Street Children in Egypt

Street Children Phenomena in Egypt
The street children phenomenon in Egypt as known for most people is one of Egypt’s serious problems. Egypt is one of the countries with the highest number of street children. I decided to research this topic because it is one of the long lasting problems Egypt is facing. There are a lot of misunderstandings regarding the meaning of the word “street children”, according to the UNICEF; children must fall under one of these two definitions in order to be called street children.” First, Children who are engaged in some kind of economic activity ranging from begging to stealing. Most go home at the end of the day and contribute their earnings to their family. They may be attending school and retain a sense of belonging to a family. Because of the economic fragility of the family, these children may eventually opt for a permanent life on the streets. Second, Children of the street actually live on the street (or outside of a normal family environment). Family ties may exist but are tenuous and are maintained only casually or occasionally.”I aim by this research to evaluate the situation of street children in Egypt and to know their priorities, activities and problems. Also, identify the actions done by the governmental and non-governmental organizations regarding the problem of street children. Finally, raise awareness to the street children problem in Egypt.

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In Egypt, government legislation and rules relating to street children remains primarily disciplinary to the street children who are viewed as criminals and a threat to the society. Generally, the society looks at delinquents and street children as a disease that should be treated by isolation. Despite the lack of conclusive information about street children, many socio-economic indicators show that the phenomenon of street children is growing, especially in large cities. “The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) conducted a Rapid Situation Assessment of street children in the two biggest cities in Egypt: Greater Cairo and Alexandria. According to this study, Poverty, family breakdown, and child abuse and neglect, seem to be the leading causes of the problem of street children. “Eighty percent of the children are exposed to real or constant threat of violence from employers, hostile-abusive community members, and their peers. Ignorant about health, hygiene, and nutrition and deprived of services to protect them, street children are a malnourished sub-population subsisting on an inadequate diet. Functionally illiterate (70 percent of the sample were school drop-outs, 30 percent had never attended schools in the first place), economic survival means working at the most menial tasks, or worse, begging, or thieving”.
A lot of efforts have been made to try and estimate the number of street children in Egypt, but it is said that they all lack accuracy and reliability. Sedik (1995), based on the records of Al-Amal Village in Cairo, estimated that the number of street children in Egypt, both males and females, is 93,000. Data show that the reasons for the lack of valid and dependable information on the magnitude of the problem of street children are because it is hard to carry out surveys on the number of street children because of they don’t live in one place. Another reason is because the police records don’t keep record except on the children who are caught and sent to the corrective institutions by a court order.
Through my research I found out a lot of causes for the street children phenomena. Children run away from their homes in Egypt because of child abuse, sensation seeking, neglect, existence of other brothers and sisters on the street and peer pressure. Children say that they were kicked out of their homes and forced to live in the streets and abused by their family or the people they work for. There are a lot of ways for abuse. Abuse usually takes the form of severe beating and insults for small mistakes. A lot of children choose to live on the streets because they feel they are free from any boundaries. A huge number of children said that one of the main reasons for moving to the street life is neglect. It could happen due to the illness of one of the parents, or the presence of a large family, or neglect because of divorce. The existence of other brothers and sisters especially older ones affect their younger siblings to follow their lead and move to live on the streets if their family is facing the problems that they can’t handle. Sometimes they move together and look for one another on the streets. Peer pressure acts as one of the most effective methods to increase the street children phenomena. Children explain that peers help them adjust to the life on the streets during their early days on the streets by providing food, entertainment, shelter and protection.
Street children are usually there for each other. They help each other cope with the street life by explaining where to live, how to earn money and what should be done in case a problem happens. Street children usually do work that doesn’t require any technical skills but they do marginal jobs that could provide them with money to survive only. Some of the work done by street children according to UN reports include “Begging, washing cars or shop windows, selling paper tissues on the streets, working temporarily in shops or factories informally, collecting plastic from wastes to sell to recycling factories, fishing and selling the catch, shining shoes, carrying luggage in the markets for people for money, selling newspapers and finally prostitution. Street children usually carry out their work every day, working in a range of “4 to 18 hours a day whether in doing one activity or a number of activities consecutively. They usually earn from 3 to 20 Egyptian pounds per day.”
Street children are exposed to problems everyday because of the life on the street with no elder supervision or protection. One of the problems is violence. Street children could face violence in many ways. For example, violence inside the children groups where older street children abuse younger children violence from the surrounding community which don’t approve of their presence, Violence in the environment where employers exploit street children. Violence is often associated with sexual abuse which younger street children and street females are exposed to. Another problem that street children face is the community disapproval. Street children are rejected by society. They are not accepted due to their appearance and behavior. People generally tend to drive street children away as a result of fear and disgust. A third problem is the police arrests. Street children are always exposed to being arrested by police and returned to their families or committed to correction institutions. This process does not involve any efforts to change the original reason for escape from homes leading to the escape again to the street and the repetition of the vicious circle. The final problem is substance abuse. Street children are facing a serious problem which is free usage of drugs and substances that lead them to lose consciousness, suffer from continuous disorientation and spending all their daily earnings. Absence of good model and refusal of society lead to prevailing frustration of the street children and losing of hope in any good future.
Government used to completely ignore the problem of street children who represented to the government a source of shame and embarrassment. The reaction was to ignore and hide the problem rather than face it and try to find solutions to the causes that lead to the spread of this problem. Sometimes the government may use law enforcement forces (police) to gather street children and put them into juvenile correctional institutes where they mingle with criminals and eventually the children escapes back to the streets with criminal background. NGOs, on the other hand, have dealt with the problem in a more consciences way. Programs have been developed and funded to admit the street children to houses and orphanages and try to fit them in the society and enroll them in schools. NGOs have several angles to approach the problem. They use the media to advocate the rights of street children and to promote their fight to protect these children and to treat them as victims rather than criminals who must be locked up. NGOs try to partner with the Government to conduct studies to establish laws to protect the rights of these children. NGOs also have programs that help street children in their own environment which is the streets. NGOs provide food medical care and financial assistance to the street children. NGOs also try to reunite as many street children as possible with their families and provide psychological therapy and social consultations to the children and their families to reach to the bottom of the problem and find a solution to the problems that drive children away from their homes.
To conclude, everyone would agree on the magnitude of the problem of street children. The government and the NGOs have exerted many efforts to face the phenomena of street children but more work is needed if they want to achieve their target which is eliminating or at least reducing this problem in Egypt. Laws and legislations should be made to protect street children and help them fit in the society. As to the society I think that more awareness campaigns are needed to get people involved in this problem. We interact with the street children everyday but we always unintentially neglect them. Sometimes people treat street children as if they are something disgusting. Other times people treat street children as if they don’t exist. That’s the reason why awareness campaigns should take place to explain to people that nearly all these children were forced to live on the streets and they didn’t choose this themselves. Every person should feel that they have an obligation towards these children and want to help them and provide them with a better life.
Works cited:

“Street children in Egypt: from the home to the street to inappropriate corrective institutions” by Iman Bibars- Environment and Urbanization, Vol. 10, No. 1, 201-216 (1998) DOI: 10.1177/095624789801000108
Article: “EGYPT: Street children worst hit by violence, experts say”19 Nov 2006 Source: IRIN
SPAAC (1993), Street Children in Egypt, UNICEF, Cairo.
Street Children in Egypt: Group Dynamics and Subculture Constituents.by Nashaat Hussein
Article: Uncountable Figures’ Of Street Children Create New Worries By Michaela Singer First Published: February 24, 2008, Daily News EGYPT
Mehdi, Ali. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 17th of November, 2009 .
Sedik, A. Experiences with Street Children in Egypt. Center for Child Rights and Protection, Cairo, 1995.
Abu El-Nasr, A., 1992; Abdel Nabi, A., 1994; Sedik, A., 1995; and Koraim, A., 1998.
Hussein, N. 1998; Azer, A. The Problem of Child Labor in Egypt, 1996.

 

Issue of Street Gangs and Youth Criminal Justice Systems

The Street Gang Phenomenon

In today’s society there is a large number of juveniles involved in street gangs, and this is due to numerous reasons. According to Delaney almost two million juveniles were arrested in the United States during 2009, this is imparting due to how the system is setup with most people in our society generally believing that they shouldn’t be processed through the adult system. The point of this is to bring awareness in various areas where many problems expose themselves in this system through the legal issues juveniles experience, how minorities play a big part of street gangs and also the conviction rate of these said youths, what laws and other practices have been put in place to help curb this problem that is being faced.

Legal issues and other problems faced in the Criminal justice system by the youth

Street gangs have posed a significant threat to communities and the criminal justice system for decades. There is a vast majority of youths affiliated with street gangs therefore posing a problem of youth in the criminal justice system. There has been a big question on how juvenile offenders are viewed and how it should be reexamined. Due to a strain and a lack of resources, in communities that experience high rates of crime, safety agencies struggle to respond. The youths are now targeted because they are easy targets for gangs. Gangs are simply defined as a group of individuals that come together and commit illegal activities together, they usually have a unique name, group color or a gang sign that they can be identified by. Skipping school, failing to graduate, becoming a distraction in class and unemployment are just a few of the many negative consequences that come with youths being involved in a gang. Addressing gang affiliations will require assistance from law enforcement, school administrators and influential individuals in the community.

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Another major issue the criminal justice face while dealing with street gangs is the number of individuals that have issues with their mental health. Each year there are two million children and young adults that will pass through the juvenile justice system. Approximately 65 to 70 percent of these individuals have a diagnosable mental health need and a small percentage has severe emotional issues. Status Offenses is another problem that arises. These are crimes that are criminalized because the individual is under the age of 18. Truancy, running away, curfew violations and underage liquor law violations all fall under the category of status offenses. There have been 142,300 cases that have been petitioned in juvenile court and of these cases only 82,400 ended with young individuals being found guilty. In about 6,000 of the cases, young people were eventually placed out of their home into a facility much like prison because of their actions or the lack thereof.

Juvenile issues

One of the major issues that juveniles face and the administration has not spent the time to investigate this is the fact that so much of our youth are the fact of over incarceration which leaves the many thousands of juveniles being prosecuted in the adult court system year-round, the racial and ethnic disparities. Kalief Browder states that “In the U.S. on any given day, there are nearly 80,000 youth in a detention or correctional facility,” she wrote in testimony submitted ahead of the HOC’s Hearing on Criminal Justice. There are “20,000 [youths] in juvenile detention centers; 54,000 youth are in youth prisons or other out-of-home confinement; 4,200 youth are in adult jails; and 1,200 youth are in adult prisons.”. this then impacts the mental of our youth, being removed from the homes of loved ones and the communities in which they’re from, many are falling behind in school, and have been tried as adults , the rate at which those who are incarcerated being abused is on the rise, ranging from physical to sexual abuse, it has also been noted that the use “isolation and restraints.”

Minorities in Street Gangs

When talking about minorities this is a widely faced problem, not only in street gangs but through the juvenile and adult system, in both systems there is a huge gap between whites and other minorities, primarily Hispanics and African Americans, according to MacArthur Foundation, “youth of the color constitute approximately one-third of the adolescent population in the U.S. but two-thirds of incarcerated youth” this should be alarming to anyone who is researching this problem, this is due to various problems in the system stemming from jurisdictional issues, police practices and the crime rate in certain urban areas.

 Some of these common practices that are seen through happening in the justice system are racial profiling, some officers are targeting certain races and classes during their patrols, so if you fit the description or what they think is a gang member then you might find yourself being harassed by these officers, in the system itself to combat this problem or how they deal with minorities they have implemented a few laws, such as competency training for law enforcement, which requires cultural competency model training for all law enforce officers, secondly race neutral risk assessments” Requiring juvenile justice and probation staff to use “race-neutral” risk assessments instruments to eliminate racial and ethnic bias in detention screening.” And lastly Committees to address racial and ethnic disparities “Established committees or commissions to address and remedy overrepresentation of minorities in their juvenile justice systems.”. These are just a few of the laws which have been implemented so far in about 15 states to help our minorities that are affected by this.

 

 

 

Strategies for the future

 There has been some progress made with identifying several strategies and programs that will help reduce delinquency and promote social development, with such programs coming together this will impact our youth greatly, by saving lives that are being wasted by these street gangs, also curbing the activities which result to adult criminal behavior thus helping with the crime rate our society faces, which in turn saves tax payers moneys from having to foot the bill for prosecution, incarceration and arrests just to highlight a few, therefore investing in various delinquency programs can be apart of turning this problem around. These programs that have already been implemented and shown to be successful are those that stop youth from engaging in delinquent behavior, community and school-based programs play a big part in helping first-time offenders from further problems with the system.

Comparing and contrasting two theories

There are numerous criminological theories related to street gangs, the two I chose to focus on are Strain Theory and Subculture Theory. Strain theory states that joining a gang is a result of individuals having high aspirations without the resources to achieve such aspirations. It assumes that there are similar if not the same economic goals amongst the youth in a community. These economic goals can range anywhere from wealth, to success, and power. The lack of resources with such high expectations drives the youth to illegally achieving what they want to fulfill their desires. There have also been various types of theories developed from this theory. For example, Cloward and Ohlin developed a strain theory which is known as differential opportunity theory and it suggests that gang membership has stemmed from lower-class young men and their inability to achieve goals set by society. The second theory to be discussed is the subculture theory and it stems from the strain theory. Both theories assume that there are similar economic goals amongst the youth. However, they differ in the fact that they don’t assume lower-class youth are trying to attain the same goal as middle class youth. Lower-class youth create their own goals, a new subculture into which they fit in. This subculture consists of norms that are ideal for a criminal lifestyle this includes toughness, excitement, fate, achieving recognition through crime and the pursuit of pleasure.

Conclusion

Street gangs are prevalent in our society and more so in our communities effecting the youth. The common problems and trends associated can be broken into several categories including legal issues that the criminal justice face, juvenile issues, minorities, criminological theories and methods of prevention and intervention. These are the main points that are discussed in this essay. One of the major issues faced in the criminal justice system is the amount of youths involved in gangs and how they can be perceived, and the effects of these young individuals being involved. Juvenile issues covered the mental and psychological of these young adults. In the juvenile system two thirds of the juvenile population are minorities and minorities make up on third of the population in the United States. Theories are developed to better understand juveniles; these theories are based on the idea that the economic goals of the youth are the same across communities and this is the reason for their actions. While the methods of intervention and prevention provided information on programs that will help reduce the cycle of juvenile delinquency.

References

Contents. (2012). Jstor. doi: 10.1515/9781400843114.tocThe reference page always begins on the top of the next page after the conclusion.

Komen, M., & Schooten, E. V. (2009). Ethnic Disparities in Dutch Juvenile Justice. Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice, 7(2), 85–106. doi: 10.1080/15377930902929182

(n.d.). Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.869.260&rep=rep1&type=pdf.

Jones, D., Roper, V., Stys, Y., & Wilson, C. (2007, July 11). Street Gangs: A Review of Theory, Interventions, and Implications for Corrections. Retrieved from https://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/research/r161-eng.shtml#21

https://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.juvjustice.org%2Fsites%2Fdefault%2Ffiles%2Fresource-files%2FFINAL%2520RCP%2520Problems%2520%2520Solutions_08%252013%252013.pdf%3Ffbclid%3DIwAR3H4AtfoSmxMvXwysFuseu9norW3fwKzv7LD6d-Ag7TJ-AxfevZviOsZ4A&h=AT1eFd3BWQgv4agvwXgXwhsXqkcQ2-v0o9kZzxP2dxvAR_1Vs1bqELgXl0dYb_HFzbaMN0kQrEC6haMlAHIkYNLojpBnWGOVK3JnyjaE_7xYxtNHaPitBD0ulUxc-DMNnNGaBbz9Y7ssgBujan0

Townes, C. (2015, July 15). How To Spell Out All The Problems Of Juvenile Justice In Five Minutes. Retrieved from https://thinkprogress.org/how-to-spell-out-all-the-problems-of-juvenile-justice-in-five-minutes-88cbac2a9919/.

 

Analysis of Sinclair Lewis’ ‘Main Street’

The story of Main Street by Sinclair Lewis had been written as an aggressive satire that focused primarily on social issues of the small towns of the American Midwest. This was in order to provoke a different, or perhaps, a negative view of the small, rural town life to the readers of the 1920’s. Much of the American population during this time viewed these small, simple towns positively, as an ideal example of true Americana nature and morality that brought a reassuring contrast to the developing, and often frightening world during the time period. It is clear to see that with this novel, Sinclair Lewis aimed to diminish this positive view of these small rural centers, and shed light on the ills of their society, which created conflict to individuality. When focusing on the reception of this novel, it is apparent to see that it had achieved its purpose, as it became widely popular, as well as controversial.

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The themes within this satirical novel describe the political, social, and economic aspects of rural, Midwest society at this time. Main Street allows the reader to develop a personal opinion as well as a clear view into the social conditions vividly, and the views of the people of Gopher Prairie, Minnesota. As stated, Sinclair Lewis focused mainly on attacking the views of the rural, small towns America that many saw as ideal. Sinclair Lewis sheds light upon the narrow-mindedness, conformity, mediocrity and nescience of the people of Gopher Prairie, representing the small towns of America. The people of this small town criticize and shun individuality and those who do not conform to their standards. This is all illustrated by the theme of the individual vs. the community. The protagonist, Carol Kennicott’s attempts to change the town of Gopher Prairie into a more idealistic town in which she desires it to be, in the face of the town’s resistance to change. Carol attempts this as she also attempts to harmonize with the population of Gopher Prairie as a new citizen. The resistance that Carol brings to conforming creates a conflict that lasts throughout the novel, and although she does not bring radical change, she may be viewed as successful for putting up a fight. As for a description of the political and economic themes of this novel, Sinclair Lewis leaves a somewhat bleak direct description of these aspects. Although, it is clear to see a description of these two aspects throughout the primarily social themes. Gopher Prairie, being a small town, had a rather simple economy that was primarily based on agriculture and small, independent businesses. Due to this, the people of Gopher Prairie highly valued, and revered material success. This is shown by the character Percy Bresnahan, who in contrast to the social structure of Gopher Prairie, was a wealthy automobile manufacturer who was admired by the townspeople, but is discovered to be relatively unimportant in the city of Washington by the protagonist, perhaps illustrating the ignorance of the people of Gopher Prairie. Sinclair Lewis does not focus intensely on the political structure of the small town, and leaves the citizen’s views or insight on politics rather bleak. Perhaps this lack of description only gives more insight into the close-minded and ignorant views of the people of Gopher Prairie, representing small town life everywhere at that time. (SparkNotes Editors, n.d.). Due to the time period in which the novel takes place, there are unique characters that could have only been created from the social structure and happenings of the 1920’s. To clarify, the most prominent example of this would be World War I, which created prejudice or resentment to foreigners, by the people of the U.S, especially in small towns like Gopher Prairie. This is illustrated by Sinclair Lewis in the novel, with the character of Miles Bjornstam, a Swedish immigrant who was ostracized by the town due to him being an immigrant, as well as his radical ideals of socialism, due to this many considered him to be insane and he was nicknamed the “Red Swede”. (SparkNotes Editors, n.d.). The explanation of whether or not the conditions have improved is dependent on how a person views the small town life of America. Although, after reading this novel and one is exposed to the ills of small town life, it is simple to infer that the conditions that Sinclair Lewis focused on have improved positively. This could be partially due to amount of small towns being drastically shortened compared to that time period, or the fact that people could have possibly become less ignorant, or short-minded due to the world today, compared to back then.
The author of this satirical novel, Harry Sinclair Lewis was born on February 7th, 1885, in the small farming immigrant village of Sauk Centre, Minnesota. It is clear to see that his experiences from growing up in a rural Midwestern town have had a major influence on his writings, clearly on Main Street. When Sinclair was just six years old, his mother, Emma Kermott Lewis died. His father, Edwin Lewis, a country doctor, remarried a year later. In the year 1903, Lewis was accepted into Yale University and moved east. There, he worked regularly as a contributor for the Yale Literary Magazine. Even though he became dissatisfied with college and dropped out, he eventually graduated from Yale in 1908. After publishing his first novel in 1912, Lewis married Grace Livingston Hegger in 1914. The couple then moved to Port Washington on Long Island. After becoming an editor at various companies and devoting his evenings to writing fiction, Lewis published Main Street in 1920. Main Street became somewhat of an overnight success and gained him international acclaim as a satirical novelist, and sold 250,000 copies of the novel in the first year of publication, he then began to write other novels such as Babbit, and Arrowsmith. After divorcing his first wife, Grace, Lewis married the journalist Dorothy Thompson in 1928. In 1930, Lewis became the first American to win the Nobel Prize for Literature. After divorcing his wife in 1942, he spent the last years of his life throughout Europe alone, suffering from Alcoholism. On January 10th, 1951, Harry Sinclair Lewis died in Rome from a heart attack at the age of sixty-five; he was then buried in Minnesota. As stated, Sinclair Lewis’ childhood living in the rural small town of Sauk Centre, Minnesota showed great influence on his works. This proved to be greatly true in the creation of Main Street, for the town of Gopher Prairie was closely modeled after Sauk Centre. (Main Street, Sinclair Lewis, Introduction, Brooke Allen),
When focusing on the main characters within the novel of Main Street by Sinclair Lewis, it is ideal to narrow the main characters down to Carol Kennicott and Dr. Will Kennicott. These two characters are married in the story, and Will Kennicott is the reason why Carol moves from Minneapolis, to the small town of Gopher Prairie, to marry him. As stated, Carol Kennicott is the protagonist, and through her is how the reader views Gopher Prairie and its people. Even though they are married, at times throughout the story Will Kennicott could be viewed as the antagonist. Carol Kennicott is portrayed as culturally sophisticated and college educated woman, who lives a city life in Minneapolis. When she meets Dr. Will Kennicott, he convinces her to marry him and move to his town of Gopher Prairie. Upon arrival, Carol has dreams she took with her of rebuilding an ugly, small prairie village into a sophisticated and beautiful place. Although she has these big dreams, the fact that she is more of a thinker and a dreamer as well as the townspeople’s unwavering resistance to change, Carol ends up not being able to accomplish much physically, but rebels more mentally. Throughout the story, Carol attempts to achieve happiness, or at least become content with her life that she feels she should not have chosen. Perhaps many readers could relate to her plight and relate to it, or others could view her as immature. It is important to understand that Carol’s character represents the role-change of women during the 1920’s; this is shown by her constant refusal to be content with the traditional domestic duties of women. Carol’s social activism and desire to bring change could also be viewed as representation of the progressive spirit around the turn of the century. (SparkNotes Editors, n.d.). As for the secondary protagonist of Dr. Will Kennicott, he can be viewed as representing traditional values, and at times, being opposed to the somewhat radical ideals of Carol and her desire for change. While Carol is constantly trying to bring change to Gopher Prairie, Will appears to remain content with the way his hometown of Gopher Prairie is. Will also shows contrast to the interests of Carol, such as preferring to watch movies rather than appreciating poetry and drama, and finding the people of Gopher Prairie to be friendly and simple, as Carol views them to be dull and unsophisticated. Even though Will can be viewed as unimaginative, he can also be seen as a very competent doctor, who is also highly intelligent, as he performs multiple and successful operations throughout the story.
Throughout most of the story, Will Kennicott fails to understand Carol’s undying desire to bring change to his home town.  (SparkNotes Editors, n.d.). From the information stated, the plot of the story takes hold once Carol begins some of her first attempts at reforming the town of Gopher Prairie, but first she attempts to make friends with the people of Gopher Prairie. First by hosting parties in order to gain a social foothold and enliven the people. Carol also joins Women’s clubs such as the “Jolly Seventeen” a social club, as well as a book club named the “Thanatopsis” club in order to rally the women to follow her in her social reforms. Despite these attempts, as well as forming a drama club and staging a play, Carol is still received as an outsider, as she learns that many of the townspeople constantly criticize her and her actions. Despite this, Carol does find companions amongst the somewhat outcasts of Gopher Prairie, such as Miles Bjornstam, the town’s handyman, named the “Red Swede”. She also befriends the town lawyer and bachelor, Guy Pollock, and the teacher at the local high school, Vida Sherwin as well as Bea, the maid at her house. Carol soon becomes frustrated due to no one supporting her plans for new social buildings and reforms, and she begins to resent the life she has chosen at Gopher Prairie. Within time, Carol and Will Kennicott have an argument over Carol’s discontent of her life and struggle for happiness. Will Kennicott claims that Carol believes she is higher than the people of Gopher Prairie. After they settle their argument, Carol begins to fall in love with Will all over again or perhaps for the first time. She begins to view him in a new light, as a stable, accomplished doctor and Carol’s new found love takes her mind off of her discontent with Gopher Prairie. This does not last long, as Carol still struggles to be content with the dull life she is living, and she becomes increasingly desperate to find interest, nearly having an affair with the tailor’s assistant, Erik Valborg. Eventually, in order to avoid a scandal, Erik leaves Gopher Prairie. Will Kennicott then takes Carol on a long trip around California, in order for her to avoid the gossip of the town. When she returns, after forgetting about the troubles of Gopher Prairie, she returns to find that the narrow-mindedness and hypocrisy of the people of the town has not come to change at all.  (SparkNotes Editors, n.d.).
 

Theme Comparison of ‘The Street’, ‘A Rose For Emily’ & ‘A Story Of An Hour’

The process of evaluating and interpreting literature is to understand what type of philosophy it presents and to compare our own values with the text. Since literature has the tendency to enlighten and entertain, the text draws the readers’ into its artistic world. In addition, certain factors in literature affect the readers’ theory about the reading, such as the character, the setting, or the theme. Evaluation and interpretation are essential tools, which are constructive aspects in the literary connection process. More importantly, these viewpoints “help us to think critically about the text details and dialect” (DiYanni, 2007 p. 7). According to Octavio Paz’s “The Street”, William Faulkner’s “A Rose for Emily”, and Kate Chopin’s “A Story of an Hour”, isolation was the common theme within their stories. Moreover, these literary works consist of lonely feelings in the major characters’ within their text. For example, the theme for these three literary works depicts lonely thoughts and isolated settings. The following characterizations are based on comparing literary works: observing and interpreting. Although there are themes that are mutual in various literary works, this essay will compare the themes of one poem and two short stories.

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Observing and comparing literature is a beneficial process to explore the similarities of stories. For instance, the poem “The Street” has a similar thematic idea of loneliness, to the following two short stories, “A Rose for Emily” and “A Story for an Hour”. In “The Street”, the poet describes a feeling of a person’s journey down a dark street. The passage, “Everything dark and doorless, only my steps aware of me” (DiYanni, 2007), illustrates that the atmosphere was gloomy and lack privacy. Since it is not clear why this character was alone in the street, some thoughts/questions did come to mind. Was this person homeless? Was this person mentally challenged or did this person just in need of alone time? Moreover, an illustrative phrase in this poem somewhat described the character’s frame of mind. For instance, “if I run, he runs, I turn: nobody”, (DiYanni, 2007). A general assumption of the preceding phrase would be that someone was actually following this person or it was just his or her shadow. In general, the character’s role in “The Street” encountered an emotive stroll down a long and still street, which is a clear illustration of solitude.
Similar to the solitude theme of “The Street”, the concept of loneliness and isolation emerged in the short story, “A Rose for Emily” as an expressive description of Emily’s life after death of her father and lover. The writer expresses how Emily’s attitude transformed physically and emotionally. Emily, the major character, experienced isolation after the death of her father. For instance, the author’s language in the short story suggested that after her father’s death, Emily did not care to interact with other people in the community. Emily decided to live in her only little world. DiYanni (2007) state that “After her father’s death she went out very little…people hardly saw her at all” (p. 80).
Accordingly, isolation was Emily’s innermost mind-set, which was her way of coping with calamity. In comparison with character in “The Street”, the thought of being mentally challenge or insane came to mind when Emily wanted to buy a toxic item from the pharmacist. Since Emily never mentioned why she needed the poison, her actions did trigger a curious question. What was Emily planning to do with such a deadly element? Ideally, living a lonely and isolated life was the cause of Emily’s peculiar actions.
Another story that shares the solitude theme as in the short poem “The Street” is “A Story of an Hour”. The writer tells a story about a woman who isolated herself from her family after hearing the news that her husband has died in a train accident. Ms. Mallard, the main character, did express her emotions after the news of her husband’s death. Hence, Ms. Mallard’s reaction to the report caused a feeling of isolation-similar to “The Street” and “A Rose for Emily” character, a solitary event. After Ms. Mallard breaks down and cries, she goes to her room alone. DiYanni (2007) notes that “When [her weeping was over,] she went away to her room alone. She would not have no one follow her” (p.38).Overall, the main idea the writers of these three literary works was about similar concepts of solitude.
“The Street,” “A Rose for Emily,” “A Story of an Hour” Differences
Another method for comparing these three literary works is to detect their theme differences. The first noticeable distinction that did stand out among all three literary works, were the character’s gender. The major characters in “A Rose for Emily” and “A Story of an Hour” are women; however, the major/solo character in “The Street” has a perception of a man. Although the author of “The Street” made no clear reference of the name of the main character walking alone in the street, the writers of “A Rose for Emily” and “The story of an Hour,” Emily and Mrs. Mallard were the names of main characters who shared a period of calamity in their life.
An additional diverse issue between these three stories is the theme’s focal point. For instance, the focal point for “The Street” appears to about the lonely mood or frame of mind the character was experiencing. DiYanni (2007) illustrates, “Here is a long and silent street….I turning and turning among these corners which lead forever to the street” (p. 1052). The poet’s use of this symbolic phrase defines the mood and the meaning of the character being alone in the poem.
In contrast to the theme of “The Street”, the theme in “A Rose for Emily” emphasizes emotional and physical isolation from the community because of the death of Emily’s father. There were times when neighbors in the community would get a quick glimpse of Emily through the window of her house. Moreover, “…for almost six months [Emily] did not appear on the streets”. (p.83). In other words, the writer’s attempt was to develop one main idea in this story-isolation from society.
Furthermore, however, the lonely theme in “The Street” did differ from the solitude theme in “The Story for an Hour” as well. After the death of Mrs. Mallard’s husband, during her darkest hour, her isolation was about freedom and on feelings about letting go of the past. While Mrs. Mallard is in her bedroom, isolated from her family, she stares out her window and thinks about being free from her marriage. According to the following phrase, “…as she was drinking in a [sweet substance] of life through [her] open window, [she whispered], Free! Body and soul free!” (p. 40). In other words, the writer’s main idea was about an hour of isolation from family and the thought of being free from an unhappy marriage.
Last of all, the ending of these literary works are quite different as well. The character in “The Street” remains in the street alone with no suggestion of a specific destination. As (DiYanni, 2007) points out, “Poems stimulate our imaginations” (p. 6). Therefore, the author- leading the outcome as a cliffhanger, provokes the readers to guess what happens next. Unlike the characters in “A Rose for Emily” and “The Story of an Hour”, the destination of the main character actually ends in death. Overall, the main concept of these three literary works was about the different way each character reacts to loneliness.
In conclusion, although this poem and two short stories are about loneliness, the writers’ approach the topic in very different ways. Since the common theme in “The Street”, “A Rose for Emily”, and “The Story for an Hour” involves a feeling of loneliness, the concept of being alone can have a diverse outcome. In other words, in comparing these three themes, the isolated reaction of these characters derived from specific issues, such as sickness or death. Moreover, “to characterize the relationship of [literary works,the cause leading to effect [and] external event triggering [the] internal response” (DiYanni, 2007, p. 7), should help compare the similarities and differences of each theme.
On a final note, the most interesting idea among the three preceding literary works was how the author expressed the characters emotions through their thoughts and actions. Since the common theme for Octavio Paz’s “The Street”, William Faulkner’s “A Rose for Emily”, and Kate Chopin’s “A Story of an Hour”, includes solitude within their storyline, they all produced a specific level of emotion, which allow the readers’ to observe and compare the effect of the isolation for each story.
 

Exploring Tragedy of Blanche’s isolation in A Street Car Named Desire

To explore whether the play’s tragedy lies in Blanche’s isolation, we first need to examine the necessary criteria of the genre. ‘A Streetcar Named Desire’ is a social drama befitting the conventions of the ‘modern tragedy’. From the nineteenth century a new type of tragedy emerged, markedly different to the classical Greek tradition. In the modern tragedy the scope of the drama tends to be less ambitious, dealing with domestic and interpersonal problems rather than issues of the realm or society as a whole. The setting is usually confined to the domestic variety. Also, they usually involve a protagonist battling against social forces that inevitably threaten to overwhelm them. By this definition the modern tragedy differs from the classical variety as it encompasses the belief that the social drama can be tragic even if the hero is a victim of, not only personal flaws, but circumstance dependent on society.
However, this is not to say elements of classic tragedy, are not prevalent in ‘A Streetcar Named Desire’. [Aristotle’s ideas] In the following essay I will explore tropes of both contemporary and classical tragedy inherent in he play, and more relevantly Blanche’s isolation.
Throughout the play Blanche’s displacement isolates her. Her confidence is undermined by a setting in which she is unsure of the social conventions, the successful manipulation of which is indispensable for gaining and maintaining authority. Not only does Stanley dismiss her genteel protest, ‘Please don’t get up’, with ‘Nobody’s going to get up, so don’t be worried’, but Stella, who has warned her about the incapability of her customs to the present setting, finds her sister’s ‘superior attitude’ out of place. Blanche’s affair with Mitch centres on her needing a place away from Stella and Stanley, and Mitch’s rejection of her expresses itself in a refusal to bringing ‘home’. Stanley’s birthday present to her, the bus ticket to Laurel, serves only to underline his declaration. ‘She’s not stayin’ here after Tuesday’. Like Stella, he knows Blanch can return to no home. [Should I specify the exact tragic elements of this paragraph?]

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However that is not to say Blanche does not also actively isolate herself. Blanche is ostracised by her own antiquated views on class and social distinctions. Blanche’s awareness of social distinction is exhibited in the offhand manner in which she accepts both Eunice and her neighbour’s acts of kindness. To Blanche these are services naturally expected of her social inferiors. Her attitude towards these two women has the doubly effect of preparing us for her condemnation of Stella’s way of life, and specifically, her ‘ape-like’ husband, Stanley.
Blanche’s condemnation of Stanley’s ‘bestial’ nature is made explicit in Scene Four. The morning after the violence between Stanley and Stella, Blanche reproaches her sister for going back to her husband. Her urgings for them to leave Elysian Fields fall on deaf ears{amused quote}However, Stella’s amusement at Blanche’s hysterical plans soon turns to irritation as shown in her dry, ironical comments. The tragedy resides in the resentment Stella festers over her sister’s disapproval and harsh criticism of Stanley. This affects her decision in choosing to believe Blanche’s accusation of rape as the invention of a mentally unstable woman. (‘I couldn’t believe her story and go on living with Stanley’). Blanche’s hysteria casts doubts on her sanity and goes some way to influencing Stella’s readiness to have her sister committed to a mental hospital. The scene also has a dramatic function that contributes heavily to the ensuing catastrophe. Having overheard Blanche’s melodramatic condemnation Stanley now has even more reason to dislike Blanche and to wish to find a way of getting rid of her. His triumphant grin at the close of the scene promises ill for Blanche.
The emotional distance Blanche levels is based on the contradictory complexity of her character and intentions. Blanche, a figure of nervous disposition, is fretting to Stella over her coming date with Mitch, exhibiting a desperate longing for his hand in marriage. She fears growing old alone and is comforted by the thought of matrimonial security. Yet as she awaits Mitch’s arrival, Blanch engages in an episode of casual flirting with a young boy. Tennessee Williams uses the brief episode with the young man to show the contradictions in Blanche’s character. She is seemingly desperate to marry Mitch, yet she is ready to risk her future in this flirtatious episode. Blanche’s tragic flaw is made clearer as being a necessity for male attention and promiscuity. Her vain weaknesses make us seriously doubt Blanche’s true desires and destroy any possibility of a happy ending for her. She has no real desire for the safety of married life because she is unable to commit herself to a permanent relationship with one man. The moth will flutter and not settle down.
Obviously, a risk that arises from the Blanche’s callous flirtations is the alienation of the reader’s sympathies from her travails. It is here that the tragic story of Blanche’s young lover, Allen Grey acts to remedy this. In her youthful past, Blanche, hopelessly in love with her young husband Allen Grey, caught her lover in bed with another male friend. Later that day, pretending that nothing had happened, the three of them went out dancing together. In the middle of the Varsouviana, Blanche turned to Allen and told him that she felt ‘disgust’ towards him. He ran away and shot himself in the head. The significance of this tragic episode in Blanche’s youth is reiterated by Williams’ use of the Varsouviana Polka throughout the play. The Varsouviana is the polka tune to which Blanche and her young husband, Allen Grey, were dancing to when she last saw him alive. In the play, the polka tune calls up and accompanies Blanche’s feelings of guilt and remorse over her lost love’s death. Its dramatic effect is supplied by the fact only Blanche hears this (Mitch quote). This curious variant of the aside makes Blanche’s memories peculiarly private and contributes to her isolation. In relation to the elements of tragedy, the tragic quality to her youth is one that goes some way to explaining the dichotomy of Blanche’s intentions and is the source for the emotional vacuum she operates in the present. We as readers modify our initial doubts on her behaviour and feel immense sympathy and pity over her story, a key trait for the tragic hero.
In ‘A Streetcar’, the most significant aspect of Blanche’s isolation is psychologically, specifically her aversion from the harshness of reality to the relative safety of fantasy. Throughout the play, Blanche relies on numerous coping methods to help her endure the pain of her past tragedies and struggles. One method is her craving for drink, a trait that doesn’t go unnoticed by others (‘Liquor goes fast in hot weather’). She seeks the solace of alcohol when nervous, as before her date with Mitch, or depressed, after her rejection from Mitch. In addition, Blanche’s Chinese lantern takes on symbolic effect in Blanche’s evocative description of her love for Allen Grey. She describes falling in love as though ‘you suddenly turned a blinding light on something that had always been half in shadow, that’s how it struck the world for me’. In turn, she claims that ‘the searchlight which had been turned on the world was turned off again’ after she catches him with another man, later confronts him, and discovers his suicide. The lantern is symbolic of Blanche’s attempt to block the world from her eyes. The darkness that she was plunged into after her husband’s death has become an aid and comfort from the harshness of reality (‘The darkness is comforting to me’).
Most significantly, the sombre tragedy of the play’s denouement exists in the mental breakdown of its protagonist.
At the end of the play, Blanche experiences a mental breakdown, due to Stanley’s brutal sexual assault, and is carried of to a mental hospital by medical staff. Stanley’s grotesque act is symbolic of reality’s complete domination over Blanche. Throughout her young life, she has withstood the very nadirs of pain and suffering, comforting herself with regular flights of fantasy. However, the fragile tether between reality and fantasy severs permanently at the hands of Stanley.
The abiding mental isolation of Blanche is rife with elements of tragedy. Blanche’s daydream of a death at sea is a moment of great pathos reiterating the tragic mental break she has suffered (‘And when I die, I’m going to die on the sea’). Blanche leaves Stella’s residence on the arms of the doctor, a curiously dignified figure. As she says to him ‘I’ve always depended on the kindness of strangers’ we recall these words at the end of Scene three as she thanks Mitch. The poignant truth of the statement is underlined with crushing tragedy as we realise she has experienced very little kindness in her life. These last words are a direct and effective appeal for the audience’s sympathy and pity.
The conventions of Ancient Greek tragedy demanded the focus of the genre to be on ‘the downfall a noble hero as a result of his own pride and arrogance (hubris). The opposite is the case in ‘A Streetcar Named Desire’ as Williams elevates a vain, self-deluded, promiscuous woman to the stature of a heroine. Yet, the focus of audience attention throughout, Blanche rises above her degradation and inspires in the audience the pity and fear demanded by classical tragedy. Blanche Dubois’s vanities and moral weaknesses fall away from her in the moment of departure and she achieves the dignity of a tragic heroine.
 

London Street Photography Exhibition Photography Essay

This exhibition shows images of London streets taken between 1960 and 2010, some of them come from the museum archives and was not exhibited before at such a scale. Exhibition takes place in a couple of rooms in the lower level. The main exhibition space takes two rooms to the side showing films about street photography. The images are displayed in chronological order around the room, as we go feather faded sepia images stands out to our eyes as we go along they loosing they grainy quality, the moving objects becoming less blurry and they change to black and white photographs. As we progress to the end of exhibition photographs transform into colour images. An introduction show us a short film which include a interview with Paul Trevor who took photographs of the East End between 1970s and 1980s that were a high points of the exhibition.

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Over 60 photographers shown their work starting with Valentine Blanchard’s who were born in Wisbech, Cambridgeshire in 1831.His photograph taken in 1860 of Covent Garden Market where man in a hat is caught looking at vegetables while behind him world continues in its busy way. Looking at this image is giving you a feeling of turning back in time, stopping for a while and think about yourself and all those years that passed. Really calming effect I would say.
There were images of Terry Spencer who shot skinheads frowning at hippies in Piccadilly Circus. Another image of couple walking down the street in anticipation, it is beautiful proof that out there somewhere it always be a moment to be caught .For example when child looks up and smiles or a person sitting alone on the bench in the park. “This British capital,” wrote Henry James, “is the particular spot in the world which communicates the greatest sense of life; there is nothing one can’t study at first hand.”
Roger Mayne sought to record a way of life in North Kensington before it was redeveloped in 1960s. His images often looked at the use of the streets as social space. The photograph that caught my eye is the image of two men walking down the Latimer Road caring shopping and just drifted away with their minds completely not aware of the photographer. I like that the image is in greyscale which makes it stand out more because you get that feeling of time and how the viewer perceiving the convening message. The framing and the location show us that Roger Mayne dedicated himself to describe life on London working class people and streets. Other photograph of Tom taken in Trafalgar Square in 1970 involved simplification of black and white and freezing the moment in time. Other of his picture included in exhibition is picture of children playing cricket in Notting Hill. As Roger Mayne said himself “I went to South London and I saw, in the distance, a bombed building with a lot of children playing in it, so I thought that might be an interesting subject. So I walked towards this building and when the children saw somebody with a camera they immediately stopped this fascinating thing, whatever they were doing which intrigued me, so they all came out and wanted their photograph. You used to get this cry, ‘please take my photo Mister’.” As you move around the place you witness capital developing and changing across a century. Some of the locations appears a couple of times and as you follow you can see that they are becoming more and more as they are today. Different elements pops up, the number of non white faces increase, style of clothes becoming more similar to what we are wearing today and we notice that British culture is influenced more and more by brands and trends from United States.
Really interesting for me were the images of racial tensions in 1970s but the photograph of white woman kissing a black man, photograph by Charlie Phillips, seems to improve the relations between immigrants and Londoners. I noticed that photography drastically changed across the exhibition. Since the innovations in technology cameras were getting smaller and exposure faster we could notice how the photographers approach changed relating to the subject. Furthermore the subject matter also changed specially in the war period as artists changed their focus from capturing streets to highlighting the London inequalities. After that noticeably compositions approached changed due to emigrating people from Europe who brought new modernist style with them. That style moved back and forward since 1960s and which quickly were displaced. What amazed me the most were the techniques used to produce the image. The street photographer often needs to get his shoots quickly and secretly that push him to compromise in technique. We can find photographers that do this, by intentionally heighten contrast and grain, emphasizing the grittiness of that street which in my opinion did not look amusing at all. However in whole exhibition you could find beautiful pieces in deed. For example George Reid’s photographs shot with plate glass camera showing an amazing control of depth of field and exposure with carefully planned and examined shoot of the scene.
Moving into colour which is delayed and does not become obvious after us past 1980s because people belief that greyscale images are more successful for documentary storytelling as a medium. The image taken by Bob Tapper called ‘Two children looking out of a window in Fieldgate Mansions ;1986 ‘ draw my attention straight away because of that children they looked like they are prisoners of their own house. For a while I felt sad but then I realised that they are actually happy. I do like framing in this image and how photographer emphasizes his point of view standing up and taking picture from that level. Also the writing on the wall matches the subject matter as we do not know if they having a mum or they are orphans. The fact that window is just on the footpath level makes it more abstract how the kids “looking out of a window”.
Further I found interesting photograph of Stephen McLaren called Dog, Big Ben taken in April 2007 .It is a shoot of a dog jumping in the air and captured next to Big Ben on beautiful cloudless sky .What makes the dog look really big almost the size of the Big Ben is the way how it was captured pushed me to think how much you could do when you actually looking around. Also how important is approaching your subject in a way how you want to display your work to the viewer. The last photograph that I will talk about that grabbed my attention was the image by Marco Fiori Metro London Street Photography winner, 2011.The image shows interesting contrast of red and black and it captured the spontaneity of a perfect moment. Overall the exhibition show how London changed around its residents to become a city as we see it today. The down side of the whole experience was queuing for an hour and allot of people shuffling around the small room briefly looking at a succession of the prints which were A4 size or smaller. Also a short description was hanged almost at the ankle level what was real struggle to read. To summarise the exhibition provides the facts that street photography is no longer alive but its shows that is still relevant in today’s world.
 

Discussing Symbolism in Tennessee Williams’ ‘A Street Car Named Desire’

Tennessee Williams’ play A Street Car Name Desire is a domestic drama. There is a film adaptation of play which released in 1951 by Elia Kazan. In Tennessee Williams’ play A Street Car Name Desire; there are many symbols such as, The Elysian Field, The Paper Lantern, and The Varsouviana which are used for character development. Besides them, there are also some metaphors such as, The Light and The Music.

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In this research paper, firstly I will examine the symbols in the play and how they used for character development. Especially, how Blanche’s character development is shaped by them. Then, I will examine the metaphors which are used in the play. Metaphors’ definition and their effects on character development are examined by giving example passage from the play. Lastly, I will conclude with my point of view to these symbols and metaphors’ effects on character development.
The Elysian Field is a place that people go to after death like paradise in Greek Mythology. Blanche lost herself in Laurel; she comes New Orleans to find her elysian field. When we look at Blanche’s life before coming to New Orleans, we see that she lost her all possessed. She thinks that she will be happy in a new town with her sister. The Elysian Field is a new place for her to forget her past. I think Blanche could not find the image of Elysian Field which she imagines because the houses have very poor style. They are mostly weathered grey and with rickety outside stars. When she first comes to her sister’s home, she is shocked. We can see it in the beginning of play:
Blanche comes around the corner, carrying a valise. She looks at a slip of paper, then at the building, then again at slip and again at the building. Her expression is one of the shocked disbelief. (Williams 5)
The Paper Lantern symbolizes Blanche’s destruction. Blanche is afraid of the light. She does not want anybody to see her real appearance. In naked light, she seems very old. She wants to be appears as a young lady but her past and her age do not permit it. When Mitch pulls off the paper lantern from the light, it causes Blanche’s downfall. Mitch wants to learn real story of Blanche because he heard something about Blanche from Stanley. As the paper lantern covers the light, it covers Blanche’s past as a symbol.
The Varsouviana is the polka music that played the night of Allan’s death. The music plays when Blanche remembers about Allan. It symbolizes Blanche’s loss of innocence. There is an example speech in scene six which shows this symbol:

We danced the Varsouviana! Suddenly in the middle of the dance the boy I had married broke away from me and ran out of the casino. A few moments later—–a shot! (Williams 115)
This music helps Blanche to imagine her past while she is talking about Allan with Mitch. In this mutual speech between Blanche and Mitch, music has different level according to character’s behaviors. For example:
The Polka stops abruptly. Blanche rises stiffly. Then, the Polka resumes in a major key. Mitch gets up awkwardly and moves toward her a little. The polka music increases. Mitch stands beside her. (Williams115)
Stanley throws a package of meat to Stella. It symbolizes Stanley’s barbarity. This symbol helps us to understand that Stanley is a rude man. Stanley does not give or hand it to Stanley.
He heaves the package at her. She cries out in protest but manages to catch it: then she laughs breathlessly. Her husband and his companion have already started back around the corner. (Williams 4)
The meat also symbolizes the sexual relationship between Stanley and Stella. The meat gives Stanley sexual pleasure. Stella’s catching the meat show her blind love and sexual emotions to Stanley.

The loss of Belle Reve symbolizes Blanche’s painful loneliness. There is no place for Blanche to stay except at a hotel. Blanche arrives as a broken woman in New Orleans. She sold everything. It shows us Blanche’s despair. The loss of Belle Reve causes a conflict between Blanche and Stanley. Stanley wants his wife’s share from Belle Reve. He does not believe Blanche’s lost of Belle Reve. As it is seen, this symbol affects characters’ behaviors to each other.
The young man in scene 5 can be seen as a symbol of Blanche’s own innocence at one time that was corrupted by others. “Blanche lets the young man leave the apartment finally, his innocence intact (except for a kiss), as, it could be said, she would like her own innocence left intact.”  The young man reminds the high school boy in Laurel who caused Blanche to lose her teacher job. Blanche’s own innocence was corrupted by others. As Stella says to Stanley, “You didn’t know Blanche as a girl. Nobody, nobody, was tender and trusting as she was. But people like you abused her, and forced her to change.” (Williams 136)
Allan Grey is a symbolic character. The memory of him symbolizes sometimes bad sometimes good memories. Blanche loves him very much. But he betrays her with a man. The death of Allan Grey causes Blanche’s mental illness. As I before mention, Allen killed himself as they are dancing.
Playing Poker shows Stanley’s power over his wife and Blanche. While Blanche is taken away, he wins the game at the same time. As Daniel Brooks mention,
Significantly, the game reflects the dynamics of the play’s four main char­acters. Like the turned-up wild card, Blanche DuBois turns up at Elysian Fields and immediately impacts the lives of Stanley, Mitch, and Stella. They each stand to gain something if things go their way, so they “play” Blanche to their best advantage, as if she were a wild card in a poker game.  
Stanley loses his control when he plays poker with his friends. When women come to home, he gets angry. If we look the game from Mitch’s point of view, we can say that he comes to play for a different purpose. After he meets with Blanche, he comes to see her.
In some scenes, Blanche drinks alcohol. Alcohol helps her get rid of bad memories. When she drinks a glass of alcohol, she feels herself well.
Mexican woman can be seen as a symbol of death. She sells flowers for the dead. When Blanche hears and sees her, she is afraid of death. This woman affects Blanche by the way of reminding death.
When wee look at the metaphors in the play, they help to develop character development. The Light is used as a metaphor for truth. Blanche uses lights for expressing her feelings. She is afraid of daylight. She thinks that daylight shows her age. Light symbolizes the reality. Blanche escapes from reality. She is afraid of seeming old. She wants to live her imagination world. As Blanche says to Mitch,
I don’t want realism. I want magic. Yes, yes, magic. I try to give that people. I misrepresent things to them. I don’t tell truth, I tell what ought to be truth. And if that is sinful, then let me damned for it! — Don’t turn the light on! (Williams 145)
Blanche sees Allan Grey her bright light. After his suicide, she thinks that she lost her vivid light. Bright light express her lovely feelings with Allan Grey. Also light express her desire to illusion over reality. Blanche is a victim of her own self-delusions. She wants to protect her ego. She lies to people as covering herself with dim light. Dim light reflects her fragile. In the beginning of the play, there is an explanation, “Her delicate beauty must avoid a strong light. There is something about her uncertain manner…” (Williams 5)
Williams uses bath as a metaphor for many conditions. For Stanley, Stella and Blanche, it has different meanings. For example; Bath is good for calm down nervous for Blanche. She also goes bath to wash away her sins. We can say that these baths show us Blanche wants to get rid of her ugly past.
Bath has also same meaning for Stanley. After he argues with Stella, he goes to bath for his nervous calm down. At the poker night, his friends take away his to bath. Stanley realizes that he beats his wife while he is under the water.
In Tennessee Williams’ play A Street Car Name Desire; there are many symbols such as, The Elysian Field, The Paper Lantern, and The Varsouviana which are used for character development. These symbols and metaphors mostly affect Blanche’s characterization. Every symbol and metaphor shows Blanche’s different desires to us.
 

Purpose of the Wall Street Journal

Saiteja Naidu (MSIS) 
The Wall Street Journal
The Wall street journal main purpose is for the business groups and financial investors. It was initially started by Charles Dowand Edward Jones, owners of Dow, Jones and Company, started publishing the daily Wall street journal on 8 July 1889. Earlier newspaper was started in United states which was firstly concentrated on general news later it began to focus mainly on business news, fluctuation in prices of stocks, bonds and some classes of commodities” (Wendt, p. 28).It was edited in newyork city for u.s.a and daily editions include parts of asia, europe. Bernard Kilgore got to be overseeing proofreader of the diary in 1945, seventeen years after the demise of Clarence Barron. Kilgore upgraded the paper, extending its scope to incorporate all parts of business, financial aspects, and shopper issues, including general news that affected business.The Wall Street Journal is possessed by media tycoon Rupert Murdoch, who bought the organization for $5 billion in 2007 through his organization, News Corporation. The deal finished the 105-year-long responsibility for Wall Street Journal by the Bancroft family. Murdoch, one of the world’s most effective media mogul. The Wall Street Journal has since quite a while ago overwhelmed American business distributing and was the nation’s first national daily paper. The journal has its classic daily paper and in addition e-daily paper which is most prevalent now a days to exist its check in innovation world with live redesigns and its commonplace business share report is found in the consistently computerized news for financial specialists. It has a sort of obstructs that none can coordinate the measures of its factual report and fascinating political news with showing territorial release.
Journal vision to create interest for business in the public and its preferences in newspaper:
The Journal started a few indexes of value developments of stocks, including the Dow Jones Indexes. The upper left-hand segment secured general market and monetary developments. The second from left secured the points of interest of the day’s market developments. Whatever is left of the four-page paper was completely business situated, announcing general news with regards to its impact on the business sectors. At the point when the nation is creating in the meantime there is a quick increment in the speculation and development in the pay of a person which requested for the proposals and thoughts where to put, When to move into business and shares.
The Journal Interests and objectives:
Journal rose as the voice of political conservatism in American news coverage. Such an article point of view, when joined with wide national dispersion, gave solid course and promoting income development, achieving $2.3 billion in the year 2000 and benefits before exceptional things of $294.6 million.

The Journal mainly focuses on the business with deep immense research and commonplace authors with their amazing words to draw in the readers.
It shows eight Headers for e-newspaper comprises of Home, World, U.S,Ploitics,Economy,Business,Tech,Markets,Opinion,Arts,Life,Real Estate Again those blogs are subdivided into various blogs related to the stream.
The most preferable thing about the journal is that an individual can subscribe for different versions of software.
This journal had both print and digital with various prudent enrollment memberships.
We can download in android and ios renditions to take after the business and general news in computerized path for brilliant utilize.
There are corporate memberships for business speculators and business people particularly for business magazines.
There is also student journal and professor journal to register and publish the paper. Even they can subscribe to the job activities and can enlarge their network for career wise advantages.
At present the world blog comprise of brussels in real time, china in real time and India in real time.
The opinion column is the most crucial aspect to respect the individual ideas in wall street.

References
Dealy, Francis X., Jr. The Power and the Money: Inside the Wall Street Journal. Secaucus, N.Y.: Carol Publishing Group, 1993.
Rosenberg, Jerry M. Inside the Wall Street Journal: The History and the Power of Dow Jones and Company and America’s Most Influential Newspaper. New York: Macmillan, 1982.
Wendt, Lloyd. The Wall Street Journal: The Story of Dow Jones and the Nation’s Business Newspaper.Chicago: Rand McNally, 1982.
http://www.investopedia.com/ask/answers/111215/who-actually-owns-wall-street-journal.asp#ixzz4YydDnOQx.
https://www.wsj.com/.

The Growth of Esperanza in Sandra Cisneros’ ‘The House on Mango Street’

Friends can help guide you through tough situations. But sometimes making decisions on your own can be better than what any friend can tell you. Throughout Esperanza’s growth during her year in The House on Mango Street by Sandra Cisneros, Esperanza experiences many tough situations and gains realizations on what life is like in Mango Street from Lucy, Sally, and Nenny. The growth that Esperanza displays specifically changes in certain areas, as her friends portray these thoughts and show Esperanza new ideas about growth, a general viewpoint on life, and sudden sexuality.

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At the beginning of the novel, Esperanza, the main character, is not ready to transpire from the innocence of childhood. She is mostly uneducated about sex and says that boys and girls live in apart from each other no matter what. She believes so strongly about this that she cannot even talk to her brothers outside of the house because she does not want other people to see her interacting with boys (Cisneros 8). As she progresses throughout the novel, she begins to learn about what she can do to look prettier. Marin, one of Esperanza’s best friends, teaches her important facts about boys, but the first major step in Esperanza’s awakening of her sexuality is when she and Lucy, someone she met when she came to Mango Street, explore the neighborhood in beautiful high-heeled shoes.
In the chapter that introduces the shoes, Lucy, and Esperanza (and Rachel, Lucy’s sister) are given three pairs of high-heeled shoes by the mother of the little foot family (Cisneros 40). At first, they stare at how long their legs look, and how different it is than their normal appearance (40). They feel attractive because they think they look older and more elegant. The freshness of this new experience wears off, however, when they wear the shoes and walk down to the corner store where the owner, Mr. Benny, tells them that the shoes are dangerous and that they better take them off (41). This frightens them and they run away. At this point, Lucy is becoming apparent of the problems that the shoes give Esperanza and Rachel. But later, a bum on the street tells Rachel that she looks pretty and offers her a dollar to kiss him (41). This frightens Lucy, who grabs her hand and the girls run all the way back to Mango Street and hide the shoes in a bag under the back porch (41). Because of the unwanted attention from multiple boys and men that they’ve received, they no longer wish to feel beautiful. So without Lucy’s feeling, both Rachel and Esperanza could have been hurt by the shoes. But by taking the girls back to house on Mango Street, Esperanza learned that being beautiful is perhaps more dangerous than helpful. This first step of realization helped Esperanza  because she figured out that boys were dangerous to pretty girls like Esperanza (if she wore the shoes).
In the novel, Esperanza improves her overall general view on life as Nenny, Esperanza’s younger sister, is often considered Esperanza’s responsibility, and though her integrity is a large cause of annoyance for Esperanza, it also shows Nenny’s independence from everyone else. In many ways, Nenny is an irritating little sister. Esperanza must show Nenny to her friends and keep her away from naughty children, such as the Vargas kids (8). Nenny also has traits that Esperanza covers, including two names (“Nenny” is short for “Magdalena”), beautiful eyes, and glimmering, smooth hair (11). Though Nenny can be an inconvenience and a tag-a-long, and her actions frequently embarrass Esperanza, often showing her independence. When Esperanza, Rachel, and Lucy come up with chants about hips, Nenny sings old chants that everyone already knows (52). On the same idea as that, when Rachel and Lucy describe clouds with creative metaphors, Nenny gives the clouds simple names like Jose and Alicia (36). Nenny’s constant denial to be creative embarrasses Esperanza, but her choices show that she has her own way of living on Mango Street. In this sense, Nenny and Esperanza don’t seem similar, but their gaps in age and social ability hide their basic similarities. Nenny and Esperanza laugh at the same things, even things that others don’t understand are laughable. More importantly, Nenny and Esperanza are both dreamers. While Esperanza thinks of a world outside the neighborhood, Nenny turns the outside world into the neighborhood by giving the clouds the same names as her neighbors. She turns Mango Street into the midpoint of the galaxy, a place where she can be safe and free. From observing Nenny’s tendency to do this, Esperanza is able to see what she is doing and obtain a larger perspective on what life is like without all of the conflict between school, friends, and sexual problems
When Esperanza begins wanting boys at the end of the novel and learns more about sexuality, she looks for a friend in Sally, someone who Esperanza looks up to, who boys seem to find attractive. Sally portrays the idea of being glamorous yet cruel, like the women Esperanza sees in movies. She leans against the fence at school and doesn’t talk to anyone (82). Rumors about Sally’s multiple boyfriends travel around the school, but Esperanza doesn’t believe them. Instead, she thinks of Sally as someone who spends their time dreaming of leaving the neighborhood. Sally, however, is not always interested in making boys crazy and then pushing them away, as the women in the movies do. Instead, she feels safety and comfort in making love with boys, feelings she does not find at home with her father who is abusive. Sally becomes a vital figure for Esperanza, as she represents a type of maturity that Esperanza finds interesting in her life. Sally appears to have control with her boyfriends, and Esperanza wants to learn Sally’s ways. Shoes again explain sexuality, as Esperanza adores Sally’s black suede shoes (82). Sally seems to get sadder every day as she walks home to her father. He tries to keep her stuck in the house because he is very religious and thinks her beauty means trouble (82). Esperanza idolizes Sally at this point still, and it is seemingly possible that she is beginning to choose Sally’s path, at least for the moment. Rachel and Lucy will not ever appear in the novel anymore, as Esperanza wants to become Sally’s best friend so all of the attention heads towards Sally. Sally’s movements with boys make Esperanza uncomfortable, because at this point Esperanza is interested in sex only at a very minuscule level. Eventually, this discomfort becomes very prominent, and Sally ends up putting Esperanza in danger. Sally changes little over time, but Esperanza’s understanding of Sally changes massively. Esperanza’s experiences as Sally’s friend make Esperanza understand that she has tried to grow up too fast. In the end, Sally is an awful role model figure in Esperanza’s life.
Overall, the new ideas that Esperanza learns from her friends displays a large expansion of change from Esperanza’s mindset from the beginning of the book to now. At the end of the book, she knows to be more careful about certain things that might seem minuscule in the moment, but later create a large impact on life. Through Cisneros’s descriptive writing, Esperanza’s friends show the new ideas via their personalities. Though friends ultimately show you the way to success in difficult scenarios and teach you new ideas, you can learn more from yourself about life than what anybody else tells you.
Works Cited

Cisneros, Sandra. The House on Mango Street, Vintage Contemporaries, 1984.

 

Street gangs in America

Street gangs in America:
Street gangs are the new big problem of organized crime in America. Gangs started out as a minor nuisance to society, but they have become to a massive crime force in America. They account for much of America’s violence as well as trafficking drugs throughout the states (Drugs and Gangs). If they are not taken care of soon, they will get out of hand. Street gangs in America are growing in size due to increases in poverty as well as the influence of peer pressure, and they are becoming increasingly violent because of gang wars and drug trafficking.

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The old street gangs were very different from the modern day gangs. In early street gangs groups of kids, usually poor children would come together for support (Gardner, 19). These groups would spend a lot of time together and get into trouble with the law, but they were not dangerous to innocent bystanders, and did not pose a threat to America (20). These groups would gather to talk, insult and make fun of each other jokingly, and shoot hoops at the park (20). Modern street gangs are changing into profit driven groups that traffic drugs throughout the nation and are committed to violence. Modern gangs are much larger having about 731,000 active gang members (Organized Gangs). National street gangs pose the greatest threat of all because they smuggle, produce, transport, and distribute large quantities of illegal drugs throughout the country and are extremely violent.
Early gangs were not very organized, modern day gangs are very organized. Modern gangs have ranking system that they follow. Gang activity rises and falls periodically and the ranks of members are determined by who has recently been arrested or killed (Stewart 31). The core of the gang is made up of the “hard-core” members. These are the members that are actually committing the bad crimes and will probably be in the gang for the rest of their life. The rest of the gang is made up of “ wanna-be” members. These members are either not really part of the gang or have not committed any initiation crimes to become a part of the gang. In today’s gangs teens as old as nine or ten can be a part of drug trafficking, all they have to do is hand over the little bag and hold on to the money until an overseer comes and grabs the money (“Drugs and Gangs”).
Although some gangs have leaders, many do not. Typically, gangs with leaders are not very well organized because most of the time gang crimes are nearly all carried out on impulse (Gardner 21). Some national street gangs are very organized, with as many as 100,000 members and associates. The most highly organized gangs, such as Latin Kings, Gangster Disciples, and Vice Lords, Bloods and the Crips have centralized leadership cores (“organized gangs”). Usually there is little forethought when it comes to gang crime and violence because most gang crime occurs when two rival gangs encounter each other, no matter where they are or what they are doing. Most gangs will have different rankings. For example, an O.G or Original Gangster will usually teach the younger members how stuff works before they take their spot. Gang hierarchy is followed by nearly every gang.
Street gangs have increased in size because of the bad economy in America. There are roughly 21,500 gangs in America and more than 731,000 active gang members (“Organized gangs”). The poor state of the economy is causing many people to lose their jobs, and forcing more Americas into poverty. People who are faced with a lack of money may turn to crime if they can’t earn enough with a real job. This partly explains why gangs exist in poor, areas of cities. Although not everyone who decides to joins a gang is poor, and not every gang member is poor (Gardner 51). While poverty does draw much of America’s youth to gangs there is still many poor teens who are not in gangs. Siblings in gangs have a strong influence for their brothers or sisters along with teens to join and become a member of their street gangs. Gangs also provide a way to make money, and sometimes lots of it. Poverty is one of the main reason teens and young adults get pulled into joining street gangs.
Although poverty does attract many youth to gangs, peer pressure is also a big factor. There is peer pressure in every teen’s life. A lot of gang members are very young, gangs intentionally recruit teenagers (Gardner 41). They do this because no matter what kind of trouble a teen gets into they cannot go to jail for their crime. Some young teenagers may join gangs to earn respect from others (Osman 36). Most teens that live in parts of a city with gang presence usually have friends that are in at least one gang. Those friends will pressure the teen into joining their gang. Often youth will get harassed or “beat up” until they accept and join the gang (37). Another reason teens may end up joining a gang is for protection (33). But joining a gang often brings bigger threat because are vulnerable to getting attacked by a rival gang. Gang influence in schools is also a big problem, if they youth goes to a school with a strong gang presence, they might find that many of their friends are joining gangs and follow them (“a reputation for being tough and a good fighter is important for many kids” (Gardner 41). About twenty-eight percent of schools have reported street gang presence in their school (Drugs and Gangs). Gang presence in schools is just another factor that pushes teens to join gangs. “Resisting peer pressure as every teenager knows is tough”. You have to have a high self esteem, strong motivation and a good support system (Gardner, 30).
As gangs increase in popularity, gang violence does to. Gang violence is rising due to availability of new guns and cars. Gang members are now getting their hands on AK-47’s, Submachine guns, M 16’s, Uzi’s, and semi automatic pistols. Sgt. Joe Guzman, a sheriff gang expert told the Los Angeles times “Today instead of brawling, it’s all about the fire power and taking people out” (qtd. in Osman 55). This is because in the past gang fights would be a brawl of twenty to thirty using just fists. These modern day guns are way more effective and dangerous than guns in the past, these guns kill much quicker with even a single bullet can end someone’s life. Any gang member can easily hide a gun while walking on the street, quickly pull it out and kill someone within seconds. Guns are one of the leading reasons why gang violence is increasing.
Having more than one gang in a city is also a major cause for gang violence. Because gangs have their territories or turf even living around a certain area is enough to get attacked, robbed, or even killed (Gardner 13). Gang territories are marked by crews.” Crews claim they are non violent, but they mark their turf with graffiti encouraging vandalism and gang violence over the turf” (street gangs in America 60). When more the one gang is present in a single city or area, there is bound to be a rise in crime in the area. The Los Angeles Crips and their enemies the Bloods are famous their rivalry and fighting over turf with each other (Gardner 40).
On top of the acts of violence, street gangs are now seeking profit by dealing illegal durgs throughout America. Many gangs that started as turf gangs are now evolving into money making criminal organization whose activities include not just drugs but, smuggling, transportation, and wholesale distribution of the illegal drugs (“Organized gangs”). “Large, nationally affiliated street gangs pose the greatest threat because they smuggle, produce, transport, and distribute large quantities of illegal drugs throughout the country and are extremely violent” (Drugs and Gangs). “About 3.5 million individuals age 18 and older have admitted to having injected an illegal drug during their lifetime. Of these individuals, 14 percent or (498,000) were under the age of 25” (National Drug Intelligence Center). Gangs convert cocaine into crack cocaine and make almost all the PCP in America. Some gangs make millions per month selling illegal drugs, distributing weapons, operating prostitute businesses, and selling stolen property (Drugs and Gangs). Street gangs have now moved to new areas, specifically rural and suburban areas, to avoid the police and get new customers (“Organized Gangs”). Profit driven gangs relentlessly traffic drugs throughout America, and they will use violence without a second thought to continue their operation.
There are also Mexican drug trafficking organizations (DTOs) outside of America that are distributing drugs into the United States. Mexican Drug trafficking organizations are one of the biggest problems of why there is such a large amount of drugs in America. Street gangs in America are seeking to establish connections with Mexican DTOs to expand their drug trafficking organizations (“Organized Gangs”). Mexican DTOs and criminal groups exhibit far greater influence over drug trafficking in the United States than any other group, and their influence is increasing, particularly with respect to cocaine and methamphetamine distribution (“Organized gangs”). Many gangs have developed or relationships now with nationwide criminal organizations and DTOs. These relationships provide gangs with access to much more illegal drugs then the gangs can get their hands on in just the United States alone (“National Level”). Most of the illegal drugs come from out of the country, but still find their way into America. The threat posed by gangs will increase as gangs become better structured; more sophisticated, and develop their markets. This threat is magnified by the high and increasing level of violence associated with expansion of drug trafficking activities by gang.
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Street gangs in America are growing in size due to the increase in poverty as well as the influence of peer pressure and these gangs are becoming increasingly violent because of gang wars and drug trafficking. Gangs are growing in size and their use of violence becoming a much bigger problem. These gangs constantly distribute drugs through the states around the country and are getting more and more youths addicted too these illegal substances. If gangs are not dealt with and stopped soon they will get way out of hand. Americans must realize what gangs are doing to the country and our youth. The modern street gang problem must be solved so that America can live in peace and knowing that the youth will be safe from street gangs.