Barbara Kruger Art Style Analysis

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The Hindu Temples Architecture And Style Theology Religion Essay

The temples in India have always taken an important place in their cultural and spiritual life of its people, from the early times and till nowadays. In fact the whole cultural and spiritual life of Indian people is built around the temple. The overall purpose of the Hindu temple can be presented in such a way: like the Himalayas, the temple points to the heavens, the abode of the gods. The Hindu temple, “step by step, shape-by-shape” reverses this primeval descent and places man back on the path toward heaven.

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Temples were usually built in places marked by special holiness. The legends associated them with the acts of Vishnu, Shiva, Durga and other gods. In the 4-5 centuries, when Hinduism during the reign of Gupta dynasty, became the state religion, the main structural elements of the temples were plinth, sanctuary and superstructure. The stone base of a Hindu temple symbolized the altar, on which the temple itself was sacrificed to a deity. With the modular characteristics of the proportions of the temple measure cap not taken into account. The temple was conceived as a structural unit, resting on the altar.  In some early temples the wall of the sanctuary served as main walls of the building, in others – the sanctuary was surrounded by a second ring of walls, which created a special gallery to circumvent. In any case, the churches were dark inside. 
Module for Hindu temples and their center was a sculpture of a deity – his idol. Temple priests were called “guardians of the idol and the servants of God, whose dwelling was in the temple. Modern scientific analysis of a temple shows that temple-space is surcharged with great positive energy and the visitors can feel physical welfare and mental well-being. This fact rises a lot of questions: how could a structure built of stone or of brick have that kind of energy? What makes the temple so powerful?
There is a scientific view that a temple is “not a home of God but it is the form of God” that means that the temple structure itself is worthy of worship . (Michell , p. 68.)
The temple architecture is a scientific phenomenon. The basic concept that determines worthiness of the structure and form of temple is “The layout adopted for temple form is synonymous with the layout of the Cosmos”. The plan of the layout of a temple is technically called Mandala or Vaastu Pada with a grid of 8x 8 =64 spaces or 9x 9 = 81 spaces of equal dimensions. In modern architectural terminology this can be addressed as energy-grid. Those two layouts are the geometrical formulae to replicate the subtle substance of the universe into visual material form. (Volwahsen, p 44)
The important aspect of Hindu temple is that it serves as a cosmic intersection of man, God, and the Universe. But it also is the Universe, reflected in its repeating architectural forms. The careful mathematical measurements that lie in the basic construction of a Hindu temple express the structure of the Universe. For example, in order for the temple to face east, its width must be a perfect multiple of the fraction three-eighths. The outer dimensions of the temple must also satisfy five other equations relating to stars, planets and the passage of time. (Kramrisch, p.132)
Another important analogy is between the temple and the mountain that can help to understand the divine purpose of the temple-to serve as a meeting place between man and the gods. It means that the gods could descend to be in the presence of man, like human souls rising up to meet the gods. (Rao, p. 126)
The piece of land upon which the temple stands is itself a sacred location – a tirtha, a Sanskrit word literally meaning “crossing place” is a site favored by the gods where water, shade and seclusion are plentiful. Temples must be built on tirthas in order to serve their true purpose as crossing places, and this site selection is only the first step in building a temple.
Another important aspect is the vastu-purusa-mandala , that is a rough architectural blueprint for the foundation of the temple, that serves both a practical and a highly symbolic purpose, becoming the architectural and spiritual foundation of the Hindu temple. (Rao, p. 135.)
As suggested earlier, the temple is also a microcosm of the Universe, the mandala reflects this aspect of the temple as well: the center square of the mandala stands for the mythical mountain of Meru, the geographic center of the cosmos. Around Mount Meru is arranged a symbolic pantheon of gods, and each god occupies its own square and is ranked in importance by its proximity to the center. (Rao, p. 135.)
The next part of this essay analyzes separate elements of the temple, both interior and exterior, and places these elements within the context of the temple’s divine purpose: to serve as a cosmic meeting place for devotee and deity.
The garbhagrha, the sanctum sanctorum of the Hindu temple, presents itself as a point of departure: if the temple is a mountain, the garbhagrha is the cave inside the mountain. The garbhagrha is dark, and its walls are largely undecorated, that contrasts the exterior of the temple, which is often highly ornate and replete with thousands of sculpted images. The simple darkness of the sanctum reflects its function as a “womb house,” one of the meanings of garbhagrha. (Kramrisch, p. 169)
Analysis of Hindu temples in Nagara and Dravida styles
The two temples described here, one at Khajuraho (Madhya Pradesh), the other at Angkor Wat, give the best possible idea of how the contrasting Nagara and Dravida styles had developed by the 11 century and present aesthetic achievements of the Hindu architectural tradition.
Style Nagara, which developed during the 5h century, is characterized by a tower-type hive (called “shikhara”) made up of several words of architectural elements, such as kapotas and gavaksas, culminating in a large round cushion like element, named “amalaka”, and parlance “Drum”. The plan of the temple is based on the square, but the walls are often broken down decorative elements in creating the impression that the tower is round. In more recent temples the central mandapa was surrounded by several small temple buildings, creating a visual effect of a fountain.
From the 7th century Dravida , or southern style, has formed a pyramidal tower consisting of progressively diminishing tiers, bottleneck, and the dome on top, also called shikhara (in the southern terminology). Repeated horizontal tiers visually impart the southern temples squat.
Less obvious differences between the two main temple types Nagara and Dravida include the plan area, the selection and arrangement of stone, from which the cut shapes on the external walls and the interior, the range of decorative elements.
In spite of their obvious stylistic differences, the temples at Khajuraho and Angkor Wat have basic principles connected with Hindu beliefs and practices.
Kandariya Mahadeva temple, Khajuraho
This temple was built in the middle of the 11th century by one of the kings of the Chandella dynasty, this great Shiva temple represents the Nagara style ad is one of the best achievements.
Kandariya Mahadeva temple is the tallest monument at Khajuraho, its spire rising more than 30.5 metres above the plinth on which the temple is elevated. The temple has 30.5 metres in length and 20 metres in width. Like other fully developed Chandella temples at
Khajuraho, it consists of a linear east-west sequence of access steps, entrance porch, columned hall with side balconies, and linga shrine with encircling passageway, off which open three additional balconies, that bring porches. The porches serve as balconies with high seating, bringing ventilation and light to the interior.
What distinguishes the Kandariya Mahadeva temple from the other monuments a Khajuraho is its grand scale and elaboration of design and ornamentation. Undoubtedly, the glory of the temple is its lofty curving tower, crowned by an amalaka ( ribbed circular motif).
Very significant in the temple is the sculptural treatment of its outer walls, which are covered with images of the god Shiva, to whom the monument is dedicated, with consorts, attendants and lesser divinities. Important among the images here are the aspect of the god, including those who subdues the blind demon, the cosmic dancer, and the destroyer of the triple demon cities. The sculptures are arranged in three tiers on the outside, amounting to no less than 646 figures in all, not counting the 226 figures of the interior.
The temple is well known for its erotic groups which are placed on the juncture of the walls of the mandapa and the passageway surrounding the sanctuary, marking one of the most ritually vulnerable parts of the monument. Among the other images are those of female
deities, such as the seven mothers, let alone the countless apsaras, or heavenly maidens that attend on the gods, and who are shown in alluring postures that reveal the mastery of
the Khajuraho artists in rendering female contours with conscious sophistication and exuberant grace.
Angkor Wat in Cambodia, is the second Hindu temple described in the paper, that refers to the Dravida style. This temple was dedicated to the Hindu god Vishnu, the preserver of the world. Angkor Wat is a gigantic three‐step pyramid adorned by nine slender towers of enormous height, the steps of the pyramid are capped by galleries. Framed by an enclosure wall and a majestic moat, the temple covers 2.5 square kilometres.
The pyramid is raised on a vast terrace of 2 m high, and surrounded by naga balustrades. It opens to the cardinal points by entrance pavilions and stairways. The steps are crowned by surrounding galleries: the first step, containing the gallery of the basreliefs, is 203 m large and 3 m high. Pavilions mark the corners, at the corners of the second tier are four towers, their superstructure is partly missing. The outer gallery of the pyramid, including the
western corner pavilions, shelters the most precious treasures of Angkor Wat, reliefs in a total length of more than 600 m. They depict narrative scenes from mythology and history. Reliefs do not simply embellish a temple; they make it a sacred space. In the images which depict the gods and their deeds, the gods themselves are present, and figures and parts of the body are either shown frontally or in profile. Reliefs were always carved in situ, after the walls had been finished; they were cut into the stone.
It is important to mention twelve stairways rise to the third level of the pyramid. All five towers open to the cardinal directions, giving open views along the galleries, and the overall picture was a wide and airy hall, full of light. The third level, where are the finest reliefs of Devata, was the throne room of God Vishnu.
As for the symbolism of the temple, Angkor Wat is an unsurpassed image of the Mount Meru, the abode of the Gods in the centre of the world. Corresponding to the five peaks of this mountain, at Angkor Wat five towers were visible from every cardinal direction. The enclosure wall symbolizes the mountains surrounding and hiding the Mount Meru; the moat symbolizes the cosmic ocean. The temple complex is a microcosm, an image of a perfect world, stable and in geometrical harmony.
We can see that Angkor Wat, as well as Kandariya Mahadeva temple, as all Hindu temples serves as a cosmic intersection of man, God, and the Universe, and also the Universe is reflected in its repeating architectural forms.

Mary Cassatt Art Style: An Overview

Cassatt is perhaps best-known for her paintings of mothers and children, works which also reflect a surprisingly modern sensibility. Traditional assumptions concerning childhood, child-rearing, and the place of children in society were facing challenges during the last part of the 19th century and women too were reconsidering and redefining their place in modern culture. Cassatt was sensitive to a more progressive attitude toward women and children and displayed it in her art as well as in her private comments. She recognized the moral strength that women and children derived from their essential and elemental bond, a unity Cassatt would never tire of representing.

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The many paintings, pastels, and prints in which Cassatt depicted children being bathed, dressed, read to, held, or nursed reflect the most advanced 19th-century ideas about raising children. After 1870, French scientists and physicians encouraged mothers (instead of wet-nurses and nannies) to care for their children and suggested modern approaches to health and personal hygiene, including regular bathing. In the face of several cholera epidemics in the mid-1880s, bathing was encouraged not only as a remedy for body odors but as a preventative measure against disease.
Shortly after her triumphs with the Impressionists, Cassatt’s style evolved, and she moved away from impressionism to a simpler, more straightforward approach. By 1886, she no longer identified herself with any art movement and experimented with a variety of techniques. A series of rigorously drawn, tenderly observed, yet largely unsentimental paintings on the mother and child theme form the basis of her popular work. In 1891, she exhibited a series of highly original colored lithograph prints, including Woman Bathing and The Coiffure, inspired by the Japanese masters shown in Paris the year before.
Her decision to become a professional artist must have seemed beyond the pale, given that serious painting was largely the domain of men in the 19th century.
Despite the concerns of her parents, Cassatt chose career over marriage
Janson’s History of Art, Seventh Edition
p. 879-880
This text gives us a little insight into the life of Mary Cassatt (1844-1926). She was an American who was born into a wealthy family and raised in Pittsburgh; also influenced by Renaissance art, she approached Impressionism from a woman’s perspective, mainly as a figure painter. As a female, she was often restricted as far as going places unattended where men could go. Her subject matter was attributed to these restrictions. Many of her themes included women reading, visiting, taking tea, and bathing an infant. The Child’s Bath is not only a picture about health, but about intense emotional and physical involvement.
Paul case:
Cather’s understanding of the tacit limits governing the representation of sexuality, and the way they were linked to genre, explains why she chose the mode of indirection in writing her 1905 story of a homosexual teenager, “Paul’s Case.” Recent developments in sexology enabled Cather to characterize Paul as a homosexual without naming his condition. Through background information and physical description, Cather’s narrator discreetly invokes degeneracy theory to explain her protagonist, aligning him with the subjects of recent case studies. After experimenting with the persona of the “fairy,” Paul uses stolen money to transform himself into a cultured, sophisticated “queer,” but neither persona proves permanently satisfactory. Through its references to Paul’s sexuality, the story analyzes one particular product of late-nineteenth-century consumer capitalism: the middle-class, urban gay man.
How to write it ?
Write your climax first; it will aid you to gauge properly the view-point of your story. The climax is the plot in brief: here is a hint as to plot finding. Take a situation: it may be humorous, pathetic, full of mystery, or dramatic; but it must be striking. Life abounds in many such, and he who goes about with his eyes open can not fail to set aside an ample store.
The conclusion should follow closely on the heels of the climax. Its office is to ring down effectively the curtain on the scene. Often it dovetails in the climax so that we can not tell where one begins and the other ends
When you conceived your climax, doubtless some one thing stood out in bolder relief than all the rest. It may have been humor, it may have been pathos, it may have been grim tragedy. Whatever it was, it is the point of the tale, the centre of gravity of your story. You wisely gave it a setting in keeping, and in the conclusion let it dwell like a lingering note to be a haunting memory for many a day. It is the essence of your conception, and in the introduction you held it up before your reader’s eyes as the game to be pursued. This we will call the theme of the composition.
The subtle power of the French school lies in the art of innuendo. It is what is left unsaid rather than what is said that causes the greatest thrill. But the inference must be plain: the reader’s imagination should not be left to construct the tale which you set out to tell. Often a story will be saved from boredom to fascination by the power of suggestion alone. This is particularly true of love scenes, deaths, and the like, such as only a master’s hand at description can hope to handle effectively.
One of the key cruxes of the film is the question of what exactly Rosebud means. We ask this question even though we know that Welles & Co. were in part trying to show that you cannot reduce a man’s mysteries to one thing. On the other hand, there is a solution to the “problem.” It is actually found in Welles’s next film, The Magnificent Ambersons. Throughout Welles’s radio career, his most moving shows, such as his adaptation of “The Apple Tree,” were about loss ” loss of a bucolic past, of a domestic happiness, of a quiet life. This theme doesn’t seem to have anything to do with Welles’s real life. It’s just something he liked, though perhaps based on the loss of his mother at an early age. The Magnificent Ambersons is his most poignant realization of this theme in his work. Rosebud leads up to that film. Rosebud is The Magnificent Ambersons. The small-town values and mother’s love that the snow-ball evoke ” which reminds Kane of his childhood home, and the sled called Rosebud ” are all explored in much more detail and presented with an additional dollop of aching loss, in Welles’s second film.
Rosebud is not a gimmick. As a narrative device, it is the holy grail of the film, the engine that drives the reporter Thompson to solve the mystery of Kane, and along the way we learn as much about Kane as the characters (and the undermining overvoice of the film itself) can tell us. But when we learn, from our privileged position as viewers of the film, what Rosebud actually is, even as it is being destroyed, we also learn that it is not a hoax, nor is it hokey. As Bernard Herrmann’s beautiful music rises in the background, we feel both the unsealing of the envelope and the closing of a life. It’s a beautiful moment, one of the most expressive in all cinema. And you know what? In a way, a man’s life can be reduced to one thing, if that thing is the rich cluster of images and ideas that Rosebud contains.
The gay subtext in Citizen Kane
Who wrote Kane? The answer is in the aspect of the film that everyone is afraid to mention, the gay subtext that appears in Kane and in many of Welles’s other films. I’m not talking about his private life, in which, according to Simon Callow, Welles had a knack for attracting the support of older gay men such as Houseman, who were smitten with the youth’s vivacity. Welles, a heavy drinker, was married three times and, like Marlon Brando and Warren Beatty after him, had ostentatious affairs with many women, among them Dolores Del Rio. None of this seemed to find its way into his films.
Women don’t figure that heavily in most of Welles’s films, and rarely does sex truly enter. Love and passion are there, but often presented discreetly. Kane offers up something of a Madonna/whore contrast, while his next film shows dedicated woman in a soap-operaish oleo of unrequited, often even unexpressed, love. Although the aborted It’s All True celebrated the passionate life of Latin America, Welles was really interested in the politics of the time. Subsequent films dealt with “great men” and their political lives. Welles played Othello as if he were really married to Iago. There is the suggested rape of a newlywed in Touch of Evil, and a nymphomaniac in The Trial. It’s a shock to see footage from the unfinished The Other Side of the Wind in which actual lust is realized in the back seat of a car. But the combination of sex and women is not what we carry away from many of these films.
Male friendship and its betrayals interested Welles, from one film to another, starting with Kane and lasting all the way to The Big Brass Ring, a screenplay credited to Welles but finally filmed by someone else. As in many films with a gay subtext, parts of Kane don’t make sense unless you view them from a gay perspective. Why, exactly does Jed Leland feel so betrayed by Kane? It can’t just be because Kane’s political folly “put back the cause of reform 20 years.” When Leland, the stooge friend, first learns of the political disgrace, he walks into a bar to drown feelings of… what? Leland, who elsewhere says he took ballet lessons with Kane’s first wife and was “very graceful,” has no female companions in the film, and his reaction to Kane’s political “betrayal” far exceeds its actual weight. There’s a love here that dare not speak its name.
This gay subtext provides another indication of Welles’s hand in the Kane screenplay. Welles’s other great movie, Touch of Evil, has a similar relationship between a powerful man and a stooge, in which the powerful man is the love of the stooge’s life: Welles’s Quinlan and Joseph Calleia’s Pete Menzies; only here, both men betray each other. And the totality of The Trial only makes sense if the film is viewed as really about the persecution of a gay man in a straight society. The gay subtext of Kane only adds to its mysteries and makes it a richer film.
Understanding themes:D1
Personal identity is shaped by one’s culture, by groups, and by institutional influences. Examination of various forms of human behavior enhances understanding of the relationship between social norms and emerging personal identities, the relationships between social processes that influence identity formation, and the ethical principles underlying individual action.

What Influenced Georgian Style and its Features?

Georgian style is a style in the architecture, interior design, and decorative arts of Britain during the 17th and 18th centuries. The term “Georgian” gets its name from four kings of England who reigned in Britain from 1714-1830. All of them were named George. (DesignIntuit, 2001)
Although the George did not have an impact on the style, they perpetuated a movement that is different from the popular Italian and French Baroque style. “Georgian is a term usually associated in the popular mind with refined furniture, elegant clothes, buildings of deceptive simplicity, classical music, decorous prose, and country houses set in pleasing parks.” (Georgian Housestyle, Ingrid Cranfield). In essence, Georgian is not a style by itself, but an era during that many developments and changes happened in both architecture and interior design. (Worldguide, 2015)
Early Georgian style: Influence of classicism
Each architect or designer has his own ideas and individual approach. However, all of them had something common: they were heavily influenced by elements of ancient Rome and Greece. In other words, they were driven by the same motivated idea: to recreate the antique classical world. Classicism was considered as godlike: it reproduced the building blocks of God’s creation and the accords of nature. Furthermore, this (Georgian) period is defined as “an era of refined neoclassical trends”. (Worldguide, 2015)

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As it was mentioned earlier, the Georgian style was highly influenced by classicism. Young British aristocrats (including architects, designers and furniture makers) in the 17th and 18th centuries took the “Grand Tour” of European countries. These “Grand Tours” made the influential classes follow classical traditions of architecture and design. However, the Baroque used classical ornamentation and decor in a very open ended way. (David Ross, 2015) However, the British employed these motifs in an inflexible and calm way. (Worldguide, 2015) If Baroque is too much, Georgian classicism is a grace.
Early Georgian style: Influence of Palladinism
Besides classicism, there was another style that had a very strong impact on the Georgian style. It is a Palladinism, “a philosophy of design based on the writings and work of Andreas Palladio”. (David Ross, 2015) He is an Italian architect of the 16th century who recreated the design and proportions of the buildings of antique Rome. (Worldguide, 2015) Famous English architect Inigo Jones brought the Georgian style to Britain in the 17th century. (Worldguide, 2015)
Palladinism was a significant factor in the early Georgian style. There was a proportion-based Palladian school of design that dominated British architecture from the mid-1720s to the early 1750s. It was rich and graceful, and there were Roman temple facades and pillars. In addition, a mathematical formulae was used for a building’s proportion. However, after 1750 (Dan Cruickshank, 2011) or from around 1760 (Worldguide, 2015), English architects James Stuart, Sir William Chambers and Scottish architect Robert Adam were exposed to a clearer style of classicism around Britain. They were inspired by the archaeological discoveries at Pompei and Herculanium. This new information about Greek and Roman architecture brought about a neoclassical revolution in taste. This emphasises on neoclassicism that became more widespread for design for the duration of the mid-Georgian period, which was until 1800 (Dan Cruickshank, 2011).
Early Georgian style: Examples
James Stuart
One of the best examples of neoclassicism is James Stuart (1713-1788). He went on various “Grand Tours” of many European cities like other architects at that time. While he was studying in Greece, his work was inevitably influenced by clear Greek motifs. Due to these studies, he got the nickname “Athenian” Stuart. In addition, he published “Antiquities of Athens” in separate books from 1762. (Worldguide, 2015) On the picture below shows an example of his work:

(St James’s Square, London)
Sir William Chambers
Sir William Chambers (1723-1796) is one of the architects representing the mid-Georgian period. He was born in Sweden to Scottish parents. His architectural practise was in London in the 1750s. Moreover, Sir William spent time in China, which gives an explanation why his neoclassicism was mixed with Chinese touches and elements. The name of the technique is known as chinoiserie, and it enjoyed modest popularity in Britain that time. He also showed Greek and Roman characteristics of French neoclassicism. (Worldguide, 2015)

(Chinese Pagoda in Kew Gardens, London and Somerset House, London)
Robert Adam
One more example is Robert Adam (1728-1992). He was born in Fife, Scotland. He worked with his brother James on a style airier than the Palladian, using Egyptian and Gothic motifs with Roman decorations. His artworks were symmetrical but not as much as Palladian proportions. Furthermore, he was known to show motifs as “ribbons, wreaths, sphinx and griffins, ovals and hexagons etc”. This style was famous as the Adam style. (Worldguide, 2015)

(Syon House, West London)
Late Georgian style
Late Georgian style is known as Regency and was popular during the reign of the British Prince Regent from 1811 to 1820. (The Editors of Britannica, 2015 and Worldguide, 2015) Actually, the Regency style recollected neoclassical elements, but it was opened more to Greek, Egyptian, Asian and French influences than it was before. This style is much heavier in ornamentation than earlier Georgian styles, and building facades were often covered with stucco plaster than noticeable brick. Moreover, interiors were more open and light, and windows became larger. In my personal opinion, the Regency style (Late Georgian style) is akin to a bridge between early Georgian design and approaching Victorian era.
Henry Holland
For instance, Henry Holland (1745-1806) was the most leading architect of the late Georgian period. (Worldguide, 2015) Holland’s designs was influenced by Roman, Greek and Egyptian forms and the Empire styles of late 18th century France as well. His style is simpler and more academic.

(Sloane Street and Sloane Square, West London)
Features of Georgian style
There are many characteristics defining the Georgian period. One of the main features is terrace. The 18th century (David Ross, 2015) was a time of great success of urban developments. Houses had a public and private function. Unfortunately, it meant that there was a need to put a lot of houses into a small space. It lead to the creation of the terrace. The terrace allowed a whole street to have a sense of architectural completeness, also keeping small sizes of houses. Terraces used to take a few forms; typically laid out in straight lines or in quadrangles around a central garden area, or in curves or oval “circuses”. In addition, these developments gave birth of the townhouses – practical housing built in lengthy, well-ordered terraces, which made boulevard look like neat architectural elements. (Worldguide, 2015) These townhouses were usually four levels in height and made of brick.
However, during that period (18th century) the rich were increasingly wealthier and as a result, they began investing money into their households. Wealthy landlords used their huge land to create designed parks, and those parks were called “country houses”. (David Ross, 2015) These estates were full of reproductions of classical temples and additional architectural pieces: grottoes, bridges, and that group of fragments called “follies”. Basically, these parks carried on the classical philosophy.
Furthermore, there are other common architectural elements, such as symmetrical form, classical entrances, glass fanlights, large four-sided rooms, sash windows, huge exterior symmetrical stairways, internal hall stairway, pediment door and geometric decorations. (DesignIntuit, 2001)
Shape is a main significant feature of this style. The square is “prominent” (DesignIntuit, 2001), and shapes are classical. The foundation of Georgian proportion was usually geometrical, with the central block of the building “often augmented by hyphens and wings” (Wentworthstudio, 2015) Homes were only symmetrical. There was not usually an even number of windows (five across for house). This did not allow asymmetry around the middle window of the building.
Sash windows –“panes divided by wooden bars” (Worldguide, 2015) – were common. In addition, windows were quadrilateral (DesignIntuit, 2001) and had the same width (Worldguide, 2015). However, their height was various from the first floor to the last one. Second floor windows were the tallest ones, while ground floor and third floor windows were shorter, and the windows on the top were almost four-sided. Every Georgian house door is groundwork and supported by monuments. (DesignIntuit, 2001) There was a window on the top of the door, and it was separated by a structure called a transom. (Worldguide, 2015)
There was typically a hip roof, sometimes with dormers. It was very popular with Christopher Wren. Moreover, a more asymmetrical gable roof would be inappropriate at all. (Wentworthstudio, 2015)
Interior design and decorative arts
In the Georgian period, there was a significant rise in popularity with regards to interior decoration. (Britannica,2015) When you look at Georgian interiors, think about those architectural elements that are inside – large furnace and doorways, and well-balanced proportioned rooms. In addition to architecture and interior design, there were great achievements in the decorative arts. For instance, furniture design met many styles and approaches, ranging from the classical influence, to the straight and simple lines etc.
Sadly, that period could not last. Victorian morality transformed architecture and other designs because their idea was about adopting gothic style as a national one due to the fact that it was a native design for the Great Christian Empire of Britain. (Dan Cruickshank, 2011)
To sum up, the Georgian period, especially architecture left many masterpieces and a variation of styles and ideas. Moreover, the cities and urban quarters created that time (Bath and Bloomsbury in London) are still models of comfortable urban living.

“Georgian Style”, David Ross, 2015 (
“The Georgian Style of British Colonial Annapolis”, DesignIntuit, 2001 (
“The Georgian Era of Great Britain”, Worldguide, 2015 (
“Georgian architecture: a classical re-education”, Dan Cruickshank, 2011 (
“Historic styles: Georgian style”, Wentworthstudio, 2015 (
“Georgian architecture”, Britannica, 2015 (


Tiziano Vecellio’s Art Style and the Italian Renaissance

In history, art has changed frequently. With new concepts and experimental ways, the new art forms slowly become accepted by society, while the previous techniques fade into the background; however, the old techniques are not forgotten. Within every era, the new techniques that come from the creative minds and their ideas, have established more from the inspiration of old skills, like the change from Renaissance to Mannerism; this lead to the furthering of different art styles in the future generations.
Background info on genre, time period and country of origin
The Italian Renaissance was the arising point of modern age. The period stretched from 1400 to 1550, originating from Florence, Italy. It was the revival of scientific and artistic innovations. It was also the revitalization of Greek and Roman learning. This essential time period linked the relation of the middle ages to the modern age.
The Italian Renaissance was split into two phases, the Early Renaissance and the High Renaissance. The High Renaissance, at the climax of Renaissance art from 1500 to 1525, was the result of the culmination of the different artistic progression of the Early Renaissance. During the 1520s of the Italian Renaissance, High Renaissance was exaggerated to Mannerism. The High Renaissance was an era that brought total creative genius to the world in history.
Characterisitcs of art being done during that time and mediums used
The changes in art during the Italian Renaissance were clearly seen in paintings and sculptures. While the artists continued to use religious subject matter, they combined the idea with the principles of the human figure and the appeal in depicting nature. Artists began experimenting with their paintings by using oil-based paints, which were workable for several months due to the slow drying pace of the paints. The “fresco technique”, developed during the Italian Renaissance and used by artists like Michelangelo, involved painting on plasters walls. Light and perspective was familiarized to give a sense of reality through three-dimensional imagery. Artists gained new insight and techniques to their concept of space and form in the Italian Renaissance, which has thus changed art forever.
Background info on artist
Tiziano Vecellio, also more famously known as Titian, was one of the greatest artists of the High Rennaissance. He was born in Pieve di Cadore, Italy. The year of his birth is highly disputed between scholars, but it is believed to be between 1477 and 1488. As a young boy, he was an apprentice to Giovanni Bellinni, another outstanding painter in Italy at the time. In 1508, the now young independent painter, Titian, joined the Venetian painter, Giorgione to beautify the facade of the Fondaco dei Tedeschi in Venice. Titian’s work was mistaken as a new and improved style of Giorgione. The teamwork between the two artists led to more art collaboration; together, they explored oil painting techniques, by ways like directly applying an undiluted medium on the canvas.

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At the death of Giovanni Bellini in 1516, it left Titian with no adversary in Venice, which let him receive his old master’s job as the official painter to the Republic. His first major public commission was the Assumption of the Virgin which was painted for the Basilica of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari in Venice. In 1533, he was appointed as the court painter of Charles V, the most powerful man of the century, being Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and the King of Spain. In 1548, he spent nine months in Augsburg with the Imperial Court. After half a decade, he commences a series of “poesie” for Phillip II in 1554.
Although Titian was not a man of much education, he was one of great talent. Titian was an elegant and charming man who was also attractive and interesting in conversation, which made it easy for him to build relationships and connections with powerful people. Over the span of twenty years, Titian created relationships and connections with princely patronage, while continuing work for other Venetian churches.
As he grew older, his eyesight worsened and his hand control was weakening. Unfortunately, during a plague outbreak, Titian died, on August 27, 1576, as a rich and famous man. He was interred into the Church of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari. His universal reputation continues to be known to this modern day.
Styles and techniques used by artist
Titian was an infamous Venetian painter during the High Renaissance. He was known for his bright rich colours and his bold brush work. The bold use of colour and the lush sumptuous layers were the result of much preparation, the medium used and the surface chosen. Mythological paintings, religious paintings, portraits, and churches were just some of the works he accomplished. His artwork should be viewed from a distance to get the as it was desired to be seen. Much of his skills were influenced by Giorgione, where he improved his style with new elements and perfection. From 1530 to 1550, his approach and style became more and more dramatic. The unique practices Titian painted with combined with his great talent were what made him an amazing painter.
As Titian matured as an artist, he had as specific methods to his paintings. First, he sketched his pictures with loads of colour that forms the groundwork of the work of art. For up to several months, without looking, he left his composition facing a wall. He then returned to them to build up figures, make changes, and correct any wrongs. When retouching his working, he dealt with highlights by harmonizing colours and tones by rubbing the composition with his fingers. An alternate way was by adding strokes and bright spots with his fingers to perfect his work. As he grew older, he began to paint with his fingers more. He believed that “It is not bright colors but good drawing that makes figures beautiful.”
Detailed analysis of artwork
Titian’s masterpiece, Bacchanal of the Andrians, shows that it is a complete success through design elements. The composition of the work of art is arranged with the human figures spread out evenly across the horizontal span of the canvas. The colours involved are rich and bold; they are not too bright to be overtaking the whole piece. The harmonic bond between the tones and colour that is used by Titian is infamous. The contrast in colour between the two sides balances each other out. The contrast in colour in the dress of the dancing couple compared to the rest of the drinking people, bring it out two a secondary focal point. With naked woman in the corner as the focal point, it brings the eyes throughout the painting, from the focal point to the dancing couple to the other people.
Bachannal of the Adrians seems to be interpreting a message of celebration. This may be the possibility of a marriage due to the dancing couple in bolder colours and the amount of activities (drinking, partying, and sheet music) involved. However, these actions could also indicate a celebration due to the homecoming of an important person.
The characters involved in the work of art have great meaning too. The woman in the white dress may represent innocence; the other ladies may represent vulnerability and jealousy as seen from their positioning and facial emotions. The nude men surrounding the other women may represent lust and want, as they are in some way in contact, physically or optically, to the women.
New art techniques were and still are developed through time. Titian, one of the greatest artists of the high Renaissance, was one who established new skills and techniques from others through his life that inspired others to create more throughout history. There are many steps involved in art to fuel to this advancement. According to Titian, “Painting done under pressure by artists without the necessary talent can only give rise to formlessness, as painting is a profession that requires peace of mind.”

Most Effective Management Style for a Modern Workplace

Executive Summary
This leadership project is a study of effective leadership in modern business organizations.
This project begins with an introduction on leadership, a review of leadership theories throughout the history and distinguishes between the focus of earlier literature on leadership which is central around leader characteristics & styles and the new leadership theories of leadership development, transformational leadership, charismatic leadership, and visionary leadership.
The next section is on the different leadership models and frameworks being applied and used in modern organizations. These models identify the responsibilities required of people holding leadership positions.
The following section introduces Juthoor Development Services and discusses the type of leadership strategies and approaches that are used and applied in the company. The focus of leadership then is shifted to that of team leadership due to the practices in Juthoor Development Services.
The section on Personal Leadership describes and evaluates my own leadership style and the leadership skills that need to be developed and enhanced. This section includes personal reflections and an extensive action plan on individual leadership.
The project concludes with an overview on what was discussed and recommendations for better leadership which results in better performance.
A leader is an individual that possesses a mixture of skills and styles that makes a team want to follow the leader’s direction; hence leadership is the ability to motivate and influence a team to achieve a specific target and goal. Leadership is all about creating a vision and comprises the power to convert the vision into reality. Different styles of leadership, different kinds of leaders lead to different results in an organization. In the business world, leadership is generally related to performance. Effective leaders are those who have the ability to add value to their company by increasing its bottom lines. It is widely known that organizations all around the world lose because managers are not adequately skilled and knowledgeable. The main reason behind this issue is that managers are not aware of how important their role is in an organization. They are unaware of the necessity of “leadership” issues that should enter into all their decision-making activities.

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Literature Review
Strategic leadership is fundamental for accomplishing and sustaining competitive advantage in this century (Ireland and Hitt, 1999). Effective leaders have been repetitively distinguished for their important role they play in identifying opportunities and making the right decisions that overall affect an organizations procedures and bottom line (Finkelstein et. Al, 1996). The effective and efficient skill leaders’ practice adds substantial business value to the organization.
Review of academic research and studies on leadership expose a changing series of “schools of thought” starting from the “Great Man” theory to Transformational Leadership theory. Earlier, majority of leadership literature and study was mainly centered on leaders’ characteristics and leadership styles. According to (Yukl, 1998), great attention of earlier leadership studies were centered on the performance of lower-level management and how they should perform as they offer supervision, support and constructive feedback to their team However, this new century and modern research shows a new interest and fresh new perspective on leadership. Nowadays, research, studies and theories are focusing on leadership as a whole, followers and the relative nature of leadership in an organization. The rapid change in the business environment has made people think about leadership on different levels. Leithwood et al. (1999) believe that instead of looking only at the quality and characteristics of a leader, our focus needs to be shifted to the leadership challenges in organizations and companies. They viewed leadership in term of their nature and the challenges faced which will result in developing leadership as a whole instead of just a single leader.
The result and materialization that has come out from the new interest of studying leadership – mainly focused on managing invariable change – is called the “New Paradigm” model. Today, leaders steer a world that is undergoing continuous change. The New Paradigm model involves modern theories and styles such as charismatic leadership, visionary leadership and transformational leadership. Visionary leadership refers to the act of creating a practical, sensible, and solid vision of the future for a company (Nanus, 1992), Charismatic leadership involves creating a personality that is so influential that people are naturally drawn to the leader, and transformational leadership is a leadership style that forms positive transformation in followers. Transformational leadership is the style being promoted in modern organizations. Old models view leadership as a process that that entails motivating others takes place within a team and entails goal achievement (Northouse, 2001). Modern leadership focuses on leadership development and development of social capital. Other modern studies have emphasized on the relationship between leaders and their followers, some authors stress the importance of studying “follower ship” because leaders are followers and followers are leaders. The two entities are interconnected and are equally essential for the success of the organization.
Leadership Is Not a Solo Act
The picture of a heroic person who leaps in to save the day is what is engraved into our minds. But all gathered facts from studies imply that the constant success of a company is a collective and group effort rather than a single effort. Kouzes and Posner (2002) confirm that after studying numerous cases on effective leadership, they did not find any example of astonishing accomplishment that happened without the dynamic participation and support of many individuals. What is understood from this is that Leadership is a team endeavor. Without team work and the support of people a single person cannot get astonishing things done in a company.
Dispersed Leadership
A theory that is currently gaining interest and getting plenty of attention is the “dispersed” leadership. This type of leadership, with its basics in sociology and psychology defines leadership as a practice that is spread throughout a company rather than exclusively with the officially elected ‘leader’. The importance therefore transfers from developing leaders to developing ‘leaderful’ companies with a communal accountability for leadership.
The significances of group of people relationships in the leadership agreement, the requirement of a leader to be recognized and accepted by his/her followers and the understanding that no single person is the perfect leader in all situations have set a rise to a new school of leadership thought. The dispersed leadership theory introduces a less official approach to leadership where the leader’s responsibility is separated from the organizational hierarchy. It is suggested that people at all levels in the organization and in all jobs can apply leadership influence over their peers and consequently influencing the whole leadership of the organization.
Heifetz (1994) differentiates between the practice of “leadership” and the practice of “power” – hence separating leadership from formal organizational power roles. Raelin (2003) discusses of developing “leaderful” organizations through simultaneous and combined effort. The first thing to do is make a clear distinction between the concept of “leader” and “leadership”. Leadership is referred as a method of logic-making and direction-giving inside a team and the leader can only be defined on the base of his/her association with others in the team who are acting as followers. Along these lines, it is fairly probable to visualize the leader as emergent rather than predefined and that the leader’s responsibility can be implicit in the course of exploratory of the relationships within the team (other than by giving attention to the leader’s personal character or qualities).
Dispersed leadership demonstrates on notions such as organizational culture and environment to emphasize on the appropriate nature of leadership. It is a communal conception and suggests for a shift from the growth of individual leader characteristics to recognition of what comprises an effective leadership practice within a company. A shift in the spotlight from the individual leaders to the leadership relationships (amongst the leader and followers).
Leadership Development
Leadership development is the process of developing leadership practices and leaders in an organization. It focuses on creating and sustaining social assets as a whole. At the core of leadership developments involves the combined capability of individuals to set goals and successfully carry out leadership functions and roles to build a strong team that meets commitments and attains organizational goals. The accomplishment of goals and leadership activities should come with and without official authority.
Saxenian (2006) has branded the new type of leaders that have emerged as “New Argonauts” who challenge the business and dynamically lead an organization despite the ongoing change in the business environment. According to Saxenian, these ‘Argonauts’ leaders certainly echo today’s leadership. (Argonauts where a brand of heroes in ancient Greek, source:
Transformational Leadership in modern organizations
When companies adopted themselves to the constant evolutionary change, transactional management was in good turn of managing those changes. However, with the circumstances and situations of present organizations performance need undertaking some essential, transformational changes. And managing these changes needs new traits; one of these traits is applying transformational leadership in organizations.
The book “Leadership” written by James MacGregor Burns in (1978) was one of the first books to introduce the concept of transformational leadership. Transformational leadership is where leaders transform their followers. This leadership theory holds high importance in this century especially in recent literature. Transformational leadership builds on the foundation of transactional leadership. Nevertheless, as Burns clearly affirms “what is needed today is not the old traditional style of Transactional leadership, but the new style of Transformational leadership”.
Tichy and Devanna (1986) have researched leadership throughout the years and came up with a list of specific characteristics which distinguish transformational from transactional leaders. Some of these characteristics are listed below:

Agents of Change: Transformational leaders encourage flat structures and flexible workplaces. They are able to get the organization to adapt quickly to change.
Courage: Transformational leaders face reality and do not fear risk.
Confidence in the followers: Transformational leaders have faith in their team members. They give them a boost and push when required and try their best to empower them.
Life-long Learning: Transformational leaders believe in life-long education and attempt to extract lessons from experiences.
Vision Capabilities: Transformational leaders see the big picture. Their visionary abilities are excellent.
Live by their Values: Transformation leaders have values they live by.
Passion and Enthusiasm: They pump their followers with their enthusiasm to get them going.
Ability to face the unknown: Transformational leaders do not life with fear and are ready to face the worst situations knowing that they can handle anything that comes their way.

According to Bass (1998), ‘the transformational leader motivates followers to do more than formerly expected’. Bass reveals that a leader is able to transform his/her followers by:

Emphasizing on the significant of goal and task, by creating awareness
Encouraging the followers to direct their efforts for the company
Meeting the followers needs.

Bass and Avolio (1994) have proposed five transformational styles that leaders typically display; these styles and behaviours are illustrated in the table below:
Transformational Style
Leader Behaviour
Idealized Behaviors

Speak about their values
Emphasize the significance of having a sense of purpose
Take into consideration the consequences of decisions made
Support new opportunities
Discuss the issue of trust amongst each other

Inspirational Motivation

Have an optimistic look about the future
Talk with enthusiasm about what needs to be accomplished
Articulate a compelling vision of the future
State confidence about goal attainment
Present a thrilling image and picture of what to consider

Intellectual Stimulation

Examination of critical issues
Search for differing views when attempting to solve issues
Encourage individuals to look at things from different perspectives
Propose new methods of how to complete tasks

Individualized Consideration

Make time for mentoring and teaching
Help others to build on their strengths
Spend time listening to others personal needs
Encourage personal development

Idealized Attributes

Lets others know that it is a pride being connected with them and
Work to build others respect
Show power and capability
Assure everyone that barriers will be overcome

In 2007, Hooper and Potter broaden the concept of transformational leadership and identified 7 types of competences of “transformational leaders”, these competences are:

Building direction
Being a Role Model
Arrangements and Grouping
Get the best in his/her people
Leader as a change representative
Suggesting decision in a crucial situation

Nature of Leadership in Modern Organizations
Contemporary organizations take up a range of HR management and leadership activities to boost staff contentment and satisfaction. Efforts are centered on enhancing and raising the quality, expertise and capabilities of the employees. In addition, providing intensive training and development activities helps in improving the quality.
– Recent studies have given a lot of attention to emotional intelligence, especially transformational leadership. Emotional intelligence has become a major part of leadership in modern organizations. Emotional intelligence is a leader’s capability to one’s ability to be alert of one’s personal feelings, be alert of employees’ feelings, to distinguish between them and to use the information to direct the leader’s thoughts and behaviour. Emotional Intelligence contains three types of capabilities: assessment and expression of feelings, directive of feeling and using feelings in the decision-making process. According to Goleman (1998) “emotional intelligence is twice as important as technical skills and IQ for jobs at all levels.”
– Motivation is also an important element in leadership in modern organizations. The abilities of any employee will be limited if they are not encouraged and motivated to execute their jobs. According to Bass (1998), compensation, appraisals, incentives and job security can motive employees to achieve their assigned goals and execute their jobs effectively. As a leader, part of the job involves understanding employees and learning motivational strategies to enhance performance. The main challenge is that every employee is different, therefore, what may work for one employee wont work for the other.
Communication has also been a major part of leadership. Up-ward and down-ward communication are equally important and need to be transparent and effective. A Leaders responsibility is to ensure such communication takes place and should eliminate all obstacles in the way of corporate communication.
Team leadership is the most rapidly growing area of current research. Modern leaders in organizations do not think of themselves simply as a body of authority, but rather a team leader because they understand the significance of a team compared to just individuals. By understanding the skills of the team members and what motivates them, leaders earn respect from their style not solely because of their position.
Culture and leadership
Modern theory has shifted its attention to figure out what the link between leadership and culture and how leadership changes from one culture to another. Collins (2001) has revealed proof of leadership behaviours that are cross-cultural, and others that are culturally focused. However, studies and evidence on the relationship between the two elements (leadership and culture) are still very limited.
John Adair Action Centred Leadership Model – a model for team leadership
According to Adair, the effectiveness of the leader relies on meeting three areas of need within the work group.The three parts of Adair’s model are generally represented by 3 overlapping circles; this model is a helpful technique in assessing what effective leader’s responsibilities are. The challenge for the leader is to manage all parts of the circles successfully.

definition of task to be achieved
Action plan
allocation of job and resources
managing the quality and time of effort
monitor performance aligned with action plan
amending the plan


sustaining regulation and control
encourage team work
motivate team
assign junior-leaders
encourage and inspire team communication
develop and build the team


listen to personal troubles and issues
Appreciate and honour individuals
give positions and ranks
distinguish and use individual capabilities
develop he individual

To be able to meet the three areas within the work group, specific leadership roles have to be executed, these functions are:
Awareness of what is happening in the work group and its processes. Being alert at all times.
Understanding the functions and tasks that are required and the skill to accomplish and complete the task successfully.
Case Study: Juthoor Development Services
Juthoor development services are an organization comprising a team of real estate development professionals who provide comprehensive services to clients across the Middle East. Juthoor works with its clients through out the three critical phases of the development process (project feasibility, project implementation and development control). The complete organization is based on Team work, although each employee has an important role to play, their combined efforts is much more valuable. Jose Lora, is the CEO of the company and leader, heads the entire team of professionals.
Juthoor’s vision
Juthoor Development Services vision is to build the Oman of tomorrow. The employees’ key responsibility is to work towards this vision. The success of the organization lies in the employees’ ability to work as a team and build the Oman of tomorrow.
Leadership in Juthoor Development Services
The leader’s relationship with his/her followers is extremely important. An organizations failure or success rate all relies on the leader and the nature of leadership. According to Robbins and Finley (2000), involvement and empowerment of the employees are two key behaviours a leader must possess. There are many ways a leader can strengthen the relationship with his/her followers. At Juthoor, the leader of the company understands the significance of the relationship between himself and the rest of the team. He adopts the following two behaviours:
Asking questions instead of giving answers (For example, asking an employee “How do we proceed on this?” “What do you think we should do next”). This involvement gives a sense of purpose and satisfaction to the employees. This helps employees envision the goal and improve their efforts to achieve and excel in their part of the job.
Giving followers the opportunity to lead (For example, asking an employee to lead a meeting or put an employee in charge of a task that the leader is taking part in). This empowerment gives the employee the confidence and helps him take ownership).
Juthoor Development Services is a team-based organization. Therefore, the focus of this case study will be around team leadership.
The Functional Model
This model focuses on how a company and how the work group is being led rather than whom the leader is. This results in lesser time spent focusing on the person who is in the leadership role and instead put all the attention on the leadership function that is taking place. This model emphasizes on the nature of the work group and the followers of the leader. This is exactly what is taking place in Juthoor Development Services, work is done in teams and the team spirit in the company is high and ensures transparent communication.
Due to the fact that Juthoor is a service provider for real estate development, the key to success is the collaboration of the team. The business is based on team work. A group of people together is not necessarily a team. A team is a number of people that get together that have high level of interdependence, working towards a common goal. (
A team has a number of advantages for an organization:
Maximization of HR: team members are trained, coached by other members. Success or failure is not pointed at individuals, but rather the team as a whole.
Greater outputs and results. A team is known to outperform a group of individuals.
There is continuous improvement and development.
The way a team is lead has a huge impact on the success. The leader in Juthoor is responsible and holds these values:
Commitment to the team members as well as the mission that needs to be achieved
The desire to support a team, serve and lead
Experience, enthusiasm, and energy.
The ability to build a team and achieve more as a team
Team Leadership
It is known that team work and team spirit are fundamental in enhancing the growth in an organization. The saying goes, “Two heads are better than one”. Taking up all the responsibility and working alone will only reach you so far; team work is required and is vital for desired results. Different individuals have different skills and talents, bring them together to work on a specific task or certain goal will prove that they would outperform any individual.
According to Belbin (1993), there are two types of leaders; Solo leader and Team leader. The major difference between the two revolves around the behaviour and participation of the two as seen below:
Solo Leader

This type of leader interferes and sticks his/her nose in everything
This type of leader delegates tasks and roles without interfering
Attempts to mold the team members into specific standards
Develops team members and encourages them to grow
Collects acolytes
Seeks talent and does not fear team members with special talents

Team Leader

Team leadership differs from Solo leadership in the following ways: (
Responsibility is shared among the team members and is not only burdened by the leader
Control is left to the group and not just the leader.
The leader views the team as a whole and not as individuals.
Expression of needs are encouraged by the leader

In today’s business world with the rising complexity and the irregular nature of modern workplaces promote Team leaderships as opposed to Solo leadership. According to Belbin (1993), team leadership is not as natural as solo leadership, however he suggests that team leadership can be learned and developed.
Jose Lora, the CEO of Juthoor takes the approach of Team Leader. It was his idea to start Juthoor Development Services and he understands how important an effective team is in the success of the organization. He ensures communication, reads feelings and emotions, practices emotional intelligence and takes time to understand each team member to know what his/her personal needs are and what motivates him or her. The nature of leadership in Juthoor is revolves around team leadership and transformational leadership. Jose Lora is a true e leader who inspires the work group to put their efforts towards a shared vision of the future. The leadership style in Juthoor is highly visible, and built on communication. Jose Lora doesn’t lead from the front, as he gives responsibilities to the team members.
Juthoor is a team-based organization, therefore, is there is any problem or issues, all heads are put together to solve the problem and make a decision. Team meetings are conducted daily between the team members to ensure proper communication, transparency and to tackle issues before they arise.
Juthoor’s Leadership Framework
The leadership model used by Juthoor has 9 key fundamentals and they are:

Builds Shared Vision
Team Building and teamwork
Strategic thinking and planning
Focuses on outcomes
Maximizes Potential Opportunities
Managing and developing staff
Transformational Leadership
Motivates & Coaches
Delivers Results

Many organizations develop their own leadership frameworks because there is no “one size will fit all” framework, although most frameworks in organizations are similar, they are not exactly the same. I believe that it is not the framework that is significant, but rather the process by which it is developed.
Case Study Discussion and Recommendations
Management needs to obtain and use their compassion and social expertise to improve their personal transformational leadership. Thus, the challenge for any modern organization, including Juthoor development services is to build and develop the emotional intelligence of the management. Suitable involvements may be required to improve and build on their competencies and that would entail education and intensive role-related training.
Managers’ ought to be encouraged to improve and develop their skills by constant self-education and learning. Companies must offer encouraging supports for staff learning and improving management and supervisors vital emotional competencies, motivation and team building techniques required for their roles. Companies should recruit individuals that hold a vision and have a pleasant personality that is also known as charisma. There should also be suitable shifts in the company’s organizational structure and to encourage flat structure and less complicated hierarchy. Changes in organizational culture are also required to reward staff for learning and self development.
The changes in organizational culture and structure should encourage managers will encourage attain emotional intelligence competencies required for employee motivation. It is well known that, the most complex part of leading a team is motivation of work group members. In practical and theory, motivation plays a vital role in a organizations management. Motivation is an essential part of effective performance.
Throughout my experience in working at Juthoor, I believe the factors Affecting Leadership Effectiveness in an organization are the following:

The leader’s personal characteristics including personality, skills, and outlook.
The leaders experience with dealing with teams and work groups
The features of the team, their attitude and expectations.
The relationship between the leader and the work group
The type of company
The organization culture & structure
The type of tasks that need to be accomplished
The external business environment

My Leadership Development Plan
This part of the report is central around my leadership style and my leadership development needs. This section addresses a number of questions like, “Do I have the right combination of skills to lead an organization?”, “What skills need to be developed to lead effectively?” How can I develop and establish myself? How can I influence others?”
Throughout my career, I have spent a lot of time observing myself and the nature of leadership in the organizations I worked for. At the beginning of my journey, the main challenge for me was trying to understand the difference between managers and leaders. Once that was figured out, I shifted my entire focus to understanding, observing, and learning from the leaders I worked for. One of my professional goals is to become a leader one day, and to be able to influence and motivate a team to achieve and succeed. Therefore, I spent an incredible amount of time studying and observing the leaders in my life.
I have studied the leadership theories including characteristics, styles, and modern leadership theories of transformational leadership, etc. and based on the findings of the literature review conducted in the second section of this report, I assessed my leadership skills and checked my ability to execute and implement effective leadership in my job and contribute to the leadership functions of the organization. Out of all the different types of leadership styles, can say that I take the approach of situational leadership style. I don’t view a leadership position as an authority position, I view it as the ability to touch other people’s lives and help them grow. I actually feel that I best relate to situational leadership style because I am extremely flexible when situations arise and occur. Situational leadership is the approach of changing your style to best suit the circumstances. However, earlier I used to not be an expert at this because I always resisted change and felt like I lost focus when things didn’t happen the way I expected them to. But as I changed jobs and got more experience, I understood that change is required and I must learn how to handle and adapt to situations instead of getting angry over things not working out the way I wanted them to.
There are a number of ways I have practiced my leadership in my job, for example, when I am heading a group I make sure to emphasize the importance of working together. Although I am the leader of the group, I do not show it to other. I work just as hard as they work and try to give as much constructive feedback as I can. My approach is all centered on listening to the team members, understanding their point of view, asking them what their recommendations are and I try to encourage participation. I would say that I am always very fun to be around. When a task needs to be accomplished, I don’t give out orders, I give each member the choice about what part they want to handle. Once we complete a task or reach a specific goal, I usually show my appreciation for their work through celebrating together, either inviting them for lunch or dinner.
I have assessed my skills and used a number of tools and techniques to evaluate my

Alphonse Mucha Art Style Overview

Alphonse Mucha is best known for his luxurious poster and product designs, which encapsulate the Art Nouveau style. Interest in his work was revived in 1980 when it was shown at an exhibition at the Grand Palais in Paris.
Alphonse Mucha was born in South Moravia. In 1882 he started to earn a living by painting portraits in Mikulov. The following year Count Khuen commissioned Mucha to decorate his castle at Emmahof and his brother Count Egon Belasi became his patron. He was educated at the Munich Academy of Arts and at the Académie Julian in Paris and after completing work for Count Khuen began work as an illustrator in 1889.

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His first work was a theatre magazine entitled Le Costume au Theatre and in it his first drawing of Sarah Bernhardt as Cleopatra appeared in 1890. By 1895 he had signed a six year contract with Bernardt to produce stage and costume designs as well as posters. At the same time Mucha joined the Salon des Cent, a Symbolist group that included Bonnard, Mallarmé and Toulouse-Lautrec. He designed a poster for their 20th exhibition in 1896 and the next year he exhibited many of his works at this exhibition as well as at his own one-man show at the Topic Gallery in Prague.
Between 1903 and 1922 Alphonse Mucha made four visits to the United States where his work proved particularly successful. Charles Richard Crane, a Chicago industrialist and Slavophile, agreed to finance Mucha’s series of 20 huge paintings entitled ‘Slav Epic’ (1909-1928). He continued to work on a number of projects, however, including the design of new postage stamps for Czechoslovakia in 1918 and producing a number of posters and designs for public buildings besides the ‘Slav Epic’ for example, ‘Allegory of Prague’ (1911) for the Prague Town Hall. He completed the full cycle of the ‘Slav Epic’ finally in 1928 and it was exhibited at the Trade Fair Palace. Just three years later he was commissioned to produce a stained-glass window for the St. Vitus Cathedral, then in 1938 embarked on yet another mammoth project involving a triptych, ‘The Age of Wisdom’, ‘The Age of Love’ and ‘The Age of Reason’. Sadly they were never completed as he died in 1939.
“For the Slavs, the plastic arts are a common striving towards a symbolic manifestation… a taste for symbols is part of the inheritance of all Slavs… That is why the language of symbols is the surest way to communicate our feelings to our brother Slavs.” Alphonse Mucha.
Alfons Mucha was born in Southern Moravia on July 24, 1860. At the age of seventeen the artist left his home, to work as a painter of stage decorations at the Vienna “Ringtheater”. When there was a fire at the theater, Mucha lost his job. He found new employment at the Vienese castle with Count Khuen, who became his patron and sent him to the Munich art academy a few years later. From there, Alfons Mucha went on to Paris in 1887 to continue his studies at the “Académie Julian” and then at the “Académie Colarossi”.
Due to a lack of financial support from Khuen, however, the student was forced to leave the academy and earn a living as an illustrator. During this time he produced a large number of sketches and drawings. These were studies for illustrations, which were later published in “Figaro illustré”, “Petit Parisien illustré” and other journals.
This early work and the prints for illustrated books like “L´éléfant blanc” by Judith Gauthier, at which Alfons Mucha worked during this time, still reflect the usual academic historic style of the time. By coincidence, thanks to an employer of Lemercier printers, Mucha was commissioned to design a poster for Sarah Bernhardt in 1894. This provided the launchpad for Mucha’s future success and importance as an influencial designer of French “Art Nouveau”.
Sarah Bernhardt was impressed by the artist’s work. From then on, the famous actress not only had Mucha design her posters but also her costumes and stages. The public also liked Mucha’s works very much and he became a famous, widely talked about and celebrated master almost over night.
Around 1900 Alfons Mucha reached the peak of his fame. Mucha’s theoretical theses “Documents Décoratives” and “Figures Décoratives” influenced the applied art of the time significantly. From now on, people talk about “Mucha style” whose typical elements like the arabesque hair and the aureole surrounding the female profile, were often copied.
In 1900 Alfons Mucha took part in the Paris World Exposition, evoking general attention with his wall decorations in Bosnia and Herzegovina’s pavilion. In 1904 Alfons Mucha went to America, where he produced wall decorations, stages settings and portraits during a prolonged stay in New York. Alongside he taught drawing and compostition at the Chicago Art Institute.
After Mucha’s return to his home country, shortly before World War I, he dedicated considerable time to lithographic work. Then he became increasingly occupied by a series of 20 pictures entitled “Lépopée Slave”, the “Slavian Epos”. Mucha finished the large format continuation (6 x 8m) of the decoration of the Bosnian pavilion in 1928 and donated it to the city of Prague.
Alfons Mucha died in Prague shortly before the invasion of Czechoslovakia by German troops on July 14, 1939.
Alphonse Mucha with his decorative posters has become a kind of trademark and synonym for the Art Nouveau movement. In the sixties his poster reproductions had a revival and were popular again among the flower-power and hippie generation.
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Alphonse Mucha – his Academic Training
Alfons Maria Mucha was born in Ivancice, a small provincial town in the Czech Republic.
He started his artistic career as an autodidact. Alfons Mucha had a vocational training in stage decorations in Vienna from 1879 to 1881. In the evening he attended a class in drawing. After a few occasional commissions for decorative paintings, he went to Munich in Southern Bavaria. Here he studied at the Munich Academy of Fine Arts from 1885 until 1887.
After Munich, Mucha moved to the “mecca” of arts, Paris. Here he studied with different teachers. He lived in modest conditions and could survive with small commissions for book and newspaper illustrations. For a short period he shared a studio with Paul Gauguin.
The Breakthrough
In December 1894 Mucha became famous with a commission for a poster for the actress Sarah Bernard. Sarah Bernard was a celebrity of her time. His poster design for the play Gismonda became a sensation in Paris. Sarah Bernhard was delighted. He received an exclusive contract for six consecutive years by the actress. In the following years, he not only designed all her posters, but her theater decorations and costumes as well. From now on the artist was swamped with commissions for all kind of commercial print advertising.
His Style
By this time Mucha had developed his own personal style – characterized by art nouveau elements, tender colors and bycantine decorative elements. And all these elements were ranked around images of fairy like young women with long hair and splendid, refined costumes. In the coming years, this type of female images should become his trademark.
Mucha used lithography as the printing technique for his posters. The posters are usually signed in the block. Some of his posters were produced as sets like The Four Seasons. Complete sets count among the most searched for of his works.
Public Recognition for Alphonse Mucha
In 1890 the artist had his first one man show in Paris with 448 works on display. His art work was not confined to the printing media. He designed tissues, stamps and even bank bills. In 1900 he received a commission by the Austrian government to decorate the Austrian pavilion for the World Fair in Paris of 1900. He became also active in designing jewelry.
Between 1904 and 1921 Mucha traveled frequently to the United States. He took commissions in the US and taught art at art academies in New York and Chicago.
In 1939 the German Nazis occupied Czechoslovakia. The popularity of the artist made him a number one target for the Gestapo, the Nazi secret police. He was arrested, interrogated and realeased. Shortly afterwards, Alphonse Maria Mucha died on July 14, 1939 in Prague.
The city of Prague has dedicated an Alphonse Mucha Museum to the artist.

Chinese Communication Style | Essay

Language is a multifunctional tool that allows people to satisfy variety of needs from socio-cultural to political necessities. The need to express its importance in communication does not have to be stressed since the two are intertwined. The communication style in China has its respective cultural milieus with different forms and purposes as well as varying intensity, emotional charge and dimensions. This has to be understood well by a person wanting to interact in an intercultural dimension. Choosing the appropriate language style is equally important especially in dealing with people from other cultures.
The Cultural Revolution in China greatly affected the contemporary Chinese way of communicating particularly with the use of aggressive speeches during conflicts, formalized speeches during public gatherings, and humorous speeches during of turmoil. Dehumanization using undesirable animals was not uncommon during the period when enemies were considered as a class.
Because of the diverse and complex communication style of Chinese, several commentators posited their view stating that such kind of communication needs to be improved or perhaps corrected. First, the arrangement of words and design of Chinese calligraphy make it hard for new language learners to embrace the language and adapt the communication style. Second, it deviates from the virtues of the simplistic alphabet. For Chinese’s part, the factors affecting their communication should first be understood and only then critics can truly appreciate the language. The tonal designs of the language as well as typographical structuring affect how they talk. The discipline as well in schools during early childhood of young Chinese gives them that sense of responsibility to include others and their talks and be concerned for the latter’s feelings rather than be self-contained.

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The two dichotomies often used to compare Chinese communication and English communication are the direct/linear style and indirect/circular style. The Chinese communication uses the indirect/circular style of reasoning. Kaplan’s findings in his contrastive study between English and Chinese communication style revealed that Chinese tend to be indirect, making illustrative and suggestive remarks first before going to the main issue. He called this pattern the Oriental style where people in diffused culture reason in a circling manner, starting from the farthest point, and ends with the main point. This is in contrast to the traditional American style of reasoning wherein they present first the main idea of an issue and then try to discuss the less important issues after. This style of Chinese reasoning appears to be lengthy and irritating for others, but for the Chinese, it serves as a channel in building relationships and saving face. Straightforward reasoning for them in turn appears to be harsh and arrogant. Such indirect reasoning is applied also in dispute resolution where statement of background information comes first before presenting the main argument.
In all of these, the need to understand how Chinese think and communicate is important in the hope of a more interrelated world. The communication style of China has existed even during ancient times and up to now continues to be a heritage of the country. It gave them sense of pride as an individual and unity as a nation.
Different cultures have varying systems of meanings (i.e. language) that makes it difficult to have a smooth flow of communication with them. Language is an important issue in one’s intercultural marriage, interpersonal interactions, and interpretation and translation. It is a multifunctional tool wherein from the cultural perspective, serves as a channel in transmitting culture from generation to generation. It also creates linkages between individuals in order for them to establish a shared identity. And lastly, in the political sense, it unites the leaders and members of the society and identifies their boundaries as a country. Communication in China has its respective cultural milieus with different forms and purposes as well as varying intensity, emotional charge and dimensions. The Chinese language has a distinctive feature which has been interpreted by other cultures in different contexts. For instance, in a simple communication between Chinese and American, the latter may interpret the former’s answer as “yes” when in fact he means “no.” A lot of people had posited comments saying that Chinese are very illustrative and suggestive in making statements and often do not go directly to the point. Because they have their own way of expressing emotions, they appear to be inscrutable and reserved to others.
In dealing interpersonally, one must be aware that there are rules and standards for appropriate language style to be used. One should see to it that the style fits the genre and tone he wishes to convey. For instance, exaggeration during formal occasions usually gives listeners irritations since most wise people abhor advertisements where everything is over, hyper, or ultra. Better yet, one should remain reserved or attune himself. This study deals with how Chinese communicate, their communication styles, and communication issues. Hopefully after the end of the discussion, one would have a better understanding on the Chinese diaspora and a better appreciation of the Chinese communication style.
To have a better understanding and stronger foundation on the Chinese communication styles, it is important to tackle first some of the historical events that affected it. After discussing this, only then we can have the better ability to criticize their communication issues from its use in ordinary discourse to the more complicated situations (i.e. dispute resolution). We begin with China’s Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) which greatly contributed to China’s symbolic aggressive communication.
Moral Language and Political Speeches. Moralistic and political languages are interrelated with one another and cannot be separated, at least in China. The moral language has been used mainly to persuade people. Political speeches from rulers were considered moral sermons. For instance, during religious wars and terrorisms, the use of moral message to justify these events were accepted by people. When a ruler says that a particular individual is China’s enemy, then he must be so. The danger of moralistic language is that it gives a limited and a fancy sense of superiority and confidence. As an example, an ordinary speaker would try to memorize speeches and poems of a leader he idolizes and condemns the enemies of that leader.
Rhetoric Dehumanization. The most common forms of dehumanization during the Cultural Revolution were through animal metaphors. Enemies of China were depicted in pictures as undesirable animals such as “cow ghosts,” “monsters,” “demons;” and “parasites.” These animal metaphors permeated the way Chinese write and speak. During rallies or political sessions, posters and slogans with dehumanizing animals were used to express their hatred to the social structures or enemies of the society. The use of these posters was the only way Chinese could communicate with the royal persons. Chinese communists created class labels distinguishing “the people” and “the enemies of the people.”
The Impact on Communication of China’s Cultural Revolution. The Cultural Revolution of China not only altered its culture but also affected the manner Chinese people communicate both in official and interpersonal levels. The following are the rhetorical patterns relative to communication styles during the Cultural Revolution:
Aggressive speech. It became common in China that when a person tried to express his disagreement on the majority’s opinion, he was expected to be disgraced and humiliated.
Formalized speech. The formalized language was commonly used during political speeches. The tendency when always used was that it became dry and often gave burden to the listeners leading to linguistic impoverishment. Worse, political speeches were often plagiarized.
Humorous speech. The Cultural Revolution also allowed Chinese not to take the current situation too seriously and instead make humorous sense of it. In a sense, it ironically tolerated the vice and evil of people.
Having discussed the historical background of Chinese communication in the Cultural Revolution, we now briefly discuss common issues relating to their communication mechanisms. There must be a clarification here with regard to the term “issue.” Issue on whose perspective? To the Chinese, these might not be issues, but to other cultures they are. For the purposes of this study, we put the issue perspective on the English communicators. In each subsequent topic, this will be explained more thoroughly especially the why’s and the how’s of Chinese communication.
A counterpart of the alphabet. The Chinese lacks the virtues found in the alphabet language despite being a preserved language tracing back to the ancient times. For the critics, the alphabet is simple, easy to memorize, and convenient to draw than the Chinese syllables.
Canonical word order. The Chinese has a unique way of arranging words and formulating sentences which when translated to a foreign language gives a different meaning. Unlike Chinese, the grammatical composition of English language is signaled by word order.
Vast number of dialects. The Chinese have many dialects across different regions. This is not surprising since they have an ancient civilization and the is the most populated country in the world. There are eight major dialects Chinese use which have a unified writing system; however, this becomes unintelligible when spoken by the different ethnicities (i.e. Mandarin, Hakka, Cantonese). Some scholars consider these dialects as separate languages.
Complexity of Chinese calligraphy. Aside from the numerous Chinese characters one has to be familiar with, the writing of these scripts presents an equally big problem. In fact, their calligraphy is now being considered as a form of painting.
The Chinese culture has complex communication patterns. Facial expressions, movements of body parts, or even styles of dresses affect how Chinese communicate and how a person from other culture respond to them. For the White people, Chinese appear to be humble and reserved, so much concerned about their image that they tend to avoid in all possibilities the discomfort of being embarrassed or humiliated. For Chinese, indirectness allows them to save relationship as a concept of Confucius’ harmony. Harmony will be discussed more thoroughly in the preceding topics. To understand why Chinese behave and talk like this, it is important to understand the factors that affect how they communicate. The following are some of them:
Tonal language. Chinese has is its own syllabic structure and phonemics that differ from the other cultures’ language such that when they try to speak foreign language, say English, they would give a different tone or pronunciation. The most common is the word “fry” for “fly” where they substitute “l” for “r.”
Typological differences. China has their own way of organizing ideas, connecting facts, or even stressing points. Moreover, their language has no distinction between plural or singular forms. Thus, when translated to foreign language, they would appear absurd, blank, or unrelated.
Early education for children. Young Chinese are early nurtured to include others in their conversations by avoiding talking too much about themselves. In addition, they are taught to be cooperative and humble. In nursery schools, instead of requiring students to do recitals alone, teachers would make it a choral presentation. This attitude is expected to be brought into their adult lives.
Fons Trompenaars, a famous cultural theorist, describes two kinds of communication patterns existing in diffused and specific cultures. People in diffused cultures allow others to relate his other areas of life. The topic is more diverse and less restricted than what the current relationship allows. For instance, an employer can talk about his private life to his employee in the same way as he can talk with him about his professional matters. On the other hand, people in specific cultures, restrict the conversation within the bounds of the existing relationship. In the previous example, the employer would not allow his employee to deal with his personal life since personal matters are different matters. The illustration below, according to Fons, illustrates the way people in diffused and specific cultures communicate.
The dots in the center of both pictures represent the issue or topic that a person tries to explain. The image on the right means that a when a person tries to explain something, he begins with the main issue and explains the matter direct to the point. This can be observed often in specific cultures. The image on the left means that when a person explains something, he goes around the bush first before arriving to his main point. This is common in diffused cultures. China belongs to the left image. The Chinese tries to be indirect in their conversation by making the conversation lengthy in order to build relationship. As for them, this is a good strategy to save face and avoid arrogance.
In comparing Chinese communication styles and English communication styles, most researchers fall on two dichotomies namely direct/linear style versus indirect/circular style and deductive versus inductive discourse patterns. These dichotomies help people understand the different communication patterns between English and Chinese in business negotiation, essay writing, and ordinary conversations. Kaplan’s (1966, 1972) contrastive rhetoric is the most famous work analysis used in distinguishing Chinese communication style and English communication style. Kaplan conducted a study of the 600 compositions of 600 students who were not native English speakers. The Chinese dominated the students’ number. The result was these dichotomies:
Direct/Linear versus Indirect/Circular Style. Kaplan proposed the “Oriental style writing” wherein before arriving to the main idea the writer goes first around circles. As opposed to American style of writing which states first the main idea, Kaplan described Chinese to start from the broader concept first before arriving to the specific topic. This study supports Trompenaars’ theory of diffused culture which states that Chinese tend to be indirect in answering or discussing a topic.
Oriental Style American Style
Deductive Reasoning versus Inductive Reasoning. Deductive reasoning is the process of arriving to a logical conclusion from a general statement. On the other hand, inductive reasoning is the process of arriving to a conclusion from specific set of facts. The distinguishing factor between the two is that in inductive reasoning, one cannot logically make a certain conclusion-only a well-founded or probable conclusion. When one delays the introduction of the topic, he is said to have an inductive pattern of reasoning, while when one introduces the topic early, he is said to have deductive reasoning. The Chinese people first establish a framework before introducing the main topic. Thus, between the two reasoning styles, Chinese have inductive reasoning communication style.
After presenting the styles, issues and factors affecting the Chinese communication, let us now apply such knowledge in dispute resolution among them or even in intercultural ones. The potential disagreement is huge when one is not aware of negotiation styles and barriers to a successful communication between parties having different cultural backgrounds. That is why here we first examine the factors that affect dispute resolution in China. Communication is greatly affected by these since these are the by-products of the Chinese culture (i.e. Confucian philosophy). The four major factors we need to examine are (1) harmony, (2) power, (3) relationship (guanxi), and (4) face (mianze). These factors can be used to establish a powerful framework of conflict management and resolution.
a. Harmony (He) – å’Œ. Among Chinese people, harmony is one of the most essential values which each one strives to have. Communication exists not to satisfy one’s needs but rather, to maintain harmonious relationship with his fellow being. In a harmonious community, people act interdependently by analyzing every action to be done so that in the end, no one will be prejudiced with it. If however, conflict is inevitable, the role of harmony is at least to reduce the negative effects of conflicts in the relationship of the parties or at least to save their faces.
b. Power (Lìliàng) – 力. The second factor is power which refers to how one party controls his resources, whether it be tangible or intangible. In the Chinese context, power determines the degree of one’s inclination or cooperation to the other’s influence. Power in addition, may be equated to authority and seniority. Oftentimes, persons in authority are respected; and it is there advice that people obey since they are believed to be more knowledgeable and familiar in the field of dispute resolution. In addition, seniority gives the people the credibility and experiences which the young Chinese deeply value.
c. Relationship (Guanxi) -关系. The third factor is the guanxi, which refers to the relationship existing between parties. In Confucius’ book of “Five Code of Ethics,” he specified different relationships a man has, which include the ruler and his subject, husband and wife, father and son, older brother and younger brother, and between friends. These relationships vary in degree, and thus have specific communication styles that one has to follow in order to avoid future conflicts. One needs to adjust his verbal and nonverbal ways of communication to show respect and regard for the position, power or authority of the person he is dealing with. For instance, a subject cannot be expected to disobey his ruler implying that a high degree of respect is demanded; else, he gets an equivalent punishment. In the case of husband and wife, the communication is more intimate and reciprocal. Friends tend to treat each other equally and less formally.
d. Face (Mianze) – 面子. Mianze refers to one’s social status in life as perceived by other people based on one’s position and prestige. Through hard work, a person achieves a high position in the society and in return, gains the respect and appreciation of the watching public. instance, in libel cases, there is a public imputation of wrong to a particular person, thus, the latter loses the product of his hard work and would find it difficult to regain the previous position in life. Without minding the image of the other, a serious conflict would likely result.
Applying the inductive/deductive reasoning styles, the Chinese in dispute resolution appear to have an inductive reasoning. In a study regarding conflict styles, Chinese appeared to be less direct, less assertive, and less aggressive during confrontational situations. Answers to questions did not have direct relation or loosely connected to the questions asked. Further, background information comes first before information. The use of indirectness is a means of balancing harmony since in the process of avoiding direct answers, one establishes relationship with the other and avoids losing a face.
Languages have a dual function. The first is the transfer of information and the second the management of social relations. Helen Oatey in her book “Culturally Speaking,” uses the term “rapport management” to describe management of social relations as an aspect of language since the term is broad enough to cover the concept of maintaining or threatening social relationships. Taking into consideration these domains when dealing with Chinese, would be a huge step in avoiding conflicts. The following according to Oatey, play an important role in the management of rapport when interacting with Chinese:
Illocutionary Domain. This domain concerns about the speeches such as apologies, compliments, or requests that potentially puts at risk the rapports of individuals. For instance, when someone asks “Did you put sugar on this coffee?” the implication is that you want sugar.
Discourse Domain. This domain concerns the content and structure of the communication such as the decision whether to include private topics or whether a particular topic should be discussed first. This domain should be taken care of because there is a tendency to raise sensitive issues and put lesser priorities on more important matters which would threaten one’s rapport.
Participation domain. This domain concerns the technicalities of the interchange like turn-taking, the decision whether a third person can be allowed to join the conversation between two people, and the permission from the party to the conversation whether someone will be allowed to ask questions or not. This domain should be guarded in order for a harmonious relation to exist.
Stylistic Domain. This domain concerns the tone of interaction such as the choice of informal words, polite expressions, greetings, or jokes.
Non-verbal Domain. This domain concerns the actions governing the interchange such as eye contact, facial expressions, and proxemics. In the same way as the above four, this domain needs to be guarded if harmonious relation is wanting.
In trying to adapt to a more interrelated world, it is important to know how the Chinese think and communicate. The language style may seem to be complicated, yet for the Chinese, regard for others is the key to choosing the correct style of communication. Communication for them is more than exchange of words. It is a conduit to building a relationship and establishing harmony in the community.

Western Art Music Style And Techniques Music Essay

Use this statement and its possible implications as a starting-point for discussion of the principal developments in style and techniques of western art music during the first years of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century. Your discussion should centre on an analytical comparison of two works.
As the 19th century moved into its second half, many social, political and economic changes set in motion in the past-Napoleonic period became entrenched. The dramatic increase in musical education brought a still wilder sophisticated audience, and many composers took advantage of the greater regularity of concert life, and the greater financial and technical resources available. During this period, some composers created styles and forms associated with their national folk cultures. The notion that there were “German” and “Italian” styles had long been established in writing on music, but the late 19th century saw the rise of nationalist Russian style. Some composers were expressively nationalistic in their objectives, seeking to rediscover their country’s national identity in the face of occupation or oppression such as Antonin Dvorak and Boheminas Bedrich.

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At the turn of the early 20th century composers continued to work in forms and in a musical language that derived itself from that of the 19th century, however, the influence of modernism in music was becoming increasingly prominent. This period was extremely varied stylistically and there was a complete break down of tonality. Indeed as Eric Salzman stated “the tonal tradition in its most typical forms is Italo-German, and can be said to have declined in Central Europe by virtue of its own inner, contrapuntal, chromatic development. Elsewhere this tonal tradition was much weaker….” Composers such as Gustav Mahler and Jean Sibelius were pushing the bounds of post Romantic Symphonic writing. At the same time, the impressionist movement, spearheaded by Claude Debussy, was being developed in France. Additionally, many composers reacted to the Post Romantic and Impressionist styles and moved in quite different directions. In Vienna, Arnold Schoenberg developed atonality, out of expressionism that arose in the early part of the 20th century. He later developed the twelve tone technique which was developed further by his disciples- Alban Berg and Anton Webern (Burkholder, 2009).  
The other important revolution came in after the First World War. Many composers after this war started returning to previous centuries for their inspiration and wrote works that drew elements such as form, harmony melody and structure from classical and baroque period. This type of music thus became labelled neoclassicism and Igor Stravinsky was the leading composer of neoclassical music. Indeed late 19th century and early 20th was a period of great revolution and the first part of the following essay is going to discuss the principal developments in style and techniques of Western art music during the last years of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, the second part of the essay is going to focus on an analytical comparison of two works
Part one.
The appearance of impressionism, expressionism, atonality, 12 note music and neoclassicism represent the major development s of late 19th century and earlier 20th century.
Throughout history, art and music have developed in parallel with each other. The impressionist movement is not exception. Impressionism in art began in France near the end of the 19th century. Impressionist painters did not seek to show reality in the classical sense of a picture perfect image; instead, they emphasized light and colour to give an overall “impression” of their subjects. (Kamien, 2004)
Much in the same way, Impressionist music aims to create descriptive impressions, not necessarily to draw clear pictures. The music is not designed to explicitly describe anything, but rather to create a mood or atmosphere. This is done through almost every nature, often repeated in different contexts to different moods. In terms of colour, notes are often drawn from scale system other than the traditional major and minor. These include pentatonic, whole tone, or other exotic scales. The use of harmony was a major part of impressionism. Impressionists did not use chords in the traditional way. For nearly the entire history of western music, chords had been used to build and relieve tension. However, the chord used in impressionist music sometimes serves no harmonic purpose in the traditional sense; these chords set the joyful colour and mood of the piece.
Creative exploration of musical timbre via orchestra certainly predates the impressionist period, but it was this generation that opened up timbre as a first-tier parameter, to be exploited and pursued in its own right (Gasser, 1994). In orchestral works such as Debussy’s La Mer and Maurice Ravel’s Daphnis et Chloe, unusual usage or combinations of instruments, particularly at soft dynamic levels, are a common feature and give the works a distinctly “coloristic” sound that would open up new possibilities to later composers. Even in works for solo piano – such as Debussy’s Preludes – new timbres are explored via extremes of register, as well as by unique and “colourful” approaches to harmony and melody. Indeed, it is in the realm of harmony that the Impressionist “sound” is most readily identified: via such techniques as parallel triads, whole-tone scales, blurring of tonal identity, extended or chromatic chords. Above all, the impressionist musical language, techniques, and aesthetic had a direct and profound influence on the revolutionary Modern period that followed. 
Expressionism was a prominent artistic trend associated especially with Austria and Germany before, during, and immediately after World War I. This was around the time that people were feeling for fear, anger, death and isolation. In some measure a reaction against the perceived passive nature of impressionism, it emphasised an eruptive immediacy of expressive feeling. It also distorted reality for an emotional effect (Trinh, 2002).
Expressionism is the direct opposite of impressionism. Unlike impressionism, its goals were not to create passive impressions and moods, but to strongly express intense feelings and emotions. The main difference is that expressionism puts the emotional expression above everything else. While romantics (such as Robert Schumann or Johannes Brahms) also showed emotion in their music, they did so while still following traditional methods of writing music. On the other side, expressionists completely ignored tradition and focused on expressing emotions at all costs. For this reason, expressionistic music is often dissonant, fragmented, and densely written (Fanning, 2001). For comparison, an impressionist work portrays what is in the world around the composer: it creates an impression of what is being seen. An expressionist work, on the other hand, portrays what is going on inside the composer’s mind: it is an expression of what is being felt. 
The three central figures of musical expressionism from the second Viennese school are Arnold Schoenberg and his pupils, Anton Webern and Alban Berg. It can be said that expressionism is primarily identified with Arnold Schoenberg’s free atonal” period (1908-1921), in particular the second string quartet (1907-08) in which each of the four movements gets progressively less tonal. The third movement is arguably atonal and the introduction to the final is very chromatic, and features a soprano singing, taken form a poem by Stefan George. This may be representative of Schoenberg entering the “new world” of atonality.  In 1909, Schoenberg composed one piece called monodrama Erwartung; this is a thirty minutes, highly expressionist work in which atonal music accompanies a musical drama centred around a nameless woman.
Webern’s music was close in style to Schoenberg’s expressionism for only a short while. His Five Pieces for Orchestra (1911-19) is an example of his expressionist output. Schoenberg’s other student Berge’s major contribution to this genre is this opera Wozzeck, composed between 1914-25. The opera is highly expressionist in subject material in that it expressed mental anguish and suffering and is not objective, presented, as it is, largely from Wozzeck point of view, but it presents this expressionism with a clearly constructed form. Expressionism is an important movement that paved a way to atonality and 12 note music.
 Atonality and 12 note music
While music without tonal centre had been written previously, for example Franz Liszt’s Bagatelle sans tonalite of 1885, it is with the 20th century that the term atonality began to be applied to pieces, particularly those written by Arnold Schoenberg and the second Viennese School. This situation had come about historically through the increasing use over the course of the 19th century of ambiguous chords, less probable harmonic inflections, and the more unusual melodic and rhythmic inflections possible within the style of tonal music. There was a concomitant loosening of the syntactical bonds through which tones and harmonies had related to one another (Beach, 1983).
The first phase, know as “free atonality”, involved a conscious attempt to avoid traditional diatonic harmony. Works of this period include the opera Wozzeck by Alban Berge which will be talked in details in the later part of this essay.  The second phase, begun after World War I, was exemplified by attempts to create a systematic means of composing without tonality, most famously the method of composing with 12 tones or the 12 tone techniques. This period include Schoenberg’s Piano Concerto. Indeed this 12 tone techniques was devised by Arnold Schoenberg and the it is a means of ensuring that all 12 notes of the chromatic scale are sounded as often as one another in a piece of music while preventing the emphasis of any through the use of tone rows, and ordering of the 12 pitches. All 12 notes are thus given more or less equal importance, and the music avoids being in a key.
Neoclassicism in music was a 20th century development, particularly current in the period between the two World Wars, in which composers drew inspiration from music of the 18th century. Smaller, sparer, more orderly was conceived of as the response to the overwrought emotionalism which many felt had herded people into the trenches. Since economics also favoured smaller ensembles, the search for doing “more with less” took on a practical imperative as well (Albright, 2004).
Neoclassicism can be seen as a reaction against the prevailing trend of 19th century Romanticism to sacrifice internal balance and order in favour of more overtly emotional writing. Neoclassicism makes a return to balanced forms and often emotional restraint, as well as 18th century compositional processes and techniques. However, in the use of modern instrumental resources such as the full orchestra, which had greatly expanded since the 18th century, and advanced harmony, neoclassical works are distinctly 20th century.
Neoclassicism had two distinct national lines of development, French which was represented by Igor Stravinsky, and German which was represented by Paul Hindemith. Igor Stravinsky’s first foray into the style began in 1910-20 when he composed his ballet Pulcinella, using themes which he believed to be by Giovanni Pergolesi (Walsh 2001, 8). Representing the German strain of neoclassicism was Paul Hindemith, who produced chamber music, orchestral works, and operas in heavily contrapuntal, chromatically infected style. Even the atonal school, represented by Arnold Schoenberg, was not unaffected by neoclassical ideas. The forms of Arnold Schoenberg’s works after 1920, have been described as “openly neoclassical”, and represent an effort to integrate the advances of 1908-1913 with the inheritance of the 18th and 19th centuries (Rosen 1975, 70-73).
 Part two
Claude Debussy is one of the major representatives of impressionism and his works has made a great influence in modern period. Alban Berge with his work Wozzeck laid the foundation for the creation of expressionism and atonality.
Claude Debussy and his works
Claude Debussy is a French composer who founded the impressionist school of music. Debussy’s music was brief, elegant, and rather cold, unlike the period before, which held sentimental music. Debussy’s vision first emerged in his 1894 prelude to the afternoon a faun, an exquisitely colourful ten minuets mystical evocation of languid erotic longings on a sultry afternoon. It has often been remarked that its meandering opening flute solo breathed new life into the art of music. In retrospect, the prelude is one of turning points in the history of aesthetics. His other work, Nuages No.1 from Nocturnes shows the interaction of timbre with motive, scale types and other elements to create a musical image. He used pattern of fifth, third to convey moving cloud and the gradual disappearing of the pattern gives the impression of dispersing cloud.
La Mer
La Mer is not only the title of Debussy’s orchestral masterwork, but an apt metaphor for his innovative art. La Mer was more evocative and less literal, because Debussy wrote it in landlocked Burgundy, distilling memories of his childhood and holidays at the shore into an intense vision of the essence of the sea rather than a mere portrait (Gutmann, 2006). The work is in symphony form yet the first movement does not adhere to typical sonata allegro form and Debussy utilizes uses of motifs and imaginative orchestral writing skills to conjure various moods and impressions of the sea throughout the three movements. The three movements work also bears titles; the first movement is called “from dawn to noon on the sea”. This movement develops from short thematic fragments above muted strings to a wonderful evocation of the swelling of waves, as a theme for divided cellos swells and subsides, subtle echoed by horns and timpani. Various brief melodies detach themselves from the complex texture, melodies that Debussy will later develop in the final movement. At present however, his is content to let his movement surge and ebb, ending with a final brass chorus that swells form fortissimo back to piano (Guttmann, 2006).
The second movement is called “play of the waves”. It offers many rapid, brilliant figured from various sections of the orchestra. Its lighter, percussive texture includes harp and xylophone, suggesting the sparkle of light on wave. The swirling motion of this movement does not resolve, but dies away, leading us to an equally restrained opening of the final movement. But where the second movement was playful, the third movement- “the dialog of the wind and the sea” is powerful and urgent. In its orchestration Debussy gives us some of his most charming and exotic colours, such as the passage for Celeste, a toy piano that sounds like bells, reminiscent of a playful breeze. And he give some of his most powerful moments, like the stuttering trumpets whirling amidst the orchestra’s sea-surge that climax to the ending (Derrickson, 2006).
Alban berg and his work Wozzeck
Alban Maria Johannes Berg (1885 – 1935) was an Austrian composer. He was a member of the Second Viennese School with Arnold Schoenberg and Anton Webern, and produced compositions that combined Mahlerian Romanticism with a personal adaptation of Schoenberg’s twelve-tone technique. His Wozzeck (1922) is considered by some scholars to be the greatest opera of the 20th century. It is based upon 23 unordered, unfinished fragments of a play, Woyzeck (1837), written by the German writer, Georg Buchner (1813-1837) (Solomon, 2004).
Berg’s opera presents us with a “heightened and distorted” actuality rather than with a documentary realism. There is no attempt to portray a realistic image of the person or the environment. Neither is there any attempt to portray the external impression of the scene, as in one by an impressionist artist such as Debussy. Instead the impressionist sees a world distorted by the intense inner emotion of the scream. This world s is subjective rather than objective. Subjectivity is the perspective of Berg’s opera-a world transformed by the perception of its primary subject, the oppressed under class, as represented in the character of Wozzeck. One remarkable example of this inner perspective occurs at the end of the act III, scene 4, where Wozzeck drowns in a blood-red pool while searching for the murder weapon. This music expresses this scene in an unusual way. Traditionally, sinking would be cast in descending musical figures, as Wozzeck descends deeper and deep into the pool. Instead we hear ascending scales of parallel seconds, fourths and triads. This surprising reversal of perspective can only be Wozzeck’s view of the water rising around him as he drowns (Solomon, 2004).
 Another example of extreme subjectivity is found in the preceding scene, when Wozzeck, fleeing from his horrific act, wanders into a local tavern where people are drinking, singing, and dancing a bizarre polka. It is not a normal dance, but one highly distorted by atonal harmonies. It is reminiscent of the distorted waltz head in Act II scene4, when Wozzeck discovered Marie dancing lustfully with the Drum Major. Now he tried to appease his misery by drinking, singing and carousing with a bar maid. The song is a strange one about dresses too lovely for a servant, reflecting the common theme of oppression although diatonic; it is surrounded by atonal harmonies, which function to distort any resemblance of key.
 The greatest example of heightened expressionism occurs in the drowning scene of Act III scene 4. Escaping from the tavern, Wozzeck is fearfully paranoid of being discovered. As he frantically searches for the knife, he begins to hallucinate, “Alles still und toto”, he exclaims in Sprechstimme. Berg continually uses atonality for the expression of Wozzeck hallucinations, psychosis, and alienation. Additionally, he used atonality as way to distorted and magnify madness and abnormality, which Buchner believed was the result of the way that the rich and powerful controlled and exploited the poor. Apart from all that, berg also used the Wagnerian principle of the leitmotif throughout the opera. These are short musical fragments that serve as musical symbols of the characters, actions, moods, and ideas that occur and recur in the drama. For example, when the Captain uses the word “angst” we hear a trembling tremolo in the cellos and timpani. The same tremolo appeases with the word “shudder” in Act I.
This work Wozzeck is truly an amazing work in which the expressionist language of the first decades of the 20th century was peculiarly well suited to deal with such extreme mental and emotional sates.
Late 19th century and early 20th century was an important period of transformation into the late 20th century. The impressionism, expressionism, atonality, 12 notes music and neoclassicism have all influenced composers in later centuries. In addition, the music of all composers discussed in this essay has found a growing and apparent permanent niche in the repertoire. All are performed and recorded more and more, and interest in their music has tended to increase with every passing decade (Burkholder, 2009).

Edgar Allan Poe Writing Style Analysis

Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849) was an American author born in Boston. His use of terror and the supernatural made him famous as one of the popular gothic writers. Poe wrote numerous books and poems with some 18+ noted books to his credit. His mystery writing was recognised by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle as being exceptional and the ability to bring life into the characters portrayed. The life and works of Poe are particularly well explored in the book ‘The political economy of literature in antebellum America by Terence Whalen. In addition the book ‘Edgar Allan Poe: a biography’ by Milton Meltzer describes the literary works and criticism of Poe’s books and poems.

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Edgar Allan Poe was noted for his gothic horror style of writing. Nevertheless he also used his writing to express political sentiments, particularly that regarding racism, slavery and social distinctions in the Southern USA. This was compared to the situation in Europe with Poe supporting the concept of slavery. The author Toni Morrison in her book entitled “Playing in the Dark” identified Poe along with Mark Twain as an author whose work was haunted by blackness. “Toni Morrison claims that no early American writer was more important than Poe in shaping a concept of “American Africanism”  
The works of Poe were largely obscured for some 50 years after his death owing to copyright restrictions held by his Executor Dr. Rufus B Griswold. “It is nearly fifty years since the death of Edgar Allan Poe, and his writings are now for the first time gathered together with an attempt at accuracy and completeness”  . Despite the production of numerous poems Poe was best known for his genre of horror and science fiction novels and Walt Whitman  described his works as “Poe’s verses illustrate an intense faculty for technical and abstract beauty, with the rhyming art to excess, an incorrigible propensity toward nocturnal themes, and a demoniac undertone behind every page. … There is an indescribable magnetism about the poet’s life and reminiscences, as well as the poems”  .
Poe’s life was surrounded by tragedy with his parents passing away when he was just 3 years old. He became obsessive with drink and gambling and this resulted in his own rather obscure death as a drunk in Baltimore. Despite this his poems and novels that explored the conditions of the human psyche earned him international fame both during his life and after his death. He was viewed as a tortured soul who was obsessed with death, violence and a sense of the macabre yet still gained an appreciation for those mysteries that life had to offer.
Poe was acknowledged by such notary poets as Longfellow, Wordsworth, Tennyson and Whitman. Despite his critics he left a legacy of gothic works that would later inspire film makers and other novelists in the horror and supernatural genre.
Poe was acknowledged by the international community as an acclaimed writer of stories and poems in the gothic horror style. He was also critical of the political scene in light of the turbulent changes in the Southern USA. He brought a style of gothic writing in order to make statements and used the concept of terror, mystery and the supernatural to bring fear and terror to society. This paper explores the different examples of Poe’s writing and provides a modern interpretation of his different styles and uses. A cross-section of Poems, Short Stories in the genre of horror, mystery and terror.
The Tell-Tale Heart is a short story composed by Edgar Allen Poe. It is rather a ghoulish story concerning the murder of an old man who is dismembered and his body buried under floor-boards. The murder subsequently loses his sanity believing the heart of the old man is still beating under the floorboards. It talks of the old man having a “Vulture Eye”, the apparent reason for the pre-meditated murder. The conflict is on the murders insistence of his own sanity but in so doing it becomes “self-destructive” as the defence build-up the case to his ultimate admission of guilt. It is a saga of guilt, remorse and the dreadful concept of haunting of the human mind for an act so reprehensible. Clearly the murderer is the protagonist at the central theme of this story and the old man the antagonist by the concept of the “vulture eye”  
As the sound of the old man’s heartbeat gets louder. The murder becomes more paranoid and believes that others can hear it, including the police officers who are present at the scene of the crime. The illusion and paranoia eventually lead to the murder believing the police know that he is guilty and the murders tortured soul eventually leads him confessing his guilt of the crime. This leads the murder to the evidence and telling the police the whereabouts of the body and instruction to tear up the floor boards.
The plot demonstrates the struggle between imagination and science. The old man the rationale scientific mind and the narrator the imaginative
“The Cask of Amontillado” was written by Edgar Allen Poe in 1846. It was developed as a short story in “Godey’s Lady’s Book”. The setting was in an unnamed city in Italy, the period was not indicated but assume somewhere in the 18th Century. The theme of this story is about REVENGE. During the 19th Century the people seemed to have a great interest in this subject matter and as such this was a popular tale. Poe was rather a dark or grim writer and this story was unveiled from the perspective of the murderer. Poe had the unique talent of being able to penetrate the inner mind and psychology of the murder and acts of insanity. From this he could create a graphical depiction of both horror and terror that leaves the sane reader aghast. The subject of revenge is particularly potent material and allows the writer to demonstrate the meaning of hatred and the steps someone would take in order to exact a terrible revenge.
Characters in the story
The story focuses around two main characters that of “Montresor” (Murderer) and his victim “Fortunato”, both men of noble birth. Montresor was extremely angry over some unspecified insult from Fortunato and as a result plans his murder. His aim or plan being to distract him during carnival time, when the festivities find the man in a drunken stupor, wearing the disguise of a jester’s attire.
The Plot
Montresor captures the attention of Fortunato by describing a procurement of a very valuable cask of sherry “the Cask of Amontillado” and requires Fortunato’s expert opinion on the quality of the wine. From this point he lures Fortunato through a series of subterranean passages beneath his Palazzo. When the two men reach the cellar containing the wine, Montresor grabs Fortunato and chains him to the wall and then proceeds to build a new wall and seal him in leaving him to die.
In re-telling his story some 50 years later Montresor says he has never been captured and in so far as he knows the body of Fortunato still hangs suspended in the niche where it was bricked in all those years ago. The unrepentant murder stating ” In pace requiscat” (may he rest in peace). The story undoubtedly had an influence on later writers… “This story and Poe’s other short fiction had an undisputed influence on later fiction writers. In the nineteenth century, Poe influenced Ambrose Bierce and Robert Louis Stevenson among others. Twentieth-century writers who have looked to Poe include science fiction writer H. P. Lovecraft and horror author Stephen King.”  
Analysis and Symbolism
The theme and plot of the story is based upon murder and revenge. It is not a mystery or detection story, the mystery resides in the actual motives for which Montresor committed murder. Montresor indicated that he received a “thousand injuries”, although no substantive reasons were provided. The reader is left to determine the cause of the motives, including the probability that Montresor was in fact insane. There are some contradictions in the story, for example: Fortunato is introduced to the readership as a wine expert… ” he becomes so drunk he would be unable to identify the Amontillado and treats De Grave, an expensive French wine, with little regard by drinking it in a single gulp”  
The tale also indicates that Montresor was of noble birth and yet he demonstrated brick laying skills, more normally associated with the working class. It is known that the author had knowledge of the subject matter in his personal life and as such appreciated the visual horrors of such an abstraction to his audience. “Poe worked in the brickyard late in the fall of 1834”.  Vincent Buranelli made a number of observations about the story and in more general terms about Poe’s morbid fascination with death. He expanded by saying how this had influenced musicians of the time including Debussy… “According to Vincent Buranelli, Poe’s short stories also influenced the music of Claude Debussy, who was “haunted” by the atmosphere of Poe’s tales, and the art of Aubrey Beardsley, as well as the work of other composers and artists in the United States, Great Britain, and in Europe.”  The gothic style of Poe’s writing has a distinct sense of morbidity about it… “The thousand injuries of Fortunato I had borne as I best could; but when he ventured upon insult, I vowed revenge. You, who so well know the nature of my soul, will not suppose, however, that I gave utterance to a threat. At length I would be avenged”.  The analysis of the phrase is interesting. It suggests a building of in sufferance from the relationship with Fortunato culminating in a final insult that threw Montresor into a fit of rage and ultimately to a plot of murder. For this to build into such a state illustrates the apparent lack of dialogue and trust between the two supposed friends. This also leads the reader to question the state of mind of Montresor and indeed question his very sanity.
Richard P Benton (a noted writer on Poe) asserted that the character for Montessori was in actual fact based upon “Claude de Bourdeille, Count of Montresor” a political conspirator in the court of King Louis X111.  
The Raven was first published in 1845. It is regarded as a classic American poem. The poet describes that of a talking Raven which visits a distressed lover and ultimately traces the man’s emotions as he steps into the depths of insanity. The man is considered to be a student who is lamenting over the loss of his lover called ‘Lenore’. The Raven is a mysterious bird symbolic of death and repeats the words ‘never more’. The man asks the Raven questions but it only answers ‘Never more’ and as such he will never be reunited with his Lenore and his soul shall not be lifted ‘Never more’. At the time the poem came in for a fair amount of criticism, in addition to the acclaim from other poets. It was considered to be inspired by the work of Charles Dickens from his novel Barnaby Rudge. The Raven is considered to be a devil like creature that is symbolic of both black magic and the devil. The end result of the poem is that the student will never get over the grief for his lost Lenore. Lenore also translates to Helen [Helen of Troy representing beauty] and the bust of Pallas is representative of the Greek goddess Athena [the goddess of wisdom]. This is symbolic of the fact that grief and sorrow displace wisdom and common sense in the man’s life. This is a complex poem with many meanings. Poe was particularly artful at understanding ancient greek mythology and being able to both intertwin this with comparisons to characters in his own narrations. He demonstrated similar characteristics with figures out of European history and related these to American literature. It is important to understand that many of Poes readers were international and particularly from Europe where he had a large following. This translation therefore became an important part of reaching that audience.
Is a short story narrated by Poe. It was compiled in 1843 and falls under the horror genre. The story focuses upon the deteriorating life of an alcoholic but also it involves animal abuse and murder. It is useful to note that Poe himself had a serious drinking problem and in Baltimore he fell into bad company. This may well have influenced this work based upon his own shortcomings and fear of falling into madness as a result of alcoholism.
The story is a mystery novel and about the unlocking of clues to a murder, as revealed by the mysterious black cat. It is the location of hidden objects that allow you to solve puzzles that allude to the murder. The cat is called Pluto [ Roman name for the God of the underworld] and symbolic of the devil and hell. The black cat is also associated with bad luck and misfortune. The cat is used to depict the insanity of the narrator as he spins out of control due to the worsening effects of alcoholism. This Gothic tale becomes all the more shocking as you’re about to get inside the mind of an insane person and ultimately it leaves you to ponder the shocking story and the acts committed by the man i.e. The walling up of his wife and the black cat in the cellar. Poe was highly influenced by drink and opium and this may well account for his ability to graphically define horror, based upon the horrors that he experienced from drink and drugs. Opium was known for its hallucogenic qualities and Poe had a love of cats; hence it becomes easier to understand how his mind finds it easier to start and unravel the workings of insanity and the unfortunate influences of advanced alcoholism.
The pit and the pendulum is another short story compiled by Poe in 1842. It tells the story of a young prisoner that is tortured as part of the Spanish inquisition. The story depicts what it is like to be tortured and attempts to place to reader in a state of fear, thereby appealing to the senses and sounds that hinge upon realism. The tall candles that are melting depict the prisoner and his life ebbing away with little hope of remission or rescue. The prisoner is locked in a dark prison which he thinks is his tomb. The prisoner becomes aware that he has been bound in a pit with a scythe like pendulum slowly swinging down towards him. This will be the instrument of his execution but the prisoner is able to attract rats to gnaw his bones and release him. He is finally rescued before the inner walls move inwards and force him to his death at the bottom of the pit. Although Poe takes historical license with the story it is widely held that the pit and pendulum were used in torture devices by the Spanish inquisition. The story was later made into a film starring the actor Vincent Price. Some have contrasted this work to the situation of slavery in the Southern States i.e. the concept of bondage and being a prisoner, the sense of life ebbing away with no remission from slavery, the torture being the lashing and brutality inflicted upon slaves by their masters and the final rescue being the freedom from slavery by the Northern Union Army at the end of the civil war. The comparison being the Spanish Inquisition to the plight of the slaves.
This story relates to the decline of a family and house [the House of Usher]. From the beginning the author paints a bleak view of rot and decay in a cold autumnal setting The novel compares the crumbling decay of the house to that of the family that dwells within. The characters Roderick and Madeleine are twins and represent the mental and physical decline of the family. Roderick believes that the stones of the house have a consciousness and as such they embody the fate of the Usher family. Within the novel Poe gets to grips with the inner workings of the human imagination and the destructive concepts that reside within. The results of this lead to mental illness and death from the torturous terror of the imagination. The house itself “crumbles into the deep and dark tarn”,  (Womak 2010) and depicts the narrator fleeing from madness in order to protect his own sanity.
Some critics related this piece to the destruction of the plantations, properties and families in the Southern States by the persecution of the Northern Union armies. The crumbling decay of the house being that of the confederate states and how old ideas and families were being crushed under the concept of change by the slavery abolitionist movement of the North.
The Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar
This short story was first published in 1845. This tells the story of a dying man. A mesmerist places a man into a state of hypnosis shortly before his time of death. He examines the concept of hypnotizing a man dying of tuberculosis in order to see what happens to him. The man is left in the hypnotic state for seven months. The dying man (Valdemar) beckons to be woken or allowed to die by wagging his tongue. During the hypnotic state he was pale, cold and without pulse. As the hypnotist eventually wakes him Valdemar’s voice shouts Dead! Dead! And as he comes out of the trance his body instantly decays into a putrefied liquid mass of decayed material. Poe was known to have deeply studied medical tests and post mortem examinations and as such was able to assemble a picture of words in order to depict the horror and gore. Additional influence to this story might have been the suffering and death of his wife Virginia who died from Tuberculosis; having suffered to the point of her departure.
The Masque of the Red Death
This popular short story follows the main character of Prince Prospero who tries to escape a plague called ‘The Red Death’, by hiding in his abbey with his noble friends. During this time they have a masked ball which covers many different coloured rooms. During the ball a strange masked figure enters the room dressed in a shroud like costume. This enrages Prospero who demands to know who this person is and wants him hanged. He ignores the Prince and this enrages Prospero who chases after him with a drawn dagger. Prospero confronts the stranger in the Black room and shortly after is found dead. The guests find both Prospero and the stranger on the floor. They remove the mask from the stranger only to find a faceless creature that is Red Death itself. After this all of the nobility succumb to the disease and are found dead. Although the disease is fictitious it might be symbolic of the Black Death that swept through the middle ages in Europe. The point made is that nobody ultimately escapes death regardless of wealth or position. Death comes to us all in the end. Other theories are that Poe was influenced by the death of his wife Virginia and her suffering due to that of tuberculosis.
The Murders in the Rue Morgue
Poe first published this murder mystery in 1841 in Grahams Magazine. It tells the story of the brutal saying of two women in the Rue Morgue of Paris. One had her throat cut and the other strangled. This was one of the earliest detective novels that inspired fictional characters of Sherlock Holmes and Hercule Poirot. The central detective figure in this story being one Auguste Dupin. The detective found his first clue by discovering some hair that was not of human origin. In addition witnesses recounted having heard noises and sounds in a language that they had never heard before. Dupin suspected that this might be an Ourang-Outang and set about placing an advert for someone who might have lost such an animal. It was discovered that a sailor had brought one from Borneo and that the animal had escaped with a shaving razor. The animal emulating shaving on the victims.
Poe wrote this story at a time when crime and detection was held in great fascination in both London and New York. It aimed at proving the point of brains over brawn i.e. the brains of the skilled detective versus the brute strength of the ape. Poe was said to have inspired Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (Sherlock Holmes) and Agatha Christie (great mystery and detective writer).
Comparisons were made to the captivation and treatment of the Ape. As the Ape was brought from its’ native Borneo to a strange land and subjected to the dangerous practices of its captor (sailor); so the negro was transplanted from Africa to the plantations of the Americas and subject to the bondage and harsh treatment of his new master.
The Premature Burial
This short story was based upon the concept of being buried alive. It focuses upon a person who has been struck down with a condition called ‘catalepsy’ which puts you into a death like trance. Here a person is buried alive and only at a later date when the tomb is opened is the accident revealed. Poe takes advantage of a fear that was prevalent amongst people of the 19th century in the concept of being buried alive. It again illustrates Poe’s fascination with the morbidity of death.
The Imp of the Perverse
This story is about that of an imp or demon that influences a person in order to conduct acts of mischief. The story starts with a candle, having been placed in the room of a victim, and omits a poisonous vapour. The leads to the death of the victim who reads at night by the candlelight in a poorly ventilated room. The narrator, being the murderer, believes he has got away with the crime after the coroner delivers a verdict of ‘an act of god’ The narrator subsequently inherits the house and enjoys the benefits from the deed for many years to come. He feels that the only way he will ever be caught is that if he confesses the crime. He later finds himself running through the streets and confesses the deed to an invisible friend. This leads to him being tried, convicted and sentenced to death.
The story is based upon the premise that all people lean towards self-destructive tendencies and that ultimately we cannot avoid the moral responsibility for the deed that we perform. Other critics have suggested that the story related purely to Poe’s life and his depiction of personal torment and self-destruction. It occurred at a time when he felt betrayed and held a public feud with the English poet Henry Longfellow.
This was a satirical study narrated by Poe in 1844. The story is based upon a man who died after swallowing a needle accidentally. This results in the appearance of an odd character made of a keg and wine bottles (the angel of the odd), who is said to be the root cause of these bizarre events. The man is not convinced of the story and falls into a drunken stupor. The man later wakes up to find that his house is on fire and narrowly escapes death by clambering down a ladder from the upper window of the house. During the escape a hog brushes past the ladder causing the man to fall and break his arm. He later tries to woo two different women who laugh at his wig, this he was forced to wear after his hair was singed in the fire. All of these misadventures lead the man to feel he is cursed and he attempts suicide by drowning. During this incident a crow steals his clothes and the ensuing chase sees the man falling off a cliff only to be rescued by the rope hanging from a hot air balloon. At this time the angel of the odd re-appears and asks him to confess that bizarre events can really happen. The man refuses and the angel cuts the rope allowing the man to fall to his death. This is seen as the revenge of the angel.
The story contains many parallels with Poe’s own life. In particular the results of his addiction with alcohol and possibly drugs. Opiate drugs of a hallucogenic nature were widely used at this time and particularly in sea ports like Baltimore where Poe lived for some time and was known to have become an alcoholic living amongst bad company. Poe was also considered to be a tortured soul of self-destructive tendencies. This contributed to his gothic style of writing.
Berenice was a horror story compiled by Poe in 1835 and follows the sag of one ‘Egaeus’ destined to marry his cousin Berenice. His future bride is seen to deteriorate in health by an unknown disease that leaves only her teeth in a healthy state. Berenice dies and is buried leaving Egaeus with an obsession over her teeth. One day a servant enters his room to inform him that Berenice’s grave has been disturbed and she is still alive. Egaeus is found to have a box containing 32 blood stained teeth with a poem that tells of his visits to the grave of his beloved. This is clearly an indication of the insanity of Egaeus and his obsession with the only healthy remaining component of the teeth.
Critics were shocked by the gruesome account and graphic horror of the story. They questioned Poe’s state of mind to write such stories. Poe may well have been influenced by the suffering of his wife Victoria and dyeing from Tuberculosis as she suffered an agonising and prolonged death. There is also some question over Poe’s sanity given his connection to drink, drugs and tendencies of self-destruction and his fascination with death.
Eleonora tells the story of the narrator who resides with his cousin in the ‘valley of the many coloured grass’. It was considered to be an idyllic paradise of tropical birds, fragrant flowers, and softly running streams. Eleonora was ill and was beautiful only waiting to die. She did not fear death but only the loss of her lover from the valley to another. Once Eleonora dies the valley starts to fade and lose its splendour. The narrator leaves the valley and moves to a City where he meets and marries Emengarde. Eleonora visits the narrator from the afterlife and blesses the couple stating that they are absolved and the reasons would be made known in heaven.
This has a direct correlation with the life of Poe and particular the suffering and death of his wife Virginia. During the time that she suffered for five years Poe lived with his younger cousin who later became his wife. It is the question of guilt and absolution from sins. Poe considering his feelings for the love of other women whilst his wife was dying. Poe was clearly tormented by the suffering of his wife.
The concept of gothic horror writing derives from the Germanic race of Goths or Visigoths in Europe. These people were well known in Europe as a fierce race of people that dealt in tales of death and the supernatural. Gothic writing has been associated with horror since the mid-18th Century. In particular the literary works of Edgar Allan Poe and Bram Stoker (the author of Dracula). The style of gothic writing gained its popularity during the period 1750-1820. In England the Bronte Sisters and particularly Emily with the story of Wuthering Heights. In the USA this was picked up in the South by such writers as William Faulkner and his book entitled “A rose for Emile”. Another was the Pulitzer Prize winning book of “To kill a Mockingbird” by Harper Lee and made into a great film starring Gregory Peck.
“Poe believed his art-all art-should be evaluated by international, rather than national or regional, standards, but he was, nonetheless, frequently identified at the time with the South. He did not defend his region’s politics or social customs, like other antebellum southern writers, but his lyricism was common to southern poets. Raised a Virginian, Poe sometimes posed as the southern gentleman, even if transcending regionalism in his work.”  
During the division between the North and Southern states it was widely held that Poe was politically motivated towards the South “Certain scholars perceive this conflict in terms of a North-South division and view Poe as the representative of a southern literary tradition fighting against the domination of the New England literary circle”.  Despite serving in the Union Army and spending time at West Point it was widely held that Poe’s sympathies remained with the south; based upon his formative years in Richmond Virginia.
Poe became somewhat controversial in that he defended the point of view regarding slavery in the South. He drew parallels between ant-slavery agitation at the time of Cromwell (England) and the French Revolution. He pointed out that these were all about an attack on property; the excuse being the freedom of the slaves. He further stated that recent events in the West Indies and the Southern States all give rise to the potential recurrence of a property grab being initiated by Northern States land owners who are politically motivated. Poe went on to say that there existed a relationship between the slave and the master; the slave being very loyal to the Master. The Master in turn provided employment, shelter and security. Poe wrote this from the perspective of a southern family who had owned slaves. He was particularly vocal during his editorship of the ‘Messenger’ in Virginia and he published a number of tablets referred to as ‘Pinakidia’.  
Poe saw a trend in the market place where a huge number of publications were being sold that depicted the graphic horror of slavery. Poe utilized this trend in his own narration covering both the pro and anti-slavery viewpoints. As such many of his tales traded upon the terror of slavery. Poe masters the concept of slavery in order to invoke terror into his readers. In the story of ‘Hop Frog’ he indicates how “the literary market place turns the author into a slave for the voracious appetite of the audiences for horror”.  Poe deals with the integration of slavery into that of racial stereotyping as seen in ‘Murders in the Rue Morgue’, the ape that has been captured and forced to respond to a strange land.
Edgar Allan Poe achieved greater acclaim as an author and a poet in international circles as opposed to in the USA. His literary executor ‘Rufus Griswald’ was considered to be both jealous and an enemy of Poe. He branded Poe as a drunkard and opium addict and defamed him to American literary society. It was some 50 years after Poe’s death that the genius of his work started to receive international acclaim. Poe in a way went downhill after the death of his wife and he became much more involved