Changes in African Countries’ Structures in Achieving Economic Development

What have the experiences of Africa since the 1960s taught us about the efforts of achieving economic development? Provide a critical comparative analysis of at least two countries by tracing change and continuity in economic and political structures from the 1960s till post 2000.

 

Introduction

If economic development is defined as the process by which low-income national economies are transformed into modern industrial economies, then Africa’s experiences have taught us that this process is not universal, standardised, or neatly theorised under typical Western ideologies of development. Post-independence, Africa was thrust into the global capitalist economy and expected to comply to western standards of development – giving rise to countless contradictions. Africa’s experience can’t be generalised through space or time, but in many cases the experience of African economies has been contradictory to orthodox of development. In contrast to strong capitalist economies with established state legitimacy, the African experience has been one where the presupposed mechanisms for achieving economic development often exist in competition rather than in cooperation. The strong colonial legacy has given way to an unconventional relationship between the efforts of economic development, a functional electoral democracy, the capitalist class and the capacity of the state. With reference to the experiences of Zimbabwe and Uganda, I will show how this relationship manifests and diverges from orthodox theories of development. By tracing the transformation in the political and economic structures of these countries since independence, I will demonstrate how the African experience has not been universal and how it often defies both structuralist and liberalist ideals.

Postcolonial Africa: Structuralism and State-led Development

Postcolonial African governments adopted a structuralist approach in their efforts to achieve economic development. As African economies gained independence, the state’s role was considered integral to achieving development by neo-liberals and Marxists alike (Brett 2008). State-led development was undertaken as it was not only compatible with the diminutive development efforts of colonial officials and didn’t require large restructuring of the economic system (Cooper 2002); but also aligned with populist political aims of nationalist leaders and seemed achievable through increased government revenue from the rise in global demand for commodity exports (Berry 1993). However, efforts were undermined, as African states were weak, and leaders were aware they couldn’t afford to broaden the social base of state power (Ake 1981).

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  The geographic situation compounded social, economic and political failures, constraining development (Brett 2008; Mkandawire et.al 1999). An abundance of scarcely-populated land, poorly performing infrastructure and weak communication linkages posed challenges to administering authority over large territories, making political centralisation difficult to achieve and sustain (Herbst 2001). The institutional inertia of indirect rule increased competition and conflict over government control, posing long-term challenges to state legitimacy (Mamdani 1996; Mkandawire 2014). The neo-patrimonial policies employed used state resources to pursue the political aims of power maximisation (Englebert 2000). Consequently, the capacity of the state was weakened, and developmental policies were avoided (Boone 1994; Berry 1993).

 State-led development saw some short-run success, but eroding political and administrative capacity, authoritarian regimes, civil conflict, corruption and uncontrollable external factors made the growth unsustainable. Many African economies experienced growth and improvements in social indicators on the back of foreign investment. However, the domestic capitalist class remained limited and magnitudes of capital flight made long term investment unsustainable, fuelling a foreign exchange crisis (Mkandawire et.al 1999). World Bank approved policies of import substitution aided growth, but there was little diversification in exports and no improvement in the agricultural sector, enforcing a dependency on global markets, compounding the unmaintainable nature of growth (Mkandawire 1999).

Whilst orthodox theory suggests long term economic development requires state building, in Africa, state building processes suppressed democratic participation and economic development. Consolidating political power was necessary for the state’s interventionist policies but came at the expense of democracy (Berry 1993). The lack of state legitimacy further weakened capacity (Englebert 2008). The demanding conditions for state legitimacy have only recently been met in developed countries, where strong capitalist economies emerged before the introduction of competitive democracy (Brett 2008). Structuralist theory makes heavy demands on state capacity and political integrity. Interventionist regimes have proved successful in Europe, but in Africa, direct control over resource allocation often led to gross inefficiency and widespread corruption (Brett 2008).

 Post-colonial Zimbabwe and Uganda give insight into the inconsistencies within the African experience. In Uganda, structuralism proved incredibly unsuccessful. Obote inherited a disarticulated, premature, ethnically fragmented economy. The insecure regime used patronage and extractive rents to buy political support. Ineffective policies and limited political accountability undermined state capacity and led to a withdrawal of donor support (Brett 2008). Democracy was unrecognizable: Obote used the army to maintain power until Idi Amin formed a military coup to dethrone him in 1971. Eventually, political and economic collapse led to civil war. Zimbabwe’s independence came in 1980, allowing the inheritance of a more sophisticated structuralist economy. The economy grew on the continued use of structuralist policies. Mugabe used violence to create a somewhat successful and democratic one-party state. Unlike Uganda, The ZANU-PF regime did not need to engage in destabilising economic transfers and political manipulation to retain power. However, the rigidities generated by the structuralist regime and pressures of the foreign exchange shortage forced a shift to liberalisation that was soon to destabilise this seemingly successful strategy (Brett 2008).

African Liberalisation: The Era of Adjustment

By the 1980s, the stagnant performance of African economies left them subject to pressures for political and economic reform from global markets, external conditions and international financial institutions (IFIs). Africa’s foreign exchange crisis, stringent US monetary policy fuelled by the Mexican debt crisis, a global rise in oil prices, and the Sahelian droughts presented insurmountable challenges for African governments. The ‘African crisis’ was associated with and exacerbated by intense conflict over political control and resource allocation, and a shift to military or authoritarian rule (Brett 2008). Governments were forced to turn to IFIs for help, but this came with rigorous policy conditionality that weakened government authority and generated a shift from structuralist to neoliberal regimes. IFIs attributed the crises to the interventionist nature of the postcolonial state and ‘inappropriate state dominated policies’ (World Bank 1981). The Berg Report led to the virtual universalisation of market-based reforms through Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs).

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The procyclical policy packages aimed to promote growth and restore macroeconomic stability but produced very uneven, largely disappointing, results (van de Walle 2001). Between 1980-98, median per capita income growth in Africa was 0.0%, compared to 2.5% in 1960-79 (Easterly 2001). African economies saw falls in investment rates and food production whilst the debt burden increased. The weakened state authority was met with worsened public service provision, salary reductions, and the removal of many subsidies (Cooper 2002). By 1990, it was evident that SAPs had failed, so IFIs added a political liberalisation conditionality which led to an extensive restoration of democratic institutions that were supposed to manage the crisis by improving accountability, reducing corruption and encourage civil sector reform (Brett 2008). However, deep-rooted corruption and the fiscal crisis made the provision of wages and services near impossible, as the political conditionality further reduced administrative capacity. States failed to provide public services for their people, which led to an even greater reliance on patron-client relationships (Cooper 2002). The state’s deficiencies undermined most attempts to build successful liberal democratic capitalist institutions (Brett 2008). The conditionality intended to bring effective democracy to Africa, but in many cases, regimes either remained authoritarian, rigging their way to political success; or effective democracies became ‘choiceless’ and thus, ineffective as they succumbed to the pressures of globalisation and aid conditionality (Mkandawire 1999). Neo liberal theory failed to recognise that weak states governed by clientalistic political regimes could not handle the transition to capitalist democratic society.

Whilst liberalisation was considered the beginning of Zimbabwe’s economic demise, it proved relatively successful in Uganda. The new NRM regime inherited a bankrupt state and was forced to liberalise and democratise by donors. Slowly it removed constraints on investment, monopolies, marketing boards, and reduced fiscal deficits. Opening the market facilitated a rapid return to growth but did little to rebuild state capacity (Brett 2008). In Zimbabwe, voluntary liberalisation reduced employment, worsened public services, alienated key groups and unified the opposition. Mugabe consolidated political support by using extractive state controls and populist anti-colonial policies (Raftopolous 2004). However, this only worsened the foreign exchange crisis, led to hyper-inflation and destroyed state capacity (Muzondidya 2010). The regime shifted back to extractive structuralist policies which led to donor sanctions only worsening economic performance.

Africa Rising? Diverging Success

Africa only regained its pre-crisis levels of per capita income in 2008 (World Bank 2010), but since, has seen considerable growth, though individual country performance has continued to diverge both in terms of economic success and democratic consolidation. African countries are generally more democratic today than they were in the 1980s (Lynch and Crawford 2011) and there is a general positive correlation between economic performance, political reform and market-based approaches (Bates et.al 2014; Jerven 2010). Rwanda is one of few consolidated autocracies in Africa but has experienced relatively high levels of economic success compared to many democracies in Africa (Hayman 2011). Africa’s relative success is largely due to China’s accomplishments. China’s increased demand for commodities have fuelled exports and a huge influx of Chinese FDI helped sustain growth over the last 15 years. In addition, the IMF marginalised African countries and failed to completely integrate them into the world economy, unintentionally protecting them from global financial crisis.

 Despite the general improvement in economic performance, there many weak states that lack legitimacy where the ruling elites find it less destabilizing to adopt neo-patrimonial strategies of power with their attendant propensity for corruption, clientelism and nepotism (Englebert 2000). Primitive accumulation and patrimonial politics continue to dominate the developmental processes in much of Africa and produce an alternative relationship between the capitalist class and the state than that specified in the orthodox model (Brett 2008). Many of these states have seen reduced donor support making liberalisation difficult. The economic and political costs of liberalisation could have been reduced with greater to donor support, but failure to do so has had some distressing consequences (Botchwey et.al 1998). It is arguable that IFIs considered Africa’s economic success unimportant, given the relatively small amount of money that was loaned, and the incredible generalisation of SAPs imposed. Africa is finally recovering but many economies lack the necessary infrastructure to do so effectively – a ramification of the weak adjustment policies. Africa’s varied success leads us to question the simplistic equation of accountable governance, democracy and development that has dominated donor thinking (Kohli 2004).

 The experiences of Uganda and Zimbabwe demonstrate the weakness of the ‘monoeconomic’ strategies inflicted by the IFIs. Uganda is regarded as one of the success stories of structural adjustment. Along period of neoliberal reforms produced two decades of steady growth. Growth has begun to slow at the expense of patronage politics used to consolidate NRM’s position (Singh 2017). Long term democratic prospects continue to be eroded. 2004 saw changes to the constitution and the two-term limit on presidency was removed. Uganda’s success seems unsustainable as it begins to mirror characteristics of its 1960 postcolonial government (Brett 2008). Zimbabwe’s liberalisation efforts chronically failed, producing a shift back to structuralism which included monopolising market boards, appropriating forex and allocating land to finance the state (Harold-Barry 2004). The country has been devastated from the political irresponsibility of the effectively autarkic regime. Output fell by 70% from 1982-2008, where inflation hit 79.6bn % (World Bank). 95% of the economy has been informalized and the current riots (2019) suggest there has been no improvement in the political or economic situation.

Conclusion

The African development experience has been full of contradictions and inconsistencies, both within the continent and with the global economy. The period of state-led development necessitated state-building at the expense of democratic politics. Liberalization weakened state authority and state building, undermining development efforts. The recent African experience has been varied and demonstrates the weaknesses of orthodox theories in explaining Africa’s development efforts. Zimbabwe and Uganda exemplify the diverse range of experiences within Africa, but more importantly, these cases show how economies forced to develop under liberal capitalist democratic ideals can have incoherent political and economic institutions breeding an alternative relationship between state building, the capitalist class, democracy and economic development.

Bibliography

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Static Analysis of Uncertain Structures

Static Analysis of Uncertain Structures Using Interval Eigenvalue Decomposition
1Mehdi Modares and 2Robert L. Mullen
1Department of Civil and Environmental 
Engineering
Tufts University
Medford, MA, 02155
2Department of Civil Engineering
Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, OH, 44106
Abstract: Static analysis is an essential procedure to design a structure. Using static analysis, the structure’s response to the applied external forces is obtained. This response includes internal forces/moments and internal stresses that is used in the design process. However, the mechanical characteristics of the structure possess uncertainties which alter the structure’s response. One method to quantify the presence of these uncertainties is interval or unknown-but-bounded variables.

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In this work a new method is developed to obtain the bounds on structure’s static response using interval eigenvalue decomposition of the stiffness matrix. The bounds of eigenvalues are obtained using monotonic behavior of eigenvalues for a symmetric matrix subjected to non-negative definite perturbations. Moreover, the bounds of eigenvectors are obtained using perturbation of invariant subspaces for symmetric matrices. Comparisons with other interval finite element solution methods are presented. Using this method, it has shown that obtaining the bound on static response of an uncertain structure does not require a combinatorial or Monte-Carlo simulation procedure.
Keywords: Statics, Analysis, Interval, Uncertainty
© 2008 by authors. Printed in USA.
REC 2008 – Modares and Mullen
In design of structures, the performance of the structure must be guaranteed over its lifetime. Moreover, static analysis is a fundamental procedure for designing reliable structure that are subjected to static or quasi-static forces induced by various loading conditions and patterns.
However, in current procedures for static analysis of structural systems, the existence of uncertainty in either mechanical properties of the system or the characteristics of forcing function is generally not considered. These uncertainties can be attributed to physical imperfections, modeling inaccuracies and system complexities.
Although, in a design process, uncertainty is accounted for by a combination of load amplification and strength reduction factors that are based on probabilistic models of historic data, consideration of the effects of uncertainty has been removed from current static analysis of structural systems.
In this work, a new method is developed to perform static analysis of a structural system in the presence of uncertainty in the system’s mechanical properties as well as uncertainty in the magnitude of loads. The presence of these uncertainties is quantified using interval or unknownbut-bounded variables.
This method obtains the bounds on structure’s static response using interval eigenvalue decomposition of the stiffness matrix. The bounds of eigenvalues are obtained using the concept of monotonic behavior of eigenvalues for a symmetric matrix subjected to non-negative definite perturbations. Furthermore, the bounds of eigenvectors are obtained using perturbation of invariant subspaces for symmetric matrices. Using this method, it has shown that obtaining the bound on static response of an uncertain structure does not require a combinatorial or MonteCarlo simulation procedure.
The equation of equilibrium for a multiple degree of freedom structure is defined as a linear system of equations as:
 [K]{U}={P}           (1)
where, [K]is the stiffness matrix, {U}is the vector of unknown nodal displacements, and {P} is the vector of nodal forces. The solution to this system of equation is:
 {U} = [K]−1{P}           (2)
The concept of interval numbers has been originally applied in the error analysis associated with digital computing.  Quantification of the uncertainties introduced by truncation of real numbers in numerical methods was the primary application of interval methods (Moore 1966).
A real interval is a closed set defined by extreme values as (Figure 1):
~l ,zu ] ={z∈ℜ| zl ≤ z ≤ zu} (3)
 Z = [z

~
x = [a,b]
Figure 1. An interval variable.
In this work, the symbol (~) represents an interval quantity. One interpretation of an interval number is a random variable whose probability density function is unknown but non-zero only in the range of interval.
Another interpretation of an interval number includes intervals of confidence for α-cuts of fuzzy sets. The interval representation transforms the point values in the deterministic system to inclusive set values in the system with bounded uncertainty.
Considering the presence of interval uncertainty in stiffness and force properties, the system of equilibrium equations, Eq.(1), is modified as an interval system of equilibrium equation as:
~~
 [K]{U}={P}           (4)
~
where, [K]is the interval stiffness matrix, {U}is the vector of unknown nodal displacements, and {P} is the vector of interval nodal forces. In development of interval stiffness matrix, the physical and mathematical characteristics of the stiffness matrix must be preserves.
This system of interval equations is mainly solved using computationally iterative procedures (Muhanna et al 2007) and (Neumaier and Pownuk 2007). The present method proposes a computationally efficient procedure with nearly sharp results using interval eigenvalue decomposition of stiffness matrix.
While the external force can also have uncertainties, in this work only problems with interval stiffness properties are addressed. However, for functional independent variations for both stiffness matrix and external force vector, the extension of the proposed work is straightforward.
3.1. DETERMINISTIC EIGENVALUE DECOMPOSITION
The deterministic symmetric stiffness matrix can be decomposed using matrix eigenvalue decomposition as:
 [K] = [Φ][Λ][Φ]T           (5)
where, [Φ] is the matrix of eigenvectors, and [Λ] is the diagonal matrix of eigenvalues. Equivalently,
N
 [K] =∑λi{Ï•i}{Ï•i}T           (6)
i=1
where, the values of λi is the eigenvalues and the vectors{Ï•i}are their corresponding eigenvectors.  Therefore, the eigenvalue decomposition of the inverse of the stiffness matrix is:

equivalently,

[K]−1 =[Φ][Λ]−1[Φ]T

          (7)

−N 1T
[K] 1 =∑ {Ï•i}{Ï•i}

         (8)

i=1 λi
Substituting Eq.(8) in the solution for the deterministic linear system of equation, Eq.(2), the solution for response is shown as:
 {U}= ( N 1 {Ï•i}{Ï•i}T ){P}           (9)
3.2. INTERVAL EIGENVALUE DECOMPOSITION
Similarly, the solution to interval system of equilibrium equations, Eq.(4), is:
 {U~}= (∑N ~1 {Ï•~ }{Ï•~i}T ){P}           (10) i
i=1 λi
~~ } are their where, the values of λi is the interval eigenvalues and, the vectors {Ï•i
corresponding interval eigenvectors that are to be determined.
4.1. BACKGROUND
The research in interval eigenvalue problem began to emerge as its applicability in science and engineering was realized. Hollot and Bartlett (1987) studied the spectra of eigenvalues of an interval matrix family which are found to depend on the spectrum of its extreme sets. Dief (1991) presented a method for computing interval eigenvalues of an interval matrix based on an assumption of invariance properties of eigenvectors.
In structural dynamics, Modares and Mullen (2004) have introduced a method for the solution of the interval eigenvalue problem which determines the exact bounds of the natural frequencies of a system using Interval Finite Element formulation.
4.2. DEFINITION
The eigenvalue problems for matrices containing interval values are known as the interval
~ ~ n–n ) and [A] is a member of the eigenvalue problems. If [A] is an interval real matrix (A∈ℜ
~
interval matrix ([A]∈[A]) , the interval eigenvalue problem is shown as:
~
4.2.1. Solution for Eigenvalues
The solution of interest to the real interval eigenvalue problem for bounds on each eigenvalue is
~
defined as an inclusive set of real values (λ) such that for any member of the interval matrix, the eigenvalue solution to the problem is a member of the solution set. Therefore, the solution to the interval eigenvalue problem for each eigenvalue can be mathematically expressed as:
~l ,λu ]|∀[A]∈[A~]: ([A]−λ[I]){x} = 0}               (12)
 {λ∈λ= [λ
4.2.2. Solution for Eigenvectors:
The solution of interest to the real interval eigenvalue problem for bounds on each eigenvector is defined as an inclusive set of real values of vector {~x} such that for any member of the interval matrix, the eigenvector solution to the problem is a member of the solution set. Thus, the solution to the interval eigenvalue problem for each eigenvector is:
4.3. INTERVAL STIFFNESS MATRIX
The system’s global stiffness can be viewed as a summation of the element contributions to the global stiffness matrix:
n
i=1
where [ Li ] is the element Boolean connectivity matrix and [Ki ] is the element stiffness matrix in the global coordinate system. Considering the presence of uncertainty in the stiffness properties, the non-deterministic element elastic stiffness matrix is expressed as:
~
in which, [li ,ui ] is an interval number that pre-multiplies the deterministic element stiffness matrix. This procedure preserves the physical and mathematical characteristics of the stiffness matrix.
Therefore, the system’s global stiffness matrix in the presence of any uncertainty is the linear summation of the contributions of non-deterministic interval element stiffness matrices:
,ui ])[Li ][Ki ][Li ] =∑
i=1i=1
in which, [Ki ] is the deterministic element elastic stiffness contribution to the global stiffness matrix.
4.4. INTERVAL EIGENVALUE PROBLEM FOR STATICS
The interval eigenvalue problem for a structure with stiffness properties expressed as interval values is:
 [K~]{Ï•~} = (λ~){Ï•~} (17)
Substituting Eq.(16) in Eq.(17):
]){Ï•} = (λ){Ï•
i=1
This interval eigenvalue problem can be transformed to a pseudo-deterministic eigenvalue problem subjected to a matrix perturbation. Introducing the central and radial (perturbation) stiffness matrices as:
i 1
[K~R ] =∑i=n1 (εi )(ui 2−li )[Ki ]   ,    εi =[−1,1]              (20)
Using Eqs. (19,20), the non-deterministic interval eigenpair problem, Eq.(18),  becomes:
Hence, the determination of bounds on eigenvalues and bounds on eigenvectors of a stiffness matrix in the presence of uncertainty is mathematically interpreted as an eigenvalue problem on a
~ central stiffness matrix ([KC ]) that is subjected to a radial perturbation stiffness matrix ([KR ]).
This perturbation is in fact, a linear summation of non-negative definite deterministic element stiffness contribution matrices that are scaled with bounded real numbers(εi ) .
5. Solution
5.1. BOUNDS ON EIGENVALUES
The following concepts must be considered in order to bound the non-deterministic interval eigenvalue problem, Eq.(21). The classical linear eigenpair problem for a symmetric matrix is:
with the solution of real eigenvalues (λ1 ≤λ2 ≤ … ≤λn ) and corresponding eigenvectors
( x1, x2,…, xn ). This equation can be transformed into a ratio of quadratics known as the Rayleigh quotient:
 R(x) =                      (23)
The Rayleigh quotient for a symmetric matrix is bounded between the smallest and the largest eigenvalues (Bellman 1960 and Strang 1976).
  (24)
Thus, the first eigenvalue (λ1) can be obtained by performing an unconstrained minimization on the scalar-valued function of Rayleigh quotient:
( (25)
x∈
For finding the next eigenvalues, the concept of maximin characterization can be used. This concept obtains the kth eigenvalue by imposing (k-1) constraints on the minimization of the Rayleigh quotient (Bellman 1960 and Strang 1976):
λk = max[minR(x)]
 (subject to constrains(xT zi = 0),i =1,…k −1,k ≥ 2 ) (26)
5.1.1. Bounding the Eigenvalues for Statics
Using the concepts of minimum and maximin characterizations of eigenvalues for symmetric matrices, the solution to the interval eigenvalue problem for the eigenvalues of a system with uncertainty in the stiffness characteristics (Eq.(21)) for the first eigenvalue can be shown as:
n
x∈Rn{x}T {x}
for the next eigenvalues:
~{x}T [K~]{x}{x}T ([K ]+[K~ ]){x}
5.1.2. Deterministic Eigenvalue Problems for Bounding Eigenvalues in Statics
Substituting and expanding the right-hand side terms of Eqs. (27,28):
~T [K ]{x}~ui
(li +u{x}
(29)
Since the matrix [Ki ] is non-negative definite, the term () is non-negative.
Therefore, using the monotonic behavior of eigenvalues for symmetric matrices, the upper bounds on the eigenvalues in Eqs.(19,20) are obtained by considering maximum values of interval coefficients of uncertainty (ε~i = [−1,1]), ((εi )max = 1), for all elements in the radial perturbation matrix.
Similarly, the lower bounds on the eigenvalues are obtained by considering minimum values of those coefficients, ((εi )min =−1) , for all elements in the radial perturbation matrix. Also, it can be observed that any other element stiffness selected from the interval set will yield eigenvalues between the upper and lower bounds. This imonotonic behavior of eigenvalues can also be used for parameterization purposes.
Using these concepts, the deterministic eigenvalue problems corresponding to the maximum and minimum eigenvalues are obtained (Modares and Mullen 2004) as:
n
n

5.2. BOUNDS ON EIGENVECTORS
5.2.1. Invariant Subspace
The subspace χ is defined to be an invariant subspace of matrix [A] if:

 Aχ⊂χ

(32)

Equivalently,  if χ is an invariant subspace of [A]n–n and also, columns of [X1]n–m form a basis forχ, then there is a unique matrix [L1]m–m such that:
The matrix [L1 ] is the representation of [A] on χ with respect to the basis [X1] and the eigenvalues of [L1] are a subset of eigenvalues of [A]. Therefore, for the invariant subspace,
({v},λ) is an eigenpair of [L1] if and only if ({[X1]{v}},λ) is an eigenpair of [A].
5.2.2. Theorem of Invariant Subspaces
For a real symmetric matrix [A], considering the subspace χ with the linearly independent columns of [X1] forming a basis for χ and the linearly independent columns of [X2] spanning the complementary subspace χ⊥ , then,  χ is an invariant subspace of [A] iff:
Therefore, invoking this condition and postulating the definition of invariant subspaces, the symmetric matrix [A] can be reduced to a diagonalized form using a unitary similarity transformation as:

 [X1X2]T [A][X1X2] = ⎢⎡[X1]TT[[AA][][XX11]]
⎣[X2]
where [Li ] =[Xi ]T [A][Xi ], i =1,2.
5.2.3. Simple Invariant Subspace

[X1]T [A][X2]⎤ ⎡[L1] [X2]T [A][X2]⎥⎦= ⎢⎣[0]

[0] ⎤
[L2]⎥⎦

(35)

An invariant subspace is simple if the eigenvalues of its representation [L1] are distinct from other eigenvalues of [A]. Thus, using the reduced form of [A] with respect to the unitary matrix
[[X1][X2]], χ is a simple invariant subspace if the eigenvalues of [L1] and [L2] are distinct:
5.2.4. Perturbed Eigenvector
Considering the column spaces of [X1] and [X2]  to span two complementary simple invariant subspaces, the perturbed orthogonal subspaces are defined as:

 [Xˆ1] =[X1]+[X 2 ][P]

(37)

 [Xˆ 2 ] =[X 2]−[X1][P]T

(38)

in which [P] is a matrix to be determined.
Thus, each perturbed subspace is defined as a summation of the exact subspace and the contribution of the complementary subspace. Considering a symmetric perturbation[E] , the perturbed matrix is defined as:
Applying the theorem of invariant subspaces for perturbed matrix and perturbed subspaces, and linearizing due to a small perturbation compared to the unperturbed matrix, Eq.(34) is rewritten as:
This perturbation problem is an equation for unknown [P] in the form of a Sylvester’s equation in which, the uniqueness of the solution is guaranteed by the existence of simple perturbed invariant subspaces.
Finally, specializing the result for one eigenvector and solving the above equation, the perturbed eigenvector is (Stewart and Sun 1990):

 {xˆ1} = {x1}+[X 2 ](λ1[I]−[L2 ])−1[X 2 ]T [E]{x1}
5.2.5 Bounding Eigenvectors for Statics
For the perturbed eigenvalue problem for statics, Eq.(21),  the error matrix is:

(41)

~nu
[E] = [KR ] = (∑(εi )( i − li )[Ki ])

(42)

i=12
Using the error matrix in eigenvector perturbation equation for the first eigenvector, Eq.(33) the perturbed eigenvector is:
in which, {Ï•1}is the first eigenvector, (λ1) is the first eigenvalue, [Φ2 ] is the matrix of remaining eigenvectors and [Λ2 ] is the diagonal matrix of remaining eigenvalues obtained from the deterministic eigenvalue problem. Eq.(30,31 and 43) is used to calculate the bounds on interval eigenvalues and interval eigenvectors in the response equation, Eq.(9).
In order to attain sharper results, the functional dependency of intervals in direct interval multiplications in Eq.(9) is considered. Also, input intervals are subdivided and the union of responses of subset results is obtained.
6. Numerical Example Problem
The bounds on the static response for a 2-D statically indeterminate truss with interval uncertainty present in the modulus of elasticity of each element are determined (Figure 2). The crosssectional area A, the length for horizontal and vertical members L , the Young’s moduli E for all
~
elements are E = ([0.99,1.01])E .

Figure 2.  The structure of 2-D truss
The problem is solved using the method presented in this work. The functional dependency of intervals in the response equation is considered. A hundred-segment subdivision of input intervals is performed and the union of responses is obtained. For comparison, an exact combinatorial analysis has performed which considers lower and upper values of uncertainty for each element i.e. solving (2n = 210 =1024 ) deterministic problems.
The static analysis results obtained by the present method and the brute force combination solution for the vertical displacement of the top nodes in are summarized Table (1).

Lower Bound
Present Method

Lower Bound
Combination Method

Upper Bound
Combination Method

Upper Bound
Present Method

Error
%

U
⎛ PL ⎞
⎜⎟ ⎝ AE ⎠

-1.6265

-1.6244

-1.5859

-1.5838

% 0.12

Table1. Bounds on Vertical Displacement of Top Nodes
The results show that the proposed robust method yields nearly sharp results in a computationally efficient manner as well as preserving the system’s physics.
4.Conclusions
A finite-element based method for static analysis of structural systems with interval uncertainty in mechanical properties is presented.
This method proposes an interval eigenvalue decomposition of stiffness matrix. By obtaining the exact bounds on the eigenvalues and nearly sharp bounds on the eigenvectors, the proposed method is capable to obtain the nearly sharp bounds on the structure’s static response.
Some conservative overestimation in response occurs that can be attributed to the linearization in formation of bounds of eigenvectors and also, the functional dependency of intervals in the dynamic response formulation.
This method is computationally feasible and it shows that the bounds on the static response can be obtained without combinatorial or Monte-Carlo simulation procedures.
This computational efficiency of the proposed method makes it attractive to introduce uncertainty into structural static analysis and design. While this methodology is shown for structural systems, its extension to various mechanics problems is straightforward.
References
Bellman, R. Introduction to Matrix Analysis, McGraw-Hill, New York 1960.
Dief, A., Advanced Matrix theory for Scientists and Engineers, pp.262-281. Abacus Press 1991.
Hollot, C. and A. Bartlett. On the eigenvalues of interval matrices, Technical Report, Department  of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 1987.
Modares, M. and R. L. Mullen. Free Vibration of Structures with Interval Uncertainty. 9th ASCE Specialty Conference on Probabilistic Mechanics and Structural Reliability 2004.
Moore, R. E. Interval Analysis. Prentice Hall, Englewood, NJ 1966.
Muhanna, R. L. and R. L. Mullen. Uncertainty in Mechanics Problems-Interval-Based Approach. Journal of Engineering Mechanics June-2001,  pp.557-566 2001.
Muhanna, R. L., Zhang H. and R. L. Mullen. Interval Finite Element as a Basis for Generalized Models of Uncertainty in Engineering Mechanics, Reliable Computing, Vol. 13, pp. 173-194, 2007.
Neumaier, A. Interval Methods for Systems of Equations. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1990.
Neumaier, A. and A. Pownuk. Linear Systems with Large Uncertainties, with Applications to Truss Structures, Reliable Computing, Vol. 13, pp. 149-172, 2007.
Strang, G. Linear Algebra and its Applications, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1976.
Stewart, G.W. and J. Sun. Matrix perturbation theory, Chapter 5. Academic Press, Boston, MA  1990.

MEL and Analogues: Structures and Properties

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Melamine
MEL is an organic compound which had been closely associated with milk adulterant scandal between the year 2007 and 2008. Having a chemical formula of C3H6N6, makes it a nitrogen rich compound, thus giving the false impression of real protein content (Y.-N. Wu, Zhao, & Li, 2009). Manufacturing companies who bought raw milk for further production usually carry out protein tests by monitoring the nitrogen levels.

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MEL can be hydrolysed to ammelide, ammeline and CYA, the derivatives are many produce for the synthesis of formaldehyde resin in the manufacturing of plastics, kitchenware or laminates (Y. Wu & Zhang, 2013). CYA commonly used as a bleaching component in swimming pools. MEL and CYA are soluble in water, however when the two combined they will form a MEL and CYA complex which is an insoluble crystal through cross linking hydrogen bonding network (Mukherjee & Ren, 2010).
2.1.1 Structures and properties of MEL and analogues
The triazine derivative, MEL has three reactive amine groups (-NH2) and one aromatic s-triazine ring or 1,3,5-triazine ring. Replacing the amine groups (-NH2) with hydroxyl group (-OH) through hydrolysis or metabolism by microorganism will form analogues as ammeline, ammelide and CYA (Kim, 2009).
Figure 2.1 Structure of MEL, ammeline, ammelide and CYA (Kim, 2009)
Physical properties of MEL and its analogues are shown in Table 2.1. MEL has an appearance in form of white powder with a melting point of 354oC. This shows that MEL is thermally stable and explains that it is often used as fire retardant. Furthermore, MEL is sparingly soluble in either acidic pH or polar organic solvent such as acetone or ethanol, due to like-dissolve-like interaction of polar compound MEL. On the contrary, MEL would be insoluble in non-polar solvents such as benzene or hexane (EFSA, 2010).
Ammeline on the other hand is a white powder that decomposes prior to melting. It possesses weak acidic properties and is soluble in both mineral acid and alkaline solutions. Ammelide is also a form of white powder that is almost insoluble in water. It decomposes at temperatures range of 170oC to form carbon dioxide and ammonia.
The crystal complex of MEL and CYA is very stable at only hydrolyses at either very low or high pH. Basically the complex crystal compound are insoluble at pH below 5.0, which is mostly occurred in the urinary tract (Tolleson, Diachenko, & Heller, 2008).
Table 2.1 Physical properties of MEL, ammeline, ammelide and CYA (Kim, 2009)
2.2 MEL and analogues toxicity
The toxic effects of MEL ingestion are closely linked with high dosage and low dosage of MEL would not be as toxic that will cause any adverse effect to human health. However, having said that, non toxic does not necessarily mean that it is safe for consumption.
On December 2008, the US FDA recommends a TDI for MEL was 0.63 mg kg-1 body weight per day for food and other food ingredients excluding infant milk formula (Venkatasami & Sowa, 2010). This meant 100 kg person can be subjected to a tolerable amount of 60 mg MEL. Infant formula are given a closer monitoring because it is a primary source of nutrient and calorie for infants, plus kidney functions in infant are still premature. Therefore the FDA has set a limit of 1 µg mL-1 for MEL in infant formula (Venkatasami & Sowa, 2010).
Different countries apply different limit of the TDI, for instance EFSA recommended a TDI of 0.5 mg kg-1 of body weight per day. Whereas Health Canada revealed the risk assessment of MEL-contaminated milk and milk based product to be 0.35 mg kg-1 body weight per day (WHO, 2008). Over Southeast Asia, the Malaysian Ministry of Health has set the maximum levels of MEL in baby and adult food product to be 1.0 mg kg-1, 2.5 mg kg-1 respectively (Y. Wu & Zhang, 2013). This incident cause the FDA, European community and other countries to introduce a standard limit for MEL in infant formula and in other milk products to be at 1 ppm and 2.5 ppm, respectively. WHO established the TDI for MEL at 0.2 mg kg-1 (Sun et al., 2010).
2.2.1 Toxicity in animals and humans
The data available on the dangers and chronic human exposure to MEL are limited, therefore the information on MEL toxin are extrapolated from animal data. MEL and CYA are considered as low toxin due to their large median LD50. For MEL in rats, the LD50 ranges from 3.1 g kg­-1 to 6.4 g kg-1 and from 3.2 g kg-1 up to 7.0 g kg-1 in mice. Whilst for CYA, the estimated LD50 are 7.7 g kg-1 in rats and 3.4 g kg-1 in mice (Skinner et al., 2010).
The study on the toxicity of MEL and CYA focuses on the urinary system for both humans and animals. The experimental studies on the effects of MEL on kidney in humans are unavailable. Nonetheless, consistent observation was made during the experiment with animals on the effects of MEL is bladder stones. The same result was reported with a following exposure to CYA, and that is formation of some bladder stones. Inflammatory reaction was observed in the rats and mice urinary bladder after dietary exposure to MEL. This indicates as one of the main effects of the toxic of MEL (Bingham et al., 2001).
In general death cause by MEL are relatively low in human but there is a high rate of stones formation. In the height of the MEL food scandal, there are many deaths of pets animals in USA, Canada and South Africa due to kidney failure. Later the Veterinary Information Network (VIN) found that the number of deaths due to MEL and CYA contaminated pet feed was in the range of 2000 to 7000 (Puschner and Reimschuessel, 2011).
In 2008 there were high detection of MEL in infant formula and other milk product and surely enough this resulted in severe health effects amongst infant and young children. As much as 294,000 were diagnosed with urinary tract stones and at least 50,000 were hospitalised. Six children were confirmed dead cause of kidney failures (Dorne et al., 2013). After this incident strict rules and regulation was implemented, and lots of method was developed in order to get a rapid and sensitive detection of MEL.
2.3 Analysis of MEL
It is important to have rapid, widely available, cost effective methods for detecting MEL in various samples. Few of the advance analytical methods for detection of MEL are High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Liquid Chromatography with Mass spectroscopy (LC-MS), LC with tandem (LC-MS2) and Gas Chromatography with MS (GC-MS).
Sample preparation required prior to instrumental analysis, this is because the sample in question are high in protein and carbohydrates content which would hinder MEL detection. Therefore effective extraction methods is necessary, by removing other constituents in the matrix would mean lower limit of detection (LODs) can be achieved.
Due to the polarity MEL compound it is best to extract it using SPE with a polar cartridge. The most common SPE tubes used for the separation of MEL is Supelco Discovery DSC-SCX 500 mg/6 ml (Sigma-Aldrich, n.d.). Before the SPE methods are applied it is best to precipitate out the protein by adding acetonitrile which acts as a protein precipitant and then centrifuge (Mosch, Kiranoglu, Fromme, & Völkel, 2010).
2.3.1 Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS)
GC-MS is often used to detect MEL and its analogs for quantification and confirmation. It was reported that it is a sensitive, reliable instrumental analytical method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of MEL in animal feed. However, it requires a tedious sample preparation which renders the methodology impractical for analysing large samples (Venkatasami & Sowa, 2010).
2.3.2 High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
HPLC is known as common method for quantitative determination of MEL. It can carry out simultaneous detection of MEL, ammeline, ammelide and CYA with LOD of 5 ppm. By current standards, this method of analysis does not show great sensitivity in detection of MEL. This is because UV of MEL exhibits absorption bands below 250 nm which meant that HPLC method will not be able to confirm the target analyte (Sun et al., 2010).
Quantification error can occur if insufficient attention is given to chromatographic conditions or if sample preparation is not optimised. To increase sensitivity investigators used DAD system of detection, this gives improvement in term of better LOD of 0.1 ppm using HPLC-DAD (Sun et al., 2010). It is difficult to retain MEL on a reverse phase column due to it high polarity, so to compensate for this problem hydrophilic interaction chromatography technique is used (Han et al., 2011).
Figure 2.3.2 Retention time of melamine standards using HILIC-UV (Zheng, Yu, Li, & Dai, 2012)
2.3.3 Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectroscopy (LC-MS) and tandem Mass spectroscopy (LC-MS2)
MS techniques are widely used for the determination of contaminants of MEL, because it shows molecular specificity and high sensitivity of detection. This means a MEL AND CYA having fairly low LOD 30 ppb and LOQ 40 ppb in serum sample. Mostly the method based on LC-MS2 with HILIC and ESI is positive ion mode. Positive ion mode is chosen because of the presence of nitrogen in the compound.
The past researcher used two selected reaction monitoring (SRM) transitions of m/z 127 till 85 and 127 till 68 were monitored, figure 2.3.3. By applying these ion transitions for SRM allows quantitative and qualitative analysis of MEL residues at an LOD of 3.2 ppb (Sun et al., 2010).
Figure 2.3.3 The positive ion electrospray full scan mass spectrum (bottom) and product ion spectra (top) of melamine, acquired by infusion of 0.5 g mL -1 standard solution (Sancho, Ibáñez, Grimalt, Pozo, & Hernández, 2005).
2.4 Optimization of buffer pH
MEL is a weak alkaline compound that can hydrolyze in strong acid or alkali solutions. MEL extraction can be carried out in neutral, acidic and alkali conditions, but acidic pH lower than 3 and neutral extraction conditions are most common for food. Neutral extraction can be carried out using acetonitrile-water or methanol-water.
Factors of affecting retention of melamine were explored, including buffer concentration, pH, and percentage of organic solvent in the mobile phase. The optimal UV detection wavelength was selected. Satisfactory retention of melamine, good peak shape, and high sensitivity were obtained under the chosen conditions.
Tables 2.4 Effects of pH on melamine retention time
 

Market Structures and their Different Pricing Strategies

Abstract

 When it comes to the business world, there are four main market structures that are typically utilized. These market structures are perfect competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly, and monopoly. This paper is going to look further into each of these market structures and define them, as well as look into the pricing strategies that each of them use. Towards the end of the paper there is going to be a real life case study that will review these market structures and pricing strategy in order to provide a better understanding of how this works.

Market Structures and Their Different Pricing Strategies

 In the world of business and economics, marketing structures are considered to be the structures that assist with connecting buyers, sellers, products and services to one another. Some of the elements that market structures connect and work with are production levels, different forms of competition, different forms of products and services, ease of entry and exit from the marketplace, buyers, sellers, and even the agreement between particular agents (Hardison, n.d.). Depending on what type of market structure a company is either choosing to use, or is forced to use, will determine what type of pricing strategy they are going to need to utilize. To look further into the different pricing strategies, there needs to be an understanding of the basic market structures, which are perfect competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly, and monopoly.

Perfect Competition

 Perfect competition occurs when there are many buyers and sellers, no particular barriers to entry or exit, and also when the products or services that are traded are considered to be identical (Perfect Competition, 2018). Another definition of perfect competition by Samuelson and Marks (2014) says that perfect competition is when there are identical standardized products created and sold. According to Gallant (2018), perfect competition must include an identical product, be a price taker, have a small market share, have buyers that are aware of the products that the company sells and what the prices are, and lastly perfect competition allows companies to enter and exit the industry for free. When it comes to perfect competition, many economists are not believers in that this is actually possible due to the fact that there are many barriers for entry, there are very high costs in order to start up a business, and there are also strict government regulations that make it pretty difficult for a company to enter and exit an industry (Gallant, 2018). 

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 According to Masibo (2016), the pricing strategy for the perfect competition market structure involves the demand and supply curves of the product, and will show the amount that the consumer is capable and willing to purchase. The supply curve also shows what the particular supplier is capable and willing to supply within the market prices (Masibo, 2016). The pricing strategy for perfect completion has to be equal when it comes to the supply and what the consumers can pay. Masibo (2016) describes this as the marketing being in charge of what the product or service price should be, and as long as the production cost is below the revenue then this market structure can continue to function properly.

Monopolistic Competition

 Monopolistic competition can be described as the market that is often similar to the perfect competition in that it has many small companies that are competing within the market which ends up leading to a monopoly power for each individual producer (Monopolistic Competition, 2013). Monopolistic competition can also be identified as being the market structure that has product differentiation (Samuelson & Marks, 2014). Examples of a monopolistic competition market would be any type of small business, independently owned businesses, and even high-street stores and restaurants (Monopolistic Competition, n.d.). In this type of market, companies are given the freedom to enter or leave without any barriers. An example of a company that would fall under this type of market structure would be Nike. Many think Nike would fall under a monopoly market structure, but according to ……..

 When it comes to the pricing strategy for the monopolistic competition market structure, the company typically sets their own product prices. This means that each small business or independently owned business would make their own decisions on the pricing and production costs. In order for the company to set the right price for their product, it would be ideal for the managers to do some research ahead of time to find out what their competitors are selling a similar product for. In order to help the product or service sell, the company can use their own logo and brand in order to help with marketing and advertising (Masibo, 2016). Marketing and advertising are critical for this type of market structure due to the fact that competition with others is usually very tough.

Oligopoly

 Oligopoly is the market that typically falls in the middle of the perfectly competitive and the monopolistic markets. This is when a smaller number of large companies tend to take over the market (Samuelson & Marks, 2014). Some examples of oligopolies would be the national mass media outlets such as Rupert Murdock’s News Corporation, Viacom, CBS Corporation, Walt Disney, and NBC Universal because there aren’t many of these companies, but they rule the mass media market (Kramer, 2018). Another example would be the auto industry with Ford, GMC, and Chrysler being very dominate in the automobile market (Kramer, 2018). Later the case study of Apple and Google will also be looked at, as these two companies are a great example of an oligopoly market structure because together they dominate the smartphone market.

 With the Oligopoly market structure, the prices of products and services are usually set by the company’s competitors surprisingly (Masibo, 2016). This means that the company and their managers must do thorough research in order to see what their rivals are charging for a product, and ultimately attempt to match it or price it where they can be competitive in the market against the other firms. One way that companies in this market structure keep their power, is by causing there to be barriers to entry. For example, this might look like the oligopolies making their market too costly or difficult for new businesses to enter into the market (Oligopoly, n.d.). While this may seem like a dirty trick, it keeps the larger and more powerful companies running because newer firms can’t compete with these types of pricing strategies due to the fact that many people wouldn’t know their brand just yet and they haven’t built trust with many customers.

Monopoly

 A monopoly is typically when there is one company, or firm, that is very dominate and doesn’t usually have many competitors, which provides a lot of power (Samuelson & Marks, 2014). One example of a company that is on its way to becoming a monopoly is Netflix because the company has roughly 50 million subscribers, and even with their other competitors they still come out on top (Chirila, 2015). Other examples of companies that fall under this market structure would be Google, Facebook, and Microsoft (Chirila, 2015). These companies are great examples of what a monopoly looks like, because Google controls more of the web search on the internet than Yahoo, and Facebook is the main social media outlet that adults are using for their connections. This doesn’t mean that other companies aren’t in the mix of a particular market, but it just means that there is a more powerful company that is usually dominating most of the market.

 According to Masibo (2016), the monopoly market structure has the easiest pricing strategy, because here the prices that are set are based on the demand.

Case Study

 Companies have different market structures depending on what type of business they are running. As mentioned above, depending on what type of market structure the company has will determine what type of pricing strategy they use. Two companies that are a good representation of an oligopoly market structure are Apple and Google, because these two large companies dominate the smartphone industry. On the other hand, Apple and Windows dominate when it comes to computer operating systems. In an oligopoly market, there are usually a small number of larger companies, such as Apple and Google, that have taken over a particular market, which in this case would be the smartphone industry (Wong, 2013). For example, in 2016 Android and iOS accounted for 97 percent of cell phone activations, and 57 percent was from Android while 40 percent was from Apple’s iOS (Reisinger, 2016).

 Apple’s and Google’s pricing strategy falls in line with oligopoly’s market structure, meaning product pricing is solely based on what their competition is doing. Apple and Google are directly in competition with one another for the smartphone industry, which means their prices reflect what is going on with the competing company. For example, when the new iPhone X was released by Apple last year for $1,000, many people didn’t understand why the company would price it that high and fully believed no one would purchase it. However, it was the exact opposite that happened, and the iPhone X product has been the most successful Apple device yet (Dolcourt, 2018). When this happened, Google Android started making steps towards their new $1,000 smartphone, and many of their phones have started to increase their price to be able to compete with Apple. Since the start of smartphones there have been consistent changes with pricing strategies. Table 1 shows how prices have changed from 2016-2018, and how Apple and Google dominate, but also have to continue to adjust their prices due to the other company’s price change. Dolcourt (2018) also mentions that Apple has now set a example of what the iPhone X smarphone can do and provide, which is going to set the new price point for the whole cell phone industry. For Google to compete with Apple they are going to have to make sure to provide many similar options on their smartphones in order to raise the price and make a profit. However, the iPhone X is the most expensive Apple smartphone but there are other iPhones that are offered at a lower price, which also allows for Google to have some wiggle room when it comes to their price range as well.

Conclusion

 This paper covered the different market structures that are often utilized when it comes to economics: perfect competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly, and monopoly. This paper also discussed the importance of the pricing strategy for each market structure, and explained how each one differs from the other. A great example of an oligopoly market structure was also provided, showing how Apple and Google basically dominate the smartphone industry. Their pricing strategy is focused on what their direct competition is doing, and this means they must continue to stay alert to their market, and always be thinking about different pricing strategies.

References

Chirila, A. (2015, January 29). 10 Companies You Probably Never Realized Had Monopolies. Retrieved from https://www.toptenz.net/10-companies-never-realized-monopolies.php

Dolcourt, J. (2018, September 1). Why iPhone and Android phone prices will get even higher. Retrieved from https://www.cnet.com/news/why-iphone-and-android-prices-will-get-even-higher/

Gallant, C. (2018, February 1). Does perfect competition exist in the real world? Retrieved from https://www.investopedia.com/ask/answers/05/perfectcompetition.asp

Hardison, K. (n.d.). How do market structures determine the pricing decisions of businesses? Retrieved from https://www.enotes.com/homework-help/how-market-structures-determine-pricing-decisions-290148

Kramer, L. (2018, January 9). What are some current examples of oligopolies? Retrieved from https://www.investopedia.com/ask/answers/121514/what-are-some-current-examples-oligopolies.asp

Masibo, B. (2016, October 7). Describe Pricing Strategy under each Market Structure. Retrieved from https://analystprep.com/cfa-level-1-exam/economics/describe-pricing-strategy-under-each-market-structure/

Monopolistic Competition. (2013). In D. Rutherford, Routledge Dictionary of Economics (3rd ed.). London, UK: Routledge. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.apus.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/routsobk/monopolistic_competition/0?institutionId=8703

Monopolistic Competition. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.economicsonline.co.uk/Business_economics/Monopolistic_competition.html

Oligopoly. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.economicsonline.co.uk/Business_economics/Oligopoly.html

Perfect Competition. (2018). In Helicon (Ed.), The Hutchinson unabridged encyclopedia with atlas and weather guide. Abington, UK: Helicon. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.apus.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/heliconhe/perfect_competition/0?institutionId=8703

Reisinger, D. (2016, April 21). Apple and Google’s Android Take 97% of U.S. Mobile Market. Retrieved from http://fortune.com/2016/04/21/apple-google-cirp/

Samuelson, W.F., & Marks, S. G. (2014, November) Managerial Economics, 8th Edition. Retrieved from https://platform.virdocs.com/app/v5/doc/108593/pg/32

Wong, K. (2013, June 30). A view on the smartphone market – An Oligopoly. Retrieved from http://economicsmalaysia.blogspot.com/2013/06/a-view-on-smartphone-market-oligopoly.html

Appendix

Table 1

Note: This table shows how mobile phones have continued to increase overtime. Each company is forced to raise their prices in order to compete with one another.

Retrieved from https://www.cnet.com/news/why-iphone-and-android-prices-will-get-even-higher/
 

Strategic Management Industry Structures And Dynamics Business Strategy Essay

Introduction: Dell Company was founded in 1984 by Michael Dell. It is the world’s largest
direct-sale computer vendor; Dell Inc. is now also the leading seller of computer systems in the
world, capturing a global market share of more than 15 percent. Dell markets desktop personal
computers, notebook computers, network servers, workstations, handheld computers, monitors,
printers, high-end storage products, and a variety of computer peripherals and software. In this
part I will use Porter’s Five Forces to analysis Dell’s great success in the industry.
Force 1: The Degree of Rivalry.
The PC industry consists of a number of companies; hence the threat from industry competitors
is high. Due to the product being highly standardized and shifting costs between brands is low,
there is fierce competition which leads to lower margins and profitability in the market. The PC
industry can be described as a high competitive industry. For Dell the main competitors are IBM,
Apple, HP, TOSHIBA, Gateway etc. Dell uses several strategies to reduce the competitive rivalry
between existing players.
Firstly Dell differentiated its sales from other competitors. Dell used the direct sales strategy since
1984. To sell PCs directly to consumers, by passing retail stores and system integrators and
offering limited customer support but dramatically lower prices. For years, that direct, low-cost
sales model worked perfectly. It allowed Dell to make high margins while selling computer gear
for less than its rivals. As a result, it now holds a leading 17.9% share of the world PC market and
has grown much faster than competitors Hewlett-Packard and IBM. With thousands of phone
and fax orders daily, $5 million in daily Internet sales, and daily contacts between the field sales
force and customers of all types, the company kept its finger on the market pulse, quickly
detecting shifts in sales trends and getting prompt feedback on any problems with its products. If
the company got more than a few similar complaints, the information was relayed immediately
to design engineers. When design flaws or components defects were found, the factory was
notified and the problem corrected within a matter of days. Management believed Dell’s ability
to respond quickly gave it a significant advantage over rivals, particularly over PC makers in Asia,
which made large production runs and sold standardized products through retail channels. Dell
saw its direct sales approach as a totally customer-driven system that allowed quick transitions to
new generations of components and PC models. i
Secondly Dell provided good customer service to compete with its rivals. In 1986 the company
began providing a guarantee of free on-site service for a year with most of its PCs after users
complained about having to ship their PCs back to Austin for repairs. Dell contracted with local
service providers to handle customer requests for repairs; on-site service was provided on a
next-day basis. Dell also provided its customers with technical support via a toll-free number, fax,
and e-mail. Dell received close to 40,000 e-mail messages monthly requesting service and
support and had 25 technicians to process the requests. iiBundled service policies were a major
selling point for winning corporate accounts. If a customer preferred to work with his or her own
service provider, Dell gave that provider the training and spare parts needed to service the
customer’s equipment.
Force 2: The Threat of new Entry.
Firstly, Dell created a brand image to reduce the threat of new entries by advertising. Dell was the
first computer company to use comparative ads. Its advertisements have appeared in several
types of media including television, the Internet, magazines, catalogs and newspapers.
Secondly, Dell cuts its price or offering free bonus products in the effect to maintain its market
share. In 2006, Dell cut its price in an effort to maintain its 19.2% market share. However, this
also cut profit-margins by more than half, from 8.7 to 4.3 percent. To maintain the strategy Dell
continuing to accept the online and telephone purchase.
The brand loyalty and the low price built up a barrier of entry for the new companies.
Force 3: The Threat of Substitutes.
Other devices like PDA, handheld electronics etc. are now coming out with features similar to
PC’s. The mobilebility is the key factor of the competition. Dell generate a smaller size laptop
called “mini” which only has a 10.1 inch screen and only sells at the price under £200 which is
even lower than some of the handheld electronics. With the efficiency of mobile and the same
function, for example Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, Dell protects its market share against those
substitutes.
Force 4: Bargaining Power of Customers.
Dell built up its brand loyalty to reduce the bargaining power of customers.
First, Dell had its own system and strategy to manage the relationship with customers. Since Dell
use the direct sale strategy, customers can buy Dell’s products from the website or ordered by
phone or fax. The customers then can personalize their computer by choosing the configuration
of the computer (e.g. RAM, processors, and hard-disk capacity). On the Dell’s website from which
people can directly choose, buy and give feedback, it divided the customers into four major
groups home users, small& medium business, public sector and large enterprise. Dell then treats
different groups differently by offering the special service they need from different groups. For
instance, Dell provides special solutions and services for higher education. Such as data
consolidation and management, HPC (high performance computing environments), wireless
solution, connected classroom etc. Because of its direct sale strategy, Dell can easily track the
service for any individual buyers. All the buyer information will be stored in its system; dell can
differentiate customers and send relevant product information and services to different
customers. These special strategies in selling upgrade its brand image among customers.
Second, Dell uses the advertisements to help building up its brand image. On the website, TV,
newspaper, high street, people can easily find dell’s advertising. Those can not only increase dell’s
market activity but also increase its brand pride.
Force 5: Reducing the Bargaining Power of Suppliers.
Dell has a special understanding on the SCM (supply chain management). Dell’s strategy is to limit
the amount of supplier but pick up some outstanding supplier all over the world. Each supplier
has a very close relationship with Dell in long-term. Dell uses its huge globe market to share its
business with its entire suppliers. For instance, Dell built a assemble factory in Malaysia, its
supplier from Ireland soon built a factory in there as well in order to gain a geographic efficiency.
Dell had it’s assemble factories all over the world which relatively close to its suppliers. This will
save a lot of transport costs. The double-win strategy makes the supply chain works well. With
the double-win strategy and constant relationship, Dell will be able to ask lower price from the
suppliers and reduce the bargaining power from them.
Market part: Segmentation
Introduction: Michael Dell emphasized the significant status of customers to the company’s
business by stating “Finding ways to get close to your customers is critical to your success.” Since
different people would have different need from the computer, Dell divided its customers into
several segments by discovering special needs from each segment. In the year 1994, the
customer group was only divided by two “primary customer and normal customer”. In that year
the assets of Dell is 3.5billion USD. In July 1996 Dell launched its online website www.dell.com.
On the website primary client are divided into three segments which are large company, medium
company and government& education. Customers can easily choose and buy the products
directly with advices and helps from dell.com. The assets of Dell rocketed up to 7.8 billion USD in
that year. However in 1997, Dell continued differentiating its customer for more segments.
Government & education segment was divided to State & Local Government, Federal
Government and education. Small company and home users were also been created as individual
segments. The net revenue of Dell was 12 billion in that year.
On today’s Dell’s website, people will be able to follow the tips and choose a suitable computer in
few minutes. What’s more, customers can personalize their chosen computer by changing the
configuration of the computer (e.g. color, RAM, processors, and hard-disk capacity). With this
direct sale through different segments, Dell can start to assemble the computer once the
transaction has been made. The inventory can then be limited as low as zero. Not like Dell’s
competitors, Dell does not need many warehouses all over the world which will save a lot of
costs for the company.
Although on today’s Dell.com, customers are divided into a lot segments. However, literally
customers are differentiated into two segments; ‘Relationship customers’ in opposing
‘Transaction customers’. Although Dell intends to build and maintain a good relationship with all
customers, it also becomes clear, that the company would regard some customers more
relationship worthy than others, by analyzing customer value.
The ‘relationship customers’ are mainly large enterprise and government etc. which occupied 40%
of Dell’s entire customer. ‘Transaction customers’ are small business and home users which have
percentage of 30 among customers. The remaining 30 percentage customer is regarded as a
mixed customer.
The advantage for dividing customers in different segment is that the company would be able to
analysis how it can encourage the customers to buy its product. For individual users or small
business price is the priority. Those customers are regarded as more price insensitive. So for
home and small business users the price is slightly lower than its competitor’s e.g. HP, Toshiba
and Sony. For bigger customers such as the government or enterprise, they consider more than
the price but consequent services and supports. Take large enterprise for instance, Dell supports
a lots of specific services and solutions for running the business. Like Infrastructure Consulting
service which is basically a plan for simplifying IT infrastructure, helping reduce operating costs
while freeing up resources for new business initiatives.iii Also, Dell runs a program called ‘Dell
business Credit’iv. This is the same as a loan offered by Dell, but with no interest rate and anytime
to pay off the balance. Business without enough cash flow would like to take that program.
One of the Dell’s competitors is IBM, it has a clearly customer segmentation but different from
Dell. IBM is more focusing on Business and Industry market. In a simply word it is even more
focusing on the ‘Big customers’. Similar as Dell did for big client, but even did more specific for
the segmentation. For Dell there is no segment for industries like Aerospace, Chemicals and
petroleum. More segmentation on large customers also brings more services and solutions for all
kinds of industries. One of IBM’s famous solutions is offering the security management for
Wimbledonv. It provided the security solution for players, staff, media and spectators around the
world.
Conclusion: Dell’s market share was No.2 in 2009, IBM was far behind. But since Dell’s customer
groups is much bigger than IBM’s. In 2006 IBM sold its PC department to Lenovo, Lenovo used
IBM’s brand to product and sell IBM’s ThinkPad series. It is very difficult to compare which
segmentation is better. But for the large business users, IBM is a very strong competitor against
Dell, Its high performance computer and advanced technical solutions and services makes IBM
the biggest company for larger business and industries.
i scribd.com Dell operation
ii McGraw Hill Dell Computer Corporation
mhhe.com/business/management/thompson/11e/case/dell5.html
iii Dell.com Large Enterprise service
iv Dell.com business credit
v IBM.com Wimbledon case study
 

Organisational and business structures

INTRODUCTION
MAIN BODY OF A REPORT
TASK 1
I was spending one hour and I have seen different website and I was collect the in formation and written the assignment manufactures of sporting goods likes Nike, puma, Adidas and others. In there are many company provide different manufactures of sporting goods service in India

The first company is Nike It is the world famous company they have a wide range of sporting goods likes shoes , socks ,T-Shirts ,Hoods , Tracksuit ,Sporting Shoes, Jackets and so many product are sales and makes
Nike Company gives the different looks in there product. the company has move away form the television adds and the company start investing it money
On the digital media likes on radio, T.V, internet ( www.kelkoo.co.uk)
Puma Company is the world famous. The company make different product like shoes, T-shirts, jackets, bags. The company is giving the variety of product. The company provide different size of clothier and shoes other different product in the world. Puma Company is the new brand in the sports goods. Puma also know as puma Aktiengesellscaft Rudolf Dassler. In 1948 puma released their first sport shoes the puma atom to the market and it is the West German football team. (www.sneakerhead.com/manufacture)
Peak Sport Products is the Hong Kong Company. The company is make shoes and other product in the world. The Company is sales fair the Group launched a new series of latest NBA stars signature products and new series of soccer and tennis products. The Company Peak sport product primarily engages in designing, developing, and manufacturing, distributing and marketing its sport (http://abnnewswire.net/)

TASK 2

TASK

TIME

DAY

I have search different website and collect the information sporting goods manufacturing company.

5 hour

20-21

Work and planning written start date and time planning by myself

2 hour

21-22

Sporting goods service swot analysis give the different point on swot analysis search on the internet planning by myself

5 hour

22-23

Organisational chart and collect and written staff and product information

5 hour

23-24

Make a power point search twelve side collect the written sporting goods information

6 hour

23-24

Four reasons the staff and management

6 hour

24-25

Managing director give the job advert written in myself

5 hour

26-27

TASK-3
SWOT analysis is planning method which is give the strength, weaknesses, opportunities, and threat of the sporting goods services. SWOT analysis is used to evaluate a company, strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. This report exam history and product and it is provides the summary analysis of the key revenue lines and the strategy it is used the report to understand the internal and external factors the affect on the performance in achieving it business goals. The value chain analysis is that it gives you and operational benefits, perspective of the business production, logistics, distribution, selling, Customers. The swot analysis using the support activities technology, finance, procurement the provide underlying. The value of the chain analysis is also useful for SWOT ANALYSIS.

WEEKNESSES
In the strategy every thing provide high like the product of the price in the market it increasing and the price of the finished goods is too much high cost and raw material also high

STRENGTHs
In the strength customers can take online service and also do the home delivery

In the company if the less number of machine and demand of goods there is a limited number of goods are been produce so there is a limited line of product

In the local company they value chain and goods hold on the market.

OPPORTUNITIES

THREATS

The main goals of the company are to extend the good in the foreign market.

In the world the too much competition in the market and it is a big hurdle for all the company

In the next many year they going to make the sporting good by using latest technology and finance

In the always a suspense about the price of good and growing power of the suppliers has to the price of the good

In conclusions I would like to say that by carrying the SWOT strategy it is used the report to understand the internal and external factors the affect on the performance in achieving it business goals. In the company they can improve all over condition of the swot analysis. In the company they should keeping core competitive advantages such as T.V and Radio to produce high quality and superior products. If company is producers in low cost nation to manufacture low end items. In the based on the experience of own industry. It is easy to the specialized base

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It is easy to enterprises should get rid of in confined concept of the products and markets in the order to build the non existing product and the markets to even extend the scope of products to create value and innovative value. SWOT analysis company profile is the important source the top level of the company data and information. The company of the key business structure and operation, history and product and provide the analysis of the key revenue line and strategy. It is provides all the crucial company information required for the business and competitor intelligence needs. Swot analysis as well as a breakdown and examination of the leading product revenue stream. The company is Support the sales activities by understanding the customers in the businesses better. The swot issues into the 6 planning categories the obtain a system which is the presents a practical way of the internal and external information about the business unit delineating short and long term priorities and allowing an easy way to build the management team the achieve the profit growth. In the team leader to define and develop co-ordinated, goals directed actions which the underpin the overall agreed objective between levels of the business hierarchy
TASK 4
Organization is divided into different departments. In the company they have direct responsibility for delivering the products and service. I have completed the organisational chart and after that I have give the conclusion in the organisational a group of the people working together in a structured coordinated fashion to achieve a set of goals. In the site A I have give the of 75 production staff and 30 office staff and including 1 sales and marketing director and 5 salespersons and 3 marketing staff it is working together in the company. In the site B I have give the 50 production staff, 15 office staff, 2 salespersons and site C 35 production staff, 5 office staff and 1 salespersons working together in the company to achieve the goals. The goals of the company and force the other staff to work together co-operate with each other. In the company staff to working planning, decision making, organizing, leading and controlling using the technology .All the staff are working under the CEO and achieve the goals. The company are using marketing staff will read the about what is the demand of the people and tell the production staff to make the product. In the organization charts information device for orienting new employees and work of the plan for considering expanding business price for the general public and ground as needed.
TASK 5
In the task 5 we make the power point slide.
TASK 6
In this task I am going to explain the resistance from the staff of the company that of making an organisation structure that of finding SWOT analysis. I should also keeping in the mind about the union of the company and management.
If you want to see the problems of anything in the comp you should adopt that thing or you should spend more and more time with that in the company so to know what is problem in the company and staff. I also spend much of my time with the company workers as well as with staff member also and the management. I have never shown that I am boss of the company , I used to live with them as I am member and I used to work with them so that I should also experience and see something and able to understand the company which can help us to increase the production. when I went see in the market and try to study in the market like the prices, more demand of goods and the quality of the good then I realized that I should sales the product in the organization, each persons should be provided different duty and works in the company and active the goals .The four resistanance from the staff that make and change in organisation structure.
1. I am worker three days in the company, I have seen that in the first site A, the number of office staff is more and they are more responsible and working about their duties whereas in site B and C, the office staff is less in the company then also they are very careless about their duties so the successful percentage of the product is less in the company as compare site A. in site B the office staff is co operative and help with each other. In site B and C, the staffs is not co operative with each other and if someone tell them the right thing then they don’t try to fallow it and do not help each other.
2. The second thing, when I seen in the company then I was unable to stand because of the loud of noise made by the machines and no persons was talking with a happy face in the company there working. I have noticed that the environment made buy the organisation. It is not good and everyone is not having any interest to do the work they just want to run out of the company and the do not have radio in the company.
In the company all the three manufacturing site are adopting the old machine and technology so the office staff is failure of adopting the new working practices in the company. In the cause of the cost of product is more as compare to the competitors so there is less demand of the product in the market. The time was taken to produce the manufacture the good is too long and the machines which are being used in company are too slow and a man has to stand on it to watch the breakdown. The office is also reaching to the learn the new method produce to manufacture the goods.
In the staff of the company don’t have a persons mind thinking which means that each man have a different thinking and working to achieve goals and objectives. I noticed that when I meet them personally and ask how to achieve the goals and every person have the give the different views but through different way and some members even don’t know about the goals in the company. Some of the member who knows about the goals of the company they don’t want to share their ideas with each other. If
Give the goods view produce the product and company achieve the goals.
There is some of the Suggestion that we can solve the problems of the company. Which I have seen in the organizations or which have forced me to change the structure of the organizations in the company.
1. We can see the percentage of the most successful products of the company, which were made by different site A, B and C. I have tried to make some thing changes in the organisation because the percentage of goods of site A is more successful then other sites in the company. So I have reduce the number of office staff up to 20 and 5 are sent to B and C respectively so that can go to other site B and C , make aware about the goal, work together and be co operative and helps to each other . The members of the staff should be sent to other companies reach so that the staff should have a look on the modern machine and technology those companies are using. When they came back, we can using the same technique and increase the production and sales in the marketing.
2. In the past, I was seen the environment of the company. It was not good condition so those who were working over their, they don’t feel good for working. They don’t like to work for a long time in the company and they were feeling bore so I have improve the environment in the company. So that the staff should like to workers with more interest and comfortably. I would like make a canteen in company , in this canteen I would like to keep that type of foods in which there should be release and read some goods books in the canteen the latest technology and machines so that the should became aware about the new technology. This is only for the organisation staff.
I have spend little time with the members of the staff in the company then each member have of the organisation of the staff have different motive and have different ways to achieve the goals . So it is very necessary to change their thinking and make them to think in one direction. The company staff members should be divided in the different teams and group made them to work accordingly. When they are divided into teams then they will start working together and will have one aim to achieve the goals and will become cooperative to each other. The company staff should share their aims, ideas and goals with each other. The company staff should do the presentation and tell them about the target and goal and also show them the status of the company goods in the market.
At the end, I would like to says that if the owner of the company want to extend the market and want to know about the problems of the company and solve the company problems want to make some of the changes in the organization then he should do the SWOT analysis of the company and company can achieve the goals. The owner should spend his time with the workers. He should understand and try to solve the problems of the workers. They give good pays and help the worker in the company. The owner should send his company staff to other companies to gain the modern era technology, to see the environment of the other companies and see that who the staff of that company work together and achieve the goals how much they are co operative to each other. The employer should be given the training of new machines. The company should be provided with the computer which should link with whole world by the internet facility. The company should check the performance of each person and give the bonus at the end of a year. By seeing this other staff will also perform better.
TASK 7
In this task I have give the advertisement job of the managing director is empty in sports goods company please contact A managing director will be given a special power of its articles of association. We need an office manager with the skills, experience and savvy to be the back done of day to day operation. We are looking for the motivated individual with the track record in office administration. If the you are experience from the different field than small business and technology.
Key responsibilities of the role

Managing director they play important role in the company. They should lead the other staff in the correct way. He should also play the important role for the company that they motivate the staff to work goods and achieve the gaols. He knows the market study and what the customer needs in the market are. What product is the people like and dislike in the market. The managing director they report the process of the company. The company is taking the profit and lose. They give the every detail of the CEO of the company .if the owner will offer give the some suggestion to him then it is his responsibility to implement, improve upon his idea.
Skills required
he should the strong business and finance administration knowledge
he should the basic accounting skills with the high degree of accuracy
They should have the knowledge of company would be very useful in the work.
They should have the ability to produce business correspondence, proofread for grammar, spelling and punctuation with a high degree of accuracy
They know the some sales support experience is desirable,
They know the some of the experience managing the calendar of a busy office or homage

If you are the right person for us, please apply, including a one page cover letter telling us give the every detail of you education and phone number and emails why you’d be perfect for the job!
 

Chemical Structures and Excipient Profile of Drugs

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The Impact Of Organisational Structures

This section discusses the influence and the impact that organizational and departmental structure and culture has generally and with special reference on the team working in the Haiti. The discussion covers first the overall structure of the Oxfam which is followed by the organization of the Oxfam team at Haiti for carrying out charitable work. The Oxfam has the Council as the governing body that meets seven times a year (International, 2010). It is made up of between 10 and 12 unpaid Trustees and is ultimately accountable for the overall management of Oxfam. Then there is the post of Director who is the Chief Executive and is responsible to the Trustees for the management of Oxfam. Then there are six Deputy Directors each is responsible for a Division. The Deputy Director of the Marketing Division is responsible for fundraising, communications and campaigns. The deputy Director International is responsible for developing and implementing Oxfam’s programmes in over 70 countries. The Deputy Director Trading is responsible for shops and recycling in Britain and the Fair Trade operations. The Deputy Director Finance and Information Systems is responsible for finance and IS throughout the organization. The deputy Director Corporate Human Resources is responsible for advising other divisions on Human Resource matters. The deputy Director Campaigns and Policy is responsible for advocating policies to promoting lasting change. Then each division has HR and Finance teams responsible for those matters.

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Oxfam is a charitable organization whose aim is to work with others to overcome poverty and suffering throughout the world. Its mission is to work directly for humanitarian relief to those hit by war, natural disasters or poverty. It also campaigns on behalf of poor people around the world who face issues such as debt, trade and the right to education. Its presence in the United Kingdom (UK) is visible through its charity shops run by volunteers, Page 5/17 selling donated items and handicrafts from overseas. Since it is a charitable organization, it has about 22,000 volunteer workers in over 800 Oxfam shops. The managers at these shops are given more authority to look into the needs of the local people where they are operating. The operations of these shops mostly include selling of books and music (International, 2010).
Performances
Dividing work
-Vertical structure
-Horizontal structure
Structure
Coordinating work
Elements of Components
Organisation
Culture
Types
Figure showing structural and cultural elements of organization
Page 6/17
Planning the work activities of the team, to ensure their commitment is gained.
The biggest challenge for the team working in the Haiti was race with time to save the lives of the people. It is stated that it was a situation in which thousands of people were covered by the debris of the building; another thousands of people were dead which the figure has confirmed now to be more than two hundred thousands of people were killed; and millions of people became homeless (International, 2010). On top of that the communication system was substantially destroyed by the earthquake. Under such circumstances the planning activities of the Oxfam team demanded high challenge for those who carried out the humanitarian work with full devotion. The team was drawn upon the volunteers who were ready to sacrifice their comfortable life in order to carry out the charitable work in the harsh and challenging circumstances. One of the challenges of the team was to co-ordinate with the other governmental and non-governmental organization so that proper contribution was to be made in the area. Then the other challenge was for the operational team which had to distribute the food and drinking water in the area where there were no communication. It is stated that the planning work element of the team ensures that the task of the team is carried out in a coherent manner. It discusses the tasks are divided, supervised and coordinated. The object of structure is to give clear idea what the people are going to do as forming part of the organization. This is often they know it when they join the organization. They know what is expected of them and the skills which are to be used by them for contributing the overall aim of the organization but the team working at Haiti had unprecedented challenges. The Oxfam team has effectively responded to the earthquake at Haiti. This is the biggest earthquake in the last 200 years at the Haiti. The Oxfam has responded quickly and effectively to help the victims of the earthquake. It has provided so far 60 tons of emergency supplies and equipment. This includes clean water, buckets, water treatment kids, and shelter and sanitation tools in the area. We have successfully operated in seven sites. Page 7/17 This means we have approached with our help and support to almost 85,000 people. It is planning to expand our network to 110,000 people (International, 2010).
There were number of challenging tasks which were assigned to the operational team at the Haiti. One of the tasks has been to provide clean and safe water. The problem arises when water gets contaminated because of the virus in the atmosphere which has spread due to large number of deaths of people whose bodies were decomposed on the ground. Moreover, there were no infra structures for people to keep the water safe. The Oxfam has also launched a programme called cash for work so as to get hand of local people with the overall object of providing facilities to the people. The main task of this operation is to build our capacity so that we can help three millions of people who are in desperate need of assistance. The Oxfam is working to provide for the basic needs of these people. These include provision of clean water and latrines. The Oxfam team is also working on the long term projects of the disaster hit people. Its marketing team is campaigning for the cancellation of international debts on Haiti. The Haiti owes $891 million in debts (International, 2010). These amounts include those loans which were taken by the Government prior to the earthquake for its developmental projects. Since almost everything is destroyed in the city, we are trying to persuade donors to cancel the debts. To this end, the Team contacting to the Head of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) Dominique Straus-Kahn to exert pressure so that the loans should be cancelled. It is stated that the IMF has offered £100m loan to the Haiti for building infrastructure and other developmental activities. Our analysis reveal that owing to the huge destruction of the area combined with the fact that Haiti is one of the poorest countries in the world; it will be sending tens of millions of dollars to the IMF and other international donors for paying off loan instalments. This will be huge burden on the poor country (International, 2010). Page 8/17
Providing opportunities to meet the identified developmental needs of the team and individuals working within the team.
This section of the report discusses about the provision of opportunities to meet the identified developmental needs of the team and individuals working within the team. The report covers the overall developmental needs of the team in terms of the control and the individual developments in terms of his skills and progression in the company. It is stated that when the operations of an organization grow then it needs to divide the work vertically (Boddy, 2005). This means there needs to be more and more delegation to allow for those who are working at lower level to cater for the needs of their specific circumstances (Templar, 2004). It is also pointed out that with the growth of the business the hierarchy becomes more complex but even then there are three levels that always exist. These levels are corporate divisional and operating (International, 2010). The corporate activities in the Oxfam are the Board of Trustees. This is the most senior group which is responsible for managing the overall direction of the organization. This includes not only guiding and monitoring the performance of subordinate levels of the organization but also maintain links with significant external institutions such as banks and political bodies. The other level of the Oxfam is the divisional. There are broadly six divisions which are responsible to the Director who is also the chief executive. These divisions are headed by deputy Director. This is responsible for implementing broad areas of policy and for securing and allocating budgets and other resources. The Finance department which is headed by the deputy Director in the Oxfam is responsible for working on fund raising and collecting donations (see appendix about how to donate for Haiti earthquake victims). Then there comes an operational level. This level is responsible for doing the technical work of the organization. This includes in case of the Oxfam implementing the policy in practice such as supplying food, water and sanitary services to the earthquake victims in the Haiti. Page 9/17 So, the key issue that arises in establishing what decisions should be taken at each level of the organization. It will be considered to be centralization when those at the top make most of the decisions. In such circumstances the management at the divisional level ensures that the decisions of the Trustees are implemented by those working at the operational levels. On the other hand, if the system is based upon decentralized organization then there is clear demarcation of the span of authority for making decisions according to their specific needs. However, these decisions are taken in consonance with the broad policy of the organization. The operational work at the Haiti was carried out by the team which was given more power to decide the operational aspect of the relief services. It set units in the Haiti in co-ordination with other governmental and non-governmental organizations so that it can carry out overall co-ordinated work with all charitable work carried out in the area. This enabled the team to focus on those areas where it undertook its responsibility to look after the particular section of the people. It operated at eleven units initially which covered almost 86,000 people. Then the relief operations were extended towards more people the figure which was raised up to 110,000 (International, 2010).
It is stated that the Oxfam motivated local people at Haiti to work either voluntarily or to work for money (Templar, The Rules of Work – A Definitive Guide to Personal Success , 2002). The members of the Oxfam team provided short training to the local people regarding their motivation to work. The motivation was either to appeal their humanitarian mind or to provide them money so that the aid can be provided to all the people. The team members consulted with the local workers regarding how the humanitarian aid could be distributed effectively. The rewards for this work were both psychological as well as financial (Owen, 2009). It was psychological because the nature of work appealed humanity which is part of value structure of our human beings. It also produced monitory benefits for the team. The team members were also taken on board by asking them to make proposals for Page 10/17 carrying out these services effectively. It was according to the flat tall and flat charts of the organizational developments. The figure below describes how individuals can develop itself in an organization which either follows the tall structure of the organization or the flat structure (Owen, 2009).
A tall structure, with narrow spans of supervision
A flat structure, with wide spans of supervision
Figure showing Tall and flat organization structures
The structure of the organization is key indicator of the development of the members of the team.
Page 11/17
Involving the Team in fairly and objectively assessing work activity progress against task performance objectives and individual developmental objectives.
The managements use teams as a way of organizing work for the purposes of more flexibility, lower costs and faster response (Cole, 2009). This technique is applied by the Oxfam in its operations at Haiti. This is because the task at Haiti needs more powers to make decisions on the ground. There is also involvement of humanitarian issue involved in the operations which needs decisions to be made on the spot. This technique is also applied by other organizations such as Johnsons or Philips with the same object of getting flexible and lower costs and faster responses. In such structure the team is drawn from various divisions which are given authority to decide the view of their individual division (Owen, How to Manage: The Art of Making Things Happen , 2009). The members of the team are mutually accountable for results. They are sometimes called ‘self-managing teams’ to emphasise the relative absence of hierarchical relationships. But there are also many potential disadvantages such as tendency to take on their own purpose and to spend time in debate rather than action. It is stated that the Oxfam has joined hands with fourteen other organization in its common cause of helping out the sufferings of the people of Haiti (International, 2010).
It is stated that this is also growing practice of the organizations to remain independent but agree to work together to deliver product or services (Bacal, 2004). It happens when managers of the organizations arrange for other companies to undertake certain activities on their behalf, usually those that they do not use as being core to the business. The remaining organization concentrates on setting strategy direction and managing the core units. There has also practice in the business world in which the managers sell one of their services to another company, but still deliver the service to customers under their own name (Stettinius, 2007). The humanitarian work at Haiti needs to be coordinated to achieve the intended results without it wills there be confusion and poor performance. The direct supervision is provided where a manager ensures coordination by directly supervising his Page 12/17 or her staff to ensure they work together in line with company policy. The differences in this situation lie in the idea of the span of control and the number of people whom a manager can effectively supervise directly. It is also stated that the rules of business provide hierarchy of command if the problem arises in terms of any kind of dispute between the members of the team. In such circumstances, the dispute is taken to the common boss in the hierarchy. It is the boss’s responsibility to reach a solution (Maginn, 2004). The Oxfam team also make sure that what goes into the system and what managers expect it to produce are standardised. So, if the operational cost of one unit Haiti can be minimized by involving people by requesting them to become volunteers can be obtained then those savings can be used for obtaining more aid in terms of water and other things can be obtained. The team makes sure that the suppliers meet the specification and coordination between those who use the parts will be easier. The other method applied for ensuring effective team work is the rules and procedures are prepared or guidelines are published on how to perform the work (Burns, 1978). As discussed above this technique at Haiti is hardly applied where lot of local workers are volunteers and the demand of the supply of humanitarian aid is really high. Finally, the technique of keeping up-to-date information systems help to co-ordinate effectively from team level management to the top level management and vice versa. Information systems help to ensure that people who need to work in a consistent way have common information about what is happening (Edwards, 2006). The communication between the management of the Oxfam is carried out by telephonic system as much of communication systems are already damaged. There is also personal contact methods applied to communicate between the team members operating at Haiti (Edwards, 2006).
Page 13/17
Modify plans to ensure that performance objectives are met.
This section of the report discusses the circumstances in which the plans may be modified in order to achieve the performance objectives (Egerton, 2007). The performance objectives of the operation at Haiti were to carry out relief services in co-ordination with other governmental and non-governmental organizations. It was observed that there was challenge of race with the time to save the lives of the people. There was need of trained people who could provide health facilities to the people. There were needs of not only food but also shelter and medicines. Some of the organizations were carrying out the relief activities by providing tents. Some of them carried out medical and health services to the affected people (International, 2010). In such circumstances the Oxfam team needed to work on those areas in which either the relief operations were not reached or there were inadequate provision of the services in such areas. By analysing the ground realities the plans were modified and the operations of the Oxfam were focused on providing safe water and sanitary services. The Oxfam identified that the inadequate provision of relief services to address sanitary issues resulted in spread of viral diseases. So, the Oxfam team set 11 units initially which provided safe drinking water and sanitary services spread in the area which benefited population of about 86,000 people. The network of the services was then further spread to cover more than hundred thousand people in the area. So, the plans were modified after observing the ground realities. But this didn’t mean that the overall objective of the Oxfam was sacrificed. Another feature of the operations was to build pressures on the international donors to provide non-returnable loan rather than giving Haiti loan for restructuring which will be paid by it over the years. This aspect was carried out by taking into account the factual position that Haiti is one of the poorest countries in the world. Its economy is not developed enough to pay back loan which will be used for saving life of people or providing them basic necessities of the life such as food and shelter (International, 2010). Page 14/17
Conclusion
The report has taken into account the operational and organizational work of the Oxfam which is charitable organization. The report has focussed upon the current operations of the Oxfam at Haiti. The report discusses the practical aspects of the charitable operation at Haiti by linking it with the theory. It is revealed that organizational activities of the Oxfam were team based work that allowed convenience to carry out the relief operations. It discussed the motivational factors of the team and the influence of organizational culture on its workers. It was found that the Oxfam being itself a charitable organization with thousands of people working as volunteers the motivation of its workers was to carry out the relief work with high motivation. The Oxfam has culture of helping people as the motivating factor itself. Every member of the team is focussed upon high standard of providing humanitarian services to the people suffering from poverty, war or natural calamities. The discussion also covered the relief activities carried out by the team by employing local workers. It also covered the circumstances in which the plans were modified in order to cope up with the practical aspects faced by the team operating at Haiti. The report with its main focus on highlighting the organization plan and management of the Oxfam at Haiti also sensitizes the humanitarian work carried out by the Oxfam for Haiti earthquake victims.
Recommendations
The report recommends that when charitable organizations perform relief operations they need more autonomy to operate in the area. This is because as discussion revealed that they know the ground realities because they are operating on the ground under circumstances which involve not only financial aspect but also humanitarian aspect. Although there is successful operation carried out by the Oxfam team at Haiti yet the organizational structure of the Oxfam which is mix of functional and hierarchical needs more decentralization of authority. This will not only serve as an effective motivation for the workers operating in the field but also achieve the overall objective of the charitable organization such as the Oxfam. Page 15/17
Appendices
The information about how to donate for Haiti earthquake victims is available at http://www.oxfam.org/en/haitidonate .
 

Curran and Granham’s Argument on Public Sphere in Analysing Media Structures

Studies of media clearly indicate that the media as we know it today largely came into prominence at a point in time when the political ideas of democracy and participation were becoming a political reality (Charles, 2013). This was because it became more obvious that in order to maintain some degree of order in this democratic societies, the constituted authority needed a way in which to generate and shape public opinion, and the tools which were best employed in that regards squarely fall within the purview of media (Hodkinson, 2011). As a result, the power and role media plays in society became a topic of interest to the thinkers of the time. Their thoughts according to Hodkinson (2011) revolved around how the media would be employed in this regard led to the identification of firstly, the public sphere which was the embodiment of that area of society within which societal discuss occurred (Wodak et al, 2008) and secondly, the media structures (Hallin & Mancini, 2004) that operated within said sphere. These structures determined the manner in which media as an institution would function in a particular society and follows from the long been settled idea in media literature that suggests that the content and the quality of content, be it commentary, entertainment or reporting is a direct consequence of the structures within which they are produced (Altmeppen 2006) and this is reflected in the ‘culture’ of said society. This complex view of the relationship between culture and media feeds into questions about the of the nature of the media and its relationship to the public sphere for which it is responsible for overseeing.

The public Sphere

The public sphere as defined by Jakubowitcz, (1997) is that infrastructure that is comprised of the all the institutions that are responsible for managing the propagation of media, the generation of knowledge and the formation of thought within civil society. The operations of these institutions are integral to the development of public opinion which is as much a part of political power as it is essential for democracy to function observes (Goode, 2005). This definition of the public sphere is not without criticism and is at the centre of one of the more prevalent debates in the field of media and journalism. The debates focus mainly on defining the role and function of the media as relates to the mechanics and operations of the public sphere. Arguments and counter arguments continually revise how these concepts are perceived and the relationship between them and despite the fact that some of these arguments are diametrically opposed to each other in how perceive the relationship between the media and the public sphere, there exists a few points of overlap. These points of agreement largely stem from an established definition of some of the terms and concepts that are foundational to any discussion about media and its role in society. To attempt to contribute to this debate, it is therefore important to establish a set of definitions about the public sphere on which the impact of media structures can be assessed.

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The most widely recognised definition of the term public sphere can be traced back to the works of Jürgen Habermas (Habermas et al, 1989). Upon conceiving the idea of the public sphere, he saw it as an abstract arena where “rational-critical debate about public issues are conducted by private persons who are willing to let arguments and not status determine decisions” (Calhoun, 1992). His ideas about the nature of the public sphere suggest that is represents an area, physical or abstract, where rational discuss is entertained and stems from his belief that the public sphere is a by-product of an attempt of different factions within society to communicate their views to the larger society. This heralded the development of a public affairs of thought within society and in western culture in particular helped to draw the boundaries within which the often-conflicting ideologies of the upcoming burgiose, the royalty and religion struggled to craft the social narratives with which they could affect their beliefs on the wider society (Madsen, 2008;2009). As a result, early media primarily concerned itself with questions of democracy and how to ensure that the public was well informed on the views of all sides in order to effect quality public debate (Hodkinson, 2011; Gripsrud, & Weibull, 2010).

Over time and with the translation from media to mass media large due to the industrial revolution, the competing authorities started to use the facilities of the media to shape the public sphere. This way in which they did this, coalesced into a number of structures that determined how the media in those societies are employed and was the beginning of a departure from the underlying premise of the importance of public debate to democracy that the media was built on.

Media structures

These structures, which with the aid of technology have grown in size, scope and reach have in many ways experienced decisive changes largely as a result of the societies they operate in. To fully understand the reason for this transformation it is crucial that these media structures be discussed.

Media structures at their core, refer to the different ways media institutions and the companies that comprise them operate (Geber, Scherer & Hefner, 2016). This implies the models that dictate how media institutions function in the societies they occupy observes Hallin & Mancini (2004). In examining media structures, Hallin & Mancini (2004) argue that they are entities borne from the coalescing of organizational rules, norms and regulations within the mass communications landscape that exist within societies and that these structures are distilled by society into institutions which are wholly devoted to continually inform and interpret past and current events within society. Gripsrud & Weibull (2010) expanded on this view with the realisation that these institutions do not operate in vacuums and are thus subject to the society’s political, legal, and social circumstances which they are actively involved in shaping.

Consequently, media structures or systems are indicative of the characteristic traits of the society’s they exist within and are responsible for the connecting the other institutions that subsist within a given society.

(Wieslaw, 200…..) goes on to argue that since media structures are determined by socio-economic circumstances, media functioning, values system, guarantees of freedom of media, political conditions, regulations on the functioning of media organizations and institutions as well as by the level of education and technological advancement, a thorough examination can only the possible by analysing these structures on two parallel paradigms. These paradigms answer questions relating to what content the media structures are generating and how the content is reported and are the determining factors of how ideas and opinions are generated and discussed in the public sphere.

The most widely instantiated media structures were identified by Hallin/Mancini (2004) in their work on the “models of media and politics” distinguished among a liberal structure, a polarized-pluralist structure or model and a democratic-corporatist media structure. These media structures are found to contribute significantly to how the power dynamics of the societies they constitute and offer an entry point into attempting to understand how society functions. These structures are:

•                     The liberal: This media structure is characterized by the relative dominance of market mechanisms and commerce. This translates into the development of relatively high levels of journalistic professionalism, a prevalence of commercial media and limited state involvement in media operations. In the liberal model, the media has the choice of engaging in political activity and thus there exhibits varying levels of political parallelism.

•                     The Democratic Corporatist Structure favours a historical coexistence of commerce and media but with significant ties to organized social and political groups. This model promotes the existence of an active but legally limited role of the state and is typically characterised by a above average development and propagation of mass circulation information bulleting in the form of newspapers and other mass-produced form of media. This model favours a synergy between both commercial and political media and is associated with high political parallelism where the state promotes pluralism of the media system as much as it engages in delivering welfare to its citizens. Fiedler, & Meyen (2015) observes that this model also boasts a well-developed sense of journalistic professionalism in its media landscape.

•                     The third media structure identified by Hallin & Mancini (2004) is the polarized pluralist media model. This media model typically evolves from an integration of the media into party politics which results in the suppression of commercial incentives in media. This media structure often features a strong state presence guiding and detailing the operations of the media, the type of content it generates and how this content is delivered to the citizenry. Hence, a press that addresses politically active elites more than the mass public; a relatively interventionist role of the state; and a lower level of journalistic professionalism.

Media structures and the transformation of media

When the ideas of the role of media are paired with those of the media structures that exist within them, it is possible to understand the media practices of today and why they are a direct consequence of applying these media structures to the fabric of the public sphere.

In the west in particular, where the liberal and democratic corporatist structures were borne, the main observable transformation that has happened to media revolves around its continuous disentanglement from its political underpinnings in society (Garnham, 1996; Strömbäck et al, 2008; Rothstein, 1987). In its role as the vehicle with which societal conversations are steered, the media historically focussed on delivering current affairs relating to the power dynamics within society. This has changed in recent years as media trends tilt towards a more tabloidized approach to content delivery. This is more prevalent in the liberal structures which revised their business models to focus on attracting the most number of consumers in order to attract advertisers (Splichal, 2015). The past decade saw a surge in the profitability of media largely due to the effects of the industrial revolution which, meant that businesses that required advertising to reach many more customers funnelled money into these institutions which in turn forced them to grow in a manner that prioritised profitability. With advances in technology, this profitability has now been threatened by alternative media which has seen a marked rise in such things as free dailies, blogging and internet journalism. This has effectively destroyed the monopoly these legacy media institutions have cultivated over the years forcing them to adopt more financially embedded practices rather than the more cultural and socially embedded origins from which they developed and is the driving force behind the “click-baity”, outrage machine the media has in some respects devolved into. This in turn has forced the political actors to also adopt media logics that favour shock and awe approach in order to elicit media coverage. This phenomenon is referred to by Lucht & Udris (2010) as the “mediatization” effect.

Also, there is a growing concern that the media is beginning to lead the political systems instead of reporting on them. Whereas the media historically was responsible for facilitating the social and political discussion. In a bit to be more commercialised, there is a tendency for media institutions to begin to curate the content they report. This is further magnified with the reliance on media in most developed societies, which means that the media is primarily responsible for relaying social issues to the community (Charles, 2013; Dahlgren, 2013). Thus as the media starts to focus on those topics they know are high interest or would gain them favourable reach and coverage, issues that aren’t as high intensity but are just as important are ignored which alienates certain aspects of the society. While historically, the reliance on media was seen as a positive in that via media, all facets of society are given a voice, as the financial incentives on the media increase it is becomes more common for the media to focus on scandalous, high interest issues that guarantee consumer interest in order to lure businesses that which to advertise their products. Furthermore, there is growing concerns about bias in content delivery which has significantly diminished the media’s credulity (Rothstein, 1987; Murphy & Blankson, 2007).

Another key change that the media has undergone is the widening of the knowledge gap (Strömbäck et al, 2008). This refers to the idea that the ingress of media information into the social fabric of society tends to result in a corresponding increase in the degree of fracturing of socioeconomic segments. This sees those individuals that occupy the higher rungs of the socioeconomic ladder acquiring information at a greater rate than those on the lower rungs. This widens the knowledge gap between these two groups and disenfranchises those on the lower groups as they are unable to participate in social discuss at the same rate. This is especially true for media structures that favour commercial media in that there is a tendency to structure media delivery in a manner that is advantageous to speedy consumption and dissemination and results in a preference for certain media formats.

While in other more authoritarian societies, where the media is largely a tool with which the government maintains control over the citizenry, it is possible to see the footprints of the polarized pluralist structures. In this societies, it is widely accepted that the media is no more than a tool for delivering propaganda and while certain overlaps exist in the form of content type and manner of delivery, it is largely due to the universality of the delivery mechanism like tv and the internet (Hallin & Mancini, 2012;2011).

This analysis agrees with the views of both Curran and Garnham who, in considering the influence the media has on society and in particular the public sphere present in societies, have observed a series of changes in those spheres. These changes include:

•                     the shift from national information markets to mostly international market

•                     The emphasis on digital content delivery mechanisms like the television and the internet

•                     The creation of information market divides between the information rich and the information poor

•                     And most importantly, a departure from public service ethos of the media

These ideas on the function of the public sphere are foundational to the arguments made by both Curran and Garnham and in Curran’s case, he went on to break down the Habermas’s views on the public sphere, distilling it into three distinct ways the public sphere could be perceived or employed.

The first is the marxist/communist perspective that sees the public sphere as a tool of the state. In this view, he argues that the public sphere is used solely for the dissemination of propaganda by the powers that be. This perspective matches with the application of the polarised pluralist structure of media where media and its content are significantly policed and controlled by the state. Hence any developments in media in this approach has to be in line with the objectives of the state.

Secondly, he argues that another perspective from which the public sphere can be observed is that of a battleground. One where contending ideas vie for supremacy with everyone being able to present their ideas without fear. This view maps to that of the liberal media structure and sees the different elements that make up the media compete for the audience and coverage.

Thirdly, he viewed the public sphere as the mechanism via which the citizenry exercise control over the state. The democratic corporatist structure appears to be an inverted form of this view in that, through media, social groups have an opportunity to effect change on the community by appealing to the state. The ability of these groups to shape public opinion forces the state to take them seriously and act in a manner that preserves their interests.

This view similarly mirrored Garnham’s (2007) conclusions on Habermas’s works on the public sphere. In applying the definition to the modern era, Garnham was able to observe that for Habermas to have come to his definition, he has to accept that there existed a substrate on which every variant of the public sphere regardless of its character was built. He suggests that this substrate is a network of institutions without which society cannot exist politically. This allowed him to observe the transformation that that was happening to media structures over time.

His observations revolved around the trends which saw the development of what he called information rich and information poor halves of the media landscape. This spurred an emphasis of digital media which progressively leaned towards encouraging domestic modes of consumption and resulted in the destruction of idea that cultural resources ought to be dedicated towards positive public service.

In conclusion, when applied to the current media landscape, there exists obvious utility in the notion that what obtains today is a direct evolution of those ideas about media structures and their role on the public sphere as such when looking at how the media has transformed it is possible to see the lingering effects of these structures and their present-day iterations. Both Curran and Garnham subscribe to the idea that “the possibility of arriving at a rationally grounded consensus can only be demonstrated in practice by entering into a concrete and historically specific process of rational debate with other human beings (…) the task is to cooperate in building the political, economic and communication institutions.” (Garnham, 1996) This they believe is central to the idea of democracy and for this democracy to persist the media has a duty to encourage participation in societal discuss by ensuring that competing arguments and views are presented objectively and wholly, and they insist that this is a responsibility of the media and of the citizenry.

REFERENCES

Benson, R., Blach‐Ørsten, M., Powers, M., Willig, I. & Zambrano, S.V. 2012, “Media Systems Online and Off: Comparing the Form of News in the United States, Denmark, and France”, Journal of Communication, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 21-38.

Butsch, R. 2007, Media and Public Spheres, Palgrave Macmillan UK, London.

Cap, P., Cap, P. & Okulska, U. 2013, Analyzing genres in political communication: theory and practice, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam.

Curran, J., Curran, J., Liebes, T., Katz, E., Kats, E., כ”ץ, א., כ״ץ, א., כ״ץ, א., Libes, T. & ליבס, ת. 1998;2002;, Media, ritual, and identity, Routledge, London;New York;

Fiedler, A. & Meyen, M. 2015, “‘The totalitarian destruction of the public sphere?’ Newspapers and structures of public communication in socialist countries: the example of the German Democratic Republic”, Media, Culture & Society, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 834-849.

Geber, S., Scherer, H. & Hefner, D. 2016, “Social capital in media societies: The impact of media use and media structures on social capital”, International Communication Gazette, vol. 78, no. 6, pp. 493-513.

Goode, L. 2005, Jurgen Habermas: democracy and the public sphere, Pluto Press, London.

Garnham, 1996

Garnham, N. 2007, “Habermas and the public sphere”, Global Media and Communication, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 201-214

Gripsrud, J. & Weibull, L. 2010, Media, markets & public spheres: European media at the crossroads, Intellect, Bristol.

Habermas, J., Habŏmasŭ, W., Habŏmasŭ, Khabermas, I., Khabermas, I., Ha-pei-ma-ssu, Y., Habeimasi, הברמאס, י., הברמס, י. & 哈贝马斯 1989, The structural transformation of the public sphere: an inquiry into a category of bourgeois society, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Hallin, D.C. & Mancini, P. 2012;2011;, Comparing media systems beyond the Western world, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge;New York;.

Hallin, D.C. & Mancini, P. 2004, Comparing media systems: three models of media and politics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge;New York;.

Harper, T. 2017, “The big data public and its problems: Big data and the structural transformation of the public sphere”, New Media & Society, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1424-1439.

Hodkinson, P. 2011, Media, culture and society: an introduction, SAGE, London;Los Angeles, Calif;.

Lichtenfels, P. & Rouse, J. 2013, Performance, politics and activism, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke.

Matheson, D. 2005, Media discourses: analysing media texts, Open University Press, Maidenhead.

Papathanassopoulos, S., Papathanassopoulos, S., Papathanasopoulos, S. & Negrine, R. 2011, European media: structures, policies, and identity, Polity, Cambridge, U.K;Malden, Mass;.

Rothstein, B. 1987, “Corporatism and Reformism: The Social Democratic Institutionalization of Class Conflict”, Acta Sociologica, vol. 30, no. 3/4, pp. 295-311.

Strömbäck, J., Luengo, Ó.G., Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier & Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier 2008, “Polarized Pluralist and Democratic Corporatist Models: A Comparison of Election News Coverage in Spain and Sweden”, International Communication Gazette, vol. 70, no. 6, pp. 547-562.

Strömbäck, J., Aalberg, T., Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier & Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier 2008, “Election News Coverage in Democratic Corporatist Countries: A Comparative Study of Sweden and Norway”, Scandinavian Political Studies, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 91-106.

Wodak, R., Wodak, R., Koller, V., Wodak-Leodolter, R., Leodolter, R.W., Leodolter, R. & Wodak-Leodolter, R. 2008, Handbook of communication in the public sphere, 1. Aufl. edn, Mouton de Gruyter, New York;Berlin;

Charles, A. 2013, Media/democracy: a comparative study, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle upon Tyne, England.              Link

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Topology Optimisation for Fracture Strength and Fatigure Life Improvement of Aerospace Structures Design

Significance:

The presence of damage at arbitrary locations in a structure is common in aerospace components [1]. Material flaw as minor as a small surface crack can lead to fatigue failure is one of the most important failure modes in the engineering field [2], being responsible for more than 80% of all structural failures. Topology optimisation has become an effective tool for efficient light-weight design in aviation industry where design approach that treats fatigue life as design objectives is now a standard practice [3]. Fatigue life based optimum design plays a crucial role in restoring the operability of deteriorating structures and altering local structural shapes to extend their operational life beyond expectation [4]. Optimised components,   such as smart structures design of wing ribs, also showed significant weight reduction and improved safety factor [5]. Thus, development and application of optimisation system will be beneficial to existing product development methods such as conceptual and preliminary design process as it reduces manpower, time and cost of implementation [6].

Literature review

Classical optimisation methods, such as density filtering, were originally introduced since when the methodology for topology was well developed and utilised on a regular basis in industrial settings where demands for aircraft structural stiffness were high [7]. The aim of density-based topology optimisation is to find an optimal material distribution which can effectively minimise the structural compliance subject to an overall mass constraint. Such approach is both easy to implement and computationally efficient as explained in [8]. Nevertheless, major design alterations are usually required for stiffness optimal designs to meet requirements of more common design driving criteria such as stress or fatigue as mentioned in [9]. Therefore, it can be useful to introduce stress or fatigue criteria in the formulation of topology optimisation.

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 Although stiffness is not an unimportant property, the key property of a structure is often its durability. This is closely related to the stresses in the structure, and it is common engineering practice to keep the stresses in a structure below its suitable material limit [10]. Despite of its relevance in aviation industry, topology optimisation with stress constraints comes with limitations regarding singularity and computational cost due to large number of constraints [11]. Solutions to such problems; for instance, global stress measure and clustering technique, have been discussed in many papers, see [2], [3], [12]. However, the local stress control is lost and the optimisation problem becomes increasingly non-linear, resulting in impairment of structural integrity [13]. 

While stress-based topology optimisation is an old field of research, investigation in fatigue-based topology optimisation is still a relatively recent and unexplored area in aerospace structures design [14]. As reviewed in [15], this can be justified by the fact that computational cost of Finite Element Method used in analysis is high as iterations of detailed simulation have to be done for each fine mesh. Still, successful practical applications within aerospace industry are evident. For example, utilisation of topology optimisation in the design of the Airbus A380 leading edge ribs and forward strut of aircraft’s nose landing gear [16] both showed considerable decrease in weight and prolongation of fatigue life.

To date, topology optimization has proven to be the most useful, yet most complicated, structural optimization methodology [3]. However, only a few applications to real-world design problems in the aerospace industry are evident. This accounts for the difficulties in design process to ensure that the finalised design complies with the regulations and meet the airworthiness standards in aviation field [17]. Technical hardships due to the fast evolution of aerospace structural engineering have restricted the application of topology optimization from being widely used in the industry [18].

 

References

[1] R. Das and R. Jones, “Damage tolerance based design optimisation of a fuel flow vent hole in an aircraft structure,” Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 245-265, 2009.

[2] O. Sigmund, “On the usefulness of non-gradient approaches in topology optimization,” Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 589-596, 2011.

[3] J. H. Zhu, W. H. Zhang, and L. Xia, “Topology Optimization in Aircraft and Aerospace Structures Design,” Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 595-622, 2016.

[4] R. Das and R. Jones, “Development of a 3D Biological method for fatigue life based optimisation and its application to structural shape design,” International Journal of Fatigue, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 309-321, 2009/02/01/ 2009.

[5] M. Seabra et al., “Selective laser melting (SLM) and topology optimization for lighter aerospace componentes,” in Procedia Structural Integrity, 2016, vol. 1, pp. 289-296.

[6] J. Oest, Structural Optimization with Fatigue Constraints, (Structural Optimization with Fatigue Constraints): Aalborg Universitetsforlag, 2017.

[7] S. B. Dilgen, C. B. Dilgen, D. R. Fuhrman, O. Sigmund, and B. S. Lazarov, “Density based topology optimization of turbulent flow heat transfer systems,” Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1905-1918, 2018/05/01 2018.

[8] U. Schramm and M. Zhou, “Recent developments in the commercial implementation of topology optimization,” in Solid Mechanics and its Applications vol. 137, ed, 2006, pp. 239-248.

[9] E. Holmberg, “Topology optimization considering stress, fatigue and load uncertainties,” 2016. 

[10] M. Bruggi, “On an alternative approach to stress constraints relaxation in topology optimization,” Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 125-141, 2008.

[11] E. Holmberg, B. Torstenfelt, and A. Klarbring, “Stress constrained topology optimization,” Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 33-47, 2013.

[12] J. Oest and E. Lund, “Topology optimization with finite-life fatigue constraints,” Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 1045-1059, 2017/11/01 2017.

[13] E. Holmberg, “Stress and fatigue constrained topology optimization,” 2013. 

[14] Z. Kang, P. Liu, and M. Li, “Topology optimization considering fracture mechanics behaviors at specified locations,” Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 1847-1864, 2017.

[15] J. W. Lee, G. H. Yoon, and S. H. Jeong, “Topology optimization considering fatigue life in the frequency domain,” Computers and Mathematics with Applications, vol. 70, no. 8, pp. 1852-1877, 2015.

[16] M. K. Leader, T. W. Chin, and G. Kennedy, “High Resolution Topology Optimization of Aerospace Structures with Stress and Frequency Constraints,” in 2018 Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization Conference,(AIAA AVIATION Forum: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2018.

[17] H. Svärd, “Topology Optimization of Fatigue-Constrained Structures,” Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, 2015:04, 2015. Accessed on: 2015-04-08t22:30:59.713+02:00. [Online]. Available: http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-163575Available: DiVA

[18] D. J. Munk, D. J. Auld, G. P. Steven, and G. A. Vio, “On the benefits of applying topology optimization to structural design of aircraft components,” Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 1245-1266, 2019.

 Oest, J 2017, Structural Optimization with Fatigue Constraints. Ph.d.-serien for Det Ingeniør- og Naturvidenskabelige Fakultet, Aalborg Universitet, Aalborg Universitetsforlag.