’s gaze. The agency masqueraded as an outlet for miscellaneous military research, fronting novel developments in radar systems, proximity fuzes and hand-held weaponry, however, the office’s primary goal was indisputably to facilitate the development of a nuclear weapon.[12] Deep within its most classified confines was the beating heart of the organization — the S-1 Executive committee, consisting of illustrious scientists like Ernest O. Lawrence, J. Robert Oppenheimer, and Harold Urey. This committee enjoyed the largest chuck of OSRD’s funding, and it was specifically tasked with researching nuclear fission.[13] Indeed, the S-1 laid the groundwork for atomic weaponry, and it would later evolve into the historic Manhattan Project.

The Grave Imputation of Annihilation:

EO 8807 has largely been discarded from the annals of history, given the overt eminence of other contemporary executive orders. The specific provisions of the order were relatively straightforward, and its immediate scope was more restrained than some previous directives, however, when analyzing its underscored implications, it becomes increasingly indisputable that this decree played an eminent role in magnifying the presidency’s nuclear capacity. By absorbing OSRD under the absolute control of the president, EO 8807 created a norm of the executive independently overseeing all aspects of nuclear research. After the creation of atomic weaponry, this trend was largely left intact, and the president inherited direct jurisdiction over any potential launch. This potential was ultimately acted upon in Japan, further legitimizing a precedent for nuclear use by the president. The advent of the Cold War further cemented this convention, and the United States eventually formalized this system.

Indeed, EO 8807 had profound implications for the nature of power, for it laid the foundation for the presidency to eventually annex the nation’s entire nuclear arsenal under the executive’s domain, while simultaneously creating a precedent for its use. This outcome was neither anticipated, nor was it prescribed in the text of the order, however it bears grave implications for the potential of nuclear annihilation. The unforeseen consequences of EO 8807 catalyzed an overt change in the puissance of the president, by imbuing a single actor with an undue monopoly over the nation’s entire nuclear stockpile. The scope of this change also represented a dynamic restructuring of the balance of power between the three branches within the government. Nuclear deterrence now became a far more poignant tool for diplomacy than a threat of conventional war, allowing the executive to continually supersede Congress in international peacemaking and coercion, even after the passage of the War Powers Resolution in 1973.

In many ways, the issues spawned by EO 8807 mirror the same issues of unilaterality intrinsic to the executive order, itself. Both institutions vest a significant degree of political autonomy in a single actor, allowing an individual’s disposition and personal beliefs to determine policy change. The executive is inherently a more volatile institution than its counterparts, given the president’s status as a lone actor. As a result, the specific temperament of a president will often determine his proclivity to use of nuclear weapons. Instead of a discussed, bipartisan decision, nuclear weapons have the potential to be discharge due to one individual’s miscalculation or vexation. Luckily, such an event is yet to occur, but the potential of an irrational president is too serious of a possibility to simply ignore. Thus, the current system is both terrifying and unstandardized, especially when acknowledging a nuclear weapon’s capacity for destruction.

Conclusion:

 In the months leading up to the 2016 presidential election, an assemblage of over 50 national security advisors from former conservative administrations — ranging from Nixon to Bush — jointly signed an open letter addressed to the American populace. Its contents denounced Donald Trump as an individual with “dangerous qualities”, unfit to helm the might of the United States’ nuclear arsenal.[14] Unbridled power of nuclear weaponry is a frightening though regardless of the incumbent president. Excluding the President, every other link the chain of command leading to a nuclear strike has fail-safes to prevent accidental launches or deliberate misuse. To name a few, the “two-person rule” requires a bipartite authentication of any nuclear launch order, and the Pentagon mandates a series of stringent mental, physical and emotional evaluations, which all nuclear weapons personnel are required to routinely pass in order to even come near a nuclear weapon.[15] There is no similar restraint or filter on the president’s ability to order a strike. He possesses the authority to vanquish an entire continent without even consulting another opinion. The unilaterality of the executive order itself, combined with the specific structure of EO 8807, allowed for a fraught convention in which the necessity of discourse was overridden by the need for a quick response in the event of a nuclear attack upon the United States. Regardless of whether the latent outcomes of EO 8807 were contrived or accidental, such a system cannot stand. Times have changed, and so have the nature of our international conflicts. The U.S. is no longer under a constant threat of nuclear assailment as it was during the Cold War. In the modern era, the road to peace demand a new change in the United States’ nuclear command— the complete excision of one person’s unilateral ability to eradicate the human race.

Bibliography

Make alphabetical

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Sweeney, Charles W., James A. Antonucci, and Marion K. Antonucci. War’s end: an eyewitness account of America’s last atomic mission. New York: Avon Books, 1997.

Howell, William G. Power without Persuasion: The Politics of Direct Presidential Action. Princeton University Press, 2003. http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt15hvxnf

Daley, Tad. Apocalypse Never: Forging the Path to a Nuclear Weapon-free World. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2010.

Funk, William F., and Richard H. Seamon. Administrative Law. 5th ed. New York: Wolters Kluwer Law & Business, 2016.

Nelson, Michael. “Executive Orders.” In The Presidency A to Z, edited by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, 223-27. 5th ed. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: CQ Press/ SAGE, 2013.

Kennedy, Joshua B. ““‘Do This! Do That! and Nothing Will Happen”: Executive Orders and Bureaucratic Responsiveness.” American Politics Research 43, no. 1 (2014): 59-82.

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Wellerstein, Alex. “Patenting the Bomb.” Isis 99, no. 1 (2008): 57-87.

Daniels, Roger. “Milestones in California History: Executive Order #9066 (Feb. 19, 1942).” California History 70, no. 4 (1991). http://www.jstor.org/stable/25158587.

Sanger, David E., and Maggie Haberman. “50 G.O.P. Officials Warn Donald Trump Would Put Nation’s Security ‘at Risk.'” The New York Times, August 8, 2016, national edition, Politics section. Accessed December 7, 2018. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/09/us/politics/national-security-gop-donald-trump.html.

[1] Tad Daley, Apocalypse Never: Forging the Path to a Nuclear Weapon-free World, (New Brunswick, Rutgers University Press, 2010), 240.

[2] Daley, Apocalypse Never, 5.

[3] “Text of Hirohito’s Radio Rescript.” New York Times. August 15, 1945, https://www.nytimes.com/1945/08/15/archives/text-of-hirohitos-radio-rescript.html (accessed December 4, 2018).

[4] William G. Howell, Power Without Persuasion, (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2003), 175-176.

[5] William F. Funk and Richard H. Seamon, Administrative Law, (New York, Wolters Kluwer Law & Business, 2016), 65.

[6] Michael Nelson, “Executive Orders.” In The Presidency A to Z, ed. Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, (Thousand Oakes, CQ Press, 2013), 223.

[7] Howell, Power Without Persuasion, 2.

[8] Joshua B. Kennedy, “Do This! Do That! and Nothing Will Happen”: Executive Orders and Bureaucratic Responsiveness, (American Politics Research, 2014), 60.

[9] Roger Daniels, Milestones in California History: Executive Order #9066 (Feb. 19, 1942), (California History, 1991). 

[10] Exec. Order No. 8807, 3 C.F.R. (1941).

[11] Alex Wellerstein, Patenting the Bomb, (Chicago, Isis, 2008), 65.

[12] Wellerstein, Patenting the Bomb, 66.

[13] Ibid., 66.

[14] David E. Sanger and Maggie Haberman, “50 G.O.P. Officials Warn Donald Trump Would Put Nation’s Security ‘at Risk,'” The New York Times, August 8, 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/09/us/politics/national-security-gop-donald-trump.html.

[15]
 

A Single Payer Healthcare System in the US

Various countries have adopted a various types of health insurance systems to protect their citizens against the financial risks of medical needs and to facilitate easy access to appropriate medical care. Broadly health insurance systems are classified into: single-payer and multiple-payer systems. In single-payer systems, one organization-typically the government-collects and pools revenues and purchases health services for the entire population, while in multiple-payer systems several organizations carry out these roles for specific segments of the population.

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Usually the term Single-Payer is used to describe a type of financing system. In the case of health care, a single-payer system would be an entity like a government run non-profit organization which would collect all health care fees, and pay out all health care costs. Health care delivery facilities like hospitals, doctors, nurses etc. remains in private hands and patients have guaranteed choice of care from providers. In U.S. Single Payer system is also known as Medicare for All. Single Payer system expands the cost-effectiveness and makes Medicare program more efficient to cover each and everyone in the United States. It creates a single-tiered system that covers all people equally regardless of age, income, employment, or diagnosis. This unified system would promote universal high quality healthcare, because quality of care would have to be kept high enough to be acceptable to all citizens.
U.S. has multi payer healthcare system. The collection of money for healthcare is done by government in the form of taxes from individuals and businesses; and the private insurance agencies in the form of premiums and other payments like co-payment and deductibles. In a similar fashion both agencies deliver the healthcare, private insurance agencies reimburses healthcare providers for the services used by privately insured individuals and government reimburses the healthcare service providers for the services used by publicly insured people like those enrolled in Medicare, Medicaid, SCHIP etc.
It is necessary to distinguish single payer from the ‘Socialized Medicine’ (as in United Kingdom), where the healthcare providing agencies are owned by the government. In single payer system government does not own the healthcare providing facilities. In socialized medicine the government owns the hospitals and the doctors and nurses are paid by the government. Single payer health system is a socialized health insurance system not a socialized medicine. In United States, Medicare can be viewed as a form of socialized health insurance, making it a kind of single payer system, where the doctors are in a private practice and are paid on a fee-for-service basis by the government, but it does not cover the whole population of United States. This kind of system has led to the rationing of healthcare in the country. If a person in capable to afford the care he gets it, and if he cannot afford, he doesn’t get it. According to Institute of Medicine, 18,000 Americans die because they don’t have health insurance. This is called rationing. The reason for this is that our system is not publicly accountable, no one in ultimately responsible for how the system works. In contrast, the Canadian health system in publically accountable so there’s no room for discrepancy, thus the single payer system in Canada is a success.
Currently U.S. healthcare system is expensive, inefficient and ineffective. U.S. spends nearly $8,160 per capita twice as much as other industrialized countries, but yet it is inadequate. Despite this, U.S. leaves 51 million uninsured and many other inadequately covered. U.S. spends more and gets less, reason being its patchwork system of for profit payers. U.S.’s private insures spend nearly one third of every dollar spent for healthcare on administrative costs and on those things that have nothing to do with it, for e.g. billing, marketing, overhead expenses, underwriting, huge profits and exorbitant executive pays. This make United States the most bureaucratic health care systemin the world. Single payer health insurance is the only way to recapture this wasted money. It would save around $400 billion annually, which is enough to provide comprehensive coverage to everyone without paying any extra. Also establishing a single payer health care system would provide a stimulus for the U.S. economy by creating 2.6 million new jobs and infusing $317 billion in new business and public revenues with another $100 billion in wages into the U.S. economy (source: Institute for Health & Socio-Economic Policy (IHSP) (2009). Single Payer/Medicare for All: An Economic Stimulus Plan for the Nation).
Peter Shumlin, newly elected governor of Vermont State, formally introduced the proposal of Single payer system in the state by 2014, which appears likely to be passed. If enacted, it will be first system of its kind in U.S. and Vermont will be the first state in U.S. to abolish most forms of private health insurance from the state and de-link health insurance from employment in the state.
However, the single-payer system also has some disadvantages that may make it unattractive to some. A single-payer system would lead to a wrenching change and create a huge, faceless bureaucracy. That prospect scares many physicians, even those who dread haggling with insurance companies over treatment for their patients. They also fear the power that would be conferred upon a single payer. The disadvantage that stands as the greatest obstacle to single payer is political in nature. At a time when many people feel that the private sector is better equipped to deliver high quality services to the population, it will be difficult to convince government agencies and politicians that government should take over the role of financing health care, especially when it would mean increased taxation. The government part of healthcare finance is inefficient because it fails to address key policy issues, fraud, and-for Medicaid- complex determination of eligibility. As health-care financing can become be a function of the federal government, it become sensitive to fluctuations in unexpected political climate. Budgetary adjustments in the healthcare system can have serious impacts on the quality of healthcare delivered.
Additionally, since this system virtually eliminates the private insurance companies, these wealthy and influential corporations would do everything in their power to prevent single payer from becoming a reality. The transition from the current health care system to a single payer would undoubtedly be very difficult. Thousands of people who work for private insurance companies would need to be shifted to other sectors of the economy. Though these individuals could be trained to work in the new system, they would still experience a significant change in their lives. More health care providers will be needed, and many insurance clerks can be retrained to enter these fields. Many people now working in the insurance industry are, in fact, already health professionals (e.g. nurses) who will be able to find work in the health care field again. But many insurance and health administrative workers will need a job retraining and placement program. Because of these considerations, most single payer advocates and policy analysts believe that any transition to a single payer system would necessarily be gradual, taking place over the course of many years.
Profits of the pharmaceutical companies will drop because of government’s expanded role in purchasing prescription medication. Speaking for the entire population, the government would be able to negotiate lower prices for drugs, possibly by purchasing in bulk. Health care observers also fear that removing the profit motive from the health care system altogether would stifle investment and innovation in finding new treatments and drugs. If the federal government becomes the only payer, limiting potential profit, companies would be less likely to invest the huge sums necessary up front to develop new drugs and treatments.  Reduction in profits margins for the pharmaceutical companies will lead to less money devoted to research and development and a minor slow down in technological advancement. It is said that money drives innovation, thus weakening or eliminating the profit-motive may cause technological slowdowns throughout the entire medical field.
When the government lowers the price of health care and/or extends health insurance coverage for everyone, more people will want to use more health care services and the government has to find a way to ration care. Rather than rationing the healthcare by charging beneficiaries the full price of health care, they limit the budget of hospitals and physicians. Facing strict budgets that limit the amount of services they can provide, providers do not want anybody to take any of their budgeted dollars.
Another problem of a single-payer system is its reliance on rigid budgets. This will results in the demand for health care exceeding supply that, in turn, leads to rationing available care by forcing people to wait for long periods. That is a big cost and there are plenty of examples in which people in Canada have died while waiting on lists for 6 months to a year. Preventive care will not be promoted more because most of the available resources are allocated to acute or urgent care. In a single-payer system, however, there are limitations on budgets and prices which can limit the tasks performed by providers because no one is going to do additional tasks for which they will not be paid. Also there will be limitation to the ability of nurses to expand their practice in all settings. Under fixed and tight budgets, it will be difficult for the employers to increase wages in response to changing economic conditions. This could result in shortage of nurses, which will eventually negatively affect the willingness of many people to go into the nursing profession as alternative professions become more attractive financially. It is highly likely a single-payer system would lead to de-facto wage controls in the health care system, and the nursing profession would derive little benefit economically in addition to limited opportunities to advance professionally. Also the income disparity between medical specialties will shrink.
Another argument against single payer is that if physicians are paid according to fee-for-service, there may be no incentive for doctors to try and control costs. Earlier, Managed Care became more prominent because physicians were unable to control their costs. Having the government reimburse physicians on a fee-for-service basis may encourage exploitation of the system. Lastly, it may not be easy to change some of the negative perceptions Americans have about a single-payer health care system, long lines, inefficient bureaucracy, restricted choice, and lack of quality care are some of the inaccurate complaints against single-payer systems. Government control of the health care system makes the rationing problem worse as governments attempt to slow the use of services by limiting access to modern medical technology. Under government management, both efficiency and quality of patient care steadily deteriorate.
This primer has endeavored to articulate the nature and advantages of a single payer system. Solutions that achieve universal health care through mechanisms that build on the current system of for-profit employer-based insurance, while potentially beneficial, do not achieve the philosophical purity, administrative simplification, or cost control potential that a single payer system achieves. Single payer, however, has significant potential disadvantages that must be addressed. Although many of the disadvantages can be avoided through proper management of the system (e.g. funding the system at a very high level and insuring adequate capacity), others represent true tradeoffs that the American public must debate in its mind. The time for such debates is now. In the current system, insurance companies have a financial incentive to avoid insuring the people who need it the most, which means that more and more Americans suffer every year. It is only a matter of time before some type of reform takes place, and single payer should be a reform option that should be seriously considered.
 

Issue of Single Sex and Coeducational Physical Education

There has been a constant debate surrounding the idea as to whether or not students would benefit more from a single sex environment or mixed sex environment for education (Mael, 1998). This debate has led to extensive research into this issue whereby some researchers have supported single-sex classes while others have supported mixed-classes – the two nature of classes have been particularly discussed in relation to issues such as socioemotional, academic, as well as interpersonal development (Harker, 2000). The purpose of this study is to investigate whether it is advantageous to run single-sex physical education classes as opposed to coeducational classes, in which case the relationship between several variables will be examined. In addition, the study attempted to delve into the impact of these variables upon the effectiveness of physical education learning for girls. The study involved both qualitative and quantitative study techniques, whereby, a total of 50 female students were interviewed. To collect more information, the researcher repeated this process on 10 female physical education teachers. Questionnaires were designed and administered to both the female students and the teachers, in which case the questions that were asked were both open-ended and closed-ended.

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To ensure informed participation, Cone and Foster (2003) pointed out that it is critical to seek informed consent from the participants and also ensure their confidentiality. In this view, the researcher will ensure that a clear, informed and voluntary agreement is made by the participants (Ellis and Earley, 2006). The kind of informed consent, which will be used in this study, will have to meet specific requirements including a statement that the study is about research, specification of any experimental procedures, a description of the procedures that will be involved, an explanation of the purpose of the research, and details of the expected period of participants’ involvement (http://www.strath.ac.uk, accessed 22.02.2013).
Analysis of the results of the interview presented quantitative variables for establishing the girls’ effectiveness for learning football skills, which was statistically significant, meaning that single-sex environment was preferred. Similarly, the conclusion from the qualitative data was that single-sex physical education environment is a better learning environment,as it offers a more supportive and comfortable environment for girls than a coeducational environment (Elwood and Gipps, 1999).
To review the differences of female participation levels in both single sex PE and mixed sex PE
Introduction
The issue of single-sex and coeducational physical education is a grand debate and has no sign of ending any time soon. Numerous research regarding the pros and cons of coeducational against single-sex has been undertaken in the UK and the world at large, though its results have been largely mixed and unclear (Mael, 1998). In other words, the results of these studies and reviews has been lacking of consistency or strong evidence about the disadvantages and advantages of signal-sex classes over coeducational classes (Mael, 1998). Nevertheless, one of the stronger suggestions is that, when evaluating the effectiveness of either single-sex or coeducational classes, it is important to assess both the social and and the cultural context of the school environment (Smithers and Robinson, 2006). This study is aimed at identifying the all-round debate that concerns the issues of social cultural environment including learning achievement, curriculum design, social issues, and the experience of children in learning physical education among many others.
Historically, the issue of gender and education has led to a perception of schools as crucial roots of fostering development of equal society and social change, whereby a social situation for the women is perceived to be less repressive (Salomone, 2004).
Nevertheless, the approaches to the question of single-sex physical education can be taken from different perspectives. In this regard, some academic sources provide that, in order to prepare women to stand out academically, it is also important to make sure they take part in physical education, a subject which is becoming compulsory in schools around the world (Oloffsson, 2007). Although this can only be successful if issues of structure, and conditions of physical education classes are put into consideration while designing an all inclusive educational curriculum. Unfortunately studies show that it is a constant battle to get girls to even participate in physical education as shown by Evans (2006) who states that 35% of girls do not enjoy PE compered to a mere 17% of boys.
Most importantly, it is argued that girls in single-sex schools can excel academically simply if the lesson is structured to encourage and motivate girls to acquire specific skills, even in areas that are perceived to be male domain, including the sciences (Salomone, 2004). It is also argued that schools should be symbols of equality and environments that can provide students with early knowledge and experiences of gender equality in order to avoid nurturing a society that propagates unequal gender patterns (Warrington and Younger, 2001). In respect to gender equality, the position has been that coeducational classes are a preparation for a society that values gender equality, however it is stated by Hoffman et al. (2008) that females experience gender inequality from a young age as males receive more direct attention from teachers from nursery through secondary school. Nevertheless, provided that gender inequality in most societies is natural, it is important to instill the virtue of gender equality and awareness in the stakeholders including teachers to avoid the reproduction of gender inequity in academic training (Salomone, 2004). The current educational environment focuses on the achievement of qualifications such as GCSE’s and general academic success. However, the educational experience of students throughout their school years must not be ignored.
Many researchers have shown how girls’ experiences within a coeducational PE environment is difficult for them in a number of different ways. For example, it was suggested that teachers intellectually motivated boys and rewarded girls for exhibiting ‘suitable’ feminine characteristics. Evans (2006) also comments to suggests that girls feel self conscious when par taking in physical activity as being ‘sporty’ is not considered to be a desirable feminine trait.
It was also found that the boys had a tendency of dominating the classes, in which case the teachers supported their domination by taking their contributions more seriously than that of the girls. Howe (2001) suggests that this is due to sports being viewed as a ‘man’s’ game possibly resulting in teachers over looking girls contributions. Notably, the tendency of boys to dominate classes does not affect all boys and at the same time some girls are not typically silent, but exhibit the behaviour of boys.
More recent research has shifted focus towards the differences within and between gender groups. The way that students experience schooling is affected by factors such as social class, ethnicity and race; however, the patterns of gender identified in early research is carried on throughout coeducational schools in the present day. This, however, does not mean that the educational system in single-sex environments is entirely positive – thus showing why this study is necessary to explore this rather undisputable issue.
The issues of coeducational and single-sex physical education classes has been largely researched but the long-term social implications have been scarcely studied – this study will explore this aspect in an extensive view. Notably, most of those who support coeducational classes can encourage males and females to work together constructively. In other words, coeducational set ups proponents suggest that the classes should be structured to mirror a ‘real-life’ situation.
In contrast, the proponents of single-sex class argue that, since the female classes do not reflect a ‘real-life’ situation, it is only important to have single-sex classes. In other words, they propose that, since the western societies are male-dominated and since women plays a second fiddle when it come to opportunities, power, and payments amongst other issues – there is a need to separate females and males classes. It is, therefore, important for the students as well as the educators to change this wave of inequality in schools and physical education in particular. Those who have supported single-sex have maintained that single-sex educational environment can present girls with an opportunity to deliver themselves from the strings of discrimination and get an opportunity to prove that they do not have to play a second fiddle to boys.
The little evidence that has been presented in relation to the long-term social implications of mixed and single-sex physical education classes has not shown any significant discrepancies in regards to personal development differences between males and females in coeducational and single-sex environments. However, on overall, more questions have been left unanswered in respect to this issue. Therefore, this study investigated whether it is advantageous to run single-sex physical education classes as opposed to coeducational classes, in which case the relationship between several variables was examined. In addition, the study attempted to establish the impact of these variables upon the effectiveness of physical education learning for girls.
Literature review
A mixed-gender Physical Education (PE) has sparked a lot of argument amongst many stakeholders including researchers and educators (Issues, 1999), most of whom are interested in promoting the learning environment for the females so they can be educated effectively just like the male students (Carpenter & Acosta, 2001). Many of those who have studied this area have thought that integration of male and females during PE lessons would remove the problem of discrimination since both genders would receive similar instructions as well as the curricular content (Griffin, 1983). However, many other researchers have contradicted this observation because they found that mixing girls and boys during PE lessons did not amount to equitable treatment for girls (Chepyator-Thomson & Ennis, 1997; Derry & Phillips, 2002; Hutchinson, 1995).
In a qualitative study conducted by Griffin (1983; 1984), integration of both genders during physical education was presented as neither conducive nor equitable for girls and some boys. The capacity of girls to learn in such environments was inhibited by the behaviuor of boys including display of physical contact, verbal harassment and taking of girls’ turns (Griffin, 1983). On the other hand, girls did not inhibit the performance of boys and actually opted to stay away from them (Griffin, 1983). Another highly influential factor that affected the mixed-gender classes is the manner in which boys controls the activities during the PE classes, hence rendering the girls more or less inactive (Chepyator-Thomson & Ennis, 1997; Derry & Phillips, 2002). Furthermore, girls have a tendency of losing enthusiasm during interaction with their peers in the course of physical education – this makes them to develop a fearing attitude and a negative feeling towards the interactive physical activity, which in effect reduces their level of participation (Kunesh, Hasbrook, & Lewthwaite, 1992). Furthermore, the settings of physical education classes are important in shaping the attitudes of girls towards participating in physical education.
Researchers such as Sallis and McKenzie (1991) have agreed that the participation in physical education, by adolescents, is largely influenced by positive learning experiences. Research studies have also disclosed that girls are increasingly ending their participation in physical activities at the high school level (Jaffee and Ricker, 1993; Douthitt, 1994). The level of girls’ participation in physical activities is influenced by factors such as self-esteem, level of enjoyment, the time of engaging in learning, perceived athletic competence, and the health benefits gained by taking part in the physical activities (Brustad, 1993; Jaffee & Manzer, 1992).
The debate by different researchers regarding the suitability of mixed-gender PE has been highlighted by many researchers, with Koca (2009) reporting that many researchers have found that mixed-gender PE provides an opportunity for the learners to interact socially and share positive ideas. However, on the flip side of the coin, the likes of Olafson (2002) supported an argument that the perceived social interactions during mixed-gender PE classes is the same factor that makes adolescent girls to avoid taking part in the coeducational classes. In a study conducted by Treanor, Graber, Housner and Wiegand (1998), which aimed at interviewing the students to find their opinion regarding the best approach to physical education; that is, the one between coeducation or single sex physical education is better and most suitable. The findings of this study were that a majority of the students prefers single-sex classes over the mixed-gender classes. Nonetheless, Treanor, et al. (1998) noted that the views of the students alone could not be relied upon to resolve that single -sex classes are the most suitable for middle school physical education especially because their views are biased and lack any credible ground. Although most of the students implied that their preference for single-sex classes was based on issues such as better behaviuor, more practice time, less fear of injury and better competition, most of their opinions was not subject to their personal conviction, but on gender-bias attitudes. Derry (2002) echoed the findings of Treanor et al by supporting that an awesome 75% of the students interviewed pointed out single-sex classes as their preferred mode of classes. Derry (2002) also added that 84% of the girls that participated in single-sex physical education classes maintained that they liked such an environment and would like to continue with it next time.
Ideally, it is known that as students approach their adolescent age, they become less physically active. This problem has been cited as the major determining factor in the attitude of students before they enter the adolescent age and after they are past the adolescent age (Harmon & Ratliff, 2005). The results as presented by Harmon & Ratliff (2005) shown that the percentage of girls who are active in physical exercises decreased from 31% in the 9th grade to 17% in the 12th grade. Similary, Treanor, et al. (1998) found that males have a relatively high level of participation in physical education in all the three middle school grades. To add to this, Felton et al. (2005) found that 45% of the 12th grade girls and 67% of the 9th grade girls were found to take part in an energetic physical activity – about 20 minutes for at least three days per week.
Whitlock (2008) disclosed that indeed adolescence is a stage of dramatic change and hence it is a period that a young girls undergoes a lot of hardships. In this stage, girls undergo a dynamic and developmental life when they make very important decisions regarding their typical behaviours such as physical activity, diets, use of tobacco and alcohol, and participation in social activity among other aspects of life that shapes their health and wellbeing up to the time they become adults (Whitlock, 2008). Essentially, developmental changes, under which the young adolescent girls undergo a traumatic experience, cause them a lot of trouble – for example, because of sexual harassments and incidents of upsetting remarks that is common in environments of mixed-education (Derry & Phillips, 2004). Some of these facts were affirmed in Olafson’s (2002), where one of the girl’s reveled that , “like they don’t know the emotional pain they cause when they call you bad names” (p. 2). This student was complaining about the way she is usually offended my the male students who use offensive names when referring to girls.
Olafson (2002) found that the tendency of girls to skip physical education is mainly because they have an attitude that such activities are totally embarrassing. The reason for this is because the girls kept complaining that the boys used offensive language and insulted them severally hence they would rather keep off such activities. Olafson also realised that the girls behaved in a strange manner in order to avoid attending the PE classes, including presenting notes from their parents claiming that they have been told not to attend PE classes, refusing to put on gym outfit, and skipping classes altogether.
The male students have been found to mock girls in respect to their body type and also putting them, something that really annoys girls. Constantinou, Manson, & Silverman’s (2009) studied the behaviuor of girls when attending physical education classes and found that boys show no regards to the girls’ abilities but rather belittle and disrespect them. Actually, they found that the offensive acts that were perpetrated to humiliate girls were not common amongst the boys themselves.
Several studies have associated self-esteem with physical education – It has been suggested that thegirls’s participation in physical activities is largely as a result of self esteem. Eriksson, Nordqvist, and Rasmussen (2008) defines self esteem as the extent to which individuals like themselves as persons. A commonly determining factors of the girls’ self-esteem when they are in their adolescent age includes their body type and size – this determines whether their self -esteem is positive or negative. Some of the female students in Olafson (2002) claimed that they avoid physical activities at school because they have a negative feeling towards showcasing their bodies especially in front of male students. In fact, it has been found that girls who participate in physical education lessons struggle to improve the outlook of their body so they can have the kind of body type and image that they perceive to be perfect. The girl’s were found to have perfected an image of favorable body types in their minds and also observed to have developed a habitual tendency of evaluating the body of their peers through constant gazes (Olafson, 2002). It was ideally learnt that girls were expected to be always in control, to be graceful, and generally to be able to do at least all things. It was expected the girls should stay composed even if they got injured in the course of the physical exercises. When girls accidentally got injuries in the their face and looked funny, the boys mocked and looked down upon them (Olafson 2002).
Besides being offended based on the way girls appear, the studies have also found that the nature of boys including their competitive behaviuor and body size is a significant factor that turn off girls during coeducational classes. Derry (2002) found that boys were very domineering during physical education and this was causing girls to reduce their level of participation. According to girls, boys have the habit of taking over everything in coeducational classes. A case in point is whereby boys have the perception that girls are less capable of doing things and hence always find themselves taking charge of everything (Derry, 2009). This concept is also found in Derry (2009) whereby a girl that was interviewed claimed that she did not like playing with boys because if she is given a chance to enter the pitch with them, she can hardly get a chance to touch the ball. On the other hand, the comments of teachers regarding this issue show that boys look down upon girls and have a perception that physical education is too competitive for them to take part (Koca, 2009).
Furthermore, girls are intimidated by the physical size and strength of boys. They also do not like their aggressive and intimidating attitude (Derry, 2002). Despite the degrading manner in which girls are treated by boys, Constantinou, et al. (2009) found that girls have a conviction that they are ‘competitive’ and ‘athletic.’ Constantinou, et al. (2009) added that the female students who believe they are athletic feel comfortable participating in physical activities together with boys because, as they said, this makes physical learning a fun and an interesting experience. Their findings were echoed by Olafson (2002) who agreed to the fact that they had fun in physical learning.
In summary, there are study findings that have revealed that coeducational physical education is advantageous,, but at the same time there are other studies that have supported the idea that physical education should be based on single-sex. Generally, the students who were asked about their opinion regarding coeducational physical education, maintain that positive interaction with the other gender is the main advantage (Osborne, et al. 2002). Additionally, it is believed that coeducational environment promotes exchange of diverse ideas from both genders; but overall, the studies show that the majority of the students supports single-sex physical education (Osborne, et al).
Methodology
This study interviewed a total of 50 female students, 25 of whom will come from coeducational classes and the last 25 will come from single-sex physical education classes. The students that were selected to participate in the study had to be in the age bracket of 12 and 15 years and within school years 7 and 9. The female participants were asked a series of open-ended and semi-structured questions regarding their personal physical education experiences. To gather more information, the researcher repeated this process on 10 female physical education teachers, 5 of whom came from single-sex classes and 5 from coeducational classes. Throughout the interview, an audiotape was used to record the conversation and later transcribed for analysis. In order to supplement the audio interview with observable features, the researcher videotaped the proceedings with a camera. The study included 4 different secondary schools two of which were single sex physical education and the other two were coeducational. To identify common themes, different categories were identified and grouped depending on the nature of the ideas, and henceforth the frequency counts were computed and responses were coded. Any information that was of no use was discarded appropriately.
To ensure informed participation, Cone and Foster (2003) pointed out that it is critical to seek informed consent from the participants and also ensure their confidentiality. In this view, the researcher will ensure that a clear, informed and voluntary agreement is made by the participants (Ellis and Earley, 2006). The kind of informed consent, which will be used in this study, will have to meet specific requirements including a statement that the study is about research, specification of any experimental procedures, a description of the procedures that will be involved, an explanation of the purpose of the research, and details of the expected period of participants’ involvement (http://www.strath.ac.uk/, accessed, 22.02.2013).
Results
As discussed, the research involved both qualitative and quantitative techniques. The hypothesis that collected quantitative data stated that girls in single sex classes achieved significantly higher goals for learning football skills than girls in mixed-sex physical education classes. To achieve this, a questionnaire was adapted from the ‘Fennema and Sherman’s Self-Confidence for Learning Mathematics Scale’ (1976), which was filled out by the students to reveal their opinions regarding their level of learning football skills. This scale is divided into three sub-scales levels that quantify goal achievement, which was categorised into football’s suitability of gender, confidence of learning, and effectiveness of football. To this effect, the researcher identified standard deviations, means, as well as t-test, with the aim of identifying the relevant relationship amongst different variables. Table 1 presents the standard deviations and the means of the sub-scales as derived from the SPSS. On the other hand, the results for the t-Test have been presented in Table 2, this shows the comparison of groupings which was taken after the tests. The total number of the questionnaires completed was 50, 25 from the mixed-sex settings and 25 from the single sex settings. The students answered 15 questions, which were allocated scores ranging from 1 to 4, whereby the highest scale represented the highest confidence level. This has shown that the means and standard deviations from the sub-scales reveal that girls in single-sex settings had a higher achievement of goals for learning football than girls in mixed-sex learning environments.
The results of a t-test of the relationship between girls in mixed-sex settings and effectiveness variables of single sex classes revealed that the 2 groups were significantly different since the p-value for single-sex was higher than that of the mixed-sex
(before-test 0.57From the results of the interviews, the divide was apparent with some students preferring coeducational classes while others preferred single-gender physical education classes. The preference for either of the two PE environments was conducted with the help of a questionnaire and allowing the researcher to analyse the common themes qualitatively. Many of the girls explained that they preferred single-sex classes over mixed-education because they did not like the behaviour of boys who kept domineering and telling the teachers what to do hence causing a lot of trouble. One of the girls who provided this sentiment commented that coeducational PE is an unstable as the teachers are forced to waste a lot of time trying to force discipline into the uncooperative boys. These sentiments are similar to those proposed by Osborne et al. (2002), who observed that the majority of girls dislike the uncooperative nature of boys during coeducational PE classes and linking back to point made by Hoffman et al. (2008) where he stated that boys receive more attention in class than girls.
It may be that these girls have a preference for coeducational classes as they want to prove their abilities and skills to their opposite sex. In this respect, one of the female students maintained that she is good in sports and therefore felt good when sharing a pitch with boys so she could show them that she is also capable of playing football and others sports just like them or even better. Another female student revealed that she hated sharing a pitch with boys because she was worried about her looks, an observation that contrasted with Obsbone et al. (2002) conclusion that girls perform better when soccer is inclusive of both sexes. Koyucu (2010) agrees with this telling us that many young girls a very self conscious about their image, this mainly comes from the media and the way in which they portray many women.
Student’s participation in physical education is ideally dependent on the environment of learning (Derry & Phillips, 2004). The way students partake in the education environment in turn influences factors such as skills development, off-task behaviour, and activity time. One student who supported same-sex PE classes maintained that she did actually learn more when in a single sex environment simply because the instructor does not waste time trying to discipline the errant boys. She added that she concentrated more in single sex classes, and therefore gets a chance to practice what she has been taught. This observation had been echoed by Derry and Phyllips (2004), who noted that students who joined same-sex classes interacted more with teachers and had more time to learn. The interaction in same-sex classes was characterised by more girls approaching their instructors to ask questions than their counterparts in coeducational classes. From the open-ended questions as well as the observable features, it seemed the structure in the PE classes was a great determinant of the way students interacted in classes. Apparently, the students as well as their teachers agreed that the classes are more fulfilling when students have more friends to interact with in the class. In this regards, a female student mentioned that she liked to play football in class when she had many friends to mingle with, because it made football more interesting. Elsewhere, a female student remarked that provided she was friendly to other classmates, she enjoyed working as a team with them because she communicated well with them. Another female student maintained that the majority of the boys were not only bigger, but also stronger than girls and this has caused girls to avoid boys during physical education. The comments of these students amplified those of Derry (2000), which found that girls are usually aware of the high athletic ability exhibited by boys, in addition to their noticeable strength and physical size, which supersedes those of girls.
The differences between boys and girls was ideally a source of intimidation on the part of girls and hence they ignored boys that had bigger body sizes. In regards to class structure and social impact, the students and teachers revealed that the way peers treated each other was a critical factor influencing the way the students interacted. This perception was tied to the expectation set by teachers as well as the nature of the classroom environment. The students that were interviewed seemed to be very much aware of their learning environment as well as the way other people perceive their activities.
Discussion
The quantitative results from this study revealed that the effectiveness of learning football skills for girls in a single-sex environment is better than the girls effectiveness within a coeducational setting. A previous study by Lirgg (1994), has found that the girls in single-sex environments were more confident while learning PE lessons than their mixed-sex counterparts. It was also evident that the students skill levels were positively associated with the type of class. Those girls that were confident of their skills in football cited coeducational environment classes as their preference while the girls that were described as non-authorities identified with single-sex classes.
The information regarding the opinion of girls on the way boys conducted themselves during physical education classes as well as the way the boys viewed their own conduct showed a rather negative side of boys. Many girls maintained that the boys have notoriously made the classes troublesome and were not cooperative at all. As such, the girls lamented that the uncooperative behaviour exhibited by boys was particularly annoying and caused trouble to the class environment. The girls were perturbed by the fact the teacher had to keep on ordering the boys to pay attention during PE classes. Perhaps, the boys could have had an opinion different from that of the girls because, from the review of literature, they do not perceive their conduct as disorderly and considers their behaviour as suitable.
 

The Effects of Single Parenthood on Children’s Academic Outcomes

Single parenthood is not a source of drawback but research on children’s academic outcomes has proved to be the other way round (Olson et al.,1993). In an Atlantic magazine article entitled “Dan Quayle was right,” Whitehead (1993, p.77) viewed the family breakdown connected with the rise in single parent households as “a central cause of many of our most vexing social problems.”

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Evidence from the study conducted by Dornsbusch et al. (1985) indicated that absences and behaviour problems in school are affected by the family structure. Family structure (number of parents and number of siblings) is also said to influence student academic achievement (Manning, 1998; Pong, 1997, 1998). Social psychologists like Sewell and Hauser (1980) believed that social processes in the home is concerned with the family’s influence on the child’s academic behaviours as parental expectations, parenting styles or parent-child communication. Adolescents who live in single parent households have lower grades than those living in intact families (Dornbusch et al., 1987).
Kinard and Reinherz (1984) found that third grade children who live with disrupted families had more attentive problems at school as compared to those who live with never-disrupted families or families that were disrupted when the child was in preschool. The impact of divorce influences the child’s ability to attend school-related tasks. Roberts (1987) claimed that the separation or divorce of their parents leads to a loss of self esteem and rejection by one parent. The school work and behaviour of the children are affected by these changes. The classroom and the teacher act as stabilizing agents in the children’s lives.
Single parent families have become more and more common nowadays, thus, research revealed that children from this type of households will suffer academically as compared to those from two parent families. This difference pertains to several reasons and this study will provide more explanations and research on the detrimental impact that single parenthood has on children’s lives and the society in general. Allison and Furstenberg (1989), Blanchard and Biller (1971), Fowler and Richards (1978), Guidubaldi et al. (1983), Hess and Camara (1979), Santrock (1972), Sciara (1975), Shinn (1978), Sutton-Smith et al. (1968) found that there is a cognitive deficit in performance between children in divorced or fatherless families and those in intact families. Hetherington et al. (1985) stated that boys living with single parents are more likely to show angry aggressive behaviour at school and at home. Guttman et al. (1987) argued that children who have divorced parents have a bad academic performance as compared to those with two parent families. Ratings by parents and teachers that focused on the academic skills of reading, math, and spelling were lower for children from divorced families than those from intact families (Gelbrich & Hare 1989; Guidubaldi 1989).
Moreover, children from divorced homes were more likely than children from intact families to have repeated a grade, to have been referred to a school psychologist for services, and/or to receive special education services (Guidubaldi, Perry & Nastasi 1986; Kinard & Reinherz 1984). From a study conducted by Shreeve et al. (1986), it was found that the performance of children from divorced families were lower than children from intact families when class standings and grade point were compared. McLanahan and Sandefur (1994) and Wallerstein (1991) claimed that the lower test score performance, lower grade point averages and poorer attendance revealed their underachievement. When they were asked about their expectations relating to college, 32 percent of children living in divorced families had ambitions to attend college and 37 percent of children from intact families planned to attend college. As such there was a five percent difference between the two groups. Their lower academic achievement and fewer years of education proved their vulnerability in terms of income and its effect on their lifestyle.
From five longitudinal studies, McLanahan and Sandefur (1994) summarized that nearly 48 to 54 percent of children living in single parent families were enrolled in college and 15 to 20 percent graduate from college. On the other hand, 51 to 61 percent of children living in two parent families enroll in college and 21 to 37 % graduate from college. McLanahan and Sandefur (1994) claimed that divorce leads to the loss of social and economic resources owing to a loss in the household income, residential mobility and meeting with the non-custodial parent. Such drastic changes occurring in the life of a child produce social stress.
The altered family structure has a negative influence on the parent-child relationships and interactions. This leads to behavioural changes in the child. The child’s poor cognitive ability, low achievement at school and social-emotional aspects of his life were reflected in his adjustment to divorce. Also the child’s level of maternal education is decreased.
Divorce is one of the causes of single motherhood but the proportion of children with single mother as a result of out-of-wedlock pregnancy is multiplying. Today, one third of the births are from non married mothers. According to McLanahan et al. (2001), this type of family can have limited human capital and financial resources. A lack of economic resources available in single parent households who are poorer than two-parent families have a negative impact on children’s educational performance (McLanahan, 1958). McLanahan and Sandefur argued that the income of the single parent families and that of the intact families explains the differences in children’s test scores, grades, college enrollment and college graduation. McLanahan conducted studies on the impact that family structure has on high school completion and years of school completed by children by the age of 23. It was found that although the negative effect of living in single parent family was diminished by income for Whites, a small independent effect for both races still prevails.
A similar explanation of the detrimental impact of single parenthood on the academic achievement of children demonstrates the lack of social capital in single-parent families. Coleman (1988) believed that the number of parents in a family indicates the social capital available. Also, he claimed that the amount of time single parents spend with their children promotes fewer interactions with their children than those in two-parent families and so their children are provided with less supportive learning environment, parental finances and education. Brooks-Gunn et al. (1999) discovered that there is a link between family income and children’s attainment.
McLanahan (1985), Milne, Myers, Rosenthal, and Ginsburg (1986) stated that on average, single parent families tend to be low-income families. The importance of the family structure was found to be related to the child outcomes. The amount of money which the single parent invest in his or her children’s studies influence the latter’s’ academic achievement. Single motherhood diminishes the economic resources available to families (McLanahan and Sandefur, 1994; Page and Stevens, 2002) as non-custodial fathers provide less money in their children’s household.
By reducing income and searching for a greater paid job, single mothers increase the time children must spend in household chores and working for pay, which in turn negatively affect their educational achievement and progress (Garfinkel and McLanahan, 1986). As such, family income was found to influence children’s educational aspirations, their status among peers, the extent to which their lives are stable and the insecurity within their family. As such, family income was found to influence children’s educational aspirations, their status among peers, the extent to which their lives are stable and the insecurity within their family.
Becker’s (1965,1981) theory of household production stipulated that the academic attainment of the children is an output of the parent’s income and time and is viewed as a commodity wished by the family. Time spent in the labour market provide income to buy goods and services and combine with non market hours in household production. The parent’s inability to combine these resources leads to under achievement of children. Increased achievement of the children is believed to be increase by additional inputs by the parents. Fleisher (1977) and Leibowitz (1974a,b) argued that educational achievement of children is correlated with parental time, especially of the mother and to inputs of income (Bowles,1972; kiker and Condon, 1981). Time and money act as constraints in all families but there is a limitation of these resources in single parent families. Espenshade (1979) believed that when a two parent family changes to a single parent one, income decreases. Hoffman (1977) claimed that separated or divorced mothers’ economic status declines but on the other hand the status of their male counterparts ameliorates.
Educational attainment of the child is negatively influenced by the limited family income which decreases financial support for further education and enhancing early entry into the job market. Restriction of the time spent with the children comes from the absence of the father. Furstenberg et al. (1983) stipulated that are more likely not to contact their children than seeing them once in 12 months.
Furthermore, the absence of the father promotes the reduction of time the mother is available to the child. Brandwein, Brown and Fox (1974) believed that children living in female headed families are more deprived of their parents because the mothers are forced to engage in time and energy consuming activities. Though the mother do not need to provide time for her husband, her home time inputs in childbearing is decreased because there is a need for her to accomplish the tasks done by the father in two parent families. Robinson (1980) discovered that less time is spent in child rearing practices by single mothers. Single mothers have to devote more time to their job and less to the upbringing of her children than married mothers (Duncan and Hoffman, 1985). As such, the structural difference between having two parents and a single mother negatively affect parenting.
Norton and Glick (1986) found that 60% of American children live in single parent families which lack most of the resources available in a two-parent family especially time and money. It is important to use the resources in the human capital such as the skill, knowledge and abilities of the children. Children living in single parent families suffer from the deprivation of these basic resources, psychological and socioeconomic consequences. The educational attainment is seen to be a long-term socioeconomic outcome. Bane and Ellwood (1983) believed that education either promotes welfare or leads to poverty. Unemployment is determinant of lack of education.
Entwistle et al. (1995) provided other explanations which entails the meager material resources of single parents and the time pressures on them, owing to which they are unable to participate in their children’s schooling. Lower income families have fewer academic materials at home and hence, cannot improvise enrichment outside of school. The single parent’s involvement in the child’s schooling is low, their supervision is lesser and their expectation of the child is lower. Low monetary and non monetary resources justify the lower academic achievement of single parent children compared to those with intact families. A study by Cooksey et al. (1997) revealed that when the statistics of the monetary and nonmonetary resources are controlled, the effect of single parenthood is decreased.
The lower availability of energy and time enhances the single employed mothers to be less available to supervise their children’s activities and schoolworks which leads to the decrease of their academic achievement and hence they will be more negatively influenced by their peers.
L.Hoffman (1986) believed that work takes time and energy away from the family.
As cited in the Book of “Inequality at the starting gate-Social differences in achievement as children begin school” differences in achievement scores of children in literacy and mathematics were found on the basis of race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status and social background.
Differences in children’s test scores were found in terms of race and ethnicity as they begin kindergarten. The cognitive scores of children with the highest SES were 60% above those of the lowest SES even before entering kindergarten. Furthermore, the math achievement was 21 % higher for Whites than Black children and 19% lower for Hispanics.
The family structure and the educational expectations are related to the SES and the children’s test scores.
15% of White children, 54% of black and 27% of Hispanic children live in single parent families. 48% of single parent households are found in the lowest SES quintile.
Factors defining risk or educational disadvantage include race, ethnicity, poverty, single-parent family structure, poorly educated mothers, and limited English proficiency (Natriello et al. 1990).
Natriello et al. (1990) stated that about 40% of school-age children were at risk.
Brewster (1994) and Duncan (1994) conducted studies on neighbourhood effects and found that the family income, percentage of families in poverty and those headed by women contribute to achievement.
O’Hare (1996) claimed that the poverty rate is five times greater than two-parent families with children and is 44% in female headed families with children. Family income influences children’s performance and academic measures.
In the U.S., as in most industrialized societies, education is a key factor for predicting social mobility (Blau & Duncan 1967; Erikson & Goldthorpe 1992; Featherman & Hauser 1978; Sewell & Hauser 1975). From the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Dunifon discovered that children who live with single mothers are exposed to significant declines in their academic achievement. Beller et al. (1992) found that single parent families negatively influence children’s attainment at school; enhance dropping out at school and lower chance of entering college. P.R. Amato and B. Keith (1991) conducted a Meta analysis on children living in divorced families. It was found that children living with a single parent have lower scores on measures of academic performance, conduct, psychological adjustment, self-concept, and social relations compared to those living with two parents. Haveman et al. (2001) claimed that American children with single parents are less likely to graduate from high school than those with two parent families. Lambert (1988) argued that it is appropriate to place children living in single parent families and those who experience family disruption in a special education class. On the other hand, Dunifon claimed that the test scores of children living with single mothers and a grandparent and those living with two parents do not differ.
Research on the SES has revealed that schools with high SES achieve more than those with low SES. Gamoran (1992) and Willms (1992) believed that schools enrolling students from high SES family background provide more efficient learning and higher academic performance.
Studies by Blau and Duncan (1967), Featherman and Hauser (1978) and Freeman (1974) revealed that males from single parent families have done fewer years of schooling than those living with two parents.
Parental involvement acts as an intervening variable to the functioning of the family background which affects academic achievement of children. A range of forms of involvement is analysed as to how they described two measures of academic achievement such as the academic test scores and grades and how they are limited by resources like income, education and time. Involvement in three contexts was examined: the home, community and school.
Many empirical studies have found a positive relationship between parental involvement and student’s academic achievement.(Dornbusch, Ritter, Leiderman, Roberts and Fraleigh (1987)). Parental involvement and encouragement are important influences on academic success. Discussion and encouragement when children are younger also increase the likelihood of their ultimately graduating from high school (Howell and Frese, 1982). Consistency of parental encouragement through the high school years is positively related to attending college, but less predictive of attendance at a twoyear college than a four-year college (Conklin & Dailey, 1981). High school dropouts report less parental monitoring of their activities and less discussion with parents (Ekstrom et al, 1986). Parents of dropouts may express their opposition to dropping out but not take any specific action to help their adolescent stay in school (Mahan & Johnson, 1983). Parental interest may by shown by the presence of “study aids” such as encyclopedias and dictionaries in the home, also related to the likelihood of staying in school (Ekstrom et al, 1986).
Evidence from Ho and Willms’s (1996) study showed that the amount of parental participation in school positively influence the performance of eighth-grade students over the effect of individual parent’s participation.
The negative influence of a single parent family on academic achievement is typical of parent-child relationships in such families. The parent-child relationship that leads to academic achievement reflects parental discipline, control, monitoring, concern, encouragement and consistency. Dornbusch et al. (1987) believed that permissive or strict parenting has a negative impact on children’s grades. Single mothers are more likely to score higher on permissive parenting than two parent families.
Baydar and B.Gunn (1991), Bogenschneider and Steinberg (1994), Bronfenbrenner and Crouter (1982), Gold and Andres (1978), Hoffman (1979) and Milne et al. (1986) found that children-of all ages from preschool through high school, of full-time employed mothers do not perform well at school.
Research conducted by McLanahan (1985) revealed that students are at risk due to the stress of family breakup. Less parental supervision and lower achievement have been linked to the absence of a father. As the father is not present, the mother has to undertake a job and is less likely to be available to supervise her children’s education. Students learn more and perform better at schools that have strong parental involvement (Goldring & Shapira, 1996; Ho & Willms, 1996), emphasize academic success (Lytton & Pyryt, 1998; Zigarelli, 1996) and have a disciplinary climate conductive to teaching and learning (DeBaryshe, Patterson, & Capaldi, 1993; Ma & Willms, 1995). Empirical evidence shows that single parents spend less time in supervising and monitoring their children’s schooling. Single parents, are believed by researches, to have lower educational aspirations and expectations for their children. As Astone and McLanahan stipulated, these aspects lead to negative educational outcomes for those children. Furthermore, research by Drowney in 1994 have found that the parental involvement at school such as attendance at school functions and meetings, providing help in school chores and attending parent-teacher associations have cater for the low academic performance of children living in single mothers. Controlled SES in some studies (S. Lee, 1993) revealed that a lower verbal communication about school matters prevails between single parents and their children.
Single mothers have to devote more time to their job and less to the upbringing of her children than married mothers (Duncan and Hoffman, 1985). As such, the structural difference between having two parents and a single mother negatively affect parenting and thus, children’s schooling. Sigle-Rushton and McLanahan (2004) stated that decreased quantity of parental time with children results in poor socialization, less involvement, less supervision and monitoring and emotional support. Maccoby and Martin (1983) found that children from single mother families are disadvantaged when effective socialization is reinforced by a second person.
However, S. Lee (1993) found a link between the low academic performance and behavioural problems of single-parented children to the low level of acquaintance with the parents of their peers.
Growing up with a single mother results in an ineffective parenting which in turn hurts child outcomes (Astone and McLanahan, 1991; Thomson, McLanahan, and Curtin, 1992). The type of parenting a single mother provides to her children may be due to the disruption that non-marital pregnancy or divorce has on her. Her psychological misbalance may lead to withdrawal, worse parenting or both (Furstenberg and Cherlin, 1991). 
The authoritative parenting style, characterized by warmth, interest and concern along with clear rules and limits, has a positive effect on grades; parenting that is permissive or authoritarian has a negative effect on grades (Dornbusch et al, 1987). Permissive parenting can be motivated by either a permissive, liberal orientation or one that is neglectful and disengaged. The neglectful style has the most negative effects on grades, attitudes towards school, and ability (Lamborn, Mounts, Steinberg, & Dornbusch, 1991). Inconsistency in parenting style exerts the most detrimental effects on academic performance (Steinberg, Brown, Cazmarek, Cider, & Lazarro, n.d.). Parents with more education are more likely to be authoritative and less likely to be permissive or authoritarian. Single mothers score higher on permissive parenting than those in two-parent families and stepparents are more likely to be permissive or authoritarian than parents in two-parent families (Dornbusch et al, 1987). Dornbusch, Ritter, Leiderman, Roberts, and Fraleigh ( 1987) found that parents with authoritative parenting styles have children who receive higher grades
Moreover, studies demonstrated that the mothers’ speech is closely related to children’s vocabulary development. Some studies were based on observing children at home to enquire about family dynamics that are linked to their vocabulary development. Vocabulary development was found to be associated with later academic performance.
One study, in which researchers observed mother-child interactions every month for the first two years of children’s lives, concluded that the elaboration of mothers’ language interactions with their young children was strongly differentiated by social class (Hart and Risley, 1995).
As single parenting involves the mothers moving from richer to poorer communities after marital break ups, the family is disconnected with the community and its resources. Changing schools indicates school failure (Teachman, Paasch, and Carver, 1996).
Cavanagh argued that small proportion of single-father families were found in the data collected in all countries. Children living in single-father families, display more behavioural and academic problems than those in either single-mother or step-families. Walker and Woods (1976) speculated that fathers in general do not much involved in childcare but they do help in other tasks, give emotional support and discipline and act as a role model for the children (Hetherington, 1981). A minority of children receive child support payments which is a small amount from their non-custodial fathers (Furstenberg and Cherlin, 1991). Non-custodial fathers involve less time with their children as compared to married fathers. This include fathers of children born out of wedlock and divorced fathers whose involvement with their children decreases with time (Furstenberg and Cherlin, 1991; Edin and Kefalas, 2005). Fatherless households were assumed to be incomplete and the primary cause of delinquency, poor academic achievement, school drop-outs, and negative relationships with the parents, low self-esteem, sexual promiscuity and welfare dependence.
 

Discrimination in Single Adult Adoption

Discrimination of Single Adults in the Adoption Process: An Interdisciplinary Approach
Introduction
Even though it is legal in all 50 states for a single adult to adopt a child, there is still a negative attitude on placing adoptee children with single adults in the adoption process. This problem exists due to the fact that millions of children remain in the adoption system waiting to be adopted, despite the fact that there are numerous suitable single adults wanting to adopt these children. Since the adoption process is made more difficult for single adults due to discrimination, many children remain without a home.

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There are a large amount of willing single adults in the U.S. that are more than willing to adopt, love and care for the unwanted children in the adoption system. The adoption process is made more difficult for single adults because there is still the common belief that “two heads are better than one”, and that children need to be placed in two parent homes rather than with single adults. If more children in the adoption system can be placed with eligible and loving single adults, then they will have a better chance of having a more stable and successful life.
The discrimination that single parents experience when attempting to adopt an unwanted child requires multiple perspectives in order to be fully discussed. The reason that this is an interdisciplinary problem is because the discrimination of single adults in the adoption process is “too broad and complex to be dealt with adequately by a single discipline or profession (Repko, 2005).
The unwanted children in the adoption system are a huge societal problem that needs to be addressed. It is especially a problem when there a people out there that want to take care of these children. An interdisciplinary approach also needs to be taken because there is not one area or subject that can provide a sufficient solution to this social problem.
The first discipline that will give us a better understanding of this complex social problem would be the Sociology. According to the Journal of the American Planning Association, the structure of family has changed over the last 40 years due to several factors such as, the rising divorce rate, the increase in cohabitating couples and rising unemployment rates.
The nuclear family is no longer the norm and many families are headed by single parents. These factors alone should make the adoption process fair and more acceptable when it comes to single adult homes versus two-parent homes.
The next discipline that can give us a better perspective on the discrimination of single adults in the adoption process would be Economics. If single adults were considered as equal as two parent families in the adoption process then more children can be put into more homes and the financial burden on the state will be greatly reduced. According to the U.S. Department of Labor it is estimated that it cost $124,000- $170,000 to raise a child from birth to age 18 depending on the child.
According to the National Council for Adoption (NCFA), as of 1997 about 100,000 children were in need of a home. That is approximately 2 billion dollars that the government has to pay to care for these unwanted children. If more single adults were allowed to adopt, then that cost can be greatly reduced.
The third discipline that will help in addressing this problem will be Psychology. Children in need of adoption will have a better chance of psychologically wellbeing if they are out in a stable home, even if it is the home of a single adult, rather than them staying in the foster care system waiting on a two-parent home. There is this common belief that “two heads are better than one” when it comes to raising a child, but that may not necessarily be true. A child may have just as equal as a chance of psychological wellbeing in a single adult home as they would in a two-parent home.
Since the very beginning with the very first adoption laws, there have been laws in most states that allow single parents to adopt according to the American Adoption Project. With single parents being eligible to adopt legally there was a negative attitude geared towards single adults in the adoption process especially at the beginning of the twentieth century.
During this time period it was stigmatic to be a single parent whether the child was born out of wedlock or if a single adult was attempting to adopt. According to The Adoption History Project it wasn’t until 1965 that the Los Angeles Bureau of Adoptions made the first organized effort to enlist single parents to adopt children. (www.uoregon.edu/~adoption/topics/singleparentadoptions.htm).
Also according to The Adoption History Project, not only has adoption by single adults has been a growing trend since the 1970’s but approximately one-third of children adopted from the public foster care system and one-quarter of all children with special needs are adopted by single individuals today, but many fewer single adults adopt fewer singles adopt healthy infants domestically or internationally.
The purpose of this paper is to bring to light the ongoing bias that occurs against the numerous amounts of single adults pursuing adoption and hopefully bring an end to the bias against the single adults who want to nurture and provide a loving home for the unwanted children in the foster care system. With 89.6 million singles heading over half of America’s households, according to the 2006 US Census, there should be more have just as equal of an opportunity to adopt a child in need of a home as anyone else.
Background
Discrimination of single adults in the adoption process has a negative impact not only on the children that are in dire need of stable and loving homes, but discrimination of single adults in the adoption process also has a negative impact on the single, potential parents that are ready and willing to provide a home for children that are unwanted by the rest of society. The problem with discriminating against single adults in the adoption process not only alienates a major population in America, but the children in need have a decreased chance at a stable home and end up waiting in the system if no one else adopts them.
As of 2005 there were over 513,000 children in the U.S. that were in some form of foster care. Of those 513,000 children that were in foster care, 114,000, over half being male, were waiting to be adopted; meaning the parental rights of their biological parents had been terminated. Almost 700 of these children were runaways, and the rest were divided amongst government institutions, and foster homes. 23% of the children that were waiting to be adopted had been waiting in the foster care system since they were infants. (Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System, 2005) With two-parent homes being the preference for an adoptee rather over single parents, many of these children age out of the adoption system without ever being placed in a permanent home.
Nearly 20,000 children each year “aged out” of the foster care system or become a legal adults when they turn 18 and are no longer in the care of the foster care system. With these children coming from abusive families, without knowing where they came from at all or without the stability that they need as a child, they can end up becoming unstable adults which can have a negative impact on society. They may not get the help that they need to overcome their unfortunate circumstance, and therefore more likely not to experience stable adulthood also. According to a study conducted on foster children aged out of the system, Aging Out of the Foster Care System: Challenges and Opportunities for the State of Michigan:
Young adults out of foster care are 51 percent more likely to be unemployed, 27 percent more likely to be incarcerated, and 42 percent more likely to be teenage parents, and 25 percent more likely to be homeless. Within four years, 60 percent of them will have had a child (Anderson, 2003)
With the rising numbers of children in the foster care system, the problem of youth ageing out of the system and not succeeding in life will only become worse if nothing is done about it (Anderson, 2003). With them being at a disadvantage during childhood and growing up to a disadvantage in adulthood, these factors can a huge negative impact on society. They may need to be placed on welfare due their higher chance of being unemployed, which will cost the government and taxpayers even more money in addition to the cost of raising them as children.
It also cost money to have them in prison, and support them if they become teenage parents. Making the adoption process fair for single adults increases the likelihood of giving more children in foster care a better childhood, a chance at a successful adulthood, and easing the financial burden on the U.S. Government and its taxpayers.
Giving qualified single adults the opportunity to give these children a better future and loving home and have a positive impact on all of society. With more stable adults coming from stable homes, this decreases the chances of unemployment, teenage pregnancy, and imprisonment.
Imagine growing up in an abusive household or being given up as a baby and not knowing where you came from and being placed in foster care or adoption facility. You may be placed in and out of different foster families throughout your life, but never the permanent and loving home that you need. Some of the foster families you have lived with may have been sufficient, other foster homes have had abusive foster parents, or other children in their care may have abused you also.
You eventually turn 18, a legal adult, and are told to gather all of your belongings so that you can leave. Imagine being forced out of the only home you knew, without knowing a stable home or being taught the basic skills of surviving in the everyday world. This process happens to over 20,000 adults coming out of the foster care system all over the U.S.
It is often wondered why these single adults would want to tie themselves down with children, let alone someone else’s child. It is also wondered why risk adopting a child that comes from an abusive home and has a risk of mental health problems, or why go through with the difficult process as a single adult by competing with two-parent families to adopt a child.
Single adults may be single by no fault of their own or they may choose to be single by choice. Either way, a single adult have the same needs and urges to nurture a child so they pursue parenthood just like any other adult. Single adults that pursue adoption want to love and provide a home for the unwanted children in foster care, even the ones with special needs. It is estimated that 25% of the adoption of children with special needs, are adopted by single adults (Prowler, 1990).
Not only do single adults have to endure negativity to adopt a child from adoption agencies, they may endure criticism from the people that are closest to them. Family and friends of these single adults that are attempting to adopt can be discouraging by telling them to get married first or by telling them that they cannot raise a child on their own.
For many singles, family and friends maybe the biggest obstacle that you have to overcome before even beginning adoption procedures (Prowler, 1990). She also states that single men may have it even tougher when it comes to overcoming obstacles. Their motives are highly questioned and they may get asked intimate questions about their sexuality and their reasoning behind wanting to adopt a child as a single man.
The disciplines that are used to explain this complex, real world problem are Sociology, Economics, and Psychology. Sociology is one of the most important disciplines that will be used to address the problem of discrimination of single adults in the adoption process because the family structure in America has drastically changed the this discipline helps to address this fact. Sociology not only deals with the individual, it deals with family structure also.
The next discipline that is used to address this complex issue would be Economics. Not allowing eligible single adults adopt fairly is hurting the American society financially, and the Economic discipline helps to address this issue. Sociology and Economics are discussed first because they are the more important of all three of the disciplines that are discussed and they have the biggest impact on the groups that are being discussed.
Although Sociology and Economics are the more important disciplines, the complex problem of the discrimination of single adults in the adoption process cannot be fully addressed without discussing the discipline of Psychology, which discusses the mental well-being of the children that are in the foster care system. In order to have a better understanding of the complex issue of discrimination of single adults in the adoption process, we must be able to make use of the interdisciplinary process in order to have a good understanding of this issue.
For this interdisciplinary problem , of the different models that can be used to address the problem, the comprehensive model will be used by giving the information, facts, and conclusion from each discipline in order to fully address the complex problem of discrimination against single adults in the adoption process (Repko, 2005).
References
U.S. Singles: The New Nuclear Family. (2007, May 30). Marketing Charts. Retrieved
February 9, 2008, from http://www.marketingcharts.com/television/us-singles-the-new-nuclear-family-490.
Ellewood, D. (1993). The Changing Structure of American Families. Journal of the
American Planning Association (27) 1, 45-47. Retrieved February 14, 2007, from
Academic Search Complete Database.
Economics
Anderson, G. (2003) Aging Out of the Foster Care System: Challenges and
Opportunities for the State of Michigan. http://www.ippsr.msu.edu/Publications/ARFosterCare.pdf.
Psychology
Additional Sources
Repko, A. (2005). Interdisciplinary Practice: A Student Guide to Research and Writing. Boston, MA: Pearson Custom Publishing.
Prowler, M (1990). Single Parent Adoption: What You Need to Know. National Adoption Center. Retrieved January 26, 2008, http://library.adoption.com/single-parent-
Adoption.
Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System. (2005) The AFCARS Report.
www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb.