Stakeholders Project Organizations

To address the theme of project requirements, carry out research and, from your findings, draft
Clearly structured notes that explain what is:
• Meant by the terms primary, secondary and tertiary stakeholders.
• The purpose of a scope document and what sections it should contain.
Stakeholders
Introduction:Stakeholders are anyone who has an interest in the project. Project stakeholders are individuals and organizations that are actively involved in the project, or whose interests may be affected as a result of project execution or project completion. They may also exert influence over the project’s objectives and outcomes.
The project management team must identify the stakeholders, determine their requirements and expectations and to the extent possible, manage their influence in relation to the requirements to ensure a successful project.
Project
Project Stake holder
Project management
Project
Support
Project
Manager
How a Stakeholders directly involved in a project Figure : The Relationship Between Stakeholders and the Project
There are three kinds of stakeholders are involved in a project they are ivolved in a project internally or externally like that .

Primary stakeholders Primary stakeholders are those people and groups eventually affected by the project. Who expect to benefit from or be negatively affected by the change of project. In most projects primary stakeholders will be categorized according to socio-economic assessment. Thus, primary stakeholders should often be divided by gender, social or income classes, occupational or service user groups Primary stakeholders a direct link with the business-
–Customers.
— Suppliers.
Secondary stakeholders: Secondary stakeholders are those with an intermediary role. They can be divided into funding, implementing, monitoring and advocacy organizations, or simply governmental, NGO and private sector organizations. Secondary stakeholders aren’t exactly participating customer and suppliers.
Who is indirectly affected by the project plan.
Forestry companies
Landowners and or residents not inside the protected area but near
Tertiary Stakeholders: Tertiary Stakeholders are those who are not involved or affected, but can influence opinions either for or against. Tertiary- can still have an influence, but are not involved or affected, but can influence opinions either for or against Those indirectly affected by the program neighborhood organizations, academic institutions, elected officials, advocacy groups, professional associations, skeptics, opponents, and staff of related or competing organizations.

Ecology departments of universities, research institutes etc.

Scope Document
Introduction: The scope document is a common term for at all document that refines and defines the requirements aspect of the triple constraint of time, cost, and requirements. In this general sense, it provides an overview of what the project is supposed to accomplish and clarifies how those accomplishments will be achieved. It may also provide the team members, customer, and project manager with insight on what is specifically not in the scope.
Section contain
This section summarizes some of the business issues around the project, including profiles of major customer categories, assumptions that went into the project concept, and the management priorities for the project. Vision Statement.

History of project (Before)

Vision statement:
It is important to a project manager vision and scope document. It is also one of the easiest to execute. A project faces some problem when a project run a good vision and scope document will help in this time
History of project (Before)
History of project section contains a summary of the problem that the project will solve. It should provide a brief history of the problem and an explanation of how the organization justified the decision to build software to address it.
Assumption
This is the list of assumptions that the stakeholders, users or project team have made. the rest of the vision and scope document should be ready before the Delphi meeting and used as the basis for estimation.
Risk
It should be generated by a project team’s brainstorming session. It could include external factors that could impact the project, issues or problems that could potentially cause project delays or raise issues.
User
This is a bulleted list of the users. As with the stakeholders, each user can either be referred to by name or role however, if there are many users, it is usually inefficient to try to name each one. The needs of each user are described.
Task -2
To address the theme of how to grasp and communicate the “big picture” (a higher level view of the project overall, rather than a lower level view of, say, tasks for team members) carry out research and, from your findings, draft clearly structured notes that explain the benefits of visual forms of communication compared to, say, text or speech.
Provide examples of the following visual forms of communication to show that you understand how they work and what information they contain:
• Lifecycle models
• Activity networks
• Mind maps
Give a written explanation of how each of these methods may be used to communicate key ideas in a project.
Introduction: Planning and estimating a project has never been easy. All projects have certain characteristics in common. They all have a beginning and an end. In other words, they do not continue on forever. Projects result in the creation of one or more deliverables. Projects also have assigned resources – either full time, part time or both. There are other characteristics as well. All organizations can have projects. Projects can include building a house or office building, planning and executing a marketing campaign, upgrading desktop operating systems, installing a new phone system, developing an IT business application, etc.
Throughout the course of a project the plan always changes due to certain events,
Such as a change in the requirements. In order to support these frequent changes, a
Good planning process is essential.
It should involve

Conveying Information to the customer helps

Life cycle models are:
There are three kinds of life cycle model
–Waterfall model
–V Model
–Spiral model
Waterfall model
But I like waterfall model instance of V model and spiral model. It easy to dived into isolated stage. Which is perfect for project because one stage complete another stage started .so it is sure that the stage is complete. Each stage realize on when previous stage complete. Every stage has a miles stone. It is easy to know about a project to se Waterfall model because it has various stages
V model: I cont like v-model because of:
-emphasize on testing.
— Time consuming
— Waste money because of taste in all phases.
Spiral model: it’s difficult to represent its not understandable to project team.
Visual forms of communication
System acceptance test
Business Requirement
Analysis
Design
Code & test
Integration Test
Fig: Water fall Model

40
40
0
0
40
40
Fig: Activity Network Diagram
Fig: Mind Map
Life cycle model
Written explanation
Waterfall Model:
Waterfall model is a popular life cycle of the project life cycle model . Often considered the classic approach to the project development life cycle, the waterfall model describes a development method that is linear and sequential. Waterfall development has distinct goals for each phase of development.. Once a phase of development is completed, the development proceeds to the next phase and there is no turning back.
Advantages / Disadvantages
– Most-widely used process model
– Controls schedules, budgets & documentation
– Tends to favor well-understood system aspects over poorly understood system components
– Does not detect development areas behind schedule early in the lifecycle stages.
Business Requirement: what is requiring in a business to do met in order to successes of a project.Establishes the components for building the system, including the row matatiels of a project and other necessary components
Analysis: in analysis stage of a project a project manager is accept the all knowledge of a project how to solve it when it’s solved (project).
Design: The design defines the major components and the interaction of those components, but the design does not define the structure of each component. It is determine the external interfaces and tools to use in the project.
Code & test: Implements the detailed design specification this only for code and Determines whether the project meets the specified requirements and finds any errors present in the code.
System acceptance test: Acceptance testing is conducted within the testing area .its purpose is to allow the customer to confirm that the complete system. A detailed acceptance test plan is produced prior to testing which identifies the test to be conduct.
Mind map
A Mind map which represent a project with a graphics. Mind map is a diagram used to represent words, ideas, tasks or other items linked to and arranged radically around a central key word or idea. It is used to generate, visualize, structure and classify ideas, and as an aid in study, organization, problem solving, decision making, and writing.
Mind mapping, on the other hand, is a more intuitive way to manage projects, particularly if you have a lot of responsibilities and it’s easy to let something slip if it’s not right in front of you
Mind map show the level Strategic, Tactical, Operational And who is responsible for a particular work of a project.
Activity network
Activity Networks is one of the most popular planning techniques. However, the activity networks diagrams have since been applied to activity planning for a wide range of projects. The approach is very scalable, enabling it to be applied effectively to the planning of activities spanning even a very short time frame. The activity network is a diagram that represents the activities required and their inter-dependencies, their start and finish dates and the time necessary for their completion. The resources required for each activity are also included on the diagram. Activity Networks are made up of a series of activity boxes, each of which depicts a discrete activity or task.
It is easy to know of a project details by using activity network such as
Early Start Time: Est. represent of the start time of a project
Duration: How long time the project continues.
Early finished time: when the project complete
Activity description: this is which task is depends other task.
Last Start Time: Last finished time minus Duration
Last finished time: Last Start Time of succeeding activity
Float & Critical Path: once the resources required to complete each activity have been identified and the activity network updated to reflect these, then the start and finish dates can be added. With the shape and size of the planned area of work now visible, the total cost of the resources can be calculated. There will always be a critical path running through any project, from the first activity to the last. The critical path is defined as that series of activities that have zero float. The concept of float is central to critical path analysis, as it represents the ability to schedule an activity, or sequence of activities, within a flexible time slot rather than having to perform it immediately. This enables the more efficient management of resources across all of the activities in the network.
How to calculate Float of a project
Reading through activity networks from left to right gives the total duration of the planned work. Reading back through the network, subtracting each duration shows those activities that have any spare time. This spare time, known as float, is a very useful concept in relation to resource scheduling and smoothing. Float identifies parcels of time that can be used to introduce flexibility into the planned work, enabling the more efficient use of the available resources.

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Summary: project Lifecycles model which represent the Controls schedules, budgets & documentation with graphics about a project .Activity Network which is needs for time management of a project such as est,eft lst,lft float,critical path etc, Mind Map It is used to generate, visualize, structure and classify ideas, and as an aid in study, organization, problem solving, decision making, and writing.
Task-3
On the theme of team selection and management, carry out research and, from your findings, draft
Clearly structured notes on the team working theories devised by:
• Tuck man
• Belbin
• Myers-Briggs
Write a summary of how knowledge of each theory might assist a project manager in the selection and development of an effective project team.
Write notes that show how to assess the risk of team failure, using a risk matrix to document at least TWO possible risk scenarios, such as loss of key personnel or infighting between team-mates.
Summaries the contingency plans you would call into effect, if the risks were realized.
1700
SUMMARY of Tuck man theory:
Tuck man model explains that as the team develops maturity and ability, relationships establish, and the leader changes leadership style. Beginning with a directing style, moving through coaching, then participating, finishing delegating and almost detached. At this point the team may produce a successor leader and the previous leader can move on to develop a new team.
Tuck man theory basically consists of four thing

How to create a project group
Storming 2
Forming 1
Performing 4
3
Norming
Forming
In the beginning step of a project which is forming the team is assembled and the task is allocated Firstly. Team members tend to behave independently and although goodwill may exist they do not know each other well enough to unconditionally trust one another. Time is spent planning, collecting information and bonding.
Storming
The second step of a project which is Storming The team starts to address the task suggesting ideas from a project. Different ideas may compete for ascendancy and if badly managed this phase can be very destructive for the team. Relationships between team members will be made or broken in this phase and some may never recover.
In extreme cases the team can become stuck in the Storming phase. If a team is too focused on consensus they may decide on a plan which is less effective in completing the task for the sake of the team. This carries its own set of problems. It is essential that a team has strong facilitative leadership in this phase.
Norming
The thread step of a project which is Storming in Tuck man model As the team moves out of the Storming phase they will enter the Norming phase.
This tends to be a move towards harmonious working practices with teams agreeing on the rules and values by which they operate.
Team leaders can take a step back from the team at this stage as individual members take greater responsibility.
The risk during the Norming stage is that the team becomes complacent and loses either their creative edge or the drive that brought them to this phase.
Performing
The four step of a project which is performing in Tuck man model Not all teams make it to the Performing phase, which is essentially an era of high performance.
Performing teams are identified by high levels if independence, motivation, knowledge and competence.
Decision making is collaborative and dissent is expected and encouraged as there will be a high level of respect in the communication between team members.
Summary of Myers-Briggs theory:
The Myers-Briggs personality typology, unlike some other typing theories such as the Enneagram or Four Temperaments, uses a combination of several aspects to arrive at a “composite” type, based on the interaction and relative weight of different behavioral and attitudinal factors. The types are expressed as combinations of four letters, as follows:
E or I (Extravert or Introvert)
S or N (Sensing or intuitive)
T or F (Thinking or Feeling)
J or P (Judging or Perceiving)
Summary of Belbin theory:
The term Team Roles was first coined by Dr Meredith Belbin, but is now used more generically to describe team types. A Team Role is defined by Meredith Belbin as: “A tendency to behave, contribute and interrelate with others in a particular way.” It is usually written Team Roles, but can also be found as teamroles or team-roles.
Belbin Team Roles improve self-knowledge and understanding among individuals and teams. Team Roles depict a current behavioural pattern ,Preferences aren’t fixed, since many factors can influence behaviour, whether a new job, promotion or circumstances outside work.

Co-ordinator: The co-ordinator is a person-oriented leader. This person is trusting, accepting, dominant and is committed to team goals and objectives. The co-ordinator is a positive thinker who approves of goal attainment, struggle and effort in others.
Shaper: The shaper is a task-focused leader who abounds in nervous energy, who has a high motivation to achieve and for whom winning is the name of the game.
Resource Investigator: The resource investigator is someone who explores opportunities and develops contacts. Resource investigators are good negotiators who probe others for information and support and pick up other’s ideas and develop them.
Company Worker: Implementers are aware of external obligations and are disciplined, conscientious and have a good self-image. They tend to be tough-minded and practical, trusting and tolerant, respecting established traditions.
Team worker: Team workers make helpful interventions to avert potential friction and enable difficult characters within the team to use their skills to positive ends. They tend to keep team spirit up and allow other members to contribute effectively.
Specialist The specialist provides knowledge and technical skills which are in rare supply within the team. They are often highly introverted and anxious and tend to be self-starting, dedicated and committed
Risk of Team failure
Diagnosing Team Failure
Teams are put together to combine the knowledge and expertise of team members, this helps to gain greater strategic thinking and enhanced creativity in business solutions. When teams fail to perform as expected, an attempt is usually made to pinpoint and blame the people responsible. However, the answer doesn’t always lie in replacing the team or firing the ‘scapegoat’ but in answering the question, ‘what went wrong with the group as a whole and why?’ Unless we make an attempt to identify the underlying causes, it’s unlikely the solution will be found.
Factors Identifying Six Common Problem Areas

Risk Matrix
A Risk Matrix is a tool used in the Risk Assessment process, it allows the severity of the risk of an event occurring to be determined.
http://www.databasepublish.com/solutions/project-services/risk-management
The identified risks are collected into a Risk Matrix. The Risk Matrix includes the rating of severity, mitigation strategy, owner and contingency plan for each risk. These proposed actions are formulated to address the risks that can be avoided upon implementation of a mitigation strategy. For example

Impact
Probability

High
No Trust between team member

High
Poor Role Clarity

High
Poor Time Management

Medium
Faulty Analysis of Market Conditions and Flawed Company Policies

Law
Ineffective Interaction and Unproductive Team Meetings

High

H/H
Mitigation/Contingency Required

H/H
Mitigation/Contingency Required

H/H
Mitigation/Contingency Required

H/M
Mitigation/Contingency Required

H/L
Mitigation/Contingency
Recommended

Midium

M/H
Mitigation/Contingency Required

M/H
Mitigation/Contingency Required

H/H
Mitigation/Contingency Required

M/M
Mitigation/Contingency Recommended

M/L
Mitigation/Contingency Optional

Low

H/H
Mitigation/Contingency
Required

H/H
Mitigation/Contingency
Required

L/H
Mitigation/Contingency Recommended

L/M
Mitigation/Contingency Optional

L/L
Mitigation/Contingency Optional

Probability / Impact Ranking Chart for Risk Matrix of a project
The company or organisation then would calculate what levels of Risk they can take with different events. This would be done by weighing up the risk of an event occurring against the cost to implement safety and the benefit gained from it.
Contingency
Introduction:A project contingency or management reserve is an amount the consultant or the contractor may want to include the unexpected resources that may be overlooked or tasks that may have to be redone because they might not work for the first time. Contingency provision is to cover the elements of unforeseen minor changes in the technical and design specification.
Contingency Plan: A defined set of tasks agreed upon by appropriate members of the Project Team that will be undertaken to manage the Project Team in the event the Risk occurs, roughly equivalent to an organization’s various Disaster Plans. Tasks should be assignable to a single accountable resource.
Given the substantive effect that the Risk is judged to have on the Project, the Contingency Plan may be relatively short with the realization that if it is invoked, it will ultimately give rise to a larger Project Plan detailed elsewhere. Otherwise, the guidelines for granularity etc. of individual tasks are identical to those described for the Mitigation Strategy.
All risks with a must have an associated Contingency Plan
If the decision has already been made to cancel the project if the Risk occurs, the Contingency Plan should stat
 

Stakeholders in Coca-cola | International Business

COCA-COLA
Introduction:
Coca-cola is the most familiar product in the world, and is one of the largest selling soft drink from the past. Coca-cola was invented on 8th may 1886 by Dr John Stith Pemberton in Georgia and the brand was owned in 1889 by Asa Candler who had made most of his money by selling coca cola. Coca-cola was introduced as a soda fountain beverage in the beginning-made by mixing coca-cola syrup with carbonate water at Jacob’s pharmacy, Atlanta. At present Coca-cola provides about 400 brands in over nearly 200 countries that make coca-cola the world’s largest beverage company. In a survey of 2001 coca-cola was the 41st on the list of the 100 strongest economic entities. There are some coca-cola brands given below:

Coca-cola zero
Diet coke
Sprite
Fanta
Minute maid
Schweppes
Five alive
Oasis
Roses
Kia ora and etc

Reason for choosing coca-cola:
The Coca-Cola Company is one of the successful organizations in all over the world. The Coca-Cola Company has survived and grown day by day in an instable market because of its marketing power, innovation and productivity. In recent years coca-cola becomes a part of human body. The Coca-Cola Company and more than 300 worldwide bottling partners work together as the Coca-Cola system to deliver daily refreshment and drive their global success. Coca-cola has live positively commitment attitude to make a positive difference in the world by redesigning the way they work and live so sustainability is a part of everything they do. The coca-cola follows a responsible marketing technique (The coca-cola’s “advertising and marketing to children policy” is for children who are under the age of 12 to prevent the drinking of coca-cola products outside the presence of their parents or caregivers). The Coca-Cola Company focused on strategic workplace program, which helps in assurance of success.
Stakeholders:
A stakeholder is that person, group or organization who has direct or indirect stake in a company or organization, and can affect or affected by the organization’s policies, actions or objectives. In a business or organization there are two types of stakeholders, which are internal and external.
Major stakeholders of coca-cola:
Employees: employees are major stakeholders of an organization.
Mission statement and its roles: a mission is a strategy that has to do with full of efforts to achieve a vision by an organization. A mission statement should give an overall goal, define what the organization is, stated clearly, guide the actions, to the point, easy to understand and provide a sense of direction for an organization. By mission statement it is easy to understand the purpose of an organization to shareholders and investors, who are going to invest in that organization. A mission statement is planned to make sure that all the stakeholders are clear on the purpose of the company, so everyone can pay their attention on same goals. A mission statement of an organization tells the reader about the organization that what it stands for.
Mission of coca-cola: the first step of coca-cola starts with its mission. In mission statement coca-cola company declares its purpose as:

To inspire moment of happiness and optimism
To create value and make a difference
To refresh the world

In this mission statement coca-cola is clear about its purpose that what it stands for, what is the main aim, what it aspires to be, give its overall goal. The stakeholders can easily understand the mission of coca-cola and can work with passion to achieve its vision.
Vision statement and its roles: a vision is a broad image of the future that what the future should be, and the statement is focused on tomorrow. The vision statement has details of an organization’s future, inspiration of organization, future plans, aims and objectives. Vision statement should be clear, positive and inspirational, not too long. Vision statement just gives a direction for a business planning it does not tell how to get there, but it captures passion. Writing a vision statement it is a very important task and needs much time, positive approach, knowledge about services and technology, future plans, input from other peoples, and combination of all important words in one short paragraph.
Vision statement of coca-cola: the vision of coca-cola guides every aspect of business by describing the needs to achieve quality growth. The vision statement of coca-cola is:

People: be a great place to work where people are inspired to be the best they can be.
Partners: nurture a winning network of customers and suppliers, together we create mutual, enduring values.
Planet: be a responsible citizen that makes a difference by helping build and support sustainable communities.
Portfolio: bring to the world a portfolio of quality beverage brands that anticipate and satisfy people’s desires and needs.
Productivity: be a highly effective, lean and fast moving organization.
Profit: maximize long-term return to shareowners while being mindful of our overall responsibilities.

In this vision statement coca-cola company shows the image of what they want to do in future, and where they want to see them for a long-time. Over many years coca-cola focused on the vision that helps them to deliver on their focus.
Culture: The thing that makes a society different from others is called culture, which describes experiences, attitude, values and beliefs of an organization. In an organization a set of symbols and signs that the organization is recognized by is a culture. Culture is a social interaction, and it is an important thing in success and failure of an organization. An organization’s culture is a standard behavior that the member of organization should use to achieve the goals.
Coca-cola’s culture: coca-cola has a unique culture, which is based on passion and the member of the company has the ability to change this passion into action. Coca-cola’s winning culture defines the attitudes and behaviors that will be required to them to make their vision a reality.
Culture Values of coca-cola:
Leadership: the courage to shape a better future
Innovation: imagine, delight, create and seek
Collaboration: leverage collective genius
Integrity: be real
Accountability: if it is to be, it’s up to me
Quality: what we do, we do well
Diversity: as inclusive as our brands
Passion: committed in heart and mind
Ethics of coca-cola:

Act with integrity
Be honest
Follow the law
Comply with the code
Be accountable

 

Stakeholders and External Bodies in Education

Explain the roles of stakeholders and external bodies in education and training
What are the stakeholders?
A stakeholder can be anyone who is interested in the business; they can be an individual, groups or organisations that are affected by the activity of the business. There are two types of stakeholders which are Internal and external.
Internal stakeholders are groups within a business which are:
The teachers, students, parents, support staff, and midday assistants.
The External stakeholders are groups outside a business which are:
The government, SENDCO’s, local authority, social workers neighbours, trainers, suppliers, community, agencies.    
School stakeholders are interested in the curriculum and can shape the school curriculum operation which has been designed for the students and will be the ones influenced by it. The teacher primary role is to write the curriculum by a daily lesson plan, weekly lesson plan, term plan and yearly plans, to ensure that the children learn all the information they need to learn to be able to progress to the next year and understand the information within the next class this is all done by adapted to meet the needs of the individual within the class. Parents are stakeholders as they pay for their child/children education through there tax’s so their voices are heard very loud, Parent is also a stakeholder as the teacher relies on parents to help teach their children by sitting with them to read, practice their writing and helping with homework, etc. (Foskett and Lumby, 2003: 87)     
Explain how being accountable to stakeholders and external bodies impacts on organisations in education and training
Accountability stakeholders are those who have an interaction in a range of ways in the school including the educational achievements and wellbeing of its pupils.
The stakeholders take a number of different forms, reflecting on the different ways in which the life and work of schools are governed locally and keeping up nationally.
A common impact that can be found is the stakeholder not being able to meet at the same time due to other commitments, information not provided in enough time to have the meeting and not communicating correctly with each other.
Way these impacts can become over come is by having a group email for all the stakeholders so they can receive all the relevant information when needed and stakeholders informing within enough time to try and allow everyone to be able to join in with the meeting, discussion, a change to an idea event, or even the curriculum. By having a group email, chat or messages can stop information being misunderstanding that been passed on, Even though the fact that the information has been passed on is good, you must always make sure what is being passed on is a clear indication of the situation and that it has been received clearly too.
In conclusion, many barriers can be formed in lots of different situations however every barrier has a solution and can be overcome by evaluating the problem at hand and working together to solve it.
Explain why it is important to work in partnership with employers and other stakeholders in education and training
When working in partnership this provides a clear understanding which makes everyone aware of their different roles and responsibility then need to carry out. By making everyone aware of their role and responsibilities this help to make a successful partnership work, as communicating is a number one key to be able to achieve this. You also need to remember to share the correct information, guilds and any updates this can be done in writing, verbal or both and ensure that everyone understands the changes that taken place so all the employee, stakeholders and professionals are able to support positive and improved outcomes.
 As a teaching assistant I use a variety of communication systems to support and promote partnership, within the workplace, on a daily basis, some of the communication systems we use within the school include daily plans, communication book and dairy. We use all this different communicate items to work in partnership with the parents, colleges and other partners are able to know what happing throughout the day what the young adults are working on this also work for good team work because if we’re busy doing a activity the other staff can read the plans and know what to do or what we’re working on. 
I work very closely with all the staff in the room and when helping to plan for the children I need to listen to all staffs input and what worked and what didn’t work throughout the current planning
To be able to provide the best for the young adults for the coming weeks the staff analyse work throughout the week which I also use this information to help provide activities for them. By doing this the staff feel valued, respected and enjoy being able to have their import into the young adults activity.  
Colleagues
Working with colleagues it’s very important for everyone, We need to work in the same way and following the same rule and regulations the employee and employers I work with everyday are the best source of advice and information to be able to deal when issues accrue. By all following the same rules and guidance we are able to fine the records easy and be able to use or refer to the information when needed. Regular meeting with staff can raise any issues that arise and solve the problem before an issue arises, new ideas can be discussed and can be trial in place if any good and see how they go.    
Other professionals
Working with other professionals gives me a different point of view on the situation and this way I receive support from qualified and understanding people. I can share information and seek advice. This way I get an excellent feedback and much-needed support. Some individuals have complex needs which are very difficult to cope with and seeking support from others is very important. Organizations receive different training and do specialize in giving help. Therefore maintaining a good relationship with them is important to provide quality support for Service Users. Working in partnership with advocates is needed when Individuals have a lack of capacity and have no one who can act on their behalf. Working together with independent advocates shows that setting follows the guidelines and regulations. .Independent person can see the different point of the situations discussed and help to decide what the best is for the person concerned.
Analyse the impact of being accountable to stakeholders and external bodies on curriculum design, delivery and assessment in own area of specialism
I currently work in a special need school with children with all stages of ability and also have worked in a mainstream school with children with special need was removed from the testing as they the school was worried that the children’s grade would have a huge impact on the school overall score, which I feel that has a major impact on the individuals in some cases the children are made to sit the test when they don’t have the ability or ready for the test which put a lot of stress on the child causing children to become stressed, depressed, have anxiety and even panic attacks to pass the test. The teachers also have a lot of pressure to ensure the children pass the test and get the grade they need for the school to pass. “The national curriculum test undertaken by thousands of primary school children across the country each year, is producing unreliable data causing some pupils to be incorrectly labelled as low ability, and others to go on to secondary school with unrealistically high grades”. (Getty)

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We recently had a child join my class with very unrealistic data saying he couldn’t do half the things that he can do due to the testing with was carried out on him before coming to our school. So was put with the low ability children which were the wrong area for him which led to lots of behaviour issue as he wasn’t being challenged with the work he was being set.
I feel that they test are unnecessary and could be tested in another way to prevent the stress for the young children. Some country doesn’t test their children or give coursework but has the best pass rate within the country I feel this is because the children are less likely to develop mental illnesses at young ages and able to cope with the work they are given.   
Last year, parents across the country took their children out of school for a day’s protest over the exams to demonstrate the benefits of creative learning away from rigorous testing.
The government has since agreed to get rid of the SAT for six and seven-year-olds from next year but these raise the expectations for the year six assessment.
As you can see this impacts all the stakeholders involved from the children, to the government and everyone in between as with the upset from parent removing not sending to school to stop their child not to have to do the test which affects the school scoring and the attendance then affects like the government as they have to change the legislation regarding this situations to be able to provide the best for the children.  
References

 

Accrual Accounting and Stakeholders

Assignment 01

Part A

1(a). A stakeholder is any individual or entity that has an interest in the success or failure of an enterprise or venture. Stakeholders have a significant influence on decisions relating to the financial and operational aspects of an organization (Smart, Awan & Baxter, 2013). Some of the notable stakeholders who have an interest in accounting information include owners and investors, managers, creditors and lenders, employees, and the government.

1(b)

Owners and Investors: Owners need accounting information to decide whether they should use additional resources in the business or invest elsewhere. This is dependent on the profitability of the overall business, and such information will be derived from the income statement. Investors rely on accounting information to decide whether investing in the business is a good fit in their investment portfolio or not (Smart, Awan & Baxter, 2013). They will use the balance sheet to assess the financial position of the company and the income statement to assess the stability of business revenues and hence the risk of investment.

Managers: The budget preparation process and monitoring the implementation of the budget is a critical role of the managers and to make decisions on what items to include in the budget, accounting information is essential. To come with reliable estimates of costs and revenues, the managers will heavily rely on the income statement, cash flow statement and balance sheet.

Creditors and Lenders: Before extending loan or credit facilities to business, creditors and lenders must evaluate the business’ creditworthiness (Smart, Awan & Baxter, 2013). Creditors and lenders will, therefore, require information on liquidity and securable assets which are obtained from the statement of financial position.

Employees: Before and after joining a company, an employee will evaluate the financial health of the business to determine his/her job and income security and stability. Profitability and employee benefits (which can be extracted from the income statement) are essential when making this decision.

Government: To ensure all businesses comply with established laws, rules, and regulation, the government must first decide the sizes of each business and what regulations apply to them. The net profit is usually used to determine the sizes of enterprises, and it is extracted from the statement of comprehensive income or the income statement.

1(c). Current and Prospective Investors

Current and prospective investors are interested in the profitability and risk of their investments. Current investors will use this information to decide whether to increase or decrease their investment in the venture while the prospective investors will rely on this information when deciding the fitness of the intended investment in their portfolio.

1(d). Managers have three general information need, that is, to plan, monitor, and make strategic decisions. Planning involves the allocation of resources towards achieving the business objectives such as through the budgetary process (Smart, Awan & Baxter, 2013). Monitoring involves ensuring that the allocated resources are not only used well but effectively. Making long-term decisions entails forecasting future events and their effects and making sure the business doesn’t sink because of such occurrences. Managers use accounting information to perfect these three critical aspects of management and to ensure the decisions they make are backed by reliable estimates.

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1(e). Solvency refers to the ability of a business to meet its long-term financial obligations. It determines the ability of the business to continue operations into the foreseeable future. If the business is having solvency problems, it could be declared insolvent in the foreseeable future, and the creditors will lose their loaned funds. Security, on the other hand, relates to the size and value of assets that can act as collateral for the credit facilities extended (Smart, Awan & Baxter, 2013). If the assets have low market value or the business lack title to them, the creditors will not be able to recoup their loaned funds if the business is liquidated or declared insolvent.

2. General Purpose Vs. Special Purpose Financial Statements

A special purpose financial statement is prepared and presented to a limited number of users and for a special purpose. Tax reporting, bank reporting, and industry-specific reporting are some of the specific purposes for which specific-purpose financial statements. General purpose financial statement, on the other hand, are prepared and presented to an open-ended number of users and for the provision of financial information about the reporting entity (Garrison, 2010). They are issues throughout the year and include statement of financial position, income statement, statement of changes in equity, and cash flow statement. The significance of this distinction is to ensure the businesses not only meets its reporting requirements but provide relevant information to all and intended stakeholders.

3. Steps to Ensure Reliability of Financial Statements

To ensure financial statements are reliable, they should be presented free of errors. Training of accounting staff is the first step in ensuring the financial statements are accurate and free of errors. After training, the staff should be monitored, and their work regularly reviewed to avoid erroneous financial reporting (Collins, 2012). This two steps will ensure the process of capturing transactional data is accurate, the codification of the data is reliable, and competency of those reviewing the codified data is professional.

4. Implications of Following Assumptions/Principles

Going concern: the business will not under any circumstance be forced to liquidate its assets or to stop its operations in the foreseeable future. Therefore by relying on this principle accountants can defer revenue recognition until a later period.

Accrual basis: Revenue is recognized when earned despite when it is received and expenses deducted when incurred irrespective of whether it is paid or not. If a fiscal business year ends in December and an invoice is generated in November but actual pay received in January the following year, under accrual basis, the company will be forced to pay tax on that invoice even though it hasn’t received the cash.

Period Reporting: If the accounting period includes the preparation of internal reports frequently, such as weekly reports, it becomes challenging to measure and capture business performance effectively. This is because business activities will have to be captured and apportioned among the narrow period and one transaction may be allocated to more than one periods.

Understandability: The accountants responsible for the preparation of financial statements should prepare them with the view of the user as opposed to their own needs. That is, understandability of the financial reports by the intended users takes precedence over the accountant needs over such reports.

Relevance: The accounting information should be provided more frequently to ensure its relevance. This implies complicating the measurement of business performance since frequent preparation of reports leads to one transaction appearing in more than one period.

Reliability: Only those transactions which can be verified with objective evidence ought to be recorded in the financial reports. This implies forcing the business to keep track of all its purchase receipts, canceled checks, and promissory notes. It is also challenging to observe this principle when recording reserves such allowance for doubtful debts.

Comparability: Financial statements should be comparable across time and industry and must, therefore, be prepared using similar accounting standards and principles. This has the implication of denying business flexibility in changing its accounting methods since it has to consider what others in the industry or what the business is currently using.

5. Accounting Entity Concept

The business and its owners are treated as two separate parties in accounting. As such the entity concept states that transactions relating to the business owners should be recorded and reported separately from those of the business entity. This has the implication of dictating that different accounting records should be used to maintain the transactions of the business and those of its owners and the assets and liabilities of owners are entirely excluded from the business’ financial reports (Garrison, 2010). On the positive side, this concept has the implication of ensuring records of the business and the owners are not intermingled therefore easing the process of discerning the financial and taxable results of the business.

6. Monetary Convention

The monetary convention in accounting refers to the requirement that only monetary transactions ought to be recorded in the financial statements, and such transactions should be recorded in the same monetary unit to avoid confusion. The main advantage of this convention is to ensure the balance of transactions by converting all transactions into a single currency using a specified exchange rate (Needles, 2013). The rationale is that every transaction must have a value, that value should be converted into money, and the money must be converted into a single monetary unit.

7. Internal Control Measures

Segregation of duties: under this internal control measure, various steps in the accounting process are allocated to different people. This is done to ensure that no one single individual has absolute control over the process and cannot, therefore, engage in fraudulent activities. This has the implication of ensuring the recording, physical custody, and authorization to dispose and asset should not be done by one person.

Independent internal verification: This ensures that strict observance of rules and no employee in the organization is shortcutting the internal controls. Independent here means people who aren’t associated with the accounting department will audit the internal accounting controls and their effectiveness (Needles, 2013). This has the implication of strengthening the separation of duties by addressing the problem of collusion among accounting personnel to defraud the company.

Part C

1. Cash Vs. Accrual Basis of Accounting

The dissimilarity between cash and accrual basis of accounting rests in the timing of when revenues and expenses are recorded in the financial reports. Under the cash basis of accounting, revenues and expenses are only recorded when money is received or paid out. Accrual accounting, on the other hand, recognizes revenue when earned irrespective whether cash is received or not, and expenses when incurred but not necessarily paid for (Weil, 2013). The cash method is usually used by small businesses with annual profits of less than $5 million and for personal financial management. The accrual basis is a requirement under tax law for companies making more the $5 million in profits per year and only accounts prepared under accrual basis can be audited.

2. Capital Vs. Revenue Expenditure

The difference between capital and revenue expenditure lies in the usage of the assets, that is, whether they will be used over an extended period or a short period. Capital expenditure includes all fixed assets that are projected to be productive assets over a long period. Revenue expenditure, on the other hand, includes costs related to specific items or operating periods such as repairs and maintenance costs (Warren, 2013). While revenue expenditures are expensed in the current accounting period, capital expenditures are depreciated over a long period

The distinction between revenue and capital expenditures is very crucial since the way these expenditures are treated and classified can adversely affect the financial health of a company (Warren, 2013). For instance, purchase of a production plant is a capital expenditure and the purchase cost should not be expensed in the year of purchase but should be gradually expensed via depreciation over the useful life of the plant. Expensing such an expenditure in the year of purchase may lead to a company reporting a net loss when in essence it made profits.

3. Accrual Accounting

Accrual accounting requires businesses to record revenues when they are earned (when a sale occur) and expenses when incurred (when billed). The timing of actual payment or receipt of money in these transactions is not essential (Weil, 2013). That is, revenues and expenses are recorded in the accounting period when they are earned or incurred, and the actual payments and receipt of cash may be in a different accounting period. Similarly, companies are required by GAAP to match their expenses with revenues, that is the matching principle. Under this principle revenues and expenses should be recorded at the same time.

References

Collins, D. L., Pasewark, W. R., & Riley, M. E. (2012). Financial reporting outcomes under rules-based and principles-based accounting standards. Accounting Horizons, 26(4), 681-705.

Garrison, R. H., Noreen, E. W., Brewer, P. C., & McGowan, A. (2010). Managerial accounting. Issues in Accounting Education, 25(4), 792-793.

Needles, B. E., Powers, M., & Crosson, S. V. (2013). Principles of accounting. Cengage Learning.

Smart, M. J., Awan, N., & Baxter, R. (2013). Principles of accounting (5th Ed.). New Zealand: Pearson.

Warren, C., Reeve, J. M., & Duchac, J. (2013). Financial & managerial accounting. Cengage Learning.

Weil, R. L., Schipper, K., & Francis, J. (2013). Financial accounting: an introduction to concepts, methods, and uses. Cengage Learning.

 

Effect of Feedback on Relationships and Communication in Stakeholders

Assignment Title

Write a report that discusses how feedback can be used to improve interpersonal relationships and organisational communication with key stakeholders.  Within this report review and reflect on the effectiveness of personal communication and influencing style against your current job role and team/organisational objectives. Include a personal development plan of strategies for improvement of personal communication skills based on feedback in a work context.

Contents page

Assignment title

Contents page

Introduction/Main body A/Types of feedback

Types of feedback/Written feedback/Positive and Negative feedback

Positive and Negative/Insights Discovery Feedback

Insights Discovery/Main body B

Main body B

Main body B/Conclusion

Appendices

 Appendixes

 Appendices

 Appendices

 Appendices

 Appendices

 Appendices

 References

 Bibliography

Introduction

The report will analyse how feedback can be used to improve interpersonal relationships and organisational communication, through the identification of different types of feedback. The report will then review the effect of personal communication and Influencing style as it affects my job role at vaultex. This information will be used to construct a personal development plan.

Main body A- Feedback and improvement in interpersonal relationships and organisational communication with key stakeholders

Interpersonal relationships are a major component, in our ability to form meaningful relationships, these rest largely on interpersonal communication competencies (DeVito pg.196).Research of service-profit chain (Heskett1994, Sasser and Schlesinger1997) analysed how companies achieve top performance. They highlighted the way people work with each other and the relationships they make improves communication and increases productivity on a personal, team and organisational level. It is important that each and every employee develops an effective interpersonal relationship with co- employees in the workplace. This can be achieved through the use of effective feedback. Office vibe statistics strongly support the value of feedback, it was shown that 4 out of 10 workers are actively disengaged when they get little or no feedback, 82% of employees appreciate positive and negative feedback and 43% of highly engaged employees receive feedback at least once a week as opposed to 18% of low engagement employees(Folkman,J 2013). Feedback is the receiver’s basic response to the interpreted message (Bartol&Martin 2008). Companies generally feedback either informally or formally. Tools such as 360 degree feedback (see appendix1) encourages feedback from various stakeholders including managers, supervisors, peers and individual self-evaluation. These key stakeholders can be analysed using the stakeholder analysis map (Thompson R 2018) (see appendix2). This measures the interest and power of your key stakeholders. Foster and La Hurley (2008) found that 360 feedback can increase communication, foster employee development and increase productivity and overall efficiency of a team. This shows the relevance of this tool of feedback in forming relationships and communication. There are numerous ways feedback is used at Vaultex and these collaborative collective platforms can take the form of written and verbal feedback. Written feedback involves emails, display boards and written up reviews/errors. Verbal feedback is phone calls, face to face meetings either one to one or as a team. Although there are different ways this feedback can be portrayed. For example positive or negative. This will have an effect on the value of this feedback. The value is also measured by the smart analysis (Doran 1981), this should be approached with every form and type of feedback (see appendix 3).

Types of feedback

Verbal- team meetings/individual meetings

Interpersonal relationships are key to an organisations success. If someone feels excluded it’s a rejecting and painful experience and the organisational communication is likely to suffer (Shutz1958). (Shutz1958). Feedback can develop these relationships and improve organisational communication. For example Vaultex uses one to one meetings with a manager and employee to give feedback. This is effective because it gives personal time with your key stakeholder. Forming an interpersonal relationship and improving organisational communication will ensure that projects are on track and career goals fulfilled. For example my manager Michelle Cleary, a key stakeholder to my role is placed on this graph on “keep informed” and “manage closely” quadrant. This is because during my apprenticeship programme, my line manager will measure my performance closely. I need to impress and ensure effective communication happens. Individual feedback through one to one meetings will improve this interpersonal relationship because it increases bonding through engagement. As it personalises it to both parties, allowing specific target setting (Antonioni 1996). In comparison a team meeting as a form of feedback, may lead to less relationship building and organisational communication with key stakeholders. This is because people may be less likely to open up in the presence of colleagues and therefore reduce this engagement. This can be shown by the Johari’s window (Luft 1969), when people are not at an acquaintance with other people in a group they will be less likely to communicate because of being in the “hidden stage” of the model (see appendix4). This means they are less confident to engage in discussion because they don’t know the people well enough. This can limit the effectiveness of the feedback message. Individual meetings will avoid this “hidden stage” as it increases intimacy and personal communication with your key stakeholder, opening up the “hidden stage” of the model as your relationship improves as you get to know the other person. However team feedback can always be useful to. As seeing others seek and receive feedback increases trust with each other (Mamatoglu 2008). The commitment trust theory (Morgan1994) states that a fundamental factor for a relationship to be successful is trust.

Written feedback

Another type of feedback is written feedback. This type of feedback may not have such an impact on interpersonal relationships because the levels of intimacy are not as high as with face to face meeting. This can be shown by Albert Mehrabian who said that only 7% of information we process is words, 55% of this information is body language and 38% is tone. Therefore the feedback given through a written email may be lost and the value of this method must be questioned. The intimacy and emotional understanding is a key feature to building relationships (Susan Ritchie date). These levels of emotions are low which shows an individual may not take it in compared to face to face meetings. Furthermore Face to face meetings show their quality of communication by a study from the Harvard business review. It was noted that among people recruiting for a cause, face to face communication were 34 times more likely to succeed than an email. This shows how powerful verbal communication can be compared to written forms in value to the receiver and less effect on relationships and organisational communication.

Positive and negative feedback

The effect of written feedback and Verbal feedback will only be as powerful as the type of feedback being given. Positive feedback works on the premise of building on a person’s strengths. Positive reinforcement is established through positive feedback. Positive reinforcement is the process of encouraging or establishing a pattern of behaviour by offering reward when the behaviour is exhibited (Bandura 1977). For example in Vaultex I received positive feedback from my line manager saying “I was preforming well feeding the cobra in the machine room”, a room that’s dedicated to counting our cash. This positive reinforcement ensured I repeated the behaviour. A Gallup survey found that 67% of employees whose managers focused on their strengths were fully engaged. Engagement is key for organisational communication and forming relationships as I am repeating the behaviour due to praise through feedback. This is emphasised by Karen Bridbord, who says that we like people who help us feel good about ourselves. The art of recognising others at work is key to building a sound relationship (Karen Bridbord2015). Therefore understanding Michelle’s aspects for me and fulfilling them will improve our interpersonal relationship and communication in Vaultex. Michelle’s high concern for me and my production can describe her leadership style. Referring to Blake moutons grid (Blake 1964) (see appendix5) High concern for people and production refers to a “team management style”. With an Understanding of Michelle’s leadership style I am following the “manage closely” part of the stakeholder mapping graph (See appendix2) as I am analysing my key stakeholder. Furthermore Michelle needs to be informed of my performance regularly through this individual feedback as she is key to my apprenticeship programme which is why she is also mapped on this quadrant. Positive feedback can also be linked to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. The feeling of belonging to a company that comes with receiving positive feedback is a level in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs pyramid (see appendix6) (Maslow1943). When an employee gets a positive response they feel acknowledged in their role which builds security in terms of career. Once security is achieved on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs an individual can achieve self-actualisation. Self-actualisation creates personal morale levels. Maslow identified morale to be a key factor on engagement and communication in an organisation as confidence is established with career. Maslow links self-actualisation with increasing personal morale levels, this leads to a feeling of confidence in the role and the ability to develop interpersonal relationships and organisational communication. Overall there is a link between high morale and an increase in interpersonal relationships leading more effective organisation communication with Key stakeholders. Positive feedback in its many forms allows all stakeholders to understand their roles and responsibilities within the business leading to greater productivity and engagement.   

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The other type of feedback is negative feedback and this creates negative reinforcement (skinner1904-1990). Negative feedback is received when not achieving expectations. This improves interpersonal relationships because the negative response acts as a form of constructive feedback to produce positive behaviour change. This can be shown in my organisation as I gained feedback from another one of my key stakeholders, Paul Hannon. Paul as the learning and development manager at Vaultex, his role is to ensure that all apprentices successfully attain the required standard. Therefore on my stakeholder analysis map (see appendix2) he would be placed on the “keep informed” quadrant. I need to regularly communicate with him, as he is key to my success concerning the academic requirement of the apprenticeship. Paul’s concern with performance links to the management style of “high concern for production” on the Blake moutons grid (Blake 1964) .His responsibility is monitoring my performance and shaping targets for me to achieve. This also displays his “high concern for people”. Both Paul and Michelle show “team management style” throughout their communication on the Blake moutons grid. Which illustrates the organisational communication style at Vaultex of a “team management”. Furthermore the negative feedback I received from Paul was concerning my university studies and my lack of effort in the assignments. The negative reinforcement was emphasised here as I know that if this behaviour carries on it will impact negatively on our interpersonal relationship and my career will be at stake.  Therefore my effort and application to my university studies has increased. Indeed this is a key target to area in my pdp(see appendix7). This leads to an improvement in organisational communication with my key stakeholder as now negative feedback is being replaced with positive and our communication is now focused on my achievements rather than problems. This will induce a harmonious atmosphere, developing a bond between manager and employee.

Insights discovery feedback

Another example of how feedback can improve interpersonal relationships and organisational communication with stakeholders is Insights discovery. This course brings together the manager and apprentice at Vaultex. Insights discovery was developed to help people understand themselves, others and build the relationships that will affect them in the workplace. The insights profile works on feedback from a questionnaire about how people react to certain statements. The feedback can improve interpersonal relationships based on questionnaire results. Individuals are presented with a graph that shows different personality types which are colour coded. From this individuals gain an insight into their strengths and weaknesses based on personality type and their communication style (See appendix8). This is a key tool used to improve interpersonal relationships and organisational communication with key stakeholders. As understanding an employee’s personality and temperament style is key for relationship building (Ferguson2010). For example my insights profile showed I had a high red energy (see appendix8), meaning in terms of communication I was very authoritative and driven in my style. It also showed my strengths and weakness, for example a strength was that “I am capable to adopt a number of roles simultaneously” and “I have the ability to constantly generate ideas”. However a colour I lacked on the profile was blue their mantra is “Give me details” (Insights discovery 2018). This is emphasised through my weakness as I “prefer flexibility than routine tasks” and “lack organisation” (See appendix9). Which are key strengths to the personality type of a blue. Therefore insights discovery will help improve interpersonal relationships because I can work on the colours that I lack such as blue to develop relationships with employees and improve my overall productivity. Furthermore this programme helped organisational communication with key stakeholders as individuals attended the course with their managers. This gave them opportunities to understand the personality types of their managers. For example my key stakeholder Michelle’s communication style was “to take things slowly and allow time for a response”. As her energy was a high green. Whereas my red energy would rather take things at a pace and get them done abruptly. Therefore understanding my managers personality and for her to understand mine, will improve our communication. We will understand each other efficiently, through effective organisational communication and bonding. An even greater interpersonal relationship will follow.

Overall there are many different ways feedback can be given, but it is the way the feedback is delivered that impacts on interpersonal relationships and organisational communication with key stakeholders.

Main body B – Review and reflect on the effectiveness of personal communication and influencing style against current Job role and team/organisational objectives and a personal development plan of strategies for improvement of personal communication skills based on feedback in a work context.

From the insights course I can understand my influencing style. Influencing is defined as change that can be an attitude, a perception or a behaviour (Cialdini 2009). Bortons reflective model (Borton1970) (see appendix10). “The what, so what and what next” can determine how effective my influencing style is. The what: what my influencing style is in my job role currently and how this aligns with my team objectives. Currently some of my objectives are to demonstrate role model behaviour, build good relationships with management and teams. I also have to achieve a full competence skill set, learning all the processes efficiently in the business. From feedback with my manager, my influence and personal communication, has not yet met one of the objectives,” developing good relationships with managers”. This is due to poor effort on the university side of the programme. Seeking specific feedback from colleagues using the 360 model will have a positive influence as my assignments will improve. This is shown in the what next: as using 360 degree feedback is put in my PDP to improve my communication and influence. Furthermore feedback from a survey where I asked employees to comment on my influencing style supports my insights profile (see appendix11). The survey showed I was driven and authoritative in tasks however “I lost focus when stuck to routine and didn’t ask questions to push me on the right track”. This is not effective at times in terms of communication and influencing style as I can miss vital information. My PDP (See appendix) focuses on slowing down, taking one task at a time, asking more questions from experienced mentors and attending training programmes to reinforce personal communication techniques, influence and improve outcomes. The next component of the reflective model is the so what: Why is this my personal influence style? This could be dependant on my childhood background and how I was nurtured growing up. For example if we look at the transactional analysis model (Berne 1957) (see appendix12) it shows an idea that one’s behaviour and social relationships reflect an interchange between parental (critical and nurturing), adult (rational), and childlike (intuitive and dependant) aspects of personality established early in life (Berne1957). For example my mother, a teacher showed an authoritative influencing style, embedding this adult child transaction and shaping my behaviour. In the workplace a more “adult to adult” response is required to avoid cross transactions, moving from “why are you criticising my work” to “let’s work together to find out what happened”. 

Appendices

Appendix 1

Appendix 2

Appendix 3

Appendix 4

Appendix 5

Appendix 6

Appendix 7

What will I improve?

Why? – What feedback was given?

How am I going to improve this?

Who can I go to for support?

Completion date?

1. I will improve my communication and influencing style in my workforce.

This is based on feedback through my insights discovery course. My personality style from this was a (high red energy) this displayed my strengths as shown in appendix 5. For example I am very driven and an authoritative person, quick to get involved in several tasks at one time. However with this red energy a weakness was that I lack routine and clarity. This was backed up by more feedback from a survey I conducted in my workforce (See appendix 8) with comments that I missed valuable information from lacking routine and quality.

My improvement for this is I have asked my line manager to put me on all the relevant training courses from the learning and development team to advance my communication skills. I will ask questions and learn on the role to develop my communication. I will improve my drive by focusing on the quality of tasks as well the number of tasks I take part in. Taking advice from the supervisors in the different roles. To see how they multi task and learn from them.

Michelle my line manager as she wants me to excel in this programme. She will be able to steer me in the right direction. As well a line manager has several tasks to cooperate in at one time therefore I can take advice from Michelle at a one to one level.

Ongoing throughout my role in this 4 years apprenticeship course. However I will measure the improvements in 6 months’ time by another survey on employees in Vaultex asking my influencing style and communication, to see if I have improved on my negatives from my insights profile.

2. I will improve my relationships with the managers as a whole relevant to my university course. Furthermore improve communication with contacting more colleagues/managers generally for information.

This was based on feedback from a meeting with my learning and development manager Paul Hannon as well as my line Manager Michelle Cleary (key stakeholders). This was concerning my university studies and how my effort and grades were not meeting the requirements of the programme and what is expected from me. This negatively impacted the relationship and communication between us. It also came up that I didn’t use the relevant sources for information for my assignment such as managers in different departments.

I am going to use the 360 degree feedback model to ask peers, colleagues, managers and my tutor. To make sure I am on the right track with my assignments therefore improving my personal communication. This will also improve the relationships with my managers as I should be then preforming as what is expected from me in my role. Furthermore also asking more questions rather than thinking I know what I am doing to develop my understanding of the assignments set.

Get in contact with different managers who are in the roles that I am learning about.

Michelle my line manager as she is keen to see success in this role. Paul Hannon because he is key to the see success from this programme. As well as the previous HLA’s in the business and any of the graduates from my organisation.

14th of September is my next submission date. I expect significant improvement in my grades from this assignment. Then I would like to see On going improvements with the strategic plan I have put in place.

3.  My team communications style. With myself and Michelle as a team.

This was based on feedback again from my insights profile. However this time the feedback is used to improve myself and Michelle’s team communication style rather than just mine personally. Being Michelle’s apprentice we need to be able to cooperate well in a team. I received the feedback of a high red energy from insights and Michelle received the feedback of a high green. From these profiles the communication styles are opposite so we need to able to improve this communication.

To improve our communication we need to analyse both are strengths and weaknesses in meetings. Then to analyse how we can communicate efficiently with both are personality styles by engaging regularly. Furthermore we can also use the learning and development team if there is courses that address is this.

Michelle, as the improvement in communication lies between both of us.

Paul as the learning and development manager as he attended the insights course that myself and Michelle attended. Therefore he knows both are personality styles and can aid us to useful learning that would be relevant to the improvement of this communication.

Ongoing and regular. Formal review in 3 months’ time to see if the improvements have been made.

Repeat survey with current work colleagues.

Appendix 8

Appendix 9

Appendix 10

Appendix 11

CSI

MORNINGS

Confident and engaging in her work. Easily talk to people and make friends in her different roles. Works well on the cobra with Fran and has learnt a lot. Asks questions if she gets stuck.

DTTP

DAYS

Talkative, authoritative and confident in her role. Very driven and Quick to learn and get on with tasks set. Learn to ask more questions if stuck or unsure on a task. Help in team briefings to get an understanding of the leadership role. Slow down to understand the role completely rather than jumping onto something else.

CDP

DAYS

Driven and fast make to decisions.

CSI LATES

Quick to jump on different tasks.

Appendix 12

References

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Borton, T., (1970. Reach Touch and Teach: Student Concerns and Process Education.

Cialdini, R.B. (2009) Influence: Science and Practice.  5th Edn. Harlow, London: Pearson Education

Eric Berne M.D. (2018). Description of Transactional Analysis and Games by Dr. Eric Berne MD. [online] Available at: http://www.ericberne.com/transactional-analysis/ [Accessed 10 Dec. 2018].

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Karen Bridbord, P. (2018). Provide Positive Feedback. [online] The Gottman Institute. Available at: https://www.gottman.com/blog/provide-positive-feedback/ [Accessed 9th Dec. 2018].

Kruse, K. (2014) how-to-receive-feedback-and-criticism. (Online) Available at: www.forbes.com. (Accessed 27.11.2018).

Luft, J. (1969) Johari’s Window

McGraw-Hill, New York

Mehrabian 1971, and also quoted in Daft 1993, 557, O’Connor and Seymour, 1990, 35

Mindtools.com. (2018). The Blake Mouton Managerial GridLeading People and Producing Results. [online] Available at: https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_73.htm [Accessed 10 Dec. 2018].

Nottingham.ac.uk. (2018). Driscoll (by Borton). [online] Available at: https://www.nottingham.ac.uk/nmp/sonet/rlos/placs/critical_reflection/models/driscoll.html [Accessed 10 Dec. 2018].

Richart and Wilson

Ritchie, S. (2018) 7 ways to build great relationships with your team. [Online] https://beleaderly.com/7-ways-to-build-great-relationships-with-your-team/. 7th of November.

SCHUTZ W.C. (1958) FIRO– A Three Dimensional Theory of Interpersonal Behavior. New York: Holt,

Simply Psychology. (2018). Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. [online] Available at: https://www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.html [Accessed 10 Dec. 2018].

Suwyn D.M (2015, May 8th): Daniel Suwyn: Losing the loop on feedback (video file). Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks?topics%5B%5D=Business&sort=newest&q=losing+the+Loop+on+Feedback+%7C+M+Daniel+Suwyn+%7C+TEDxCreativeCoas

Takash, J. (2018). Build team performance through individual meetings. [online] Reliableplant.com. Available at: https://www.reliableplant.com/Read/13218/build-team-performance-through-individual-meetings [Accessed 7th December 2018].

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Thompson, R. (2018). Stakeholder Analysis Winning Support for Your Projects. [online] available from [Accessed 25 November 2018].

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Importance of Stakeholders in Curriculum Development

Curriculum development requires the input of different stakeholders such as teachers, school heads, parents, community members, students, district administrators and school boards. The role of the teachers involves defining different course components that are considered relevant, in line with the latest technological development in the education sector. In addition to developing the curriculum, teachers help in executing the curriculum development findings. Teachers continuously contribute to the development of school curriculums by developing periodic course teaching plans and giving consideration to the special needs of the students (Dillon, 2009). Therefore, having a good curriculum without the input of teachers cannot help in achieving the learning objectives and goals. Although modern technology is quickly finding its root into the education system, teachers still remain at the center of the student’s learning progress. In other words technology must be integrated into the curriculum but it cannot provide a perfect substitute for the roles played by teachers in curriculum development and the general learning process.

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The other important group of stakeholders is the school administrators. Their role in curriculum implementation cannot be underestimated since they are the people that monitor the implementation of the curriculum. In addition, they employ teachers (in the case of private schools). Furthermore, they are responsible for purchasing learning materials which is an essential requirement in curriculum implementation. In other words, school administrators may influence the extent to which the school curriculum is implemented by regulating the release of the necessary learning resources. The school administrators may get information from teachers, students and even the community regarding the success of the curriculum implementation process. In addition, they can also employ the services of professional to evaluate the performance of the curriculum.
The parents on the other hand support and influence the implementation of the curriculum through financial resources, that is, payment of school fees. In addition, the parents may help in monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the curriculum by keeping a close check at the lessons learnt in school and monitoring the child’s home assignments (homework). Moreover, the parent may stand in the gap between the child and school administration by providing the student with resources that may be required in the curriculum but are not available in school. Furthermore, the parents may help teachers to monitor the behavior and social development of the child, especially for children with special education needs. The parents can get reliable information on curriculum development by enquiring from their children or by enquiring from the teachers or school administrators.
In addition, professionals such as psychologists and social workers may offer contribution on the various ways of dealing with students with special needs. For instance, professional counselors may provide various useful options of dealing with student of foreign origin or those with disabilities. Community members can assist the school administration in the implementation of the curriculum by co-operating and providing the necessary resources that may not be available in the school setting but are found within the community setting. In addition, the community members can also volunteer and act as school board members. Other stake holders in the curriculum development include the government and the professional regulation commission that provides license to graduates of different colleges and universities. Professionals and community members can source information on curriculum development and progress from government reports on the performance of schools or by enquiring from teachers, students and school administrators.
Organization of Various Curriculum Development Stake Holders
The parents are usually organized into parent association. All parents are required to register with the relevant parents’ association where they are required to democratically elect their leaders. The parents, through this association, give their views regarding the curriculum development to the district curriculum development team. The relevant professional body such as the district association of professional counselors and psychologists, through their advisory boards, also provides their recommendations and suggestions in the curriculum development process.
On the other hand, teachers have organized themselves into curriculum drafting and evaluation teams. Such teams are usually charged with the responsibility of drafting, evaluating and amending the curriculum in line with the latest technological development in the education sector. In addition, the teachers’ curriculum teams are also involved in the evaluation of the output of the curriculum.
The various groups work well because there exists a systematic way of engaging every stake holder in the curriculum development process. First and fore most, the teachers and the curriculum development leaders provide guidance and opinions regarding what should form the content of the curriculum. Because students spend most of their learning hours with the teachers, it is assumed that teachers understand the unique academic and social needs of the students better. The teachers start by analyzing the current curriculum, that is, the strengths and weaknesses and possible areas that needs to be amended. Thereafter, opinions from the parents, community leaders and other stake holders are considered before a final draft of the curriculum is compiled.
The parents’ curriculum development team consists of all the members of the parents’ association teams. However, such parents are required to register with the district curriculum development committee before their views could be considered as valid. The members of the parents’ team are given the mandate to choose their leadership. Through the parents’ leadership team, their opinions are sought and taken into consideration by the district curriculum development team.
Similarly, the professional counselors association is given the mandate to elect their leaders. However, the leadership of the professional bodies supporting the curriculum development process must be approved by the district curriculum development committee. This is because professional bodies’ acts as advisory agents on major policy issues related to curriculum development in schools. Therefore, the district curriculum development team must ensure that such professional bodies are led by a credible team. In addition, such professional bodies work closely with the teachers and curriculum development leaders during the evaluation of the curriculum and academic performance. Other community members such as community administrators and religious leaders are also answerable to the district curriculum development team. Such community leaders must however be registered for their concerns to be given attention by the curriculum development team. They are also required to elect their leaders through which their contributions are channeled to the district curriculum development team.
In addition to the reports obtained from the various groups of stakeholders in the curriculum development process, the district curriculum development team organizes a curriculum development forum every year where all members of the public are welcome to participate. Such a forum is aimed at collecting information and concerns that may not have been handled by the existing and participating curriculum development stakeholders. In addition, the district curriculum development team has put in place structures that ensure that information flows from the various stake holders to the district curriculum team in an orderly manner. Although the development of the curriculum is the responsibility of all the stake holder (the parents, teachers, community members, members of professional bodies and the school administration), the execution or implementation of the curriculum is often left to the district curriculum development team, headed by the district director of curriculum, in collaboration with teachers and school administration.
Designing a Structure for Stakeholder Involvement In Curriculum Work
The designing of a comprehensive structure for stakeholder involvement in curriculum work entails a careful consideration of various factors that contributes to effective learning process both inside and outside the classrooms. Because the size of my district is considerably large with a student population of 13,000, the curriculum development team must considerably be large in order to effectively represent the big student population. The leader of the district curriculum development team would be the district curriculum director who will be charged with the responsibility of chairing all the curriculum development committees as well as providing general direction and leadership in the curriculum development process in the district.
In addition, there would be a curriculum director who shall deputize the district curriculum director and would help him/her in discharging his/her duties. The district curriculum development team would also comprise other curriculum development specialists in every subject area such as mathematics and science. Such curriculum specialists would help the district curriculum director in making important decisions during the curriculum development process. The district curriculum development team would seek information and fully engage professionals, parents, the community and other relevant stakeholders when designing the school curriculum. The district curriculum development team would organize for a curriculum development research week every year in which a continuous data collection and evaluation of curriculum in schools would be evaluated.
Interview Questions
The planned interview with the district curriculum director made the day unique. The interview, as scheduled, commenced at noon and took about three hours, ending at around three o’clock in the afternoon. The material day for the interview was 2nd January, 2013. As the chief academic researcher in the district, responsible for careers and student development in high schools, the information from the interviewee, the district curriculum director and the findings of the interview would be very important in helping me to understand the role of different stakeholders in the curriculum development process.
The first question of the interview was about the defining elements of a good curriculum. I found that putting focus on the academic development of the student was a key element in developing an effective student centered curriculum. The district curriculum director explained that all the stake holders including teachers, school heads and other professionals in the curriculum development process must put the student at the center of every step in curriculum development. In addition the curriculum director explained the importance of having in place a comprehensive curriculum leadership for a successful execution and implementation of the curriculum objectives. The director mentioned two main types of curriculum leadership, that is, static or managerial curriculum leadership and a dynamic kind of curriculum leadership. He went further to explain that static curriculum leaders try to produce a certain level of predictability and routine in the day to day operations of the school.
On the other hand, a dynamic kind of curriculum leadership entails a continuous process of integrating critical thinking and modern technology in the development of a visionary and goal oriented curriculum. However, the director was quick to emphasize on the need to continuously focus on aligning the curriculum to suit the modern technologically advanced world, that is, employing the dynamic kind of curriculum leadership for the realization of a learner centered and progress oriented curriculum. He explained that although teachers and school heads enjoy independence in disseminating knowledge, they must remain conscious to the dynamic work place environments and information communication technology so that the learners may be effectively packaged to adapt to the technological dynamics of the modern world.
The second question of the interview session was about which groups of people or stakeholders should be involved in the curriculum development process. The director stated that a good school curriculum should cover all aspects of learning, including academic, social and physical aspects. Therefore, all relevant groups of professionals and stakeholders should be involved in the development of a curriculum that meets the expectation of both the students and the community.
He added that parents, teachers, school heads, social workers, psychologists and the community should all be involved in the curriculum development process. In addition, he pointed out the need to address the interest of students with special needs when developing the curriculum. For instance, students of foreign origin or those with disability must be accorded special consideration and care in their learning endeavor. However, the director noted that the curriculum development leader must be competent when coordinating and organizing various ideas into a comprehensive curriculum development policy statement.
The other question of the interview was about how to gauge the effectiveness of a good school curriculum, that is, how to assess whether the curriculum is centered on the needs of the learner. Achieving a fruitful learning experience, he posed, should be the main objective of any curriculum developer or curriculum leader. In other words, the strength of a good curriculum development does not lie in the number of policy statements it contains but it does lie in the ultimate classroom experience gained by the learner. In response to the question that was seeking a clarification on the best method to engage the input of all teachers in the curriculum development process, the district curriculum director explained that a new method of training some teachers to be curriculum development leaders is quickly gaining acceptance. Such an approach ensures that those teachers who have undergone such training shares the skills with their colleagues hence effectively disseminating curriculum development skills to all teachers.
The findings of the interview were found to be in line with the class readings. For instance, Wiles (2008), explains the importance of curriculum development leadership in the development of a good curriculum. He further pointed out that static curriculum leadership entails the maintenance of all the programs that are already in place. In addition, he emphasized that curriculum leadership should target the impartation of specific, knowledge, attitude and behaviors for students and at the same time help in engineering the school programs to achieve all important aspects of the learning process. Wiles added that curriculum developers should embrace change as an essential variable in the curriculum development process. In other words, curriculum development should be the principle guide to all other activities carried out in the school program.
As pointed out in the interview, a more advanced approach to curriculum development where some teachers pursue special training in curriculum development and thereafter work closely with colleagues is gaining momentum. Such an approach is more effective since the curriculum leader’s work both as teachers and curriculum developers (Wiles, 2008). In addition, a good curriculum development team must include teachers, community leaders and parents as analyzed during the interview. Furthermore, for the curriculum to be managed effectively there must be a detailed plan showing the time periods within which various curriculum targets are to be achieved and the roles of every participant in the curriculum development and management process. Tallerico (2012) emphasizes on the need of curriculum development leaders to provide direction .Furthermore, the curriculum leader must continuously monitor and review the outcome of the curriculum management and where possible draw up a control program.
In general, the interview findings informed me on the importance of an effective curriculum in the execution of learning objectives. In addition, a dynamic approach to curriculum development is more suitable for a learner centered curriculum development because such an approach takes into account the modern technological advancement when developing the curriculum (Dillon, 2009). Furthermore, the interview informed me of the need to involve parents, teachers, school heads, the community and all other stakeholders in the curriculum development process. In addition, the interview findings further stressed on the need to have a continuous evaluation framework that helps in analyzing the success of the developed school curriculum in satisfying the learners’ needs.
 

Defining Stakeholders and their responsibilities

A stakeholder is a person, group, or organisation that has direct or indirect stake, that supports an organisation. They are called Stakeholders because they can affect or also be affected by the organisation’s actions, policies, and objectives. Key stakeholders in a business organization include Creditors, Customers, Directors, Employees, Government (as well as their  agencies), Owners ( that is Shareholdes) , Suppliers, Unions, and the Community from which the business draws its resources.
Although stake-holding is usually self-legitimizing (those who judge themselves to be stakeholders are de facto so), all stakeholders are not equal and different stakeholders are entitled to different considerations. For example, a firm’s customers are entitled to fair trading practices but they are not entitled to the same consideration as the firm’s employees.
A short definition of a stakeholder is:

“Stakeholders are groups of people who have an interest in a business organisation.”

Type of Stakeholders
Stakeholders can be devided in two different groups as shown above that is internal as well as external. It also can be called as Primary Stakeholders and Secondary Stakeholders. Not only that, but some stakeholders are those who might be both that is interal as well as external.
For example company employee is by default internal stakeholder. But at the same time when he become the same companies customer he become the external stakeholder.
Stakeholders of Coca Cola Company
All most all the businesses have to keep in mind the effect of their activities on stakeholders. Coca-Cola is also not an exception. There are so many stakeholders in Coca Cola Company. They include all those stakeholders, who are most affected by or who most affect the way they do business. This includes Consumers/Customers, Suppliers, Manager, Owner(shareholders),Employees, Government & regulators, Speial interest Groups, Non-Govermental Organizations (i.e. NGOs) as well as the local communities/society in which Coca Cola Company operate.
Each and every Stakeholder has its own interests in Coca Cola Company and places different demands on them. The Company try to engage with each constituency according to its needs, using different engagement methods as appropriate.
Consumer/Customers
Consumers are the external stakeholders. In Coca Cola Company, Consumer’s are given very much importance because they have a very much influence on business strategy because, wherever possible, consumers want to buy products from those companies on which they trust. So Consumer’s are very much influential. Because all business is after all depends upon a customers. If there will be no customers, there will be no business at all.

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Suppliers
Suppliers and business partners are vital to Coca Cola Company’s success. Because they help them refresh the world, more than 1.6 billion times every day, through delivering necessary products and services for their business. Having a sound, stable and ethical supply base is important for growth of the Coca Cola Company and the footprint that the suppliers leave in local communities around the world. As a company, they have a responsibility to hold their direct suppliers to standards no less than those required by applicable law. So suppliers are also very much influential.
Government agencies and civil society
Coca Cola Company made wide-ranging industry commitments. Such as the  Action on Diet, Health and Physical Activity . They are a member of the different Union of European Beverages Associations , which the EU Platform acknowledged as ‘an example of best practice on how to develop and follow up the commitments made’.
Coca Cola also work with :

National Government Agencies to implement sports and fitness programmes
National Environment Ministries to protect watersheds
Industry and Government Agencies to build sustainable packaging management schemes and promote recycling

So government is also influential at a a greater level.
Creditors
Creditors are the external stakeholder of the Coca Cola Company. The Coca Cola Company participate in investor assessments and conduct briefings specifically for the socially responsible investment community. They routinely include sustainability performance in their all annual financial report and investor road shows. So creditors are also influential at a certain level.
Employees
Employees are not just internal stakeholders, they might be also external stakeholders. Because when any employee purchase an item from the same
Company in which they are employed they become external stakeholder. So just like other companies in Coca Cola Company also Employees are very much influential. So Coca Cola Company conducted a survey about the key measures of employees engagement. In 2007 Coca Cola Company won several awards, which includes:

Best employer awards in Serbia and Poland.
Second place in the Great Place to Work survey in Italy.

Owners (Shareholders)
Owners are the internal stakeholders of the Coca Cola Company. They are the Primary stakeholders.In Coca Cola Company Stockholders have an immediate stake in a corporation because it is all about their money that is funding the company. If Coca Cola Company does well, their stock gains value and ultimately they earn more and more money. If the business does badly, simply they lose money. So shareholders are very very much influential in Coca Cola Company.
Non-Govermental Organizations (NGO’S)
The Coca Cola Company always rely on NGOs and public-private partnerships to inform and guide their policies and initiatives, as well as challenge them as they work on complex and fast-changing issues such as climate change and others.
Some of Coca Cola’s key stakeholders and partners includes the following:

World Resources Institute
World Wildlife Fund
Carbon Trust
Carbon Disclosure Project

The NGO’s also influential in Coca Cola Company.
Stakeholders of Cancer Research UK
Cancer Research UK is a non profit organization. But that doesn’t mean that it doesn’t have stakeholders. There are stakeholders just like other organization. Some examples of Stakeholders for a Non Profit Organization like Cancer Reseach UK are given here:
Director, Trustees , Donors, Employees, Government, Patients, Doctors and Nurses, Fundraisers,Volunteer,Corporate partners like Tesco and B&Q.
Director
The Director is a person who board typically chooses to have this one person who is ultimately responsible to carry out the overall wishes of the board. The director is always directly accountable for the work of the staff and supports the work of the board committees. So director is a key stakeholder for Cancer research UK. So he is very much influential stakeholder.
Board of Trustees
Trustees are always much influential for any non profit organization. Cancer research UK also have a Bord of Trustees. They have to perform some duties like

Carry out the terms of the trust instrument
Defend the trust
Proper investment of trust assets e.t.c.

So Board of Directors of Cancer Research UK are very much influential.
Employees
Employees are always influential for any organization, wether it is profitable or non profitable organization. So just like others here in Cancer Research UK, employees are very much influential.
Volunteers
In Cancer Research UK, volunteer are the most influential stakeholder as they are provide their help and time free of cost. Cancer research UK might can’t operate without the help of the service of the Volunteer’s. So because of the given reason, they are very much influential in cancer Research UK.
Donors
Donors are the person who gives monetary and non monetary help to the organizations. In Cancer Research UK, Donors play an important role as they are the distinct from others as they give their support to an organization from which they know, they will not getting any monetary refund. So donors are influential in Cancer Research UK.
 

Importance of Financial Information to Stakeholders

Financial information contain in annual reports that the companies are published in periodically. That period is identified as reporting period. Company obligates to provide financial information to their various stakeholders during the past reporting period.
Annual report is a report the company report their comprehensive transactions and events to publish and provide for required parties. There are few reasons to publish annual reports by companies generally as follows.
Because companies have legal obligation between companies and the government act implemented for companies is known as company act 2007 No 7. The company act’s section 150, 151, 152 and 153 has mention the obligation to prepare financial statements, content and form of financial statements, obligation to prepare group financial statements and content and form of group financial statements accordingly.
Stakeholders of the company require the financial information for following reasons.

To know how well the company is doing.
To find company has earned more money than they spent.
To get an idea about strategic and tactical plans of the management.
To provide information to make decisions who make decisions about organisatoin.
Avoid dissimulations and corruptions of the organisation.

Through the audit process, organisations will be able to identify weaknesses of their control of procedures and corruptions occurred due to them.
To obtain and fulfill the financial requirements from monitory markets via financial equipments such as shares, debentures, bank loans and etc.
Importance of Financial Information to Stakeholders
However the financial information require by stakeholders of the organisation. Stakeholder of the organisation can divide into two. The bellow chart represents the stakeholders of the organisation according to the environment they belongs to.
External stakeholders
a). Suppliers and Trade creditors
b). Government
c). Consumers
d). Public
e). Medias
Internal Stakeholders
a).Directors & Managers
b). Shareholders
c). Employees
Above chart shows the deviation of stakeholders of the organisation and they require financial information due to various purposes.
Directors and Managers
To make decisions about the organisation in different time and in different level. Directors and managers of the organisation are taking different types of decisions as follows.

About new investment and project appreciation decision.
About continued and discontinued operations.
Dividend decisions.
Diversified business decision.
Winding up decision.
To establish overall objectives and periodical targets.
To avoid dissimulations and corruptions.
To establish squired systems and strengthens control of procedures.
To increase the productivity level of the organisation.

Shareholders

To determine whether their investment will be sold, Holt or bought more shares of the organization.
To decided the fairness of the returned for their investments.
To determine the going concern of the organisation.
To obtain wide knowledge about the organizational activities.
To compare their investments and their benefits with other competitive organizations and industries.

Employees

To know about the stability and profitability of the employer.
To know about remuneration, retirement benefits, and employment opportunities are in organisation
To ensure the job security with the current employer.
To ensure the fairness of the salaries and wages they obtain from the organization according to their earnings.
To have a clear view about other operations of the organisation.

Suppliers

To ensure their payments of supplies will be received on due.
To ensure the stability of their customers.
To have knowledge about other products and their suppliers of the organisation.
To compare their transaction with existing and other companies
To find other competitive suppliers and their contribution towards the organisation.
To find opportunities to supply more.

Government

To collect accurate taxes and amounts from organizations on due dates.
To provide government benefaction to improve their business.
To obtain financial and non-financial assistance for government development projects.
To ensure the organizations oversee their employees in reasonable way.
To ensure the organizations compliance with government rules, regulations and acts that established by the government.

Consumers

To have knowledge about the cost structure of the products that the organisation is producing.
To ensure the stability of the organisation.
To know about the organization’s profitability, because profitability is a shed light to know about products impossible growth, improvements, best customer service and low price strategic implications.
To know about CSR programs conducted by the organisation.

Public

To conscious about organization’s substantial contribution towards the society.
To know about the opportunities to link with the organisation.
To know about CSR contribution towards the country.
To conscious their activities which can be affected to interest of the nature and the country.