Southern Annular Mode (SAM) in Australia

The Southern Annular Mode (SAM) is a naturally occurring mode of atmospheric variability located in the Southern Hemisphere (Pohl & Fauchereau 2011). It is also referred to as the Antarctic Oscillation or High Latitude Mode (Arblaster & Meehl 2006) and is said to be unpredictable. The SAM is generally described as the north-south movement of westerly winds that circle Antarctica, generally dominating the middle to higher latitudes within the Southern Hemisphere (Bureau of Meteorology 2019). When the mid-latitude westerly winds shift poleward, the SAM is characterised as being in the positive phase and when shifted equatorwards, the SAM is characterised as being in the negative phase (Marshall et al. 2018). The SAM has effects on both Australian weather and climate and is an important driver of rainfall and temperature variability (Bureau of Meteorology 2019). It appears that the SAM is sensitive to the increasing greenhouse gas emissions, which may affect the intensity and occurrence of the phases (Arblaster and Meehl 2006). In Australia, the SAM is stronger in the months of December, January and February (Summer) compared to other months (Marshall et al. 2012). How the SAM works and its effect on Australian climate and weather will be discussed in this essay.

How does SAM work?

The Southern Annular Mode occurs on inter-annual timescales, typically lasting 2 weeks (Hendon, Thompson & Wheeler 2007). The SAM is described as being zonally symmetric and is approximately centred at 50S (Ho, Kiem & Verdon-Kidd 2012). Cai et al. (2011) identifies that in the mid-latitudes, if the SAM contains high mean sea level pressure (MSLP), there will be a low MSLP in the high latitudes and vice versa. The circulation of the SAM is fundamentally driven by the uneven heating of the Earth and the energy transport and atmospheric circulations that occur as a result (Ho, Kiem & Verdon-Kidd 2012). Near the equator, the built-up energy results in rising air along the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone as a consequence of surface convergence (Sturman and Tapper 2006). This rising air moves poleward and begins to sink. In the Southern Hemisphere, the descending air forms high pressure systems at the surface. This southward moving air intersects the air moving north from the South Pole resulting in rising air, forming the circumpolar trough (a region of relatively low-pressure surrounding Antarctica) (Ho, Kiem and Verdon-Kidd 2012). Therefore, the regions of high and low pressure characterised by the Southern Annular Mode can fundamentally be explained by the uneven heating of the Earth and its resulting circulations.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

The two phases of the SAM are generally opposites. The positive phase, also known as the high index phase and high polarity phase (Marshall et al. 2012) can be defined as lower than normal pressures in the polar regions and high pressure in the mid-latitudes (Ho, Kiem & Verdon-Kidd 2012), enhancing the westerly winds 55- 60 latitude (Risbey et al. 2009). This phase is an indicator of the strengthening of the circumpolar vortex and is associated with the storm track shifting towards the South Pole (Marshall 2003). Conversely, the negative phase, is defined as the increased westerly winds expanding towards the equator and consequently a stronger low-pressure system over southern Australia (Bureau of Meteorology 2019). This results in the storm track shifting towards southern Australia (Marshall et al. 2018). These phases can be seen in figure 1.

Figure 1. The positive and negative phases of the SAM (Agriculture Victoria 2017)

How SAM effects weather in Australia

When the SAM is prevalent, associated weather patterns occur, which are different for each phase, location and season. Affected weather events can include rainfall, extreme heat events, storms, extra-tropical cyclones, cold fronts and westerly and easterly winds (Meneghini, Simmonds & Smith 2007). According to Gillett, Kell & Jones (2006), during the positive phase, the weather is generally warmer and drier than normal between 40-60S, significantly over Tasmania and south-eastern Australia. This is due to the location of the descending air, as well as the positive sea level pressure anomalies occurring during this phase. The warming is more noticeable during the Australian summer, which can be explained by the larger amounts of solar radiation being received at this time as well as clearer skies. However, north of 40S, there is evidence of significant cooling in Australia during the positive phase, which has been explained to be due to enhanced cloud cover and weak irregular ascent in the region (Gillett, Kell & Jones 2006).

Similarly, Hendon, Thompson & Wheeler (2007) also mention this cooling and explains that its effect is largest during the Australian spring and summer. The opposite is said to occur during the negative phase (cooler temperatures in Tasmania and parts of southern Australia, and warmer temperatures north of 40S (Gillett, Kell & Jones 2006). These maximum and minimum temperature differences between each phase are seen in figure 2 and figure 3 for each season, highlighting affected areas.

Figure 2. Composite daily maximum temperature differences between phases of the SAM (Hendon, Thompson & Wheeler 2007)

Figure 3. Composite daily minimum temperature differences between phases of the SAM (Hendon, Thompson & Wheeler 2007)

Furthermore, the likelihood of extreme heat events is reduced during the positive phase and enhanced during the negative phase in most of Australia (Marshall et al. 2014).

Gillett, Kell & Jones (2006) also discuss the rainfall patterns associated with each phase. During the positive phase, the occurrence of precipitation decreases over Tasmania, the extreme southeast and southwest and anomalously increases over the rest of Australia (Pui et al. 2012). The opposite occurs during the negative phase.  These irregular weather patterns can have implications for weather forecasting, as the SAM is not very predictable (Marshall et al. 2012). The increased rainfall patterns over eastern Australia that are associated with the positive phase can be explained by the abnormal easterly winds, enhancing moisture advection from the ocean and hence increasing rainfall (Hendon, Thompson & Wheeler 2007). Using daily recordings over a 30-year period, Hendon, Thompson & Wheeler (2007) found that 10-15% of the weekly rainfall variance in Australia is explained by variations in the SAM. In general, during the SAM, regions that have a decrease in maximum temperature, also experience an increase in precipitation and vice versa. Raut, Jakob & Reeder (2014) identified that the positive phase of the SAM can produce up to 5 times the rainfall in some situations. Pui et al. (2012) further found that the largest increase in the occurrence of rainfall during the positive phase occurs along the east coast, which can also be explained by the irregular easterly winds also mentioned by Hendon, Thompson & Wheeler (2007). Both studies also found the same pattern during the positive phase in the southern part of Australia, where there was a reduction in precipitation, especially during the period of June-August and is attributed to the reduction of the westerly winds towards the poles.  Overall it can be seen that as the SAM only lasts for short periods of time, weather is affected in the form of temperature and precipitation variations.

How SAM effects climate in Australia

Similar to how the SAM affects Australian weather, the effect on the climate varies between each phase and the time of year.  The main point mentioned throughout most of the literature suggests that the SAM has a trend towards its positive phase (Pohl & Fauchereau 2011, Arblaster & Meehl 2006, Hendon, Thompson & Wheeler 2007). Pohl and Fauchereau (2011) found that this trend began in the 1960s and that the SAM has a seasonal peak in December. Arblaster and Meehl (2006) found that the reason for this positive trend is related to the changes in the ozone and increase in greenhouse gases and suggested that this trend has been observed in the second half of the twentieth century, consistent with Pohl and Fauchereau (2011). This positive trend has an effect on Australia’s climate due to its peak during summer and its persistent (reoccurring) positive phase each year. This pattern means there is a cooling of most of Australia and warming of southern Australia, including Tasmania in the summer months. Hendon, Thompson & Wheeler (2007) however found that since about 1980, the SAM has caused an overall cooling trend of maximum temperatures by 0.2C per year in parts of eastern Australia. Similarly, Cai et al. (2011) found that the maximum temperatures in eastern Australia have levelled relative to the lasting positive trend, supporting the findings of Hendon, Thompson & Wheeler (2007). Along with a change in temperature climate comes a change in Australia’s precipitation climate.

Meneghini, Simmonds & Smith (2007) found that summer rainfall is above average in south-west western Australia. Gillett, Kell & Jones (2006) and Cai & Cowan (2006) both found that the positive phase is also associated with decreased winter rainfall. This trend has been found to be linked to the recent (winter) droughts in south-west Western Australia (SWWA) and south-east Australia (Ho, Kiem & Verdon-Kidd 2012). Cai & Cowan (2006) concluded that the winter rainfall reduction in SWWA and its relationship with the SAM explains 67% of the long-term decline. However, this contradicts the findings of Meneghini, Simmonds & Smith (2007), who concluded that these long-term reductions were unlikely to be due to the patterns in the SAM. Similarly, Feng et al. (2010) questioned if there was a link between the SAM and the SWWA trend in rainfall. They identified that this relationship was only important when there was an extremely wet year coupled with a negative SAM (the year of 1964). The difference between these findings could be due to the use of numerous indices to measure the SAM, limiting reliable data.

Cai et al. (2011) found a relationship between below average winter rainfall in SWWA in 2010, which occurred along with the highest recorded positive SAM value. Raut, Jakob & Reeder (2014) found that winter rainfall in south-west Australia decreased by 10-20% since the 1970s and summer precipitation in inland Australia has increased by 40-50%. Hendon, Thompson and Wheeler (2007) found the same trends as Meneghini, Simmonds & Smith (2007) during the summer periods from 1979-2005. Specifically including increased rainfall in eastern Tasmania and south-east Australia and a decrease over western Tasmania during the summer. Meneghini et al. (2007) found that generally the SAM has been linked to wetter than average summers in south-east Australia and eastern Tasmania and drier summers in western Tasmania, constant with the findings of Hendon, Thompson and Wheeler (2007). Figure 4 highlights how the SAM affects rainfall patterns for each season. It can be seen that the largest rainfall anomalies occur during winter (decrease) and summer (increase).

Figure 4. Composite daily rainfall and 850 hPa winds for the difference between the phases of the SAM for each season (Hendon, Thompson & Wheeler 2007)

From these findings, we can conclude that the SAM does affect most of Australia’s climate in conjunction with the upward trend in the positive phase. These effects are largest in the summer and winter months., especially in the southern parts of Australia. During the summer months, southern Australia’s climate (including eastern Tasmania) has become wetter and warmer and in winter, the climate in these regions is drier, contributing to long-term droughts in some regions (upon debate).

Conclusion

Over daily/weekly timescales it can be seen that generally the positive (negative) phase is associated with increased (decreased) precipitation and decreased (increased) maximum temperatures in most of Australia and a decrease (increase) in precipitation and an increase (decrease) in maximum temperatures in southern extremities of Australia. Due to the upward trend in the positive phase of the SAM, there has been significant effects on Australia’s climate including a wetter and warmer summer and a drier winter in southern parts of Australia. However, these affects are still uncertain due to the differences in numerous SAM indices. Therefore, from these studies it can be concluded that the SAM affects weather frequently, depending on its phase and over longer time scales can affect Australia’s climate due to its upward trend associated with global warming.

References

Agriculture Victoria 2017, SAM, online image, viewed 4 May 2019, http://agriculture.vic.gov.au/agriculture/weather-and-climate/understanding-weather-and-climate/climatedogs/sam

Arblaster, J.M & Meehl, G.A 2006, ‘Contributions of external forcings to Southern Annular Mode trends’, Journal of Climate, vol. 19, pp. 2896-2905.

Australian Government: Bureau of Meteorology 2019, The Southern Annular Mode (SAM), viewed 25 April 2019, http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/enso/history/ln-2010-12/SAM-what.shtml

Cai, W & Cowan, T 2006, ‘SAM and regional rainfall in IPCC AR4 models: Can anthropogenic forcing account for southwest Western Australian winter rainfall reduction’, Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 33.

Cai, W, van Rensch, P, Borlace, S & Cowan, T 2011, ‘Does the Southern Annular Mode contribute to the persistence of the multidecade-long drought over southwest Western Australia?’, Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 38.

Feng, J, Li, J & Li, Y 2010, ‘Is there a relationship between the SAM and southwest Western Australian winter rainfall?’, Journal of Climate, vol. 23, pp. 6082-6089.

Gillett, N.P, Kell, T.D & Jones, P.D 2006, ‘Regional climate impacts of the Southern Annular Mode’, Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 33.

Hendon, H.H, Thompson, D.W & Wheeler, M.C 2007, ‘Australian Rainfall and Surface Temperature Variations Associated with the Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode’, Journal of Climate, vol. 20, pp. 2452-2467.

Ho, M, Kiem, A.S & Verdon-Kidd, D.C 2012, ‘The Southern Annular Mode: a comparison of indices’, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, vol. 16, pp. 967-982.

Marshall, G.J 2003, ‘Trends in the Southern Annular Mode from observations and reanalyses’, Journal of Climate, vol. 16, pp. 4134-4143.

Marshall, A.G, Hudson, D, Wheeler, M.C, Hendon, H.H & Alves, O 2012, ‘Simulation and prediction of the Southern Annular Mode and its influence on Australian intra-seasonal climate in POAMA’, Climate Dynamics, vol. 38, pp. 2483-2502.

Marshall, A.G. Hudson, D, Wheeler, M.C, Alves, O, Hendon, H.H, Pook, M.J & Risbey, J.S 2014, ‘Intra-seasonal drivers of extreme heat over Australia in observations and POAMA-2’, Climate Dynamics, vol. 43, pp. 1915-1937.

Marshall, A.G, Hemer, M.A, Hendon, H.H & McInnes, K.L 2018, ‘Southern Annular Mode impacts in global ocean surface waves’, Ocean Modelling, vol. 129, pp. 58-74.

Meneghini, B, Simmonds, I & Smith, I.N 2007, ‘Association between Australian rainfall and the Southern Annular Mode’, International Journal of Climatology, vol. 27, pp. 109-121.

Pohl, B & Fauchereau, N 2011, ‘The Southern Annular Mode seen through weather regimes’, Journal of Climate, vol. 25, pp. 3336-3354.

Pui, A, Sharma, A, Santoso, A & Westra, S 2012, ‘Impact of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, Indian Ocean Dipole and Southern Annular Mode on daily to subdaily rainfall characteristics in East Australia’ Monthly Weather Review, vol. 140, pp.1665-1682.

Raut, B.A, Jakob, C & Reeder, M.J 2014, ‘Rainfall changes over southwestern Australia and their relationship to the Southern Annular Mode and ENSO’, Journal of Climate, vol. 27, pp. 5801-5814.

Risbey, J.S, Pook, M.J, McIntosh, P.C, Wheeler, M.C & Hendon, H.H 2009, ‘On the remote drivers of rainfall variability in Australia’, Monthly Weather Review, vol. 137, pp. 3233-3253.

Sturman, A.P & Tapper, N.J 1996, The weather and climate of Australia and New Zealand, Oxford University Press, New York.

 

History of Slavery in the Southern USA

The Changing (Inland) South: Slavery and Plantation Agriculture
The Southern part of the United States has a unique history that includes European settlements, institution of slavery and a legacy of Confederacy during the Civil War. The rich past of this region has helped develop a distinct set of customs, beliefs and life styles. Slavery began in the United States in the early 16th Century soon after the English landed in Virginia (Birdsall et al, 2005). They started out by using Native Americans, however, since they were in their homeland and knew the terrain considerably well they would escape easily. Thus, they found it easier and profitable to sell them to plantations in the Caribbean. During this time, the labor needs of the colonies were rapidly increasing and to meet these demands they turned to importing African slaves. They were not introduced to the South in large amounts however they eventually began to play an important role in the social environment and organization.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

From around 1619 to 1865, people of African descent were legally imported by a majority of whites in the Southern United States (Berlin, 1993). Slavery spread rapidly in the American colonies where they began passing laws that regulated slave relations. By 1770, approximately 40% of the total population in the South were slaves and the highest number were found in South Carolina (Berlin, 1993). At the end of the 17th Century, there were a number of colonies that were growing. Much of the population were in the North-Eastern and middle colonies where the Southern colonies of Virginia, Maryland and the Carolinas were rural frontier land. The economy of the South was mainly based on agriculture at this time and wealthy families formed plantations since they saw great opportunity (Bailey, 1994). The main reason for importing these slaves was to use them as laborers on the plantations, which are large farms where crops such as cotton, tobacco and rice grow. In addition, they were used for clearing forests, craft workers, nurses and house servants. Initially, most of the crops grown in the upper South states of North Carolina, Virginia and Maryland were tobacco and the lower South states of Georgia and South Carolina grew rice (Bonacich, 1975).
The tobacco leaf was imported from the West Indies where it thrived in the heat of Virginian lowlands and changed the colony’s whole economy (Berlin, 1993). Tobacco growing changed from small farms in an area to a colony that was composed of large scale farms and plantations because tobacco wasn’t profitable when it was produced in a small scale. Over time the growing of tobacco created a problem since much of the soil’s nutrients were depleted quite quickly so the farmers were forced to push westward. In addition, a limited amount of slaves went to the North in wheat producing states such as New York, however the climate and the soil restricted the development of agriculture and thus the slaves were not needed in this region (Bonacich, 1975). Charleston, South Carolina was the main town for trading in the South since it provided a port for the English ships to bring in products. The Southern colonies exported rice, cotton, tobacco and imported slaves and sugar (Berlin, 1993).
Another type of crop that was cultivated in the South was rice which originated from Madagascar and was brought in by the Spanish at the beginning of the 18th Century (Berlin, 1993). Due to the slaves having prior knowledge of rice culture, many cultivators took advantage of this by importing them to work at the many rice plantations in Georgetown, Savannah and Charleston. The plantation owners learned several new techniques from the slaves that included how to flood the fields and dyke the marshes (Kolchin, 2007). There was an increase in popularity and profitability of rice cultivation when the rice mill, where water was used to power the mill, was invented by Jonathan Lucas. Rice cultivation has continued to be an important type of agriculture in Arkansas, Louisiana and Texas since the mid 19th Century (Wikipedia, 2007). Following the late 17th century, the North and South started to diverge in economies. The South was emphasizing more on exporting their crops whereas the North was more on food production. The upper colonies of Virginia and North Carolina were established in tobacco production and the lower colonies of Georgia and South Carolina were focused on rice production (Bonacich, 1975). In addition, much of the South did not go through the industrialization like the North did and it remained mostly rural. In 1860 there were only five southern cities that had more than 50,000 people (Kolchin, 2007).
By the beginning of the 19th century there was an expansion of slavery that occurred all along the United States. This was because of the invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney in 1793 (Bailey, 1994). It was an efficient machine that was used to separate the fiber from the cotton seed allowing the cultivators to plant a variety of cotton that was well suited for the soil in the South. Since the demands for cotton increased and the tools made it easier to do produce, many of the farmers were attracted to it in the South. The only catch was that it was still an intensive labor process so the slaves were used and cotton production spread westward to Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana (Kolchin, 2007). From 1790 to 1860 around one million slaves were moved to the West either with their masters or they were sold directly to the planters by seaboard states. The amount of cotton that was produced till the Civil War in Southern United States was around 2,275 million tons (Bailey, 1994).
When slavery was abolished in the North in 1830, it began a revolutionary era which divided the United States into the slavery South and the free North. Although a majority of Southern families did not own slaves since the proportion declined from 1830 to 1860, the people still believed in the essence of slavery (Kolchin, 2007). One of the main reasons this war started was to end the Southern slavery, however, the south wanted to protect slavery as they thought it would lead to economic destruction if it was banned (Bonacich, 1975). President Abraham Lincoln did not put forward federal laws against slavery where it was taking place but instead he wanted to arrest any further spread of it. In the late 1850s the South feared that they would lose control of the government to antislavery and the North feared that the slave power was already controlling the government which led to a crisis. In the end, the American Civil War took place, from 1861 to 1865, in which there was a conflict between the United States of America or the Union and the Confederate States of America (Wikipedia, 2007). As the war went on the, the North was very strong in abolishing slavery and on January 1st, 1863, the 13th Amendment to the Constitution ended the long battle and slavery finally ended. It was ratified by three-fourths of the states and formally declared in effect on December 18th, 1965 (Kolchin, 2007).
Since the South was the wealthiest part of the United States, the region suffered a great deal during the twelve year reconstruction period after the war. The Confederate states lost around two-thirds of their wealth during the war along with the many slaves who were now free (Kolchin, 2007). Also, more than a half of the farming machinery was destroyed and the livestock were killed. During this time, the North and South began to debate the future of the black Americans resulting in many political battles. Thousands of blacks who were landless and poor left the South to newer territories that had been open in the West. In 1879, there was a migration called Exoduster Movement in which around 20,000 blacks from Louisiana and Mississippi left for Kansas, Nebraska and Colorado, establishing a number of all-black towns (Kolchin, 2007). Many found jobs as plant farmers and mine workers. However, despite the ratification of the Amendments to the Constitution, black Americans failed to win full equal rights and as the 20th century began, a majority of them stayed in the South living a very segregated life. Today, the South is disadvantaged financially since after the Civil War, the entire economy of the region was ruined (Birdsall et al, 2005). There were no laborers to work in the fields of the plantations which resulted in owners abandoning there farms and being sent into poverty. The South also didn’t have many industrialized businesses thus many southerners had no where to work and no source of income. Poverty still exists in some areas such as West Virginia, Appalachia and the Black Belt (Wikipedia, 2007).
In all we can see that the South has significantly changed from the 17th century to the 19th century. The issue of importing African slaves who were used as laborers on the plantations was quite beneficial for the economy, however, over time it showed how disastrous it was to the region due to Civil War. The successful plantations allowed the south to export many agricultural products such as rice, tobacco and cotton. The money that was collected over the many years of exporting products in the South was gone when the Civil War began. The results of the war included a division of the North and South, division in the black and whites and poverty in the whole region.
References

Bailey, R., 1994. “The Other Side of Slavery: Black Labor, Cotton, and Textile Industrialization in the Great Britain and the United States”. Agricultural History, 68:2, 35-50.
Berlin, I. (1993). “Cultivation and Culture: Labor and the Shaping of Slave Life in the Americas”. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.
Birdsall, S.S., Malinowski, J.C., Palka, E.J., Price M.L. (2005). Regional Landscapes of the United States and Canada. Australia: John Wiley & Sons.
Bonacich, E., 1975. “Abolition, the Extension of Slavery, and the Position of Free Blacks: A study of Split Labor Markets in the United States, 1830-1863.” The American Journal of Sociology, 81:3, 601-628.
Kolchin, P. (2007). “Slavery in the United States”. Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved November 21, 2007, from http://encarta.msn.com

 

Treaty Negotiations of Indigenous Sites in Southern Ontario

In Ontario, there are currently 205 reserves and 9 First Nation settlements where the people of the 126 First Nations live. As of 2016, there were 210 159 registered First Nations that lived in Ontario. Nearly half of these people lived on reserves. There are a number of First Nations who reside in Ontario but are not registered. Therefore, in reality, there were hundreds of additional First Nations residing in Ontario. The reserves were held by different groups of First Nations including the Ojibwe, Cree, and Haudenosaunee, as well as Algonquin, Delaware, Iroquois, Odawa, and Potawatomi in Southern Ontario. Many people today refer to the Ojibwa as the Anishnaabe, meaning “the people”. Anishnaabe communities hold the majority of the reserves in Ontario and the largest reserve population is the Six Nations of the Grand River (Hele, K., 2019).

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

Most First Nations people spoke either the Algonquian or Iroquoian language, which have both been passed down and are still spoken today. Cree and Ojibwa are both in the Algonquian linguistic family and Mohawk and Oneida are in the Iroquoian linguistic family. Both languages, however, are very similar with only minor differences. The Mississaugas speak a very similar language to the Ojibwa, being a part of the Algonquian linguistic family (Rogers, E. & Smith, D., 1994).

There are many significant Indigenous sites in Southern Ontario. One important burial site to the First Nations is in Ipperwash Provincial Park. Burial sites are extremely sacred to the Anishnaabe because of the vital relationship between the Dead and the Living. It is the job of the Living to ensure that the Dead are respectfully buried in a place where they will be protected from disturbance where they can be visited by the Living. Additionally, the dead is buried without a coffin so there is not disconnect between them and the soil from the Earth. This is partially why their land is so important to them, because their ancestors are present everywhere in their land. This relationship and tradition is a vital and sacred part of the Indigenous culture. The burial site at Ipperwash Provincial Park was very sacred to the Mohawks as it marked their traditional territory. It was threatened when there were plans to turn the site into a golf course. Rather than accepting that their land was being stripped away from them, the Mohawks fought for their sacred territory. After years of fighting for their land and the burial site where their ancestors lie, the government stepped in and bought the land to benefit the Mohawks. This cancelled the plans for construction of the golf course, protecting the burial site in Ipperwash Provincial Park. This was an extremely important accomplishment as they were able to keep their tradition and sacred relationship between the Dead and the Living (Aboriginal Burial and Heritage Sites, 2006)

 Another significant Indigenous site is the Memorial park trail that begins at the mouth of the Credit River and extends through water and sacred islands. This trail is important as it represents the First Nations’ hunting and fishing rights on both land and through water. It is a representation of the spiritual journey of the First Nations people as they collect sacred plants from the woodland, like sage, sweetgrass, tobacco and cedar. All four of the sacred plants of the First Nations are very versatile. Sage can be used for healing, calming, and purifying. Sweetgrass is used for braiding, basket making and in ceremonies. Tobacco is used during rituals at important stages of life like birth, marriage and death. Cedar can be used as an anti-inflammatory or cleaning. These four plants can also be used together to promote positive energy. Therefore, the importance of the Memorial park trail is evident through the presence of these four sacred plants. The trail also connects to the Celebration/gathering Island where First Nations perform ceremonies near their ancestors’ burial ground. The trail encompasses the most important elements of the Indigenous culture from sacred plants to hunting and fishing in the Credit River. It is also a representation of the land that belonged to the First Nations and its importance to their culture (Ahmed, A. & Cooke, S., 2014).

Land has always been a sacred and important part of the Indigenous culture. The history of Aboriginal culture is embedded into the Earth for archeologists to discover. There is a strong connection between First Nations and their land; it is where they are born, where they live and where they will die. They are one with the Earth, which is why their land is so important to them. Their history lies within the Earth through artifacts, documents, maps and memories.

Aboriginal culture has changed through history but one of the things that remained constant is their connection to their land and its importance to them. There is a presumption that First Nations have lost some of their culture or history but they have retained traditional knowledge that has been passed down through generations. Their land is sacred and when they use something given to them by the land they make use of all of it with no waste. To ensure they do not waste anything, they only take what is needed; they will not hunt or fish for more than they need and will not gather extra for storage. In addition, everything they got from their land had multiple uses, especially their four sacred plants.

Indigenous people feel a great connection to their land. In addition to living through their land, they also die with their land. This demonstrates the relationship between the Dead and the Living. The Living buries the Dead in the ground with a direct connection to the soil. This provides a deeper relationship between the Living and their land due to the connection between the Earth and their ancestors who have been buried in the soil. Thus, an eternal connection to the Earth is an eternal connection to their ancestors. This further increases the importance of their land. This made it extremely difficult when the Indigenous people had their land taken away from them because they lost this connection.

Place making is using certain strengths to create a presence in the community. Indigenous place making was used to restore the Indigenous presence and acknowledgement in Canada. This is important to the First Nations to feel a sense of belonging. If they cannot see a representation of their culture in their environment, there is a lack of connection between their identities and their land. When this happens, there is a lack of belongingness in the community, which is why place making is so important to make Indigenous people present and connected.

Treaties reference natural features of the landscape to mark boundaries for ownership over land. The Royal Proclamation of 1763 recognized the ownership of the First Nations over their lands and stated that only the Crown would be able to purchase First Nations’ lands.

There were several treaties negotiated in the 1700’s. The Treaty of Niagara was signed in 1781. The Crown met with 24 First Nations, including the Mississaugas and a 4-mile strip of land that connected Lake Ontario and Lake Erie was given up to the Crown. In 1792, treaty 3, or the Between the Lakes Treaty was signed, which encompassed approximately 3 million acres of land between Lake Ontario and Lake Erie. This was the largest sum of land that the Mississaugas lost to the Crown. 6 years later in 1797, the Brant Tract Treaty, also referred to as treaty 8, was signed. The Crown purchased 3450 acres for the Mohawk Chief Joseph Brant in recognition of his service during the American Revolution. The territory involved in this treaty is now known as Burlington and Oakville. 

In the 1800’s there were numerous additional treaties that were negotiated. The Toronto Purchase Treaty, treaty 13, was negotiated in 1805. The Crown discussed the invalid Toronto purchase from 1787 and purchased 250 800 acres of land. The Mississaugas gained the exclusive right to fish on Etobicoke Creek. A year later, treaty 14 or the Head of the Lake Treaty was arranged. It included a 6 mile stretch of land from the north shore of Lake Ontario to the southwest of the Toronto Purchase, land that is now known as Mississauga and Oakville. The Mississaugas received trade goods and the sole right to fish at the 12 and 16 Mile Creeks as well as the Credit River. The Ajetance treaty, treaty 19, was negotiated in 1818. The territory involved covers approximately 6500 square kilometers, land that is now known as Brampton. It involved 648 000 acres of land that was used for goods. Treaty No. 22 involved the purchase of reserves at 12 and 16 Mile Creeks as well as the northern and southern portions of the Credit River reserve. The proceeds of this purchase were dedicated to education and religious instruction, also known as Residential Schools. However, 200 acres of this land was reserved for a Mississauga village site. Treaty No. 23 involved the central portion of the Credit River reserve, as well as its woods and waters. Both Treaty No. 22 and Treaty No. 23 were negotiated in 1820 (Refer to Figure 1 in the Appendix).

 In the 1900’s, after World War One and Two, the First Nations started to receive compensation for all the land they lost in the 1700’s and 1800’s. The Railway Claim Settlement made the Crown pay a compensation of $289,800 for the loss of First Nation reserves to a railway site. The Toronto Purchase Claim occurred when the Mississaugas of the New Credit First Nations (MNCFN) claimed that the government took more land than what they had agreed upon. In both the Toronto Purchase Claim and the Brant Tract Claim, the MNCFN made a claim against the government, saying the Crown had paid less than what was agreed upon. Over 20 years after the claims were made, a settlement of $145 million was made for the Toronto Purchase and the Brant Tract together.

 Currently, there are 2 major claims by the MNCFN, the Rouge Tract Claim submitted in 2015 and the Mississaugas of the Credit Water Claim submitted in 2016. The Rouge Tract Claim asserts the Aboriginal title to the Rouge River Valley. The Mississaugas of the Credit Water Claim asserts that they have an Aboriginal right to all water, as well as lands under the water and flood plains within their territory. The First Nations are still fighting for their rights after the hardships they have gone through to watch their land be taken away. The Mississauga Accord was signed in 2016 to signify unity and cooperation among the Mississauga Nations. Hopefully, this Accord will allow the First Nations to gain respect and acknowledgement.

References

Aboriginal Burial and Heritage Sites. (2006). In Report of the Ipperwash Inquiry (Vol. 2). Retrieved from https://www.attorneygeneral.jus.gov.on.ca/inquiries/ipperwash/report/vol_2/pdf/E_Vol_2_Full.pdf

Ahmed, A., & Cooke, S. (2014). Recovering The Landscape of The Credit Indian Mission: A Spiritual Journey of the Mississauga First Nation. Architecture, Culture, and Spirituality Symposium, 6. Retrieved from http://www.acsforum.org/symposium2014/papers/AHMED-COOKE.pdf

Hele, K. S. (2019, June 14). Reserves in Ontario. Retrieved from https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/reserves-in-ontario.

Rogers, E. S., & Smith, D. B. (Eds.). (1994). Aboriginal Ontario: Historical Perspectives on the First Nations. Toronto, ON: Dundurn Press Limited.

Treaty Lands & Territory. (2019, April 30). Retrieved from http://mncfn.ca/about-mncfn/treaty-lands-and-territory/.

Appendix

Figure 1: Treaties and the land corresponding to them that involve the Mississaugas of the Credit First Nations (Treaty Lands & Territory, 2019).
 

Project Change, Risk and Opportunity Management of Southern and Northern Bank Merger

Introduction

 

Mergers became common among the industry. Southern bank accepted Northern banks supply of merger. As this merger is within the favor of each the bank expanding their business space to boost the performance by decrease one thing unhealthy the cons of individual firm through the strength of the merging companies and to fight against the merger of their major competitors. The merger of the Northern and Southern bank was formally declared. In additional process of the merger various factors were to be thought of and a correct success arranges of reaching goals was to be developed. This report describes the combination decide to be completed for the merger and therefore the effects of the key selections for the merger taken on the business of the bank. Internal likewise as the external folks that have an interest in an exceedingly project of business were approached for the look of the merger and their result in the general planning is additionally mentioned within the report.

 

Merger Strategy

 

Merger of exceptional organizations that have the identical denatures, however different methods have been a complex technique. Each selection wishes to be exact and calculated because the merger of banks flat helping floor have advantages as well as bad consequences of effects and the result can also be a failure if the approach in not associated with a plan to attain an intention. While lots of nations communicate and speak with each different and prison or regulation primarily based outcomes are the quoted factors stimulating mergers. The manner of accomplishing the goals of the merger ought to help in price reduction, growing more efficient film by introducing a variety of merchandise getting worried with special styles of matters via merger can make extra money and decrease the overall fee of the bank via a reduction in preferred capital, precious issue rationally  (Simon H. Kwan, n.d.). Related to a plan to attain an aim suit is a key element to figure out the achievement of the merger a key element to figure out the achievement of the merger  (YenerAltunbaş, 2008). Management approaches of doing matters should be placed into use in which the feasible elements are surrounding conditions, technologies, group’s structure and size, fulfillment plans of achieving desired to finish and way of life  (Ajibolade, 2013). The achievement ways of achieving dreams need for recognition at the reduction in cost to get admission to the banking services in other regions. For the very last integration plan the key stakeholders (i.e. inner and outside those who are inquisitive about an enterprise of the banks had been communicated. The primary plan becomes mentioned with the those who are interested in an undertaking and reviews approximately what must be done approximately situation considering their place become obtained. Before everything through SWOAT evaluating the strengths and weakness of each the bank had been recognized.

 

Strength of Northern bank    

     Reliable Operations

     Desirable Management Procedure

     Guidelines Of Credit Underwriting

     Skilled Employees At Head Quarters

     Appropriate Loaning Procedure

     Updated It Systems

Weakness of Northern bank

    Lack in marketing and advertising

    Customer offering are not on top of things

    Less skilled personnel in branches

Strengths of Southern bank

     Good in marketing and advertising

     Quality customer services

     Good locations and facilities

     Highly skilled managers at Headquarters

     High skill level employees at headquarter as well as at branches

Weakness of Southern bank

     Lack in good quality daily operations

     Procedure of accounting and auditing are not proper

     Lack in loan approval policy

     Outdated it system

 

Key Decisions

 

Mergers are a few other preferences to reduce the horrible, typical performance with the aid of the strengths of the merging employer (TheodosiosDimopoulos, 2017). Primarily based totally on the strengths and weak point of every the financial institution and evaluating them with every exceptional the nine  key choices associated with an aggregate of diverse topics together that work as one unit have been taken and a plan have become drafted.

Decision on which the integration plan was dependent on were

The percentage of managers laid off

The percentage of employees laid off

Human resources practices

Branch networks

Product portfolios

Process of loan approval

IT systems

Bank name

Period of implementation

The choices were taken in case of saving the general value of merger and cash profits. Taking the branches first there were three options which might be maintaining all of the branches, deliver a purpose for something meaning it’s both banks have branches in some town the exception can be saved or to shut the southern branches on the town having company’s branches. A main financial savings in fee can be achieved by way of shutting the needless branches so rationalizing branches have been the nice decision in order that the first-rate branches maintain.

The layoffs percentages of the managers and employee have been equal for the banks as in keeping with the agreement. It turned into deliberate to lay off 20% of managers and employees in shape, up every pair of items in the order. This decision becomes taken as there may be a reduction in branches and this would additionally filter the skilled professionals and possibilities for newly personals will broaden who can be given earlier schooling for working at the merged surrounding situations. But there was a preventing force by using the folks that inquisitive about an assignment and Elaine Murphy, HR director of Southern bank strongly argues towards this selection as she desired a maximum of her staff to be kept.

Considering the practices of human valuable supply the primary selection became to offer reasons for practices as the Northern practice was expensive via presenting automobiles above 12 grades and to low interest rates for personnel. However, with after the detail discussion and critiques with the person that interested by a task, it was sooner or later changed with the Northern’s practices.

The product file collections of both banks alternate. Both firms have some exact even as some lacking documents series so it turned into decided to rationally the product portfolio and the best of the both could be diagnosed and supplied at the mixed enterprise devices.

A selection of the mortgage approval procedure become to update Southern’s manner with the Northern’s because it was very hard to hold each the process and feature two procedures of a mixed shape. This has additionally stored the general cost to make a new one. Upon getting instances of reactions, responses or data from the people who are interested by a task the plan of keeping became modified to preserving and lay out a brand new method.

Because the IT structures of Southern financial institutions have been now not upgraded it was willing to replace it with Northern or to rationalize both the gadget to bring collectively as one in a single format. However, this changed into going to value so the selections was fixed to rationalize the IT systems.

The call of the bank has wonderful social impact. The people who are inquisitive about a challenge of Southern desired to preserve their bank call. However, there could be no new merchandising of the successful merger of both the banks. So, it turned into determined to offer a new name to the merging commercial enterprise as a NS financial institution. This selection become luxurious as it demanded new signs and labeling, however some fees are very critical and important to be spent for higher business increase.

The overall time for the pulling into the usage of these choices changed in five months due to the fact doing it in less time was high-priced and training packages had been additionally being controlled and achieved for the workforce to get less complicated with the new system. But taking greater time also reduced the money income.

Cultural Differences

 

The difference in subculture performed a large role in taking choices. According to  (Kenneth R.Ahern, 2015) if the merging firms have a varied cultural distinction that reduces the wasting very little at the same time as working or generating of a hit merger. It becomes required for the terms of both the corporations to coordinate after the merger to personal synergies gains. Arguing to this (Page, 2007) states that the probabilities of a success merger will increase if the firms have huge many unique styles of human beings in way of life as this creates new and interesting thoughts and new trouble fixing method.

Fig. 1 Research Model (Florian Bauer, 2016)

To feature to the possible energy invention of latest materials, moving from one area to any other expertise is required  (H. Bresman, 2010), and mixing and interacting the finishing useful things facilitates in a hit invention of recent things  (D.R. King, 2003). Gadgets that proof of each tremendous and poor results of subculture are given via basing on without a doubt seeing matters research  (D. Datta, 1995).(Grotenhuis, 2001) States that to manage and cause human beings of various races, cultures, nationalities to work and live together which separate cultures is a core problem.

Lifestyle is a sensitive concept which has a silent influence over people and it is very hard to measure it in a way that’s close to the fact. Due to this the personals of the merging farmstead to disregard the difficulty which has greater outcomes in destiny to keep away from this (Dixon, 2005) indicates more than two however now not a variety of steps. 1) To make subculture a prime a part of the alternate management 2) Discover the key man or woman who ‘owns’ regulations and behaviors that occur in large business and report them to pinnacle control, time table the problem in everyday organization that promotes conferences. 3) Insist to take subculture as real and measurable and it shouldn’t be rejected while thinks are unclear. 4) To reflect on consideration on the strengths of both the companies and not simplest the weak point. Various consequences are acquired through the based totally on absolutely seeing matters, studies at the influence of M&A at the invention of new things (G. Ahuja, 2001). it’s far very hard to generalize the relation between the invention of recent matters and mergers as the purchases are greater than , however, not a variety of kinds and is approached with one, of a kind combination of various things collectively that work as one unified plan because of unique needed things and functions  (B. Cassiman, 2006).

Change Resistance

 

Merging corporations additionally method that there’s a merger of the two and lots of one-of-a-kind sorts of human cultures. Preventing cultures deliver a large amount of modifications inside the organization which cannot be prevented (Sugandh Kansala, 2014) diagnosed some of the reasons bring the hazard within the organization.

     Changes in gadget of organizations love it system and accounting systems.

     Changes inside the shape after the merger like decentralization and money saving

     Changes in the HR practices like defining new dreams, re-building and enhancing policies and education procedure

     Issues related to cash made due to merger which includes economic loss, reduction in proportion price.

     Government policies are extraordinarily essential factors for changes as the groups want to take guidelines very sensitively

Changes aren’t without problems prevalent in any company and there’s continually resistance in businesses going via merger because of motives like 1) lack of communication the people aren’t made aware of the adjustments in detail and are satisfied for the modification. 2) Confusion and disappointment because of doubtful changes. 3) Placing into use generally carried out and methods resist accepting those new habits as the present are comfortable. 4) Lacking confidence in coping with as the end result of changes is unknown. 5) Source of intellectual worry approximately the changes in his/her position due to the modifications 6) losing importance of modern talents and talents as they’ll be now not in use after M&A.

In the integration plan of the Northern and Southern bank, resistance turned into followed by many key folks that are interested by a venture as their opinions on the plan were terrible on a huge scale. Thoughts which they suppose are really on the motives of the some of these critics had been made like the Head of Retail banking of the Northern financial institution was no longer satisfied as he has released a software to review the procedure of loan approval and as per the plan selection of giving motives for the goods series will waste his efforts. Additionally the HR director of the Northern bank, Hector Rice desired to replace the practices of Southern in place of giving reasons in almost the equal manner, the Southern’s Head of retail Banking Tina Yoshiro and HR director Elaine Murphy have been in opposition to the plan as Tina has not very long ago got here into power and do now not need to lose it even as Murphy turned in towards the layoffs. Ivan Taylor the IT director of the Northern bank changed into an organist since giving motives to the IT systems as he had not very long ago to upgrade them after an extended procedure and desired to remain the identical after the merger.

Stakeholder Analysis

A stakeholder analysis is systematic series and analysis of qualitative and quantitative stakeholder records to decide whose hobby should get prioritized within the challenge. (PMI, 2013a). Stakeholder evaluation is sizeable as Freeman (1984) defines stakeholders can have an effect on whole achievements of a group and stakeholders have the power to be both a chance and again with a company (Gibson, 2000). Therefore, a one of a kind stakeholder evaluation need to be conducted to permit the integration group to pick out the stakeholders with their electricity role, interest, attachment, affect network to set up a powerful mode of conversation and working the purchase components.

Firstly, stakeholders from the 2 banks want to be identified. But, it’s miles important to recollect stakeholders outside the merger manner (Cleland and Ireland, 2006), therefore, stakeholders are recognized as inner and external to the challenge (Capon, 2008) which include their positions and strength.

Northern

Internal

Power /influence (High, medium, low)

Integration plan decisions

Communication preferences

John Pettinger ,CEO

High

Executive tasks(planning, managing and executing tasks)

Phone

Email

Meeting

Luke Stanio,  Head of Retail Banking

Medium

Retail management

Email

Carla Feinberg, Chief Financial Officer 

Medium

Finance

Phone

Email

Hector Rice

HR Director

High

HR sector

Email

Meeting

Ivan Taylor

IT Director

Medium

IT director

Email

Employees

Low

Merging outcomes

Managers

Low

Merging outcomes

Southern

Sue Beckerman, CEO

High

Executive tasks(planning, managing and executing tasks)

Phone

Email

Meeting

Tina Yoshiro

Head of Retail Banking

Medium

Retail management

Email

Meeting

Nick Liang

Head of Corporate Banking

Medium

Corporate tasks

Phone

Elaine Murphy

HR Director

High

HR sector

Phone

Email

Employees

Low

Merging outcomes

Managers

Low

Merging outcomes

External

Bill Johnosn

Fund Director : sunrise pension fund

High

Stakeholder management

Email

Marie Calperra,

Banking Authority

External

Medium

Banking regulations

Email

Patrick Green

CEO: People Power

High

Stakeholder management

Email

Service holders

Low

Merging outcomes

Media

Medium

Financial prospects

Figure 4.1: identification and categorization of stakeholders

Identification of stakeholders with the idea of attachment is huge, because it presents a clear perception that must be dealt in priority based totally, thence, stakeholders are mapped into the number one and secondary stage (Hayes, 2014).

Primary players 

Figure 4.2: Primary stakeholder identification (adopted from Hayes, 2014)

 

 

 

 

 

Secondary player

Figure 4.3: Secondary stakeholder identification (adopted from Hayes, 2014)

 

Stakeholder influence networks

Its miles tough to fulfill all groups of undertaking stakeholders as the venture supporters and opponents can also have different levels of pleasure (Manowong, Ogunlana, 2006), consequently, making have an effect on the community is important as intervene on one stakeholder can generate a dynamic of responses to other stakeholders (Mitchel et al.1997) to convey fine final results. Analyzing the relation and interconnection of the stakeholders the underneath diagram is created to show the manner which stakeholder had to be treated to steer some other.

Figure 4.4:  influence network

Power and influence matrix of stakeholder in the project

Stakeholder can have an impact on every different in multidimensional manner (Capon, 2008, Cleland and Ireland, 2006, Gardiner, 2005), consequently, using strength-hobby grid (Johnson and Scholes 1999, Capon, 2008) stakeholders are mapped within the under matrix.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 4.5: power and influence matrix (Adopted from Mitchell et al. 1997)

Following the matrix, it is important to categorize stakeholders as consistent with their impact and significance within the merging system. The beneath the diagram indicates who need to be treated what importance.

 

KEEP SATISFIED

High

John Pettinger ,CEO

Sue Beckerman, CEO

Bill Johnosn , Fund Director :Sunrise pension fund

Marie Calperra, Banking Authority

Patrick Green, CEO: People Power

INFLUENCE

MANAGE CLOSELY

Luke Stanio,  Head of Retail Banking

Carla Feinberg, Chief Financial Officer

Hector Rice, HR Director

Tina Yoshiro, Head of Retail Banking

Nick Liang, Head of Corporate Banking

Elaine Murphy, HR Director

MONITOR (MINIMUM EFFORT)

Low

 Ivan Taylor, IT Director

Employees

Managers

KEEP INFORMED

Employees

Managers

Service holders

Media

                                  Figure 4.6: Influence of stakeholders 

Power, Legitimacy and Urgency Matrix

 

Legitimacy is the perceived validity to a stake at the same time as energy is the potential to set off, convincer coerces the actions of others. The urgency of Stakeholders is the depth of attention and priority connected to a stake or the diploma to which a claim demands immediate interest. (Johnson et al, 2005). A like stakeholder’s movements can influence other stakeholders; one’s strength can often be defined in relation to their function within the network of other stakeholders. Power, legitimacy and urgency typology determine which stakeholder is the outstanding and who want much less attention.

 

 

 

 

                                                        Figure 4.7:  Stakeholder Typology

(Mitchell et al., 1997)

 

 

 

 

Following the stakeholder typology, stakeholders are classified inclining their electricity, legitimacy and urgency in the beneath diagram.

 

Northern

Stakeholders

PLU

Classification

John Pettinger ,CEO

Power

Chief executive

Definitive stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Key driver of the merging process

Urgency

Set deadline of the merging process

Luke Stanio,  Head of Retail Banking

Power

Head of Retail Banking

Definitive stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Authority to deal with retail management plan

Urgency

Merging without disruption

Carla Feinberg, Chief Financial Officer 

Power

Finance  boss

Dependent  stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Manage financing

Urgency

Maximize profit

Hector Rice

HR Director

Power

HR director

Dependent  stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Manage HR

Urgency

Minimum disruption to HR

Ivan Taylor

IT Director

Power

IT director

Dependent  stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Manage IT

Urgency

Advanced IT installation

Employees

Power

Part of bank

Dependent  stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Legal

Urgency

Jobs

Managers

Power

Part of bank

Dependent  stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Legal

Urgency

Jobs

Southern

Sue Beckerman, CEO

Power

Chief Executive 

Definitive stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Key driver of the merging process

Urgency

Merging with maximum benefit of southern bank

Tina Yoshiro

Head of Retail Banking

Power

Retail boss

Definitive stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Retail management

Urgency

Merging without disruption

Nick Liang

Head of Corporate Banking

Power

Corporate manager

Dependent  stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Authority of corporate plans

Urgency

Maximum profit

Elaine Murphy

HR Director

Power

HR boss

Dependent  stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Managing HR

Urgency

HR integration

Employees

Power

Part of bank

Dependent  stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Legal

Urgency

Jobs

Managers

Power

Part of bank

Dependent  stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Legal

Urgency

Jobs

Bill Johnosn

Fund Director : sunrise pension fund

Power

Key shareholder

Dangerous stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Legal invest

Urgency

Avoid uncertainity

Marie Calperra,

Banking Authority

Power

Bank regulator

Dangerous stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Authority of regulations

Urgency

Legal integration

Patrick Green

CEO: People Power

Power

Key shareholder

Dangerous stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Legal invest

Urgency

Avoid uncertainity

Service holders

Power

Limited

Dormant stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Not defined

Urgency

Service

Media

Power

Influential to people

Discretionary stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Not defined

Urgency

Jobs Layoff facts

Figure 4.8: power, legitimacy and urgency matrix of stakeholders 

 

Key risks may rise from stakeholders and mitigation strategy

To discover dangers a few troubles like: who has a stake in problems, might advantage or be affected, need to be included or now not, has power to dam implementation need to be taken into consideration (Flyvbjerg, 2005). In this merging process, the key risks may also arise like hobby war of the 2 financial institution employees for issues like branch closure, personnel laid off that need to be addressed with mitigation strategy.

 

Decisions

Risks

Mitigation

Percentage of Managers and employees lay off    (15%)

Branch Networks(rationalize)

Unrest from affected employees

Early communication

Compensation

Alternative jobs

Human Resource Practices (rationalize)

Potential conflict between the two banks officials

Set up standard regulation keeping both side satisfied

IT Systems (replaced)

Dissatisfaction from southern

Rationale communication to southern about benefits

            Figure 4.9:  key potential risks and mitigation strategy

 

Communication Plan

 

A powerful communiqué has supplied the proper information to the proper man or woman. Every task is like not anything else inside the global, and it’s far for a quick time frame giving out works to the specialists in order that they have exceptional strategies of communications. For a complicated mission which a large amount of records is to be change higher verbal exchange need to raise the fulfillment ratio. Stakeholders are to be frequently communicated the proper statistics. Three modes of conversation are described via  (Aurangzeab Butt, 2016).

     Push Communication: The clearly connected information is sent to Stakeholders

     Pull Communication: The demanded information is pulled out by stakeholders

     Push and Pull Communication: The information is switched through interactions with the stakeholders

The following is the file of the way the key stakeholder of Northern and Southern bank had been communicated via unique modes like smart phone calls, emails and conferences. The modes of verbal exchange have been decided on primarily based on stakeholder choices and severe importance. The frequency of communiqué relies upon on their have an impact on on the undertaking and their importance in taking key decisions.

Project Governance

 (Müller, 2009) Authority and manage is defined as “the fee device, responsibilities, techniques and policies that permit initiatives to perform organizational goals and assist to increase putting into use, this is within the greatest interest of all stakeholders, internal and external and the agency itself”. It defines the goals of the undertaking, techniques with precious elements and video display units the manner of the undertaking. Authority and manage are the tool to steer the venture till completion. As per (AmrMossalam, 2017) authority and manage focuses mental and physical attempt at the stakeholders, it develops connections the various exclusive levels of the agencies and increase links between the purpose and execution of the success of the organization. It adds higher visibility and control tasks. There are two forms of controlling models suggested by (OsamaShibani, 2017) 1) One-stage board, 2) two-degree Board

Western Model of Corporate Governance

European Model of Corporate Governance

The venture authority and control float have to be from the top management level to down in the direction of the mission degree  (O.J. Klakegg, 2008). The affiliation’s dependent on enterprise for money-based well-being how a big business is managed and run is essential. However to get appropriate company governance isn’t genuinely the examine of cash float, politics and simple capabilities, qualities of ways humans are in an enterprise and markets are involved,  (ACCA, n.d.). They also described the procedure of cost introduction in the following discern:

Lesson Learned

After drafting the preliminary plan and consulting to the stakeholders for the finalization of the plan and processing for the merger a huge no of various evaluations were obtained. At some stage in the method of planning the final integration plan many adjustments have been to be made as per the critiques and necessities of the stakeholders. It is very tough to convince all of the stakeholders and so the important thing stakeholders have to be decided whose critiques must accept priority. Because the plan changed into now not in the favor of the stakeholders’ majority of them had a negative overview. One key lesson found out became that focus ought to no longer be best at the revenue growth, price saving. The maximum influencing stakeholders have to be recognized, and plan ought to be proceeded in accordance with their opinions. Type of communication and its frequency has a crucial function in convincing the stakeholders.

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

 

Aaltonen, K. K. J. O. T., 2008. Stakeholder salience in global projects.. International Journal of Project Management, 26(5), pp. 509-516.

ACCA, n.d. Creating value through governance –towards a new accountability:a consultation. [Online] Available at: http://www.accaglobal.com/content/dam/acca/global/PDF-technical/corporate-governance/tech-tp-cvtg.pdf

Achterkamp MC, V. J., 2008. Investigating the use of the stakeholder. International Journal of Project Management, Volume 26, pp. 749-757.

Ajibolade, S., 2013. Drivers of choice of management accounting system designs in manufacturing companies in Nigeria. Global Journal of Accounting, 3(1), pp. 132-149.

AmrMossalam, M., 2017. Governance model for integrating organizational project management (OPM) with corporate practices. HBRC Journal, 13(3), pp. 302-314.

APouloudi, E., 1997. Stakeholder identification in inter-organizational systems: gaining insights for drug use management systems. European Journal of Information Systems, 6(1), pp. 1-14.

Aurangzeab Butt, M. N. J. S., 2016. Project change stakeholder communication. International Journal of Project Management, Volume 34, pp. 1579-1595.

B. Cassiman, M. U., 2006. M&A and innovation: A coneptual framework, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited Cheltenham.

D. Datta, G. P., 1995. Cross-border acquisitions: An examination of the influence of relatedness and cultural fit on shareholder value creation in U.S. acquiring firms. Management International Review, 35(4), pp. 337-359.

D.R. King, J. C. W. H., 2003. Complementary resources and the exploitation of technological innovations. Journal of Management, 29(4), pp. 589-606.

Dixon, I., 2005. Cultural issues in mergers and acquisitions – Deloitte. [Online] Available at: https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/us/Documents/mergers-acqisitions/us-ma-consulting-cultural-issues-in-ma-010710.pdf

FlorianBauer, K. S., 2016. M&A and innovation: The role of integration and cultural differences—A central European targets perspective. International Business Review, 25(1), pp. 76-86.

Freeman, R. E., 1984. Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. Boston: s.n.

G. Ahuja, R. K., 2001. Technological acquisitions and the innovation performance of acquiring firms: A longitudinal study. Strategic Management Journal, 22(3), pp. 197-220.

Grotenhuis, F., 2001. Marriages between Asian, American, and Dutch corporations: A matter of cultural fit?. Review of Pacific Basin Financial Markets and Policies, 4(2), pp. 203-220.

H. Bresman, J. B. R. N., 2010. Knowledge transfer in international acquisitions. Journal of International Business Studies, 41(1), pp. 5-20.

Kenneth R.Ahern, D. C., 2015. Lost in translation? The effect of cultural values on mergers around the world. Journal of Financial Economics, 117(1), pp. 165-189.

Müller, R., 2009. Project Governance, s.l.: Gower Publishing, Ltd..

O.J. Klakegg, T. W. O. M. H. G., 2008. Governance frameworks for public project development and estimation. Project Management Journal, Volume 39, pp. S27-S42.

OsamaShibani, C. F., 2017. Differences and similaritites between corporate governance principles in Islamic banks and Conventional banks. Research in International Business and Finance, Volume 42, pp. 1005-1010.

Page, S., 2007. Difference: How the Power of Diversity Creates Better Groups, Firms, Schools, and Societies, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Ronald K. Mitchell, B. R. A. D. J. W., 1997. Toward a Theory of Stakeholder Identification and Salience: Defining the Principle of Who and What Really Counts. The Academy of Management Review,, 22(4), pp. 853-886.

Simon H. Kwan, J. A. W., n.d. HIDDEN COST REDUCTIONS IN BANK MERGERS:, s.l.: s.n.

Sugandh Kansala, A. C., 2014. Effective Management Of Change During Merger And. Procedia Economics and Finance , Volume 11, pp. 208-217.

TheodosiosDimopoulos, S., 2017. Merger activity in industry equilibrium. Journal of Financial Economics, 126(1), pp. 220-226.

Wageningen University & Research, n.d. Stakeholder Analysis: Importance/Influence Matrix | Multi-Stakeholder Partnerships. [Online] Available at: http://www.mspguide.org/tool/stakeholder-analysis-importanceinfluence-matrix

YenerAltunbaş, D., 2008. Mergers and acquisitions and bank performance in Europe: The role of strategic similarities. Journal of Economics and Business, 60(3), pp. 204-222.

Association for Project Management. (2012). APM Body of Knowledge (6th ed.). Buckinghamshire: APM Publishing.

Davis, K. (2014). Different stakeholder groups and their perceptions of project success. International Journal of Project Management, 32(2), 189-201.

Flyvbjerg, B. (2005) ‘Policy and planning for large infrastructure projects: problems, causes, cures’, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, 3781, pp. 1 – 32..

Maylor, H. (2010) Project Management. 4th edn. Essex: Pearson Education Limited.

Mitchell, R.K., Agle, B.R., Wood, D.J., 1997. Toward a theory of stakeholder

identification and salience: defining the principle of who and what really

counts. Acad. Manag. Rev. 22 (4), 853–886.

Freeman, R.E., 1984. Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. Pitman,

Boston.Galbraith, J., 1973. Designing Complex Organizations. Addison

Wesley, Reading, MA.

Smith, C. (2006) ‘A tale of an evolving project’, in Hodgson, D. & Cicmil, S. (eds.) Making Projects Critical. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 190-205.

Winch, G. M., Morris, P., & Pinto, J. (2007). Managing project stakeholders. In P. Morris & J. Pinto (Eds.), The Wiley guide to project, program,  and portfolio management (pp. 271-289).

John Hayes,The Theory and Practice of Change Management, 2014, 4th Edition, Palgrave

 

Obesity in the Southern United States

 
Introduction
Obesity has emerged as one of the leading causes of death in the United States of America. In the Bible belt (Southern States) obesity is very common which complicates health and the economy as well as treatment to individuals. Furthermore, obesity in the southern states is a result of culture, economic status and ethnicity. According to Akil (2011), obesity is basically a manifestation of energy imbalance mainly defined as the balance between the consumed energy, by drink as well as food, and the energy expended through physical activity and metabolism. Obesity, which correlates to lifestyle behaviors, can be characterized by reducing levels of physical activity or increased consumption of diets that are energy-dense, or even both. Over the past three decades, the US has witnessed a dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity as well as reports on disparities among the population. With regard to the disparities in the prevalence of diabetes among the US population, the Southern States of the US record the highest obesity rates in the country based on the new report by the Institute for America’s Health. According to the report obesity rates increased in twenty eight states by 2010 with a decline only reported in Washington, DC. Out of the 11 states recording the highest rates, 10 of them are situated in the South, with Mississippi recording the highest rate for six consecutive years (World Health Organization, 2013).
Statement of the problem
There has been an increasing debate and the controversy over the appropriate intervention measures to be taken in order to curb the prevalence of diabetes in the southern states. The issue is whether the government should intervene and take a stand on the daily recommended dietary consumption. For instance, as a response to this and for the very first time, the Southern Obesity Summit, the largest regional obesity prevention unit, held its 7th Annual Southern Obesity Summit in November, 2013, drawing a majority of the participants from the sixteen southern states. Looking at it from a broader cultural perspective, the increased rate of diabetes can be attributed to the lifestyle of the Southerners and their nutrition.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

The high prevalence of obesity in the southern states of the US (the Bible Belt) poses challenges to both the government as well as health institutions. This phenomenon complicates the health and the economic situation of the region as well as the high cost of treatment. As pointed out in Wang and Beydoun (2007), the cost of treatment stood at $ 117 billion annually. Today, the cost has almost tripled (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009). The CDC survey report goes further to indicate that over 30 percent of the population in the Southern States is obese. Studies have shown that obesity in these Southern States is mainly as a result of socio-economic factors, ethnicity, as well as the culture of the Southerners.
Review of Literature
According to the Institute for America’s Health Report (2010), obesity in America in 2008 cost the nation approximately $147 billion in weight-related medical bills that is double the amount in the previous decade. Parham and Scarinci (2007), point out that people with obesity have an annual medical bill of $ 1,429 higher than the normal-weight people. The leading states in the south for obesity rate include: Mississippi (33.8%), Alabama and Tennessee (31 % tie), West Virginia (31.3 %), Louisiana (31.2%), Kentucky (30.5%), Arkansas (30.1%), South Carolina (29.9%), and Michigan (29.4%) tied with North Carolina (29.4%) (United States Census Bureau, 2009).
According to Akil (2011), the higher rate of obesity can be linked to socioeconomic factors such as income, poverty, and unemployment, among others. The study indicates that the higher rates of obesity were recorded among the Southerners as compared to the Northerners. The prevalence was highest in Mississippi, which also recorded the highest level of poverty with 21 percent of its residents living below the poverty line. Alabama and West Virginia, which rank second and third in obesity prevalence rates respectively, are both ranked the fifth poorest (Ezzati, Martin, Skjold, Vander Hoorn, & Murray, 2006). Generally, the south has a poverty rate of 14 percent being the most impoverished part of the country (U. S. Census Bureau, 2009). The income disparities among the population is considered as a contributing factor to this trend in the US and more so in the Southern States. The southerners have limited access to healthy food with little purchasing power.
The cultural lifestyle of the southerners predisposes them to obesity. Southerners enjoy feeding on fried food ranging from chicken, onions, green tomatoes, and pickles, to corn bread. Nutritional educators attribute the increased rate of obesity to the regional feeding habits. This situation is aggravated by poor physical exercise among the Southerners, since it is difficult for them to exercise outdoors when an opportunity arises, it is often hot, at times over 100 degrees, and humid. Furthermore, states such as Mississippi and Tennessee lack abundant sidewalks and have narrow roads, hence jogging and biking becomes hard for them (Wang & Beydoun, 2007).
Nutritional education is a significant contributor to the increased rate of obesity among the residents of the southern states of America. Nutrition educators have put concerted efforts in educating the people on the proper eating and exercise habits (Balluz, Okoro & Mokdad, 2008). The majority of the population feed on junk food, fried food, and do not engage in regular physical exercise, thus predisposing themselves to obesity. For instance, Arkansas passed a body mass index-screening program, in elementary schools to assess weight and then send the results to the parents. Tennessee, on the other hand, encourages schools to purchase fresh ingredients from the local growers. In 2007, the state of Mississippi adopted certain nutritional standards for its school lunches. All these nutritional interventions are taken in a bid to combat this affliction (Powell, Stater, Mirtcheva, Bao & Chaloupka, 2007).
Methods
The study used descriptive survey design where data was collected and analyzed (CDC, 2013). Since it is hard to study the whole population in the southern United States, the research sample was selected using random sampling technique. The following southern states were selected for the study: Mississippi, Oklahoma, Tennessee, and Arkansas. Colorado was also selected in the sample for comparison. The study was mainly qualitative, and qualitative data was collected and analyzed. Data was presented using texts, to describe the prevalence of obesity among the Southern Unites States. This research paper derives from secondary sources, mainly the obesity and obesity-related health studies conducted in the Southern States and the United States at large, and the above stated southern states in particular. Factual data has been retrieved from articles published in Peer Reviewed Health Journals as well as from world fact sheets. The study collected demographic data such as ethnicity, sex and geographic location. Data analysis was done using regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA).
Results and Discussion
The research study found that obesity in the Southern States is exacerbated by inadequate significant policies to address issues of community design, such as suburban sprawl and sidewalks, as well as wider accessibility and affordability of healthy food options including the ‘urban grocery store gap’ (World Health Organization, 2013). The results indicated that there is a correlation between ethnicity and obesity in the southern United States. This high prevalence is mainly attributed to the lifestyle of southerners who mainly feed on fried foods. For instance, in 2004, a study by the University of North Carolina found out that majority of the food-shopping options in most part of the southern region fall under the category of ‘convenient stores’ since traditional grocery stores are situated too far away, hence the aforementioned gap. The lifestyle of Southerners is a predisposing factor to obesity due to their dietary habits. In addition, the high rate of obesity in the southern states is as a result of economic constraints. The majority of the states in the southern region are ranked among the poorest in the country (Ezzati et al, 2006). Colorado recorded the lowest rate of obesity, according to the study results (Akil, 2011). The researcher included Colorado in the study sample so as to check for any disparity and/or offer a comparison. The findings of this study provided a justification for hypothesis that there is a significant relationship between obesity and the Southerner’s nutrition education.
If you’re looking for academic learning material similar to this one, but tailored to your requirements, then our Essay Writing Service for American Students could be the right option for you.
Conclusion
Deriving from the finding of this study it is evident that the rate of diabetes is highest among residents of the southern states of the United States. The causes are mainly attributed to socioeconomic factors, culture and lifestyle, as well as ethnicity. However, the US government has put in place policy measures to combat the affliction. The intervention measures are mainly skewed toward provisional of nutritional education and implementation of poverty reduction strategies. The health status was found to improve with the rise in incomes. The poorer people have a limited access to groceries and health care.
Limitations of the Study
Since it was hard to study all the states in the south, only a few states were selected for the study. Moreover, there could be other predisposing factors for obesity rather than those focused on by the researcher. The demographics of the study also need to be more detailed, the study did not address race and income levels nor did it cover the environment of green space available for exercise within the studies.
Recommendation for further Research
There is need for further research to check for any relationship between obesity and other factors such as education, gender, heredity, climate and age. Similar studies should be extended to other states in the north to establish other causal factors that could be leading to the increased obesity rates in the south as compared to the northern states. Routine (BMI) Body Mass Index calculation, weight, height and blood pressure should be conducted at all routine patient visits. If the BMI is above 85 percentile, initiate farther screening. Obesity warrants immediate attention; consider using the HEAT clinical practice guidelines (McAdams, 2010). The key to battling obesity is prevention in the early stages; this will be led by promoting health eating and exercise to the new generation of youth.
References
Akil, L. (2011). Effects of Socio-economic Factors on obesity rates in four southern states and Colorado. National institute of Health Journal. 21 (1): 58-62.
Balluz, L. S., Okoro, C. A, & Mokdad, A. (2008). Association between selected unhealthy lifestyle factors, body mass index, and chronic health condition among individuals 50 years of age or older, by race /ethnicity. Ethnicity Dis. 18(4):450–457.
CDC, (2013) Health Disparities and Inequalities Report United States. Retrieved on February 20, 2014 from: www.cdc.gov
Ezzati, M., Martin, H., Skjold, S., Vander Hoorn, S. & Murray, C. J. (2006). Trends in national and state-level obesity in the USA after correction for self-report bias: analysis of health surveys. J R Soc Med. 99:250–257.
McAdams, Cynthia (2010). The environment and pediatric overweight: a review for nurse practioners. American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 22 (9), 460-467. Dio 10,1111/j.1745-7599.2010.00537.x
Parham, G. P. & Scarinci, I. C. (2007). Strategies for achieving healthy energy balance among African Americans in the Mississippi Delta. Prev Chronic Dis. 4(4): A97.
Powell, L. M., Stater, S., Mirtcheva, D., Bao, Y. & Chaloupka, F.J. (2007). Food store availability and neighborhood characteristics in the United States. Prev Med. 44(3): 189–195.
The Institute for America’s Health. Retrieved on January 23, 2014 from: www.healthy-america.org
United States Census of Bureau (2009). Cen-Stats Database. Retrieved on January 23, 2014 from: www.censtats.census.gov
Wang. Y., Beydoun, M. A. (2007). The obesity epidemic in the United States—gender, age, socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and geographic characteristics: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Epidemiol Rev. 29:6–28.
Word Health Organization. (2013). Obesity and overweight. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/index.html