Blake Sports Apparel Case Analysis

Blake Sports Apparel and Switch Activewear was once a small manufacturing company that developed sports apparel and accessories using logos of leagues and brands. Founded by Cameron Barker’s father, Blake Sports Apparel and Switch Activewear changed hands after a decade, placing the company in the management of his son Cameron Barker.  Soon after the change in leadership, Barker was determined to grow the company by expanding his clientele. Barker began a partnership with the mid-size brand Cartlock and after, transitioned to the very large company Howell. However, new challenges and problems arose for Blake Sports because of the rapid growth. Several employees were punished and criticized for expressing pressing issues that needed to be addressed in the company. Some of the issues included lack of leadership, communication barriers, secrecy and mistrust, and lack of involvement and interaction.  With these pressing matters brought to light, Barker intern reflected on his own leadership, or lack thereof, and proposed possible solutions that could benefit and improve his team and the company.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

To me, the most pressing problem within this case study is the poor leadership that has been demonstrated throughout the company. Not only CEO Cameron Barker, but the whole Blake Sports executive team failed to provide examples and demonstrate what proper leadership should look like. When asked about their opinions on the leadership within the company, employees went as far as saying that CEO Barker “was described as inspiring, empowering, and talented, for example, but not as a coach to his team. As a self-identified introvert, he admitted to spending little time engaging socially with colleagues” (Groysberg 9). Personally, if I did not have any intimate connection or social interactions with my boss or mangers, I would find it very difficult to grow and further our relationship. By disclosing personal information, you allow yourself to be vulnerable and create a bond of trust. To me, the personal interaction of managers is part of what makes them a good leader. Companies need good personal mangers that can find a balance of work and play, however still being able to construct a since of production and encourage hard work.. Another problem that employees highlighted was the lack of communication in the workplace. In the article, there are several examples of how poor communication is a major issue within the Blake Sports. In one instance, because of lack of communication, employees felt the company was secretly withholding information from them, and not providing critical information needed between the various departments. Information from the case study stated that “the combination of apparent secrecy and the company’s privately held status led employees to question the company’s financial standing and the degree of its profitability” (Groysberg 6).  By withholding information, the employees assumed that the company was in financial trouble, thus hindering their job performance because of the possible financial distraction. Another example of communication problem would be that there was a lack of communication between personnel regarding important information.  Missing deadlines, unacceptable work environment behavior, and task orientation/ deadlines are all things that should be address via face to face or personal communication. As stated in the case analysis, “the deadlines were habitually ignored, which led to otherwise avoidable issues, such as missing shipping dates to customers and although team members did make the effort to attend the check-in meetings, no one set an agenda, so the meetings often ran for an inadequate length of time”(Groysberg 6-7). Perhaps the biggest issue of all in the Blake Sports company was the level of cooperation. Because individuals in the organization were working against each other rather than together, production and shipping slowed and was complicated. Because the employees did not have any team bonding activities or exterior relationship, they were dividing among themselves because of differences. Thus, hindering production because they would compete against each other rather than working together. In the article employees state that “the executive-team members look at one another as competition, not as collaborators” (Groysberg 9-11).

In one’s own reflection, I feel that one of the reasons the company has so many problems is because of the rapid growth that was unexpected. Transitioning from a small company to a large company comes with challenges and difficulties. For instance, you have more employees, thus meaning very different cultures, backgrounds, and values that all must mesh together to work in harmony. Because the company grew and transitioned so quickly, I feel that if they were to implement more guidelines to follow, they could give direct expectations as to what the employees are expected to act and preform to help ensure a smoother transition. I feel that by also making training and employee bonding mandatory, this would ensure that each employee starts off on a clean slate with the companies’ value and expectations as their foundation.  In many large companies such as Amazon, Google, Apple, and now Blake Sports, you need a strong, determined, and respected leader who can intern be an example of what your company represents.  I feel that a CEO is necessary for the face of a company, however having multiple powers of leadership, like a board of directors, is a good, in-depth way to address issues and get various opinions and ideas on how to handle them. I also think that training for managers on how to handle different problem situations that arise would be beneficial to the company, as the managers can provide feedback to the bosses in regard to performance, employee satisfaction, and production. I feel that this solution would also help with the communication drawbacks. I feel that by having weekly or bi-weekly meeting with the head of the company, the employees would feel more involved and interactive. By doing this, you are creating a bond with the employees that suggests that the executives do care about each person. Supporting my idea, the textbooks states that “if employees trust their leaders, they will buy in more readily” (Nelson 200).  In these meetings there should be a timekeeper and secretary to take notes of the meetings. The company could go a step further and publish the notes and future agendas taken at the meetings for those who could not attend or as a reminder. These meetings would set the tone for open information. By having this since of open communication between departments, this leaves no room for secrecy or miscommunication- especially if it is published in a newsletter.

By using Bruce Tuckman’s five-stage model, Cameron Barker could successfully improve the overall environment of Blake Sports Apparel and Switch Activewear. By using this group model, Barker could make the environment fun, productive, and the place people want to work at. The following is a summarized explanation of how the five-stage model works. Forming (stage one) would allow for team members to get to know each other better and acknowledge each other’s values or “ground rules”. Storming (stage two) is the stage in which they will first experience conflict. However, they will also experience and exercise “trustworthiness, emotional comfort, and evaluative acceptance” per the textbook (Nelson 141-142).  Norming (stage three) is when employees begin to settle into their job, having a clearer understanding of their responsibilities and duties.  Preforming (stage four) is the stage in which members are goal oriented and do not have to rely on the directions from a manager/leader.  Adjourning (stage five) the final stage, is when the employees feel accomplished because they have successfully completed the given task at hand.

 Companies that focus on employee training, group activities, and communication are by far the most successful companies with the happiest employees.  By making it your companies’ mission to value, uphold, and instate these three things, you are creating an environment that will thrive. Remember, people don’t quit companies- they quit managers.

Work Cited

Groysberg, Boris and Baden, Katherine C. “Blake Sports Apparel and Switch Activewear: Bringing the Executive Team Together.” Harvard Business School. (2017) p. 1-12. Print.

Nelson, Debra L., and James C. Quick. ORGB5: Organizational Behavior. Cengage Learning, 2017.


Physical Education Essays – School Sports

Physical education has been a central component of the national education system since its first implementation in public schools in the late 19th century. Incorporation of physical activity into schools is believed to offer a range of physical, psychological and social benefits and the
National Curriculumcontains policy, based on research by the British Heart Foundation and independent education researchers, for physical
education and sport promotion amongst the nation’s youth. This policy has generally been effective in helping students increase their physical activity
levels and meet national guidelines. However, this policy is lacking in some ways and metrics for evaluating the success of the region’s physical education
programme are somewhat limited. The purpose of this essay is to review existing evidence regarding physical education in schools. The
benefits of physical activity for children will first be considered, followed by a review of the National Curriculum’s policy on physical education. The
efficacy of this policy will then be discussed, highlighting any evidence evaluating this relationship. Limitations to existing policy will then be
presented, and recommendations for future research and practice will be provided. This essay concludes with a brief summary and outline of key points.
Benefits of Physical Activity for Children
The UK public education system had upheld a tradition of physical activity promotion within its schools, as well as recognised the multiple benefits of
regular exercise on educational outcomes. These beliefs are based on empirical research, of which the benefits of physical activity for health and
well-being have been widely documented (see Hills et al., 2011). These benefits appear to impact three broad dimensions of well-being in youth, including
physical, psychological and social dimensions (Metcalf, Henley & Wilkin, 2012). These three dimensions combine to determine an individual’s Quality of
Life (QoL), or an individual’s subjective standard of happiness and general life satisfaction (Hills, Andersen & Byrne, 2011). QoL has become an
increasingly targeted outcome variable in public health and medical interventions due to its strong correlation with physical health (Hills et al., 2011).
Numerous empirical studies (e.g., Marmot et al., 2012; Metcalf et al., 2012) have demonstrated that improved QoL is associated with reduced disease and
illness, as well as reduced healthcare costs associated with treating such conditions. Including physical education in schools has, therefore, been
recognised as a productive means of promoting exercise and healthy lifestyle habits from a young age (Hills et al., 2011).
A recent review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness for school-aged youth demonstrated that even moderate amounts of daily exercise led
to numerous positive outcomes amongst youth population members (Janssen & Le Blanc, 2010). Based on a review of 86 papers yielding 113 intervention
outcomes, this study demonstrated that physical activity was associated with moderate-to-strong positive effects on blood cholesterol, blood pressure,
metabolic syndrome, obesity, bone density, psychological depression and physical injury (Janssen & Le Blanc, 2010). Furthermore, physical activity was
associated with a dose-response effect, whereby children who received more exercise experienced greater benefit (Janssen & Le Blanc, 2010). Finally,
this study demonstrated that exercise of vigorous intensities yielded greater benefits, while aerobic activities were associated with the strongest effect
on bone density. Based on these findings, it was recommended that children aged 5 to 17 years old accumulate at least 60 minutes daily of
moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (Janssen & LeBlanc, 2010).
Furthermore, Level 2 students are believed to benefit from even higher exercise intensities, while all children in this age group should continue to
include weight-bearing and resistance training activities that promote bone and muscular strength (Janssen & Le Blanc, 2010). An increasing body of
research has demonstrated the positive effects of more vigorous exercise intensities, and health professionals and sports scientists alike are
incorporating high-intensity interval training into their program designs (Janssen & Le Blanc, 2010).
These findings confirm several previous studies (e.g., Craggs et al., 2011; Metcalf et al., 2012) regarding the positive physical effects of physical
activity for physical outcomes, and Janssen and LeBlanc’s (2010) physical activity recommendations provide more rigorous guidelines than those of the
National Health Service NHS (2013). Physical activity is also associated with social benefits that can improve QoL in children (Hills et al., 2011). From
an early age, physical activity plays a key role in the socialisation process of young students, who engage in play activities as a means of understanding social dynamics such as observation, modelling, sharing, social reciprocity, social exchange, gender roles and more (Brockman et al.,
2011). As children reach later stages of their academic careers, involvement in sports and non-competitive activities serve as a key social outlet for
children to continue to understand social processes and develop social skills needed to function in both the academic and professional environment (Hills
et al., 2011). Continuing to encourage the ‘play’ aspect of physical activity appears to be an important means by whichto ensure
continued participation and prevent the natural decline in physical activity that typically occurs around the ages of 10 to 11 (Brockman et al., 2011).
Finally, physical activity offers psychological benefits, both with respect to general affect and cognitive capacity (Craggs et al., 2011). A recent review
of physical activity interventions for American children (i.e., Tomporowski, Lamnbourne & Okumura, 2011) demonstrated that consistent exercise of
moderate-to-vigorous intensities was effective for promoting emotional and intellectual development. Exercise is particularly effective for enhancing
executive functioning (Tomporowski et al., 2011). Biddle and Asare (2011) performed a similar review of physical activity studies with British children,
demonstrating that physical activity had strong positive effects on reducing depression, with a small effect shown for reducing anxiety. However,
interventions conducted specifically with children from the UK remain somewhat limited, with authors finding just nine interventions that met inclusion
criteria (Biddle & Asare, 2011). Findings related to improved cognition within these children as a result of physical activity are somewhat
inconsistent, although there is some evidence (e.g., Craggs et al., 2011) of improved cognitive performance and academic achievement resulting from
physical activity of various modalities. Although the physiological route by which these benefits take place is not fully understood, the effects of
exercise on cognitive functioning may result from the release of neurochemicals, such as serotonin and dopamine, that regulate mood and clarify cognitive
processes (Craggs et al., 2011). These activities may also enhance self-efficacy for physical activity, an affective state that may transfer to cognitive
activities as well (Best, 2010). As technology develops, research is expected to match physical activity designs with benefits (Craggs et al., 2011).
National Curriculum’s Policy on Physical Education
Due to the extensive documentation of the benefits of physical activity, the National Curriculum has implemented policy on physical education for more than
one century (Bouchard, Blair & Haskell, 2012. A new National Curriculum is currently being designed for UK schools that will allow for more flexibility
in programme design and offers a slimmer framework (Association for Physical Education, 2014). However, concepts from the former policy will still be
incorporated into the new framework, including basic outlines for educational principles at key stages of learning and development. The policy currently
segregates physical activity needs for students in Key Stages 1 and 2 versus those in Key Stages 3 and 4 (Gov.UK, 2013). However, the policy recognises
that high-quality physical education is needed to promote full psychological, social and physical development, and the National Curriculum encourages
engagement in sports and physical activities throughout all stages (Gov.UK, 2013). Furthermore, the curriculum assesses competency in physical activities,
rather than just participation, in order to ensure that students know and apply skills learned within physical education courses and incorporates physical
activity into their daily lives (Bouchard et al., 2012).
At Key Stage 1, the National Curriculum recommends that students “develop fundamental movement skills, become increasing competent and confident and access
a broad range of opportunities to extend their agility, balance, and coordination, individually and with others” (Gov.UK, 2013 p. 1). During this stage,
pupils are encouraged to engage in both competition and non-competitive activities and become involved in increasingly challenging activities (Gov.UK,
2013). Finally, pupils within this stage are encouraged to learn basic movement skills that promote coordination and development of general motor programs,
participate in team games, and perform activities that require simpler movement patterns (Gov.UK, 2013).
At Key Stage 2, the National Curriculum recommends that students “continue to apply and develop a broader range of skills, learning how to use them in
different ways and to link them to make actions and sequences of movement” (Gov.UK, 2013, p. 1). The National Curriculum encourages students to participate
in activities that promote communication, collaboration, and the development of self-monitoring and self-evaluation of skills (Gov.UK, 2013). Additionally,
students at this stage are encouraged to increasingly participate in competitive activities, develop flexibility, strength, technique, control and balance
and perform activities with more complex movement patterns (Gov.UK, 2013). Comparing performance against peers and national standards is also recommended
at this stage (Gov.UK, 2013). Swimming and water safety skills are introduced at Key Stage 1 or Key Stage 2.
At Key Stage 3, the National Curriculum recommends that students “build on and embed the physical development and skills learned in Key stages 1 and 2,
become more competent, confident and expert in their techniques, and apply them across different sports and physical activities” (Gov.UK, 2013, p. 1).
During this stage, students are encouraged to use a range of different techniques and methods to compete against opponents, continue to improve performance
based on peers and national standards, take part in increasingly difficult and novel situations, and engage in non-school sport activities (Gov.UK, 2013).
Additionally, educators are encouraged to continue to foster confidence through personal mastery of tasks and improvements in comparison with individual
and national standards (Gov.UK, 2013).
In Key Stage 4, the National Curriculum recommends that students “tackle complex and demanding physical activities” (Gov.UK, 2013, p. 1). At this stage,
students have generally learned to become more independent and have ideally developed self-monitoring skills to continue to direct their own sport and
interest physical activity participation (Gov.UK, 2013). During Key Stage 4, students are taught to develop multiple tactics and strategies to use in
competitive situations, continue to master techniques of chosen sports or activities, take part in adventurous activities that require complex
decision-making, and take part in both school and non-school-related physical activities (Gov.UK, 2013). This curriculum has guided physical education
pedagogy for several years, although recent reform has led to some structural changes that are discussed in more detail below.
Efficacy of National Curriculum Policy
The National Curriculum’s policy on physical education draws from contemporary development research and is believed to offer an efficacious guideline for
individual schools to follow in their programme designs (Standage et al., 2012). As the 2013 policy has been submitted for revision, the 2014 framework is
being implemented to provide even greater freedom and flexibility for schools in their physical education delivery and curriculum model designs (Haerens et
al., 2011). According to the Association for Physical Education (2014), this increased flexibility will be even more evident in primary schools, and places
a higher level of responsibilityon teachers to be experts in their subject matter and pedagogical approach toward physical education
(Association for Physical Education, 2014). Such a policy is hoped to place more power in the hands of educators and schools to include programmes they
believe will be beneficial for their student populous.
Though the National Curriculum is believed to be an efficacious and thorough policy that allows for individuality and creativityon the
part of teachers to understand their own students’ needs, the effects of this policy remain to be seen. The former policy had previously been criticised
for its limited evaluative efforts and sometimes ambiguous effects on key learning outcomes (Evans, 2004). According to a report by Evans (2004), the UK’s
former policy on physical education contained antiquated concepts regarding the development of physical abilities, and argued that the policy promoted
exclusive practices for students less apt toward exercise in some respects.
In a 2005 study related to the former UK physical education policy, Fairclough and Stratton (2005) found that physical education for students aged 11 to 14
was effective for increasing physical activity in students who were of high academic ability, while students of low- to moderate- academic ability did not
increase their physical activity levels in response to physical education programmes. Thorburn, Jess and Atencio (2011) challenged the common conception
that physical education programmes contribute to the well-being of students. Based on a review of Scottish physical education programmes, these authors
concluded that individual curriculums often produced contrasting effects in student such as those found in Fairclough and Stratton’s (2005) research. While
high-achieving students appear to benefit from this curriculum, such policy may promote exclusiveness in students of differing academic abilities (Thorburn
et al., 2011). As a result, physical education may actually detract from the well-being of marginalised student groups.
While studies (e.g., Janssen & LeBlanc, 2010; Standage et al., 2012) have demonstrated that increased physical activity has been associated with
reduced obesity and increased educational outcomes, the precise relationship between physical education policy and these benefits is less clear. Geyer
(2012) criticised former education policy for its strong centralist nature and auditing approach toward education improvements. Therefore, allowing for
greater flexibility amongst individual schools to assess needs and design a curriculum that most effectively meets those needs is believed to be a
significant improvement over former policy (Geyer, 2012). Additional, more stringent evaluative strategies amongst individual schools may allow for less of
an auditing approach toward improving physical education outcomes and more of a proactive approach that anticipates changing needs amongst diverse student
groups (Geyer, 2012).
Limitations to Existing Policy
Though the National Curriculum for physical education is based on evidence and has recognised the widespread benefits of physical activity for UK student
population members, some limitations exist that have warranted changes within the new policy. In addition to the lack of evidence regarding its efficacy,
as well as the centralised and auditory approach toward addressing improvements in the system, the curriculum has been criticised for a lack of clarity and
a lack of awareness by parents and teachers as to how to properly implement existing policy (Haerens et al., 2011). For example, Haerens et al. (2011) showed that many teachers lack a clear understanding of the specific goals and outcomes of the National Curriculum at each Key Stage, or
suggest that these outcomes do not match the needs of their particular institution. This limitation will ideally be addressed by decentralising the new
curriculum and placing more power of design into the hands of teachers within the UK education system (Geyer, 2012).
Additionally, parents have been shown to generally lack awareness about key outcomes associated with each stage of development in UK educational pedagogy
(Kirk, 2014). This is unfortunate, as parents play a pivotal role in regulating the extracurricular activities of children, and their involvement in
promoting physical activity is crucial to capitalising on the inclusion of physical education in schools (Kirk, 2014). Implementation challenges have
plagued previous UK physical education policy, and parents may help overcome this barrier (Zhu, Ennis & Chen, 2011).There have been
contextual constraints among schools limiting fitness science learning in the academic environment, as well as discrepancies in personal values toward
physical education as a key component to a science-based educational program (Zhu et al., 2011). Greater efforts are needed to raise awareness of the
benefits of physical activity to parents in order to gain support for its inclusion and continued participation in schools (Zhu et al., 2011).
The benefits of physical activity for children are clear, and there are obvious societal advantages to promoting regular exercise from an early age
(Standage et al., 2012). As the academic environment represents the most optimal setting in which to promote health and physical activity, a National
Curriculum that includes physical education is crucial to a healthy and productive society (Kirk, 2014). However, improvements must be made in the
individualisation of curricula based on need, as well as efforts to monitor the efficacy of existing policy (Bohn-Gettler & Pellegrini, 2014). Finally,
greater efforts to improve awareness of policy and the benefits of physical activity, particularly amongst parents, are needed in order to ensure national
physical activity guidelines are met (Geyer, 2012).
De-centralising the National Curriculum design and providing more flexibility for individual schools to target specific needs is recommended to promote the
most effective physical educationprogramme for UK students (Geyer, 2012). Individual schools differ in their physical education needs,
and their curriculum designs should reflect this need. Additionally, engaging parents in the design process as well as seeking their support at the school
level may be beneficial in ensuring physical activity behaviours are encouraged in the home environment (Kirk, 2014). Finally, more research is needed that
tracks key metrics related to the efficacy of new National Curriculum policy (Bohn-Gettler & Pellegrini, 2014). For example, the relationship between
physical education implementation and academic outcomes, obesity and QoL would all be beneficial in evaluating the efficacy of physical education policy
(Hills et al., 2011). Such efforts may also help reduce the auditory approach taken in previous policy and encourage a more proactive physical education
The purpose of this paper was to discuss contemporary issues regarding physical education policy within the National Curriculum. The benefits of physical
activity for children were first explored, including psychological, social and physical outcomes. A review of the National Curriculum policy on physical
education was then presented, including former policy and new changes within the 2014 revisions. The efficacy of this policy was then considered, as well
as the limitations. Finally, recommendations for improving existing policy and increasing physical activity rates were discussed. Based on the evidence
presented within this paper, physical activity appears to offer substantial benefits to students and the inclusion of physical education in the National
Curriculum has the potential to offer long-term benefits to society. However, some issues regarding assessment, monitoring, decentralisation of design,
incorporating parent involvement, and taking a more proactive approach toward improvements will all contribute to improved policy in the future.
Implementing more rigorous research and intervention designs will ideally alleviate existing limitations in research surrounding this topic.
Association for Physical Education (2014). National curriculum 2014. [online] Available at: Accessed 14 Oct. 2014.
Best, J. R. (2010). Effects of physical activity on children’s executive function: contributions of experimental research on aerobic exercise. Developmental Review, 30(4), pp. 331-351.
Biddle, S. J. and Asare, M. (2011). Physical activity and mental health in children and adolescents: a review of reviews. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 45. Abstract only. Available at: Accessed 14 Oct.
Bohn-Gettler, C. M. and Pellegrini, A. D. (2014). Justice, conflict and wellbeing. New York: Springer.
Bouchard, C., Blair, S. N. and Haskell, W. (2012). Physical activity and health – 2nd edition. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Brockman, R., Fox, K. R. and Jago, R. (2011). What is the meaning and nature of active play for today’s children in the UK. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act, 8, p. 15.
Craggs, C., Corder, K., van Sluijs, E. M. and Griffin, S. J. (2011). Determinants of change in physical activity in children and adolescents: a systematic
review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 40(6), pp. 645-658
Evans, J. (2004). Making a difference? Education and ability in physical education. European Physical Education Review, 10(1), pp.
Fairclough, S. and Stratton, G. (2005). ‘Physical education makes you fit and healthy’. Physical education’s contribution to young people’s
physical activity levels. Health Education Research, 20(1), pp. 14-23.
Geyer, R. (2012). Can complexity move UK policy beyond ‘Evidence‐Based Policy Making’ and the ‘Audit Culture’? Applying a
‘Complexity Cascade’ to education and health policy. Political Studies, 60(1), pp. 20-43.
Gov.UK (2013). National curriculum in England: physical education programmes of study. [online] Available at:
Accessed 14 Oct. 2014.
Haerens, L., Kirk, D., Cardon, G. and De Bourdeaudhuij, I. (2011). Toward the development of a pedagogical model for health-based physical education. Quest, 63(3), pp. 321-338.
Hills, A. P., Andersen, L. B. and Byrne, N. M. (2011). Physical activity and obesity in children. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 45 (11), pp. 866-870.
Janssen, I. and LeBlanc, A. G. (2010). Review Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 7(40), pp. 1-16.
Kirk, D. (2014). Physical education and curriculum study (Routledge Revivals): a critical introduction. London: Routledge.
Marmot, M., Allen, J., Bell, R., Bloomer, E. and Goldblatt, P. (2012). WHO European review of social determinants of health and the health divide. The Lancet, 380(9846), pp. 1011-1029.
Metcalf, B., Henley, W. and Wilkin, T. (2012). Effectiveness of intervention on physical activity of children: systematic review and meta-analysis of
controlled trials with objectively measured outcomes (EarlyBird 54). BMJ: British Medical Journal, 345. [online] Available at: Accessed 14 Oct. 2014.
National Health Service (2013). Physical activity guidelines for children and young people. [online] Available at: Accessed 14 Oct. 2014.
Standage, M., Gillison, F. B., Ntoumanis, N. and Treasure, D. C. (2012). Predicting students’ physical activity and health-related well-being: a
prospective cross-domain investigation of motivation across school physical education and exercise settings. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2012(34), pp. 37-60.
Thorburn, M., Jess, M. and Atencio, M. (2011). Thinking differently about curriculum: analysing the potential contribution of physical education as part of
‘health and well-being’ during a time of revised curriculum ambitions in Scotland. Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy, 16(4), pp. 383-398.
Tomporowski, P. D., Lambourne, K. and Okumura, M. S. (2011). Physical activity interventions and children’s mental function: an introduction and overview. Preventive Medicine, 52, pp. S3-S9.
Zhu, X., Ennis, C. D. and Chen, A. (2011). Implementation challenges for a constructivist physical education curriculum. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 16(1), pp. 83-99.

Effectiveness Of Sports To Tackle Social Inclusion Physical Education Essay

Traditionally, sport has been seen as a sideline. Something that happens in the part of a newspaper that Government doesnt read. As a result, the public budget for sport has been small and has been distributed with no real strategy or vision. We have struggled to know why we fund it. There has been a feeling that sport is a good thing, but no tangible evidence to show why.
This paper proposes to study the effectiveness of sports orientated initiatives in areas of social inclusion. Currently there exists a host of sports development initiatives to tackle the various issues arriving from social inclusion.
Specifically focus will be with the effect on youth crime figures and quality of life in host neighbourhoods. Operation Reclaim in Glasgow’s East end will be the chosen sports development initiative within a social inclusion zone. It is a relatively new project thus not yet evaluated.
Sport initiatives for the wider community are often used as tools in an attempt to tackle a range of society’s ills. Governments perceive the value of sports initiatives as high and are increasingly investing resources in this area. Programmes are designed to tackle health, crime, education, employment and urban regeneration. As such these programmes are evaluated to gauge effectiveness, to secure further funding and to learn from previous initiatives for the benefit of future endeavours.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

There are currently an extensive range of studies into sports related initiatives as a means to tackling social problems in areas of social inclusion. The relationship between sports development initiatives and crime focuses on two main issues – crime rehabilitation and crime prevention, Operation Reclaim centres on the latter. Research on previous case studies is available and predominantly evaluates the success of a programme by quantitative analysis of crime figures.
Operation Reclaim is an initiative instigated and partially funded by Strathclyde police in conjunction with Culture and Sport Glasgow and Sidekix. Set up to provide the youth of Glasgow’s east end with an opportunity to participate in a structured sports programme and to “Reclaim” the pitches of Glasgow from anti-social activity to recreational use. Police forces throughout the country are looking to sport as a diversionary tactic as some commentators consider that, when compared to the costs of the prosecution and detention process, such programs are good value for money.
The chosen initiative “Operation Reclaim” was established in 2004 by Strathclyde police. Operation Reclaim was designed to “reclaim the pitches of Glasgow” for use of recreational purposes and its broad aims were to;
“Increase participation in physical activity.
Increase opportunities for racial integration.
Break down territorial barriers.
Reduce both youth and racially motivated crimes.
Wider Communities feel safer; less fearful of becoming a victim of crime.
Community Vibrance, Personal Opportunities & Improved Quality of Life for Local Residents.”
(Gallagher, T, Operation Reclaim 2007)
With on going localised gang related violence, crime figures relating to youth and integration of asylum seekers being an issue for the police and surrounding area, the best course of action decided was to pre-empt this disturbance. This social blight on the east end of Glasgow was to be tackled by development through sport – giving youth the opportunity to express themselves through playing games and tackle the boredom that lead to such problems.
“The recreation ground at Red Road was a typical example of these kinds of hot spots across the city . . . Residents just avoided it. There were running battles between kids every night of the week, and people no longer felt safe using it.”
(Special feature, Evening times 12 Oct 2006)
The purpose of this proposal is to validate the success of this sports development initiative, by evaluating Strathclyde police’s success against their own aims for the project.
Literature review
A review of current literature relating to sports development initiatives for social inclusion zones was conducted predominantly through internet journal databases, particularly Athens. provided a useful library of reference materials, mostly these materials related to the period at the turn of the century when social inclusion was at the forefront of the labour governments agenda.
The most comprehensive of existing literature with regards to a holistic approach to studying the issue of social inclusion and the role sport has to play is the Scottish Executive Central Research Unit’s “The role of sport in regenerating deprived areas” (F. Coalter et al, 2000). This study was commissioned jointly by the Scottish office and Sportscotland to explore the role sport has played in the regeneration of urban areas in Scotland and to explore the wider evidence for the assumption that sport can contribute positively to aspects of urban regeneration and social inclusion. Its diverse approach to this concept sees areas such as “potential contribution of sports to physical and mental health, reducing crime, improving educational performance, providing employment, contributing to volunteering and community development, environmental improvements and issues relating to minority ethnic groups” being covered. As Operation Reclaims aims are to tackle crime and social (predominantly racial) integration the aforementioned areas, although insightful, are only in part relative. This document also illustrates other initiatives in case study format, allowing for comparison. It must again be reiterated that operation reclaim focuses on the prevention of crime by preoccupying the subject rather than rehabilitation of an offender.
Social inclusion itself is defined numerously in government policy (with a designated website administrated by the government’s Social Inclusion Unit) both individually and within the context of sports initiatives (PAT 10, 1999, Building on PAT 10, 2001).
“Social inclusion is a label for the issue of when individuals or areas suffer from a combination of linked problems such as unemployment, poor skills, low incomes, poor housing, high crime environments, bad health and family breakdown.” (
The definitions of social exclusion offered by the Cabinet Office and in Social Exclusion: Opening the Door to a Better Scotland both include “living in a high crime environment” which is a key aim for Operation Reclaim. Four policy-related reviews of the potential social value of sport (SportEngland, 1999; Collins et al, 1999; Best, 1999; Department of Culture, Media and Sport,1999) list the prevention of youth crime as an issue to which sports can make a contribution.
Social inclusion is often tackled jointly with economic regeneration of cities or areas within( C, Gratton, I, Henry 2003 , D, Eitzen 2005). This can be attributed (in part) to social inclusion zones being an inevitable byproduct of economic hardship (D, Byrne, 2005).
As shown above there is an issue within conditions in Scotland that lead to neighborhoods being classed as areas of social inclusion. Examples of these conditions being tackled by sport exist but predominantly success is judged by varying standards.
Quantitative and qualitative research method will both be used in the study. Quantitative method will be used to quantify the frequency and percentage of crimes that will be identified. A qualitative method will be employed to ascertain resident’s opinion on operation reclaims social element targets.
Comparative statistical analysis of youth crime and racially motivated crime related figures will be produced using pre and post initiative data (One year into the programme). Youth crime related figures shall be those associated to all crimes committed by persons less than twenty years of age and over eight (eight being the age of criminal responsibility) as defined by Strathclyde police. Primary data shall be ascertained from Strathclyde Police though this shall be validated by findings from The Scottish Executive and Glasgow’s Youth Justice Services. Results of findings shall then be compared to Operation Reclaim’s objectives to gauge the program success by its own aims. These comparative statistical analyses will show the impact that operation reclaim has had in Glasgow’s east end. Results will be shown in bar graph format with the year difference being main heading.
Attendance figures for the activity programme will be provided by Sidekix Ltd as to ascertain the relative percentage of participants in the initiative to general population within social inclusion zone.
A questionnaire (Appendix A) shall be carried out on a cross section of the population living in operation reclaims target zone. Equal numbers of participants shall be sought from each specific sight (i.e. Sighthill, Springburn, Quarrywood, Royston and Red road), 150 questionnaires in total. Subjects shall ideally be from various ethnic backgrounds and age groups to ensure a high level of varied cultural representation.
The questionnaire shall relate to two factors – community ambiance before and after Operation Reclaim. It shall use a series of Likert items to asses the respondents evaluation of a given criteria. Specifically to which degree they agree or disagree to a chosen statement on a one to five scale. The ultimate aim of the questionnaire shall be to direct the subjects towards answering if the aims of the project have been achieved.
. Statistical analysis shall be administered using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) to test the theory that the implementation of a sports initiative has improved conditions in a social inclusion zone.
Subject’s data will be arranged into group types and the scores of the questions added and then divided by the number of questions to obtain a group score. Question headings shall be as follows:
Racial integration Questions 4+9+13
Physical activity Questions 2+6+10+14
Youth Crime Questions 3+7+11+19+18
Racial Crime Questions 1+6+11+14+17
Safety Questions 5+10+20
Community vibrancy Questions 1+5+9+13
Personal Opportunities Questions 2+7+12+15
Quality of Life Questions 3+8+13+16
As the Likert Scale method is being used all data collected will be numerical. Using descriptive statistics, the measure of central tendency used will be the mean value (to 1 decimal place) for each category calculated for each group (i.e. coded 0-5 for each area, 0-1 for year separation in crime figures) and presented graphically for easy reference purposes.
Operation Reclaims aim to “Increase participation in physical activity” may prove difficult to gauge as there was no structured exercise program in place previously and as such figures unavailable.
By conducting a questionnaire in the host community suggests that participants feel comfortable/safe enough, to a degree, to be active in their community. Another possible constraint to the questionnaire is language barrier. Being performed in a diverse cultural area it should be highlighted that again subjects who participate are already integrated into the area by means of reading, writing and speaking English. To tackle these issues subjects who are able to act as translators may be used to facilitate others.
Subjects must also be asked if they have resided in the area for long enough to compare previous community conditions with those of an active Operation Reclaim.
It has been noted that a control group, of which consisted equal numbers of participants who were unaffected by Operation Reclaim, theoretically could be set up for comparative purposes.
Similarly to gauge the effectiveness of this initiative it may be compared to a similar case study elsewhere. This would imply having to have similar social conditions, although methods of carrying out the programme may differ.
Allen, L.R. and Beattie, R. 1984) The Role of Leisure as an Indicator of Overall Satisfaction with Community Life, Journal of Leisure Research, Second Quarter,
Asquith, S., Buist, M., Loughran, N., MacAuley, C. and Montgomery, M. (1998) Children, Young People and Offending in Scotland: A Research Review, Edinburgh, The Scottish Office
Bovaird, T., Nicols, G. and Taylor, P. (1997) Approaches to Estimating the Wider Economic and Social Benefits Resulting from Sports Participation, Birmingham, Aston Business School Research Institute.
Burchardt, T., Le Grand, J. and Piachaud, D. (1999) Social Exclusion in Britain 1991 – 1995, Social Policy and Administration.
Coalter, F. (1988) Sport and Anti-Social Behaviour: A Literature Review, Research Report No. 2, Edinburgh, Scottish Sports Council
Coalter, F. (1998) Sports Participation in Scotland (1987-1996), Research Report No.54,
Edinburgh, Scottish Sports Council
Coalter, F., Allison, M. and Taylor, J. (2000) The Role of Sport in Regenerating Deprived Areas, The Scottish Executive, Central Research Unit.
Collins, M. et al (1999) Sport and Social Inclusion: A Report to the Department Of Culture, Media and Sport, Institute of Sport and Leisure Policy, Loughborough University.
Department of Culture, Media and Sport (1999) Policy Action Team 10: Report to the Social Exclusion Unit – Arts and Sport, London, HMSO
Fitzpatrick, S., Hastings, A. and Kintrea, K. (1998) Including Young People in Urban
Regeneration: A Lot to Learn? Bristol, The Policy Press
Health Education Board for Scotland (1997) The Promotion of Physical Activity in Scotland. A Strategic Statement (Revised from 1995), Edinburgh, The Board.
Hooper, I. (1998) The Value of Sport in Urban Regeneration: A Case Study of Glasgow,
Glasgow City Council, Parks and Recreation Department.
ILAM (1999) The Contribution of the Arts and Sport to Neighbourhood Renewal and
Reducing Social Inclusion, Reading, ILAM.
Keller, H., Lamprocht, M. and Stamm, H. (1998) Social Cohesion Through Sport, Committee for the Development of Sport, Council of Europe, Strasbourg
Leisure and Environment Protection Department (1999) The Role of Sport in Tackling Social Exclusion, Newport County Borough Council report to Sports Council for Wales
Parkinson, M. (1998) Combating Social Exclusion: Lessons from Area-Based Programmes in Europe, The Policy Press.
Robins, D. (1990) Sport as Prevention: The Role of Sport in Crime Prevention Programmes Aimed at Young People, (University of Oxford, Centre for Criminological Research occasional paper no. 12) Oxford: The Centre
Room, G. (ed) (1995) Beyond the Threshold: The Measurement and Analysis of Social
Exclusion, Bristol, Policy Press
Scottish Office (1999), Social Inclusion – Opening the Door to a Better Scotland,
Edinburgh, Scottish Office.

Influence of Money in Sports

There is too much money in sports.
For many people around the world these are difficult times, many have lost their jobs, and others are fretting about losing them. Every day we see more companies go bankrupt and the whole world seems to be waiting for the crisis to end. Everyone in the world, except the sports industry, who are still wasting vast amounts of money on salaries, TV deals, agents, and advertisements. The world of sports is too influenced by money, and by means of reducing or even removing advertisements, decreasing the salaries of professional players, and lowering the price of tickets we can improve the spirit of competition, make sports more available to everyone, with the money saved improve the lives of people who are not as well off as the people in the western world.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

Sportsmen and women are people with talent that stretches far above a normal human’s ability, and for this they should naturally be rewarded. However, as much as the world’s economy sways the salaries of professionals only seem to be increasing. In 2008 the highest paid athlete David Beckham earned more than 48 million (Freedman) in the 1970s when TV was not as influential to sport as it now is Pete Rose was able to negotiate a million per year contract (Gilis) This clearly shows that the salaries have boomed incredibly over a short period. The average gross income for a citizen of the USA in 2005 was forty two thousand US dollars(United States Average Salaries and Income). Do athletes need forty million to survive? The amounts of money that go into the player’s salary are not motivating them to strive for perfection. It only seems that more and more are doing it for the money in it, and this, ruins the healthy spirit of competition that makes sport so interesting to watch, and most importantly to play. Above all the most ridiculous amounts of money are wasted on player transfers; can anyone really be worth over a hundred million? This trend is not confined to only the players and the teams, the agents for those players have also gotten major salary changes, “Mills estimates there were 50 or fewer agents when he started in 1967. He made $3,900 on his deal for Owens. Today there are about 1,000 agents certified by the NFL Players Association. Agents now are allowed to charge 3 percent. “A player gets a $10 million bonus, there’s $300,000 for the agent,” he says.” (Looney) This is definitely a good indicator of where a countries interests lie; in most countries professional athletes earn more than triple the amount of a high ranking police officer, doctor, or teacher. Suppose instead of this high average pay people started paying athletes a much lower salary per year, let’s say 200,000 $, and then reward them for good performances. This would really separate a good athlete from a bad athlete and on top of that would make more athletes really put in that extra effort knowing they will be rewarded.
Fans are part of sports no matter how you look at it; they cheer, shout, sing, and show the immense passion that they feel for their team, they are the essence of sport. Unfortunately though they are becoming more restricted in their support because of the prices of tickets, the united kingdom’s national football stadium cost a whopping 1.5 billion pounds (Egan) and in order to counter these huge expenses ticket prices are raised. However it doesn’t seem fair that the hardcore supporters of those teams are not allowed to come to the matches because they cannot afford tickets. A true supporter will not mind standing in the rain for hours on end to watch a sports game on a muddy public pitch, because they do not care for the air-conditioned VIP boxes, a place they will probably never go to in their entire lives. Isn’t that what sports are all about, the raw passion and talent, not the rich posh businessmen impressing future clients who do not care for the game at all?
If one takes a moment to look at a professional football/soccer stadium, s/he would see a green piece of grass, seats, and advertisements, lots and lots of advertisements. It seems that there is no place that companies can’t get their names on. They are plastered on player’s shirts, all around the stadium, they even have them on the camera and security staff. Above all the most money is spent on TV advertisements, General Motors spent 578 million dollars on TV advertisements during sports games (Thomas). Is this necessary? There seem to be fewer and fewer athletes who do it just for the joy of playing, or simply to please their fans. If we can remove all the sponsors and advertisements in the sports industry, then sure there won’t be the magnificent stadiums and million dollar TV contracts, there will be pure, focused, talent focused environment. Moreover, with the removal of advertisements player salaries will probably get a drop which will lead to more players that are focused on going down in the record books not for million dollar contracts but because of their achievements.
     Poverty is a huge world issue at the moment, many people are working hard voluntarily to help improve the standards of living in third world countries. If all the above measures are taken, there will be a huge sum of money left to spend. What better to spend it on than improving other less fortunate people’s lives. Oxfam a leading charity in the world spent 46 million dollars in 2008 (Charity Review Oxfam), that’s almost the same as David Beckhams salary! If we cut all players salaries we would have billions of dollars to spend on emergency relief and long term charity projects. After all what seems a morally better way to spend money, giving it to the poor or giving the already rich athletes even more money?
To conclude, sports have become too much about the money and less emphasis is put on player talent. Taking the above steps will ensure that sport stays competitive is available to all and is more pleasant to watch. On top of that the money that will be saved will go to charities that will improve the lives of others, although the economy of the rich countries will take a blow it might be restores when the LEDCs are improved by the charity and become more open to trade increasing economies globally. If all is performed this way, there aren’t many downsides.
Works Cited
Phil, Carman “Don’t be greedy; Such a thing as too much money.” Advertiser, The (Adelaide)(n.d.):Newspaper Source. EBSCO. Web. 1 Dec. 2009.
Looney, Douglas S. “Money makes world go ’round (in sports, too).” Christian Science Monitor15 Dec. 2000: 12.Newspaper Source. EBSCO. Web. 1 Dec. 2009.
“EDITORIAL: Money game: There seems to be no end to the commercialization of big-money professional sports.” Journal-World (Lawrence, KS)26 July 2007:Newspaper Source. EBSCO. Web. 1 Dec. 2009.
Selvig, David “It really is all about the loot: Commercialization of sports has become as American as apple pie over the last two decades. Nothing we can do about that now, obviously.” Jamestown Sun, The (ND)05 June 2009:Newspaper Source. EBSCO. Web. 1 Dec. 2009.
Gilis, Charles. “American History 1970-1979.” Lonestar College. Lonestar College Kingwood, Aug. 2009. Web. 1 Dec. 2009. .
“United States Average Salaries and Income.” International Average Salary Income Comparison. N.p., 2007. Web. 1 Dec. 2009. .
Freedman, Jonah. “A crash-course in foreign-exchange rates.” Sports Illustrated 2008: n. pag. Web. 1 Dec. 2009. .
Thomas, Katie. “As the Economy Worsens, Is There Money for Play?” New York Times. New York Times, 15 Nov. 2008. Web. 1 Dec. 2009. .
“Charity Review Oxfam.” BBB. BBB, 2009. Web. 1 Dec. 2009. .
Egan, Andrew. “World’s Most Expensive Stadiums.” Forbes. Forbes, 6 Aug. 2008. Web. 1 Dec. 2009. .

Fitness And Recreational Sports Centers Physical Education Essay

Fitness and Recreational Sports Centers are comprised and defined as establishments primarily engaged in operating fitness and recreational sports facilities featuring exercise and other active physical fitness conditioning or recreational sports activities, such as swimming, skating, or racquet sports. Illustrative examples for this industry include: aerobic dance or exercise centers, gymnasiums, handball, racquetball, or tennis club facilities, ice or roller skating rinks, physical fitness centers, swimming or wave pools.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

There are two types of gym classification, which can be split as either government facilities or non-government facilities. Most of government facilities are local or county owned and operated pools, ice skating rinks, or tennis courts. Various local or county governments have also been known to offer fitness center and health class services on a public. Such facilities, however, must show evidence of performing measurable economic transactions in order to retain such licensing. Non-government establishments can be founded as for profit or non-profit. Because of this many government founded programs contract privately owned facilities rather than building their own (Schlosberg, Neporent 2005).
The main consumer output of this industry is the purpose of exercise or other active physical fitness conditioning or recreational sports activity. It is important to keep in mind that the facility must provide space and equipment for active physical activities. Instructional or educational classes, which are provided at the facility or at a secondary facility that is receiving rent from the primary establishment, are also included as primary output for the industry. Further revenue derived from the rental and leasing of goods and equipment, used in specific recreational or sport activities are also included as consumer output. For membership clubs, service is made available to people who have paid a membership fee. In addition, non-members are normally able to purchase use of the facility for a one-time fee (Sutton 2007).
Fitness and recreational sports centers provide a highly demanded service to the general population of the United States and most other developed nations. In general, they provide places to exercise using cardio equipment, free weights and weight machines, as well as offer classes geared towards healthy living and physical fitness. Within this industry, one can also find fitness centers and sports facilities, which provide space and equipment for recreational sporting activities, such as racquet ball, basketball, and swimming (Kopylovsky, 2010).
The number of Americans who exercise frequently in a health club has been steadily growing since 1987. This at the expense of total Americans who exercise at home. However, this report also explains that the movement to exercise, in general, has been gaining momentum over the past several years. This is due, in part, to the 1996 U.S. Surgeon General’s Report on Physical Activity and Health and the widespread availability of fitness centers (IBISworld, 2010).
The ever-growing interest by Americans to get in shape and improve one’s health has not only caused a steady increase in fitness center membership, it has also brought about a steady escalation in the number of fitness centers in the United States. With steadily increasing annual membership totals for the fitness and recreational sport center industry and the fact that over 85% of Americans do not yet have fitness club memberships, one would anticipate continued growth potential. (Plummer, 1999)
Despite an ailing U.S. economy over the past two years, profitability has remained strong for the fitness and recreational sports industry. Although Americans on average have been allotted with less disposable income over the past decade, they appear to still be using what disposable income they have to pay for membership and class fees at health clubs. This is not to say that revenues would not be higher if the economy were healthier. According to to recent statistical data, though with an ailing economy net revenue and memberships are still rising but at a much lower level. Still, views of the U.S. public on health and fitness, as well as the industries ability to adapt and improve its services over the years, seem to have made the fitness and recreational sports club industry somewhat more immune to overall dips in the U.S. economy than most other industries. (IBISworld, 2010)
Seasonality within the fitness center market plays a very minor role in services offered. Though this depends upon the region where specific facilities are located and whether or not the facility is indoors or outdoors. As an example an outdoor ice skating rink under normal circumstances would not be open during the summer months. An outdoor basketball court would not be open during the winter in an area where it is very cold. However, most fitness and recreational sports facilities are open year round.
Almost all various demographic groups of the United States population take advantage of the services offered by the fitness and recreational sport center industry. Male and Female, young and old, representatives of all backgrounds and regions of the country, make up the total population of fitness center members. As the number of total fitness club members increases, reports show that younger individuals around the ages of 24 and younger out weigh the older members age 45 and older.
Defined memberships include individual memberships for various age groups, such as adult, youth, and senior, as well as group memberships, such as family and corporate memberships. Family memberships will normally offer access to a facility/facilities by a predetermined number of family members for one specific fee. Corporate memberships will offer reduced rates to individuals, who work for a specific company which many times has an agreement with a specific club. Seasonal passes for public recreation and fitness facilities are also included in this grouping. Seasonal passes function the same way as memberships, though many seasonal passes may include more restrictive privileges.
Instructional classes offer lessons or instruction in the areas of physical fitness and health. Examples of such classes include kickboxing, yoga, and step aerobics. Instructional classes normally have a predetermined length many times ranging from thirty minutes to an hour. Traditionally classes are bought as a package and therefore given a predetermined number of lessons offered for a specific fee.
The Elderly And Exercise
The benefits for elderly individuals of regular participation in both cardiovascular and resistance-training programmes are great. Health benefits include a significant reduction in risk of coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance, hypertension and obesity as well as improvements in bone density, muscle mass, arterial compliance and energy metabolism. Additionally, increases in cardiovascular fitness (maximal oxygen consumption and endurance), muscle strength and overall functional capacity are forthcoming allowing elderly individuals to maintain their independence, increase levels of spontaneous physical activity and freely participate in activities associated with daily living. Taken together, these benefits associated with involvement in regular exercise can significantly improve the quality of life in elderly populations. It is noteworthy that the quality and quantity of exercise necessary to elicit important health benefits will differ from that needed to produce significant gains in fitness.
However, it must be noted that the benefits described are of little value if elderly individuals do not become involved in regular exercise regimens. Consequently, the major challenges facing healthcare professionals today concern: (i) the implementation of educational programmes designed to inform elderly individuals of the health and
functional benefits associated with regular physical activity as well as how safe and effective such programmes can be; and (ii) design interventions that will both increase involvement in regular exercise as well as improve adherence and compliance to such programmes.
Industry Life Cycle
The Gym, Health and Fitness Clubs industry is in the growth stage of its life cycle due to an increased awareness and interest in fitness and health, and the need for exercise. Membership numbers are expected to grow an average of 1.2% over the ten years to 2015. In the ten years to 2015, industry revenue is expected to grow by 2.5% per year, in comparison with forecast GDP growth of 1.8% over the same period.
In addition to demand, the industry has also benefited from an increase in premium services. For example, more and more people are now enlisting personal trainers to help them achieve their fitness goals. Additionally, gyms and health clubs are increasingly offering amenities such as swimming pools, saunas, jacuzzis, basketball courts, massage services and yoga classes to boost sales and retention.
There is also evidence that spending on gym and fitness club memberships is becoming less discretionary, as perceptions change. Government and private support for participation in fitness activities is increasing as organizations recognize the benefits of exercise for productivity, health and cost reasons. This has resulted in more employers and insurers establishing programs and incentives for people to go to the gym. This boosts the claim that, while the industry may currently be in its growth phase, maturity may be around the corner.
Future growth areas will likely be in participative sports for women and the older sections of the community; and in individual sports rather than team sports. These factors will support continued growth for gyms and health clubs over the coming five years.

Sports – The Opium Of People

Karl Marx legendary commented “Religion is the opium of the people.” In 21st Century, however, it can be said that it is actually sports that currently has substitute religion as the opium of the masses. (1) Psychologists are ended up on a conclusion that sport has almost similar impacts on audience the same as religion carries out.
It might appear strange, to associate sport entertainment with religion however it should be comprehensible that earlier to mass communications, religious rituals were a basis of pursuit for common people who hardly ever attend a theaters or went to a sporting events.
Wann and his colleague define sports in term of religion as natural religion, humanistic religion, and primitive polytheism relating that audience worships other human beings, their victories and the groups to which they belong. And that sports ground look a lot like cathedrals where supporters gather to worship their heroes and pray for their successes. [Wann, et al., 2001, p. 200].

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

If rite may be interesting, then amusement, as practiced in a sports arena, may be ritualistic. People gather and supporters wear their team colors and carry its icons, flags and lucky charms to boost up their team members. Then during the game there is recurring chanting of team encouragement, hand-clapping, mocking the other team, doing the wave, and so forth. The singing of an anthem at a sporting event likely has similar psychological effects as the singing of a holy song in church. (2)
According to Harris (1981), sports has turned into obsession, a passion, an intoxicating drug and well-known than just any substance. It is the new opiate of the people.
Sports: the opium of people?
Post 1945 US social and cultural history (general):
There is no skeptical that sports play a substantial role in the lives of many Americans and to be sure of many people around the world. It has become an integral part of American history and culture. Sports have been given unique importance by the US people. People worship sports like religion as mentioned before and sit in front of television for hours and hours even after the match is over.
History of baseball
Role of baseball in desegregation
Although the precise beginning of baseball is mysterious, most historians have the same opinion that it is established on English game of rounder’s. A sport that began to turn out to be relatively admired in this country in the premature 19th century and numerous findings account the rising fame of a game named “town ball, base, or baseball”.
Right through the premature element of the 19th century, little towns produced teams, and baseball clubs were created in bigger cities. Alexander Cartwright sought to make official a record of policies by which all teams could play in 1845.
Since 1945 in America, the World War II covers its outcome on sports as every strong and fit man among 18 to 26 was expected to serve up the military. There was scarcity of baseball bats, bowling pins and even the balls on hand were damp and unresponsive, but professional sports were encouraged to continue to recover the spirits of the troops. The President Roosevelt signed the Green Light letter to show his support to baseball. Half the baseball players had joined up by 1943.
Even though it was not a written rule but baseball had always been racially segregated. Jackie Robinson was the first person to end the racial discrimination in 1947. But addition of the African-American was very slow because of less acceptance of other minority. Baseball was fully integrated in early sixties when all the team stopped discriminating over cultural and ethnic difference.
More teams were introduced which meant more jobs for players. Attendance increased and national television and radio broadcast brought loads of money to baseball. But the players were not getting sufficient salary so; they decided to protest against it through their union.
The conflict between the players and owners never resolved. Many polices changes, many re-signed and strikes occurred by the players and owners to fulfill their wishes. Because of these conflicts for all those years the fan started to lose their hopes and it fallen behind other American sports. It would take a lot of efforts for baseball teams to regain its importance and prominence in American culture.
History of US football
US football culture
In 1879, American football becomes known from the European game of Rugby. The early rules of the game were designed by Walter Camp, who was a player and coach at Yale University. Therefore, he is known as The Father of American Football.
The end of the civil war in 1865 is the beginning of the football in colleges. In this year, the game got its patent and some of the basic rules were also set. In 1869, the first inter-collegiate football was played between Rutgers and Princeton.
Walter camp, a coach at Yale finalizes the rules of the games and gives the game the shape which today we know as the American Football. A little later downs were introduced and tackling below the belt was legalized.
But, the aggressive physical challenge that the game order, brought about many severe damages and deceases in the next few years. As a result, football was banned in many colleges. In 1905, under an instruction from President Theodore Roosevelt, Yale, Harvard and Princeton arrange a couple of discussions between schools and formed a seven member Rules Committee which was later came to be known as National Collegiate Athletic Association, or the NCAA.
Nowadays American Football has turned out to be a multi-billion dollar business. With the introduction of cable television, the game has gone across the borders of America and extends its wings all over the world. The super Bowl, that decides the national champion, has become the most watched sporting event of all times. Ample of goods and football products have taken the markets by storm. Hence from the meek history where football only seen as throwing or kicking a ball long-ago the opponents, American Football has appeared as a game which has influenced the culture and economy of the United States of America.
Sports as social control:
According to john Rawls, sports is the social union in a society where group of people valued common activities for themselves and take interest in each other’s achievements. It is argued that Sports reflect society in which they function. Society is lived by people whereas, sports are played by people. Sports are society in minuscule, fill with all its variance, benefits and deficiencies. Since sports have become the most public of all professions, they impose more duties. Sports figures are role models; it goes with the territory.
Sports is the opium of people argues?
Benefits of sports in term of international relations and diplomacy (Chinese ping pong games, Cold War sports, etc)
On the other hand, sport is the destructive weapons of the mass distraction. It is a major attention attractor. According to Terry Eagleton, if right-wing think tank wants to distract people from the political prejudice and pay compensation for their hard labor, so football would be the solution for both the case.
To resolve the conflict between states and encourage peace building in the nations, Kofi Annan in 2001 selected Adolf Ogi as UN Special Adviser on Sport, Development and Peace. In 2003 the UN adopted a resolution designating 2005 as the International Year of Physical Education and Sport, and called upon member states to consider a role for sport and physical education when devising development programmes and policies. The aim was that sport can help nations to accomplish UN goals and contribute to build peace, which led the UN to join hands with international and national sports authorities, which includes FA, FIFA and IOC.
The very beautiful thing about sports is that it can be pure quest that has a usual foundation. For that reason, a sport is beyond international politics. For instance, football, the rules of football will be same all over the world and everyone will play game in the game manner which gives an instant ground to build relations on.
One might argue that sport is perhaps one of the few spheres where nations can wage war against one another and its over after 90 minutes, at least for football. In the one month it takes to complete the world cup, teams will compete to claim the prestigious title of World Champions. Competing nations invest a lot in these competitions and the fervency with which nations support their teams is almost as intense as waging a war between states.
Sports have also become a method for countries that are facing internal struggles to start diplomatic relations.  For instance, while Ivory Coast was going through qualification for the 2006 World Cup, its National Football Association was hesitant to support the team due to the political turmoil within the country that began in 2002. However, the Ivorian football team wanted to end the divide of the nation between north and south and believed that participation in the World Cup would bridge this divide.
At this point in time, we have a chance to seize upon the World Cup as a method to showcase to the world the power of South Africa as a nation and Africa as a continent. The notion that nations use international tournaments, like the Olympics and the Football World Cup as a platform to exercise ‘soft power’ is worth examining. The US in 1936 had Jesse Owens, an African-American man; participate in the Olympics as a sign to the German government of their lack of support for the Nazi regime and its anti-Semitic policies.  As the World Cup has worldwide media that follow the month-long event, how will South Africa together with her African partners use this opportunity to reveal the deep hope for a brighter future that most Africans have? How can this tournament be used to demonstrate the pride and dignity of a continent whose history, pride, dignity and innovation has long been undermined in international relations? How can this continent which has given birth to Mandela, Nkrumah, Biko, Mogae, Lumumba, Madikizela-Mandela, Annan and many other heroes show the world that so called ‘soft power’ is indeed good for the whole world not just Africans?
In light of the role that sports have played in international relations in the past, South Africa’s successful bid to host the World Cup has shown the country has come a long way since the days of apartheid. It has also given South Africa the opportunity to divert the focus from ongoing problems such as wars in Sudan and DRC, stagnant economies in different African countries and citizens who still lack basic amenities. This doesn’t mean that these challenges should be ignored, but this is an opportunity to show that change has also come to Africa through South Africa.
Additionally, the world cup is being held in one of Africa’s fastest growing economies therefore  it is important to note the huge potential that South Africa brings to the table in terms of politics, economy and other areas that can foster development. For instance, on December 7th 2009, President Zuma visited his counter part President Banda of Zambia to establish and renew standing Memorandum of Understanding in the manufacturing, education and health sectors. This can be extended further not just to the SADC region but also to the entire continent and globe as well. Having risen from a past that was devastating on more than half of its population, South Africa can take the lead in roles of mediation and conflict resolution – the cases of Zimbabwe and Sudan, it can also solidify its role on the international scene as a heavy weight in international relations.
More questions will always be raised than answered when looking at an issue like the strength of a nation in international diplomacy and international relations. South Africa by being host of footballs’ greatest event must highlight the good that has been achieved in the country and on the entire continent. From successful democratic elections in Ghana, establishment of a government of unity in Kenya and the weathering of the economic crunch in emerging and established economies like Botswana and South Africa itself, Africa has and is still a resilient continent to contend with in all spheres.  Also, not only should the spotlight be on national governments but also on individuals that have dedicated their life’s work to the betterment of others. For instance, initiatives such as ‘The Elders’ brought together by Mandela is one that can be highlighted as one that has reaches outside Africa to the rest of the world.
Globalization has proved that politics of isolation are things of the past. International relations and diplomacy through sports and other mediums are the tools needed to forge a strong rainbow nation and continent. Regardless of the inroads we have made since the end of apartheid, South Africa has the opportunity in the World Cup to act as a shining beacon on the continent and once again, raise our voices in articulating Africa’s issues. As the song “My African Dream” states for Africa “there’s a new tomorrow…there’s a dream that we can follow.” And just like the slogan says, “Its Africa’s turn”.
Sports can be seen in both the ways. It increase conflicts and create differences among people but on the other hand it is use to bring people closer, resolve conflicts, peace building and also provide health, fun, enjoyment and, pulse-racing excitement.

Media Coverage of Women’s Sports

It may be argued that the media coverage given to women’s sports, especially cycling, results in less participation uptake. Through the framing and stereotyping of female sports coverage coupled with statistical evidence, it is clear that there is a disparity (Brookes: 2002). This research project design aims to explore the factors underlying the disparity and will do this by analysing television and media content and interviewing consumers of televised sport. Firstly, I will set out the core theories surrounding gender representation in general and audiences, before focusing on the relationship between gender and audiences for sport, in particular cycling and the gender representation within it.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

Additionally, this essay will also set out the ways in which primary research will be undertaken with a focused, multi faceted approach and will include interviews and content analysis. Finally, on completion this project will go some way to explore gender disparity within the sport of cycling and attempt to give some reasons why this is happening. Upon reflection, it will suggest the positive and more difficult aspects of the project and highlight ways in which these difficulties may be overcome for moving forward.

 When beginning this project, I firstly believed it was important to explore broader topics with regard to audience and gendered representation to give an in-depth background to the subject matter. Therefore, I found Rolland Barthes ‘Images, Music, Text’ to be very insightful (Barthes: 1977). This text explained theoretical ideas behind images suggesting they are constructed intentionally by the creator to present an idea to an audience. I believe this is an important study for my own research project as it involves decoding meanings in moving images and furthermore will assist in answering why a disparity in the television coverage, which is resulting in disproportionate representation between genders, is occurring.

 Following this, I then began to explore the specific topic as a whole with special focus on gendered representation and sports relationship on the television, and how this differed in Hollywood films and in sports coverage. Therefore, I found Hills and Kennedy’s chapter ‘Representation of coaching through film’ very insightful (Hills and Kennedy: 2012). Their argument centred on three films where the audience observed a coach-player relationship and found that “the majority featured a male protagonist in the role of a coach, who performs masculinely” (Hills and Kennedy: 2012: 40). I was struck that the majority lacked female representation and that the “carefully crafted, idealised constructions of masculinity in Hollywood” (Hills and Kennedy: 2012: 40) were exceptionally apparent in these films. I believe this article can be transferred into my own research project as it depicts that “the media do not simply reflect or represent gender difference, but they help construct that difference” (Saco: cited in Hills and Kennedy: 2012: 41). This idea was further supported as “portrayals of masculinity in sports films help construct the gender identities for their audience” (Hills and Kennedy: 2012: 42) and if this is something that is happening in blockbuster Hollywood films, such as, ‘Coach Carter’ it follows that this is also to be the case in the coverage of sports, supporting the argument that the majority of the audience think women playing sports is not a normal occurrence. This text is incredibly important to my own research project, as I believe it gives insight into a potential cause of gender disparity and stereotyping within sporting media. What started as a “backlash against feminism…” (Hills and Kennedy: 2012: 43) became a gender imbalance that can be viewed across the majority of sports coverage on television.

Another very relevant paper focusing on these key issues so far is Scraton and Flintoff ‘Gender and Sports: A reader’ (Scraton and Flintoff: 2002). A chapter I found particularly relevant was ‘Sports, Bodies and Gender’, as this area of study explores the relationship between sport and the media. Furthermore, it also investigates sports’ feminism and how women’s’ sports have a significant lack of power in the media compared coverage of male sports. Hegemonic athleticism and other hegemonic constructions are steadied through sport and this is argued by Scraton and Flintoff who state that sport is “socially constructed out of gender, race and class…” (Scranton and Flintoff: 2002: 17). Furthermore, they suggested that despite sports being “gender contested” (Scraton and Flintoff: 2002: 24) it is apparent that “men’s sports are still dominant in commercial value…” (Scraton and Flintoff: 2002:24).

 Moreover, ‘Women, Social media and Sport’ by Pam Creedon is an article that has been fundamental to developing my understanding of this topic (Creedon: 2004). It investigates how an audience views sports with the modern development of social media. This is an area that is relevant to my own research, as “60% of sports fans now go online for updates” (Creedon: 2014: 711). Despite this, Creedon invokes that although this development has brought about some changes “the values used to cover and construct representations…of women’s sport have not changed” (Creedon: 2004: 711). Using the example of the 2012 Olympic Games, Creedon further explores this and suggests that although throughout this sporting event women were given more air time, the “media coverage remained gendered…” (Billings et al: 2014), for example, the bikini wearing beach volleyball players made the news multiple times. Therefore, this clearly portrays how although in todays’ society “the Internet and web have radically changed…the coverage of women’s sport remains insultingly trivial…” (Creedon: 2014: 715).

 The key theories I found in Whiteside and Hardin’s ‘Women (not) watching women’ is another academic work that I believe is relevant to my research design project (Whiteside and Hardin: 2011). Their article investigated the issue that although “a lot of women play sport…they do not watch it on television” (Whiteside and Hardin: 2011: 122). This is fundamental to this research project as, if more women watched women’s sport coverage this would mean it would increase and thus also would the sponsorship of professional female athletes. Similarly, the research of Whiteside and Hardin offers many suggestions as to why women are not viewing sport at home including not enough spare time and wanting to achieve other more important things first. It is argued this differs with their male counterparts, who will allocate specific time slots to view sport.  Finally, Whiteside and Hardin also consider whether sexual orientation of participants would create different reactions to viewing sport.

To conclude, all the media texts used within this literature review convey the issues facing gender equality within sports coverage. I believe the text that makes the greatest contribution is Duncan and Hasbrook’s chapter ‘Denial of power within televised women’s sports’. It can be said this is because it highlights many of the hypothesies that this project aims to investigate and in addition conveys key theoretical framework I wish to pursue.

Having begun this project and completed a literature review of material, I am able to establish the questions I wish to focus on within this project. I believe the disparity within television coverage is great and therefore this must be analysed with the theoretical framework of representation and audience. Thus, using broader work such as Barthes alongside more specialized work, for example, Creedon, conclusions will be able to be made to establish why this disparity is occurring.

 As acknowledged above when beginning this research question it has been important to begin with wider topics of argument before narrowing down and focusing on more specialist theories. Therefore, I began my theoretical framework with a focus on Roland Barthes who suggests images are coded messages for an audience (Barthes: 1977). The audience and their perception of the content is an important part of this research project and thus through three categories of messages their meanings may be broken down. The first area is linguistic messages, which assists the audience into formulating the opinion the media platform wants them to have (Barthes: 1977). Text –or in the case of this research project- commentary is an addition of this and is the most important part. Therefore, the combination of these two messages aims to target the audience with the right message. However, I believe this could be affected by the dominant discourse within society and thus when investigating the commentary within the content analysis I will keep both Barthes argument and my own hypothesis in mind. Other aspects of Barthes argument focused on coded and non-coded messages and suggests that some images are merely raw, what we see in these is what is meant but other images or in the case of this research project, video, have more hidden meanings (Barthes: 1977). These are understood with reference to our own cultures and knowledge and will differ between people or countries (Barthes: 1977). Therefore, this must be considered when analysing the coverage for this project and the ideology behind the audience must be considered.

Having looked at the wider arguments, it is then possible to become more specific and discuss the theories that are specific to this research project. Thus, the debate around gendered representation in sport has been investigated. This will provide a more concentrated idea of the arguments surrounding the topic I wish to research and will investigate areas of the hypothesis posed. It is constantly suggested that due to its large amount of output, television coverage produces the largest monetary source for companies. As such, there have been many debates with regard to television that suggest that gendered representation is not equal. Thus, it can be said that when researching this, both the realism and entertainment values of the coverage must be considered (Brookes: 2010). As “60% of sports fans go online for updates…”(Creedon: 2014: 711) it can be argued that the way sports fans engage with sports has changed and gendered representations in the media such as newspapers is less common. This is also due to the way in which sports stars are depicted on social media sites, for example, Instagram, creating less of a gendered representation divide. However, it must also not be disregarded that gendered representations are still dominating media texts in modern day society (Creedon: 2014).

Having suggested the theoretical framework that will be followed when completing this research project, the methodological approaches must also be explained. The methods used for this research project design will include both quantitative and qualitative research approaches and therefore will have a mixed methodological approach. I have raised some issues and asked some questions in this design and I will research based on observations and the understandings of others. When undertaking the qualitative methods, both social constructionism and subjectivism will be applied using the format of questionnaires and individual interviews. This is because it uses knowledge theories “that emphasize that the world is constructed by human beings as they interact” (O’Leary: 2017: 382) and furthermore because through personal experiences I will be able to build a foundation of fact for my project.  The content analysis within this project will review the television coverage of the Tour de France and La Course (the women’s equivalent). The stage covered is the same course for both men and women and the live coverage is 4 hours for the men, and 2 for the women. Before I begin analysing it, I will set out a list of areas, which will be focused upon, and these will include the number of interviews and hours. Moreover, alongside this the language used by pundits within the commentary will be assessed to see whether this differs between genders. I believe the language used by individuals is a key point to explore in this project, as this is what would influence an audience and would in turn affect things like, sponsorship and future coverage. 

I will be using data collected from people through face-to-face interviews with specific individuals who are knowledgeable on the topic this project is focusing on. I will also be using data collected from analysing television coverage from specific days of cycling of both men and women.

Furthermore, during interviews it will be important to remember to have a good rapport with participants and to display understanding and knowledge of the topic so to ensure they feel comfortable with the topic being discussed. This will allow for the most successful results to be achieved. Due to the sensitive nature of some of the topics an ethnographic approach will be employed for this topic as it is the “personal aspects that are the most favourable” (Freund and Fieldings: 2013: 330). As stated above it is important to have a curiosity with regards to the subject and this should be considered by myself as the researcher and additionally using an ethnographic approach will mean the interview can happen in the participant’s own environment.

Moreover, another aspect that must be considered is the privacy of the subject; something that is essential when collecting data from participants as trust must be established (Krotoski: 2010: 4) and be maintained at the data collection stage.

To conclude, this project focuses specifically on women’s representation in sport and uses theoretical framework to support this. The academics that will be focused on most are Margaret Carlisle Duncan and Cynthia A. Hasbrook. Alongside this, scholars for example Pam Creedon have also played a key part in influencing research with their focus on the 2012 Olympics and women’s’ role in the media within this. Finally, this research design project will also go someway to consider why there is a gender disparity within sport and more specifically within cycling. It will further invoke that the low number of women watching sport is due to a lack of leisure time and other commitments, such as family. Moreover, it will also consider whether traditional gender roles are somewhat imparted through hegemonic conventions that society feeds subconsciously and therefore rapid change is not possible.

Commentary draft:

This research project has been worked on for some months now and, as it is something that I find interesting has been exciting to work on.  Through keeping a diary of the research I have completed, I believe I am able to clearly portray how I arrived at the design. The commentary will discuss areas, which have worked well and others, which have had to be redesigned so they fit within constraints, such as the time frame. It has been an exciting project to work on and I believe has the basis to be an interesting piece of research.

I approached the project firstly by focusing on broad topics of research that discussed audience and arguments that surround their engagement with gender and platforms. I believed that to be important as my project centres on the representation of the sport of cycling and how the audience’s consumption differs with regards to gender. Having then completed broader research, arguments that were more focused and specific to the chosen topic were investigated. This work centred on gendered representation in sport and whether this is something that is changing or not. Moreover, as the majority of theorists suggested there was a disparity I also wanted to investigate why this is occurring. As a result of this, I have built up strong arguments using theorists and scholars, and similarly have supported this with my own primary research.

The research for this project begun with investigating theorists who explore audience and the way they interact with visual content. I became more focused on the idea of gendered representation in sport having considered my own passions and that I found many of the arguments I was studying were replicated within sport, especially my own sport of cycling. Therefore, it was a natural progression to focus the topic around this area and the disparity within it.

Deciding the content for my literature review was very challenging as there was a lot I wished to include. I chose the works based on those that stood out clearly to me and which explained the argument I wished to convey in the best way. Beginning with broader topics of audience and then focusing I found was the most successful way of achieving this.

Find Out How Can Help You!
Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs.
View our services

As I have progressed with this project I have changed my view on certain aspects, such as, which academics to include and what footage I can accurately analyse in the given time. Therefore, as a result of this I have limited the analysis to one day making it more manageable within the timeframe of this project. More specifically, I have developed an increasingly concise argument and focused on academics that have studied gendered representation within sport, for example, Pam Creedon. 

The hardest thing to overcome when completing this research was creating the theoretical argument. I found after researching broader theories, such as, Barthes, many academic studies of gendered representation in sport were too dated and did not match with modern televised coverage of today. As a result of this, I also believe this is potentially the weaker part of the design project. Therefore, I have made an effort to support it with specific theorists, such as ones who look at hegemonic conventions and societies subconscious acceptance of gender stereotyping.

The strongest part of this research design project is the data analysis and interviews. I think the mixed methodological approach created a well-rounded argument that allows the exploration of my research question and get an in depth analysis of the problems within the questions posed.

Another aspect of concern was that I was conscious that before beginning this research project I had not completed research of this length before. Therefore, when studying I used multiple research-focused books to assist with planning this project and forming the framework of my ideas. However, the research guide that has been most helpful when writing my design project has been O’Leary, Z. (2017). Doing your research project. 3rd ed. This guide gives a comprehensive account of each step needed to be taken to achieve a well thought through project and thus, I used its methods to create my own design.

From undertaking this research project, I have learnt a lot regarding both the practical aspect of designing the project and in addition the formation of the theoretical framework that must be created from the foundation of a hypothesis. I believe I have designed a research project that would be interesting and informative to an audience, one that poses questions and has the research base to be able to offer credible answers.


Barthes, R. and Heath, S. (1977). Image, music, text.Bertine, K. (2014). Half the road. [DVD].

Brookes, R. (2010) Representing sport. LaVergne, TN: Hodder Education.

Creedon, P. (1994). Women, media and sport: challenging gender values. Sage Publications.

Creedon, P. (2014). Women, Social Media, and Sport. Television & New Media, 15(8), pp.711-716.

Franks, S. and O’Neill, D. (2014). Women reporting sport: Still a man’s game?. Journalism: Theory, Practice & Criticism, 17(4), pp.474-492.

Hansen, A. (2013). Media and Communication Research Methods. 1st ed. Palgrave Macmillan.

Freund, K. and Fielding, D. (2013). Research ethics in fan studies. Participations, 10(1). 

Krotoski, A. (2010). Introduction to the Special Issue: Research ethics in online communities. International Journal of Internet Research Ethics, 3(1), pp.1-5. 

O’Leary, Z. (2017). Doing your research project. 3rd ed

Potrac, P., Kennedy, E. and Hills, L. (2012). Routledge Handbook of Sports Coaching. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis, pp.40-51.

Whiteside, E. and Hardin, M. (2011). Women (Not) Watching Women Communication, Culture & Critique, 4(2), pp.122-143.

Chocolate Milk As A Sports Recovery Drink Physical Education Essay

Sports drinks are a highly lucrative business with many athletes believing they significantly improve performance. However recent research analysing the potential of low-fat milk as a post-exercise recovery aid has shown that highly commercialised carbohydrate-based sports drinks may be less beneficial.
I have witnessed the rebranding of drinks such as ‘Mars Refuel’ being packaged in sports bottles and using athlete endorsement and am interested in its effectiveness in intermittent sports. As a badminton player, I am keen to see whether low-fat milk can be used to aid recovery in varying-intensity intermittent sports.
Also, there is currently a new campaign, ‘Milk it for all it’s Worth’, run by the Dairy Council following funding by the EU aiming to promote the health benefits of milk in young people (Dairy Council, 2010). Therefore, it is a good time to be conducting research in this area.
Is post-exercise consumption of chocolate milk a suitable recovery drink following glycogen-depleting exercise in male badminton players?
Literature Review
Roy (2008) reviewed the current research on milk and its potential as a sports drink. He recognised that the limited research in this field has been conducted into the recovery from resistance training and endurance sports. The available research suggests milk favourably alters protein metabolism and is more nutrient dense than commercial sports drinks. This review also recognises the need for further research into the possible applications and efficacy of milk as a recovery drink.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

Recent research has shown that milk consumption immediately and one hour after exercise, is effective for strength and resistance training athletes to increase muscle mass, encourage type II muscle fibre hypertrophy and promote loss of fat mass leading to leaner mass and favourable change in body composition, (Hartman et al. 2007 and Josse et al. 2010). This is topical as young women in particular avoid dairy products believing them to be fattening (Josse et al. 2010). Hartman et al. (2007) tested whether consuming fat-free milk post resistance exercise would promote greater lean mass accretion compared to consumption of soy or an isoenergetic carbohydrate drink in young novice weightlifters. They used a relatively large sample size, increasing reliability. Josse et al. (2010) conducted an equivalent experiment in female athletes producing similar results, verifying Hartman et al.’s method. Josse et al. (2010) also theorised milk consumption may have led to increased bone health; however more research is needed for verification.
Cockburn et al. (2010) investigated the most effective timing for consumption of a milk recovery drink. They investigated consumption before muscle damaging exercise, immediately after and 24 hours later. The study produced the recommendation that athletes consume milk immediately post-exercise, which would allow the athlete to perform at closer to optimal levels 48 hours later. This corresponds with recommendations from Pritchett et al. (2009). Precise recommendations have been given as 50-75g of carbohydrate consumed 30-45 minutes post-exercise and 1.0-1.5g of for next few hours (Ivy et al. 2002).
Research has also been conducted into the effectiveness of milk for rehydration. Shirreffs et al. (2007) found milk an effective recovery aid following mild exercise-induced dehydration. They compared low-fat milk, low-fat milk with added sodium chloride, a sports drink and water at restoring fluid balance post-exercise. A volume equal to 150% of the volume of body mass lost during exercise was consumed 20 minutes post-exercise to ensure sufficient rehydration. All four drinks initially hydrated participants. However, the gastric emptying rate of milk is much slower than for sports drinks and water. This gave a greater percentage of drink retention with the milk drinks and the subjects remained in a net positive fluid balance and euhydrated at the end of the recovery period (Shirreffs et al. 2007). Conversely, the sports drink and water increased urine output resulting in a net negative fluid balance. There was no difference between the two milk drinks possibly because low-fat milk already contains a moderate quantity of sodium, higher than most commercial sports drinks. Research is needed to compare milk and sports drinks containing the same electrolyte content to confirm whether it is the haemodilution effect of sports drinks that led to a negative fluid balance.
Low-fat chocolate milk contains the same nutritional benefits as low-fat milk but has been found to be more palatable than popular carbohydrate replacement drinks (Pritchett et al. 2009). Karp et al. (2006) found chocolate milk an effective recovery aid between two exhausting exercise bouts. Their study on endurance-trained cyclists involved glycogen-depleting exercise, a recovery period in which test drinks were consumed and a test to exhaustion. The research showed that both the time to exhaustion and the total work performed was significantly greater following the consumption of chocolate milk compared to a carbohydrate replacement drink with subjects cycling for 49% longer (Karp et al. 2006). However the chocolate milk had no significant difference compared with the fluid replacement drink.
The carbohydrate content of the three different drinks in this research were equal, which had not been addressed in previous studies and produced contrasting results showing no significant difference in performance between the different drinks. However the types of carbohydrates and calorie content of the drinks were unequal. Both the chocolate milk and fluid replacement drinks contained a mixture of monosaccharides and disaccharides compared to the complex carbohydrates present in the carbohydrate replacement drink. This may account for the results as the complex carbohydrates may not have completely digested in the 4 hour recovery period. Also the greater number of calories in the chocolate milk may have accounted for the improved performance.
Thomas et al. (2009) addressed this problem with a study comparing isocaloric chocolate milk and carbohydrate replacement drinks with an isovolumetric fluid. The protocol was also a submaximal (70% VO2max) endurance exercise cycle in a glycogen-depleted state. Participants cycled for 51% longer and 43% longer with post-exercise chocolate milk consumption compared to consumption of carbohydrate replacement and fluid replacement drinks respectively (Thomas et al. 2009). This further supports the usage of chocolate milk as an effective post-exercise recovery drink, following prolonged endurance exercise. This research focuses on endurance athletes and the test to exhaustion is at a moderate intensity suggesting fat may be the predominant fuel source. The increased fat content of chocolate milk and subsequent increased concentrations in free fatty acids circulating in the plasma could account for the increased time to exhaustion, suggesting carbohydrate replacement drinks may be a more beneficial recovery aid when working at higher intensities. Therefore, this research shows chocolate milk to only be a good recovery aid for moderate endurance exercise. Furthermore, this research was partially funded by Mars U.K. Ltd. which could be a potential source for bias.
More recent research has studied this area, finding chocolate milk to be an effective recovery aid for cyclists after intense exercise. (Pritchett et al. 2009). The ratio of carbohydrate to protein in chocolate milk is similar to that in carbohydrate recovery drinks and therefore may help attenuate muscle damage post-exercise. Pritchett et al. (2009) compared chocolate milk and a carbohydrate replacement drink as recovery aids. They investigated the time to exhaustion working at 85% VO2max following intermittent high-intensity training and a 15-18 hour recovery period. Their study showed chocolate milk and carbohydrate replacement drinks are equally effective in attenuating muscle soreness. Time to exhaustion was not significantly different between the two drinks.
The study by Pritchett et al. (2009) used drinks that were isocaloric and had equal carbohydrate content. The recovery period was 15-18 hours to allow complex carbohydrates to be broken down and participants worked at 85% VO2max during the test to exhaustion to ensure a greater reliance on carbohydrates as the main fuel source. Despite all this, the participants used to test milk as a recovery aid for high-intensity training were endurance trained cyclists. Therefore this is unrepresentative of athletes who participate in high-intensity intermittent sports.
There has been only one recent study into the effects of milk consumption in team sports (Gilson et al. 2010). Training programmes for competitive sports containing varying-intensity intermittent exercise such as football have been shown to deplete muscle glycogen stores. Such programmes should produce similar results in badminton players. Gilson et al. (2010) found that post-exercise chocolate milk compared to carbohydrate consumption had no preferential effect on short-duration, high-intensity exercise. The exercise regime in this study may not have been of an adequate intensity to impair muscle recovery which could explain the results as increases in training volumes were relatively modest.
The above evidence shows low-fat milk based drinks to be suitable for rehydration and recovery from endurance and strength training. However, it fails to reach a firm conclusion on whether they are more effective than carbohydrate drinks and lacks analysis on physiological reasons behind the findings. For example, none of these studies directly measures the efficacy of milk to promote muscle glycogen recovery following endurance exercise; only performance is analysed. Admittedly this is harder to achieve. The lack of research into the efficiency of milk as a post-exercise recovery drink to varying-intensity intermittent exercise sports, despite the large market for recovery drinks in this field of sport, has prompted my research. The aim is to find through similar testing as in the studies reviewed whether chocolate milk can be an effective aid for those who participate in varying-intensity intermittent sport, focusing on badminton players.
Research problem
There will be no significant difference in the time to exhaustion from high-intensity intermittent shuttle running following the consumption of chocolate milk and an isocaloric carbohydrate-based drink during a recovery period post glycogen-depleting exercise.
County-level, healthy, male badminton players between the ages of 18-30 will be used (n=14). Other studies have used a sample size of 9 so whilst being realistic the increase should provide more reliable results. Well-trained athletes will be used to avoid mood or learning impacting performance. The standard will be defined as a minimum of 6 hours training per week, playing for their county and minimum of 3 years playing badminton. The Leicestershire Badminton Association (LBA) will be contacted to provide the participants needed. Snowball sampling may be used to gain participants or random sampling to reduce numbers if necessary. Lactose intolerance volunteers will be excluded.
The procedure will be based on the Thomas et al. (2009) study, but will focus on intermittent exercise. This will be a crossover and fully counter-balanced study. Each participant will complete glycogen-depleting exercise to exhaustion, followed by a recovery period and an experimental trial on three occasions. Participants will be asked to arrive in a fully rested, hydrated state and to have refrained from strenuous exercise for 24 hours. They will be required to complete a 3 day food diary prior to each trial. They will be asked to arrive at the same time of day for each trial to minimise diurnal variation and this will be in the morning following an overnight fast.
Participants will come for a familiarisation trial where they will be fully informed of all the risks and basic measurements such as height, mass, age and frequency of participation will be recorded. They will then be required to do a VO2max test, see Ramsbottom et al. (1988) for method, from which the running speeds for 55% and 95% will be calculated. They will also have a trial at the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) (see Nicholas et al. (2000) for method) to familiarise themselves. During this they will be able to consume water ad libitum. In the following experimental trials they will be encouraged to consume an equal amount.
Experimental Sessions
Following a warm-up, participants will complete the LIST (Nicholas et al. 2000). Heart rate monitors will be fitted and record heart rate every 15 seconds during exercise using short-range radio telemetry. Rate of perceived exertion using Borg’s 6-20 scale will be recorded every 15 minutes. Sprint times in one direction over 15 metres using two infrared photo-electric cells and computer software will also be recorded throughout the test. Following completion of the LIST they will be given one of the two experimental drinks; Mars Refuel Chocolate Milk (CM) or carbohydrate replacement drink; Endurox R4 Chocolate (CR). The volume of CR will be calculated to provide 1 g body mass. The volume of CM will be calculated to give an isocaloric amount. The drinks will be placed into opaque bottles by a laboratory assistant not directly involved in the test. Recovery drinks will be assigned to the participants by a coin-toss. Once half the sample has been assigned to one drink the remaining participants will be given the other for the first experimental trial. Participants will be given the alternative drink during the second trial. An equal total amount of carbohydrate will be given to the participants immediately post-exercise and 2 hours into the recovery period.
Although the LIST does not replicate the situation of a badminton match, it does include the correct type of exercise used in training and often during tournaments players have long waiting periods. A total recovery time of 4 hours will be given representing this waiting period. During this time water may be consumed ad libitum in the first trial. This will be recorded and they will be encouraged to consume the same amount in trial 2.
After the recovery period participants will be required to complete the LIST again. The time to exhaustion and variables previously measured will be recorded. Participants will then be asked to return one week later in the same state as previously described, replicating their diet 24 hours before the trial. The experimental procedure for trial 2 will be the same, however participants will be given the opposite recovery drink. A placebo is not being used as it has already been shown in many studies that post-exercise consumption of carbohydrate improves recovery. If at any point during the trials the participant wishes to stop or their health and safety becomes compromised the experiment will be stopped.
Statistical Analysis
Statistical analysis will be used on the collected data using SPSS (version 17). The time to exhaustion, sprint times and heart rates following consumption of the two drinks will be compared as will the results for the initial LIST and post-recovery LIST. The significance level for tests will be PEthics
Approval will be sought from the University Ethical Advisory Committee to ensure research adheres to current university regulations. Participants will be fully briefed on the study including the purpose, protocol and possible side effects of maximal exercise to exhaustion and will consequently sign a consent form (see appendix A) stating they understand and agree to everything before participation. The study is voluntary and participants may withdraw at any stage. Pre-exercise medical questionnaires will be completed and due to the nature of this study, participants with lactose intolerance will be excluded (see appendix B). Participants will all be debriefed following the study and will be able to access the outcomes. The identity of all participants will be kept anonymous and personal data kept confidential. Data will be stored correctly for the maximum length of time permitted after completion and then destroyed in the correct way. Details of the official complaints procedure will be made clear to all in advance.
Paradigmatic Assumptions
This research is quantitative and is based on the post-positivist paradigm. This paradigm believes there is a single reality with objective knowledge being discovered. It states that our views are independent and external. This corresponds to the present study as it is a physiological study that will look at quantitative evidence to support theories on how one variable, different recovery drinks, affect another variable, the body’s recovery state. The study is systematic and ontologically another assumption made is that the experiment is capable of producing repeatable results.

The Twin Track Approach In Sports Physical Education Essay

With the profile of sport in England so high, and in light of the successful Olympic bid for 2012, the opportunity for participation in sport in this country has risen dramatically. The government recognises this opportunity and has always tried to link its self to sporting success, to help promote patriotism, social values and education.
The game plan is a strategy for delivering the governments sport and physical activity objects. With the government setting an ambitious task of: increasing sport and physical activity. With the target of achieving 70% of the population participating in 30 minutes of moderate exercise, five times per week. (Sport Oct 2009)
The twin track approach in this country is designed to increase the number of people participating in sport on a regular basis. The assumption being that more people participating means the need for more modern facilities, with better coaches which will lead to more medals at elite levels and the country hosting more mega events.
This report will show how the national governing body of gymnastics is tackling the challenge that the government has set them at grass-roots and elite levels of performance, as well as hosting mega events.
British gymnastics
British gymnastics is the UK governing body for gymnastics it is dedicated to developing levels and quality across a range of discipline. British gymnastics is a non profit organisation. Hundreds of thousands of young gymnasts enjoy the sport in school, recreational sessions at leisure centres and at British gymnastic registered clubs that complete the path way from beginner to Olympian. British gymnastics works along side, English gymnastics, sport England, sport UK, lottery funded and many more. (British gymnastics Oct 2009)
Grass roots
Gymnastics is a foundation sport, this is because it develops, speed, co-ordination, balance and agility. These physical qualities are inherent in most sports, for this reason all British children would benefit from this and most do in their first eight years. Participating in gymnastics from an early age, will acquire physical literacy, which is the foundation for a lifelong participation in physical activity and for a successful performance at elite level of sport. (Gymnastics England Oct 2009)
National school games
The new key stage 1 and 2 competitions, incorporates body management, floor and vault exercises to develop a young person’s core skills. This not only strengthens the first tier of the gymnastics pathways but also: encourages partnerships to engage in gymnastics, strengthens school club links, encourages talent identification, standardises competition in schools, encourages an appropriate competitive environment is set, ensures an increase in the number of children accessing gymnastic competitions, provides a foundation for other sports, nurtures each young person’s confidence to continue with an active life style.
England gymnastics is working towards creating a single structure for gymnastic competitions in schools. England gymnastics have created an accessible standardised local gymnastic competition for beginners. The programme aims to provide safe enjoyment that will improve learning and lead to a lifelong participation in physical activity. (England gymnastics Nov 2009)
The UK school games
The UK school games is used to bring a change in the content, structure and presentation of competitive sporting opportunities for young people whilst promoting the work underway in each home nation to improve sport and physical education. The show case opportunity provided by this event offers opportunity to promote and secure change within existing competitive structures. It is used to involve more young people in volunteering in sport, create first class child protection and for identifying young sporting talent. Gymnasts competing in the games have developed through the talent development programmes and will hope to go on to represent their country at international level. The British gymnastics association is working with the schools association to implement national school completion framework to establish development pathways. (Gymnastics England Oct 2009)

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

Schools that register with the British Gymnastic Association (BGA) are allowed to register their details and record levels and nature of participation in gymnastics in a school setting. Registration is free and schools receive the following benefits, e-news featuring profiles of gymnasts, expert ideas for warm ups, competition and judging advice, case studies, and success stories from other schools. Information about: professional development. Free preview resources. Access to: British gymnastics recourses. (British gymnastics Oct 2009)
Government announces grassroots grants 2008
Grass root grants aim to make a real difference by working with small local community groups, with an annual income below £20,000 this could be for new kit, coaching new volunteers, or simply just a lick of paint in the sports hall. Local regional and national businesses are invited through investing in the schemes innovative endowment match challenge, the first of its kind in England. The government has set aside a pot of £50 million from which it will match endowment investments from businesses, this offers businesses the chance to support and contribute in the communities they operate. (British gymnastics Oct 2009)
A commitment to sport
The present government has been committed to the development of sport in school since 2000. The launch of the strategy a sporting future for all in 2000 included the following provision, funding for primary schools to provide facilities for pupils and the wider community, the establishment by 2003 of 110 specialist sports colleges, the appointment of 600 sports school co-ordinators and the development of more after school sport provision.
Further allocations in funding in 2002 were followed in 2004 by an announcement that a further £500 million was to invest in school sport for, the completion of the network 400 sports colleges, improving the quality of coaching provision, improving links between schools and sports clubs and training and developing PE/sports teacher’s skills. (Teaching experience Oct 2009)
British gymnastics provides British gymnastics registered clubs with information to support their development. It identifies key areas that can help strengthen the club structure and philosophy programmes that can ensure the best environment is available for the gymnasts. (British gymnastics Nov 2009)
Gym mark
The introduction of sport England’s club mark has encouraged British gymnastics to adopt its own criteria to enable gymnastics clubs to work towards nationally recognised accreditation. Gym mark is British gymnastics club accreditation scheme that recognises a quality club.
Gym mark addresses issues such as equality and child protection, which gives confidence to parents choosing a club for their children. Gym mark provides an excellent template for continuing club development, especially its junior structure. Gym mark also gives help and advice in developing skills for everyone including coaches, officials and volunteers. Clubs will be listed with relevant sports directory which will help attract new members and raise clubs profile. (British gymnastics Oct 2009)
British gymnastics has a coach education programme in place to ensure enough fully qualified coaches provide the highest quality of coaching at all levels from grass roots to elite gymnasts to realise their full potential. British gymnastics is approved by the qualification and curriculum authority (QCA) as an awarding body for official gymnastic qualifications in the UK. (British gymnastics Oct 2009)
English gymnastics has just been awarded a three year grant of £2.14 million from Sport England to provide high quality coaches in its clubs throughout England. Clubs and other regional associations have come together and raised £1.8 million to match the funding and maximise the benefits of the programme. (English gymnastics Nov 2009)
Between March and May this year 45 funded sports including gymnastics were surveyed to measure levels of satisfaction in the individual sport. Over the next four years Sport England will be working with these sports to help improve quality of sporting provision to people in England. (Sport England Oct 2009)
Gymnastics and movement for people with disabilities
Gymnastics for people with disabilities is an adaptation of main stream gymnastics covering all aspects and can be recreational or lead to competitive opportunities; British gymnastics have been developing a programme for disabled gymnasts starting with motor skills for those with more severe mobility problems, and leading on to a foundation programme for the more able gymnasts. The disability groups can be split into four major areas; learning, physical, hearing and visual impairment. Currently a motor activity programme is being developed which will provide a frame work through which even the most profoundly disabled gymnasts can participate. A competitive programme has been established in artistic, tramp lining, rhythmic, acrobatic and aerobic gymnastics. (English gymnastics Nov 2009)
Mega events
With the government saying that hosting mega events, will heighten the profile of the sport, which in turn will increase participation, which will lead to better athletes and more medals. Britain has already got the 2012 Olympics, but in October 2009 the artistic world gymnastics championships were held in London for the first time, the championships brought together elite gymnasts from China, France, Korea, Croatia, Japan, USA, Romania, Poland, Spain, Germany, Ukraine, Great Britain, and many more counties, (world gymnastics 2009)
The event was a great success for team GB as Beth Tweddle just four days after falling from her favoured uneven bars, won gold on the floor, having become Britain’s first ever world champion in 2006 on the un even bars Tweddle, became only the 5th woman in history to claim world titles in both events. Beth said “I had to prove to myself that I was one of the best on the floor, it is the best feeling in the world”. (Daily mail web site 2009)
Winning medals
Olympic and paralympic sport has come a long way in recent times, it typically takes athletes around eight years to reach their peak once their talent has been identified and nurtured, this involves lots of support from coaches, doctors to bio-chemists. Nothing is left to chance from the food they eat to the kit and apparatus they use. UK sport is dedicated to the delivery of medal success at the world’s biggest events, mainly the Olympic and paralympic games. They are set to invest £10 million in the next four years in gymnastics to help gymnasts get the best coaching, kit and equipment available. (UK sport)
Plans for success
After winning 5 medals at the European artistic championships, British gymnastics plans to step up things for success at London 2012, by further developing sport, science and medical services within their elite programme. Louise Fawcett will join the English Institute of sport as head of sport, science and medicine for British gymnastics, co-ordinating support services for the world class funded Olympic performance programme. Fawcett says “having worked with high performance sport for many years, having the opportunities to co-ordinate support services for such an exciting Olympic sport is a great challenge”. (British gymnastics Nov 2009)
With the 2012 Olympics round the corner, and the success of the world artistic championships, the profile of gymnastics in England will never have been so high, thousands of young gymnasts at their local clubs will be hoping that they can go on and become the next Beth Tweddle or Daniel Keating. Schools are doing there up most to ensure that everyone takes part both on a recreational and elite level. Now British gymnastics has introduced its disabled classes it means that everyone can take part. British gymnastics working alongside English gymnastics and sport England means the future of our counties gymnasts is very bright, and with the £10 million pound being invested in our gymnasts of the next four years the chance of more medal success has never been so great.

Injuries Within Sports Games Physical Education Essay

A great number of injuries occur in the context of recreational rugby games. It has been generally presumed that after a sports injury, the sports injury management programme is highly depend on compliance to sports physiotherapist recommended rehabilitation regime. Even the best treatment plan made by sports therapist specially designed for the patients could not guarantee that the patient would follow that treatment plan. Effectiveness of the specially designed treatment plan depends on the compliance of the patient. Compliance to the sports injury management program is generally less then hundred percent (Spetch and Kolt, 2001). Bassett (2003) found that 65% of athletes are either, following their rehabilitation program fully or partially and 10% of athletes did not follow their specially designed sports specific treatment plan at all.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

The England Rugby Injury & Training Audit, the world’s largest continuous injury study in professional rugby union, carried out by Kemp et al (2009) reported that the sixth season of the study recorded 769 match injuries from the Guinness Premiership, EDF Energy Cup and European competitions and 258 training injuries. Simon et al (2009) pointed out that the likelihood of sustaining a match injury increased in the 2008-9 season, reversing the downward trend that had been established since the 2002-3 season.
For an early return to sports, when amateur rugby players were injured, they need sports specific injury rehabilitation. Since the sports therapist is the first point of contact after the rugby player is injured on the pitch, they the sports therapist are, therefore in a sole position to analyse the player’s health status and to impact the sports specific injury treatment.
Sports therapy is a vibrant profession that entails a sports therapist to be proficient in a number of different specialities. Although, the sports therapist must be qualified and experienced to take full charge of the physical side of the sports injury treatment, for a sports therapist simply to know how to investigate, analyse and treat a sports injury is not an adequate enough to guarantee that an amateur rugby football player is able to be rehabilitated as swiftly and effectively as possible. An imperative feature of the sports physiotherapist responsibility is to approach concerns of adherence to the sports specific injury treatment, and to communicate effectively with the player to make sure that they endeavour the essential ability to speed up their rehabilitation. The sports therapist acknowledges the significance of psychological factors in sports specific injury management adherence (Board of Certification Role Delineation Study, 2004).
It is important that the therapist gets qualification and training in the psychological side of the players’ injury, although most accept that they did not get any sports psychological rehabilitation training (Roh & Perna, 2000). Nevertheless, identifying the variables that are significant in promoting adherence and incorporating approaches to deal with these factors is a complex matters. Shuer & Dietrich, (1997) argued that practitioners have investigated sports injuries from orthopaedic standpoint, but psychological treatment of amateur rugby players has not been fully addressed. Fisher, Mullins & Frye (1993) argued that literature, concentrating on sports specific injury treatment, could be divided into three distinctive categories; sports therapist communication with the player, sports specific injury management features and injured amateur rugby player’s characteristics. Researchers have found that the players’ responses and awareness have been affected by their psychological attributes. To be close to the sports therapy clinic enhance participation and a friendly atmosphere is favourable to the sports injury rehabilitation adherence (Fisher & Hoisington, 1993).
Prentice (1994) stated that amateur rugby players opinion of the sports therapist also influence the association between the player and the sports therapist and affect the sports injury adherence. Investigating the perspectives of this professional affiliation can improve the sports physiotherapist concepts of the amateur rugby players’ attitudes of, and contentment with, their sports therapist (Fisher & Hoisington, 1993). Unruh (1998) pointed out that if the rugby player is satisfied with the sports physiotherapist injury rehabilitation management, then he/she would have more self assurance in the sports therapist during the sports specific injury rehabilitation management program.
Fitzpatrick (1991) argued that patient contentment studies with their sports therapists supported the principal that if the rugby players’ are more satisfied with the sports therapist, the more they will trust him/her. Even though, the association between the sports therapist and rugby players’ is decisive, none of the research examined that how a sports therapist can formulate or constitute a connection to optimize their adherence.
Brook et al (2005) argued that in the last decade amateur rugby players got injured at a higher rate. Since a quick return, and continuation in performance, is directly related to the results of sports injuries, how an amateur rugby football player deals with it, then further research concerning the psychological side of players’ is ever more significant. However, the majority of literature that has focused on injury rehabilitation has concentrated on the musculoskeletal aspects and until recently has ignored the emotional feature that could potentially play a significant role for professional athletes. With some exceptions the psychological research to date has mainly concentrated on specific factors that influence an athlete’s rehabilitation, such as social support (Bianco, 2001), adherence (pizzari et al, 2002), self confidence (Magyr and Dua, 2000), coping and psychological skills.
Tracey (2003) has suggested that both primary and secondary appraisals fluctuate depending upon the personal and situational factors of each individual athlete. However, there are significant relationships between the primary and secondary appraisal and copying strategies. Shelly (1999, p. 306) called for further investigation into the unique perceptions and perspectives of injured athletes during rehabilitation as a means of adding depth to the research. The use of qualitative data collection on multiple occasions allows injured athletes to reflect on their experiences as they happen and to scrutinize changes over time (Podlog and Eklund, 2006).
Adherence has been defined as “an active, voluntary involvement of the patient in a mutually acceptable course of behaviour to produce a desired preventative or therapeutic effect. Adherence behaviour in sports injury rehabilitation may include clinic-based activities, modifying sports activities, taking medications, and completing home based activities. A number of sources, including surveys with sports medicine professionals, and research studies, suggested that low and non-adherence could be an issue in sports therapy practice.
In the last decade the primary focus of the studies, carried out by researchers, to investigate the sports injury rehabilitation was to identify predictors of adherence behaviour. Brewer (2004) argued that in order to draw conclusions about the most significant issues affecting adherence to sports specific injury rehabilitation, additional research is required. Qualitative research proposes a complementary approach to quantitative studies in understanding sports specific injury rehabilitation in amateur rugby football players. Qualitative research also outlines new factors for contemplation and provides further support to previous findings.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore amateur rugby football player’s experiences and perceptions of adhering to a sport injury rehabilitation program. In this study, the researcher used interviews to investigate their attitudes and contentment with their sports therapy rehabilitation. Qualitative research methodology focuses on individuals’ lived experiences as they are presented in thoughts, ideas, feelings, attitudes, and perceptions. Stake (1995) suggested that qualitative research gives a new approach to finding out more knowledge into the multifaceted association which took place during sports injury management.
This study would explore the status of research on the sport injury rehabilitation adherence. Studies identifying variables that are correlated with adherence would be synthesized to produce a body of knowledge that will aid in the explanation of individual behavioural responses towards injury rehabilitation programs. From this qualitative investigation, using thematic coding of the interview data, categories of variables influencing adherence would emerged. In this study, the researcher would analyse acquiescence among armature rugby football players during rehabilitation.
In order to improve amateur rugby football players adherence to the sports specific rehabilitation programme, strategies would be outlined for the sports physiotherapists. The predictors of sport injury rehabilitation adherence would be discussed, strategies to enhance rehabilitation adherence would be reported, and considerations for future research would be suggested. This study would provide valuable information that could be used by researchers and sports therapy practitioners to identify strategies that should enable sports therapists to structure an independent supportive atmosphere that would promote higher levels of self-regulation, enthusiasm, and strength of mind. This will help to improve adherence to the rehabilitation programmes.