Safety measures in swimming

Introduction
Many young children like being around and in water, but proper safety measures should be taken, without which water can be dangerous for young children. One of the leading causes of death among children 1(one) to 4(four) years of age is drowning. According to Australian National Drowning report of 2007, 35 infants and toddlers lost their lives through drowning in the financial year ending 30 June 2007. Most often at home, babies and toddlers drown in swimming pools. Drowning can also happen in other standing water around the home like bathtubs, buckets and pails, especially 5-gallon buckets and diaper pails, ice chests with melted ice, toilets, hot tubs, spas ,and whirlpools, irrigation ditches, post holes, and wells, fish ponds and fountains among others.

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Drowning to young children is so easy as they can drown in as little as 4 cm(1.5inches) of water, this therefore means that drowning can happen where and when you would least expect it .While drowning can take only a second, it is almost always silent. For this reason therefore, adults must always watch young children when in or near water.
Keeping Young Children Safe
Young children need constant supervision when near water, whether the water is in a bathtub, a wading pool, an ornamental fish pond, a swimming pool, a spa, the beach or a lake. Several water and pool safety tips have been discussed below:
One may ask the question whether swimming lessons prevent drowning among children. It is a good idea to learn how to swim and children older than 4 years should learn how to swim. However, according to researchers, there is no research to show that swimming lessons for children young than 4 years old can prevent drowning. This is because children are not old enough at this age to learn how to swim on their own. There are water survival skills that would help one in an emergency which are too hard for young children to react with. However the exact age when young children are ready to learn how to swim, there is not a lot of research about it, but research has shown that children do not have the skills to swim on their own until maybe at the age of 4 years old and above even if their swimming lessons start at a younger age. It should be however noted that one should not assume that a child who knows how to swim is not at risk for drowning. No matter what their swimming skill levels, it is important to supervise young children while they are in the water. (World Health Organization, 2006)
Whenever a child is near water, invest in proper-fitting, coast guard-approved flotation devices (life vests) and use them. Check the recommendations for the weight and size on the label, then to make sure that it fits snugly, have your child try it on. Choose a vest with a strap between the legs and head support for children young than 5 years old- the collar will keep the child’s head up and face out of the water. Arm devices such as water wings and inflatable vests are not effective protection against drowning.
Water safety precautions start in the home, for example the bathroom is full of dangers for young children. A young child should never be left unattended in the bathroom especially while bathing even if the child appears to be well propped in a safety tub or bath ring. All hair dryers and other electrical appliances should be kept away to avoid the risk of electrocution to children.
Hot water can also be dangerous, for the children who are young than 5 years in particular. Unlike older children and adults, young children have thinner skin, meaning that they burn more easily. Just 3 seconds exposure to hot tap water that’s 60 degrees Celsius can give a third degree burn to a child. To reduce the risk of scalding you can turn the water heater thermostat in your home down to 49 degree Celsius and by always testing the water with your wrist or elbow before placing your child in the bath.
Child safety is not only to be found at home, your awareness of preventing accidents caused by water can go a long way outside the home. This can be done by finding out if there are water hazards’ in your neighbourhood. Find out whether there are pools or water spas, where the retaining ponds or creeks that may attract children are. Make neighbours who have pools aware that you have a young child and ask them to keep their gates locked. (World Health Organization, 2006)
When it comes to safety issues at your own home, having a pool, pond, spa, or hot tub is a tremendous responsibility. Though hot tubs may feel great to adults, it is best not to let children use them at all because they can become dangerously overheated in them and even drown. Having a fence going a round the pool or spa between the water and your house is the best safety investment you can make and this can go a long way towards preventing pool-related drowning. According to consumer product safety commission (CPSC), fences for the pool should meet the following rules: First, fences should stand at least 4feet high with no foot or handrails for children to climb on, secondly the slats should be less than 4 inches apart so a child can not get through, or if chain link, should have no opening larger than50millimeters. Also gates should be self –closing and self-latching, and the latch should be out of the child’s reach. Other devices such as pool covers and alarms can be bought, but the American Academy of paediatrics (AAP) have not proved their effectiveness against drowning for very young children. The AAP strongly supports fencing as the best measure of protection. (United States Consumer Product Safety Commission, 2005)
Another way of ensuring safety for young children is to teach them proper pool behaviour, and to make sure that you take the right precautions too. Young children should not run or push around the pool and should never dive in areas that are marked for diving. If there is lightning or if the weather generally turns bard, they should get out of the pool immediately. They should too know that they should contact the lifeguard or an adult if there is an emergency. Most important, supervise your children all the times. You should not assume that just because your child took swimming lessons or is using a floating device such as an inner tube or inflatable raft that there is no drowning risk. Sometimes it is very easy to be distracted for example when you are in a party, therefore designate an adult who will be responsible for watching the children. If in any case you leave your child with a babysitter, make sure he or she knows your rules for the pool. It is also vital understanding that when it comes to water emergencies seconds count, so take a cordless phone with you when you are watching children during water play.
A quick dial feature keyed to your local emergency centre will also save additional seconds. If you receive a call while supervising children, be keen to keep your conversation brief to prevent being distracted. Make sure that you have safety equipment such as floatation devices that are in good shape and are close at hand when boating or swimming. Review your home for water hazards and plan what to do in case of an emergency once you have installed all your safety equipment. Also make sure that you have all post emergency numbers on all phones and ensure that all caregivers are aware of their locations. Be sure to remove all pool toys and put them away after your children have finished playing in the pool. This is because it has been noted that some children drown while trying to retrieve playthings left in the pool. (United States Consumer Product Safety Commission, 2005)
Water safety should also be considered even after the swim season has passed. This is because some pools have covers and it is not safe in the sense that many children love attempt to walk on top of the covered pools and may get trapped underneath a pool cover. Pools are tempting play areas for young children so keep your pool gates locked and teach your children to stay away from water without your supervision. For the above-ground pools, to lock or to remove the ladder when the pool is not in use is a good idea.
Although the biggest worry, drowning isn’t the only concern when young children are exposed to water. Infants in particular are highly susceptible to diseases that can be transmitted in water. When an infant is introduced in to a pool, thereafter dry the child’s ears carefully by use of a towel or cotton ball to help prevent swimmers ear (an ear infection caused by water). In order to remove pool chemicals, it’s a good idea to wash the baby and shampoo the hair. Water temperatures below 29 degree Celsius can cause babies to lose heat quickly and body temperatures drop below normal, causing hypothermia.
Therefore any child who starts to shiver should be removed from water immediately, dried and kept in a towel. Inside the pools young children can also cause diseases. Cryptosporidium is a parasite which normally lives in the gastrointestinal tract and is found in faeces and it can therefore be released by babies with leaky diapers. Into pools and accidentally when swallowed by others can cause problems. The safest thing in this case is to keep your baby out of pools until he/she is toilet taught, and if the child must go to a pool use waterproof diapers and change them frequently. (World Health Organization, 2006)
In Case of Emergency
Always check the pool first whenever a child is missing. Remember that survival of the child depends on a quick rescue and restarting breathing as soon as possible. Get the child out immediately if you find it in water while calling loudly for help. If there is anyone else available let them call the emergency number for help. Check and make sure that the air passages of the child are clear. If the child is not breathing, do five cycles of rescue breathing and chest compressions for a bout two minutes or so. If the child is still not breathing, continue giving this first aid as you dial the emergency number to get help if someone hasn’t already called and follow any instructions provided by the emergency operators. Lay the child on his or her side it breathing starts-this will help keep the airway open and allow fluids to drain so that the child doesn’t choke. Keep the child on his or her back and brace the neck and shoulders with your hands and forearms, if you think the child may have suffered a neck injury, until emergency help arrives. Do not move or let the child move. Also to keep the child comforted, speak in calm tones and continue to watch for adequate breathing. (United States Consumer Product Safety Commission, 2005)
Conclusion
It has been noted clearly that water can be a great source of fun for young children. However, if not well supervised, children can find themselves in great danger even to a point of death through drowning, commonly found in the family pools. Flotation devices or swimming skills cannot safe a child from drowning. Children in water can also pass risks like diseases to other pool users. It is also important to check the water temperature and the PH level to ensure safety of the children. All the discussed safety tips above should be put into consideration. Above all it should be noted that the only best way to ensure water and pool safety for young children is through adult supervision- the best way to supervise a child is by being within arms reach and engaging and interacting with your children when they are in, on, or around water. Do not let children to take care of their younger siblings.

Reference
Kebabjian, R. (1995): Disinfection of Public Pools and Management of Fecal
Accidents: Journal of Environmental Health; 58 (1): 8-12
Minnesota Department of Health (2002): Recommended Guide for the
Removal of Fecal Matter from a Swimming Pool for Consideration by Pool Owners and Operators
New South Wales Health Department (1999): Protocol for Minimising the
Risk of Cryptosporidium Contamination in Public Swimming Pools and Spa Pools
Steinenger, J. (1991): Improving Pool Sanitation; Journal of Environmental
Health; May/June 53(6): 26-28
United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (2005): Guidelines for
Entrapment Hazards: Making Pools and Spas Safer
World Health Organization (2006): Guidelines for safe recreational water environments:
Vol. 2; Swimming pools and similar environments
 

Positive and Negative Effects of Swimming and Running

 
Health in Your Choice
Swimming and running are considered as two popular activities sport. Every activity is very good; especially, both swimming and running are beneficial to your health. However, experts often analyze which has more advantages: swimming or walking? By Alex Hutchinson in “What’s better: 30 minutes of swimming or running”, he said that spending 30 minutes swimming is better than running. The thing is swimming can be better than running in some ways. Whether you are children or adult, it is a great sport that may bring more benefits than the advantages of running without having a joint or injury to the heart, and athletes lose weight safely.

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To begin with, running may have risks on knees. Most runners have heard that “You’re going to ruin your knees!” (Keri Bond 1). We cannot deny the fact that most runners often suffer trauma-related activities in their careers and lead injuries are more common in the knees. Running is a sport that has high impact, so many people such as runners do not avoid the injury during running. The article “Exercising with Osteoporosis: Stay Active the Safe Way” by Mayo Clinic staff showed that “Activities such as jumping, running or jogging can lead to fractures in weakened bones” (2). It points out that people who run suffer from stiffness in their knees. Thus, the vital reason to explain for this problem in runners’ knees is collision. According to Keri Bond in “ The Effect of Running on the Knees”, “Each time your foot makes contact with the ground, forces equaling two to four times your body weight travel upward through your lower leg, knee, thigh, hip and pelvis, and into your spine” ( 1). Therefore, the entire weight of the body will be pushed down to the knees and legs while they are running. The weight of the body makes the exposure or the impact from the knee to the ground is very big and strong, so they can make a knee injury. Thus, knees injuries may seem like elusive injure in runners. Because of knee pain or the constant impact will lead to a knee replacement, many people decide to stop running. Other runners have serious problems in using their leg throughout the rest of their life. Moreover, women’s knees are more susceptible to injury than men, because “their wider pelvis, leg alignment, joint looseness and general muscle strength” (Keri Bond 1). For this reason, women should be more cautious to prevent this injury.
Unlike running, swimming will reduce risks of knees injury. The weight of the water does not reduce the pressure on the joints eliminates the possibility of the knees and the other muscle groups take part in in activities other than strong impact. Several survey have published that swimming will bring great advantages to the knees. A study demonstrated in the “Arthritis Care Research” journal found that diseased individual in the water will implement more effective pain relief than people who practiced on the coast (1). Thus, water exercise will gain the use of knees joint help perform better. The three reasons work-out water to be good for knees. First, lot muscle groups will be used, especially the use of arm and leg muscles while swimming. Second, swimming helps build their muscle. Third, the joints will continue to operate and help them stronger thanks to the pressure from the water.
Secondly, another crucial risk of running is directly in the heart. It points out that the effort to bring about serious consequences damage to their heart. A new report was published in Mayo Clinic Proceedings suggests that the athletes put damage on their heart increase over time when they are running a long- distance. It “can cause a buildup of scar tissue on the heart, which can lead to the development of patchy myocardial fibrosis in up to 12% of marathon runner” ( O’Mara 1). For instance, “on July 20, 1984, Jim Fixx was a consummate runner- on his routine 10 mile run, he suffered a fatal heart attack” ( Ebert 1). He passed at the age of 52. Moreover, his death was not the only issue for this situation. A story about Micah True, who was the marathoner, occurred in April this year, suffered heart attacks during a race was updated in the news. Running has damaged heart of both 58-year-old man, Micah True and Jim Fixx because of heart attacks. Their heart function is reduced when the runners do stubborn exercise, as a result, it damages their heart and the risk of dying from heart attack is very possible with a runner.
Running is dangerous the heart, on the contrary, swimming is good for it. Because swimming’s activities are less demand on the heart than running, their heart rate won’t go up as high. That means “heart rate is lower by10 to 20 beats per minute” (Wellness 1). While they are swimming, the movement of the water will make the blood flow from the heart to brain better. Consequence, swimming will help to “increase the heart rate” and “improve heart health” effectively (Borboa 1). Berkeley Wellness, author of article “Why is Swimming is so Good for You,” asserted that “If you’re looking for exercise that improves heart and lung capacity, but is gentle on your joints, swimming is a top choice”. Therefore, practicing this activity 3-4 days per week can avoid the risk of heart disease and stroke. As Andre Jackson explain, “Swimming is generally regarded as a great way to help you to improve your heart rate and blood flow and to help maintain a healthy weight” (1). Thus, swimming is the best method to reduce joint problems and cardiovascular disease.
In addition, lose weight seems to be an indispensable advantage of swimming. Unlike running, swimming brings interests for the whole body and is a good choice to improve overall fitness. According to experts, swimming is a good way to lose weight by work-out result to every parts of body is operated in a flexible way from limbs to abs and back. This process requires swimmer to consume a large amount of calories, the energy loss can be transformed from fat accumulation in the body. The impact of water combined with physical activity as a massage therapist and fitness combined, all body parts and movement helps tone muscles, blood circulation, and especially burns body fats. An article “The Health Benefits of Swimming” by The Life script Editorial Staff showed that “On average, a swimmer can burn as many calories in an hour as a runner who runs six miles in one hour. Simply put, some call swimming the perfect form of exercise.” That is true because swimming is an aerobic exercise with impact and lowest pressure on the joints; it combines using muscle in the same time as the arms, legs, back, and abdomen. Consequently, the best method loses weight by swimming sports are widely applied.
However, not everyone recognized that swimming is better than running. In the article“16 Reasons Why Running is Better Than Swimming (Jennie’s Rebuttal)” by Jennie Hansen, she focuses on giving her own ideas about 16 reasons why running is better than swimming. When she is running, she sees some benefits that swimming could not bring to such as she can look and listen to everything around and breathe in the air. Her winter running clothes are better, and her hair is not gnarly. She does not pay money. Her run form does not need high level, and she will not happen something when she stop running and..etc. Thus, in her article, she only gives benefits outside of running and does not tend to swimming’s benefits about health. Her analysis about running is better swimming is not really exact. That can be true when swimming cannot bring benefits outside as running that she wants but exercise should be analyzed whether it is good or not it must base on its benefit about health. So, her ideas will be wrong when she gives a conclusion that running is better than swimming. Running can burn many calories than swimming but running fast can be the risk of knees, joints injury and heart. Besides, heat stroke can easy happen with any runner if they do not know how to control their temperature during running process.
Demonstrating the dangers of running does not mean that totally negate the benefits of itself bring for athletes. But considering risk issues in a workout, swimming is less likely to occur. Even if you have to take a little pressure from the water, it is less likely to make your heart stroke. There’s no ground impact from swimming, so it can protect your joints, maintain your breath from stress. Moreover, swimming also helps people lose weight easier. It burns lots of calories, anywhere about 590 calories per hour depending on how efficiently you swim. Many people think that running is a great method to lose weight. It is true because running will need a lot of power and burn many calories than swimming but dangers of body coccus anytime. But when you use a lot power in body, you can have to face with dangerous health. So, if you want to lose weight quickly, you can increase hours of swimming to get effective in losing weight.
Besides, because there’s no impact with swimming, swimming can be continued for a lifetime. Even if you are 93 years old, you still can swim but running has troubles in this problem. You can see this evidence in the United States Masters Swimming (http://www.usms.org/) a web site for age categories of their swim competitions. Indeed, swimming is a good exercise and brings many benefits. It can satisfy all rigorous requirements of athletes or those people want to lose weight with health’s safe. Thus, to consider running or swimming is better, you should be based on benefits and danger themselves.
Not only that, some people argue that swimming has more risks than running in exercise. First thing, swimming is not good for skin because” most swimming pools contain chlorine, a gaseous element that helps keep the pool free of bacteria and debris. Undiluted chlorine is highly toxic and caustic…..Swimming in a chlorinated pool can dry out your skin and make it feel tight and itchy because the chlorine strips your skin of its natural oils. People with sensitive skin might even get irritation or a rash from the pool’s drying effects” ( Sarah 1). Our skin often secretes organic acids to keep skin soft, smooth and protected from the harmful effects of the bacteria from the environment. The more contact with water or soak in water for too long will cause the acid leaching; making the skin becomes rough, prone to irritation and injury. Moreover, chemicals in pool water absorbs sunlight, even when it’s not sunny, we can still endured from the “harmful effects of ultraviolet rays”. This becomes more and more dangerous in the period to go swimming because the body exposed to sunlight and ultraviolet radiation. It can cause skin pigmentation, gray, dry skin, peeling, blistering and even can lead to skin cancer.
Besides, swimming is also negatively effects to the eye. When swimming, the eye often contacts direct with water, so eyes will quickly compromised by the bacteria. “The spread of conjunctivitis from pool usage because even in chemically treated water, the chlorine does not kill all the germs, nor does it kill germs instantly” (“Protecting Your Eyes in a Swimming Pool” 1) . So when they swim in pool, if germs transferred from person to person, eyes may become red, confess, and look blurred. However, despite these risks, swimming is better than running because swimming will decrease risks of knees injury, be good for heart and lose weight safe.
In conclusion, both sport swimming and running carry its own benefits itself. Although swimming brings negative effects, the risks can occur during exercise, the swimming brings fewer risks. Swimming is not only limited the risks of knee injury and heart but it also is an effective way to lose weight without using too much energy in the body like running.
Works Cited
Admin. “Does Water Polo Burn More Calories than Swimming?” Does Water Polo Burn More Calories than Swimming? Admin, n.d. Web. 20 July 2014. http://www.dietnutritionadvisor.com/does-water-polo-burn-more-calories-than-swimming>.
Bond, Keri. “The Effect of Running on the Knees.” The Effect of Running on the Knees. Keri Bond, n.d. Web. 6 Jan. 2014. http://www.livestrong.com/article/526736-running-how-it-affects-your-knees/>.
Borboa, Michele MS. “5 Best Exercises to Improve Heart Health.” 5 Best Exercises to Improve Heart Health. Michele Borboa, MS, n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2011. http://www.sheknows.com/health-and-wellness/articles/814921/5-best-exercises-to-improve-heart-health-1>.
Clinic, Mayo. “Exercising with osteoporosis: Stay active the safe way.” Exercising with Osteoporosis: Stay Active the Safe Way. Mayo Clinic, n.d. Web. 1 Jan. 2014. http://www.riversideonline.com/health_reference/Womens-Health/HQ00643.cfm>.
Ebert, Benjamin. “The Runner’s Heart.” The Runner’s Heart. Benjamin Ebert, n.d. Web. 1 Sept. 2013. http://www.runnersworld.com/injury-treatment/runners-heart>.
Jashon, Andre. “5 Key Benefits of Swimming.” 5 Key Benefits of Swimming. Andre Jashon, n.d. Web. 30 Jan. 2014. http://www.mensfitness.co.uk/exercises/3828/5-key-benefits-of-swimming>.
Metzker, Sarah Erdemir. “The Effects of Swimming on Swimmers’ Hair & Skin.” The Effects of Swimming on Swimmers’ Hair & Skin. Sarah Metzker Erdemir, n.d. Web. 19 Dec. 2013. http://www.livestrong.com/article/144066-the-effects-swimming-swimmers-hair-skin/>.
O’Mara, Kelly. “How Much Running Is Bad for Your Heart?” How Much Running Is Bad for Your Heart? Kelly O’Mara, n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. http://running.competitor.com/2012/06/news/how-much-running-is-bad-for-your-heart_54331>.
“Protecting Your Eyes in a Swimming Pool.” Protecting Your Eyes in a Swimming Pool. Eye Health, n.d. Web. 3 July 2014. http://www.uptowneyecare.com/eyes-swimming-pool/>.
Wellness, Berkeley. “Why Swimming Is so Good for You.” Why Swimming Is so Good for You. Berkeley Wellness, n.d. Web. 1 Aug. 2011. http://www.berkeleywellness.com/fitness/active-lifestyle/article/why-swimming-so-good-you>.
William, Travis. “Exercise Can Help Your Joint Pain and Athritis.” Exercise Can Help Your Joint Pain and Athritis. Travis William, n.d. Web. 1 Jan. 2014. http://www.mdmh.org/getpage.php?name=William_Exercise_can_help_joint_pain_arthritis>.
 

Literature Review On Swimming Physical Education Essay

As in many sports, swimming technique is most important to performance. The smooth and perfect in the process of movement, whether stroking through the water, lifting weights or swinging a club, relates to enhanced performance and decrease in change of injury. (Riewald 2003). To swim fast, a swimmer must engage in a constant battle of trying to maximize the propulsive force he experiences. Swimmers adopt many different techniques in an attempt to accomplish this feat; sometimes these techniques are good, other times not so good. Technique also plays a role in injury prevention, as poor mechanics often place stresses on joints and structures in the body that they were not meant to handle. (Riewald 2003)

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2.2 Components of Swim Performance
The factors that can influence swimming performance can be classified into three categories which are the psychological factor, physiological and biomechanical factor. The psychological is the main factor that contributes to swim enhancement of performance. The field of physiological and biomechanical also makes up a huge portion to influence swim performance. These complex areas are important to be study in order to establish a meaningful relationship of speed and power in swim performance.
2.3 Physiology of Swimming
For the past 30 years, the physiology of swimming has been explored extensively. Many areas of the physiology contribute to several studies. Swimming, like other forms of exercise, involves the muscle contraction that results in a desired motor output. In order to produce a movement, skeletal muscles must stimulate via nervous impulse. Muscular contraction causes by this impulse. While the movement of the joint results from the muscle pull on bone structures. In swimming, these movements if often occur especially among competitive swimmers (McArdle 2003).
The studies of physiology on competitive swimmers become popular after the 1960’s (Lavoie, 2004). The study begins to focus on association between energy expenditure and velocity. At that time, it belief that a exponential relationship existed within energy cost and swimming velocity. Later, Montpetit (2001) discover that this is actually a linear relationship. Lacour (2003) reported that the energy cost of swimming is closely depended on swimming technique, body size, swimming velocity and level of performance. It concludes that as resistance increases, swimming velocity will also increase. This major discover demonstrates that the importance to overcome resistance physically over a given distance in a certain period of time.
Nervous system and muscular force is other physiological factors that important to swimming performance. The nervous system plays an important role in swimming performance because it helps to determine how quickly and forcefully a movement takes place. It is also the precursor of the movement. As a swimmers practice the same movement repeatedly, it become an adaptation and the movement pattern is remembered by the brain. The result or the end of the practice is an increase in the efficiency of the movement. Due training, it can improve the force of movement by causing an increase in the recruitment of motor units (Katch 2006). The larger motor units recruited, the more muscle fibers will be contracted. Contracting muscle fibers will increase systematically as the muscle force increases. Training can cause increased innervations to a group of muscles which can improve speed of contraction and recruitment of muscles (Maglischo 2003).
Proper nervous stimulation and size of the muscle will produce the muscular force. Specific type of training can cause increase the size of the muscle or better known as hypertrophy and thus more powerful strength can be produce via motor output. This absolute strength is determined by its cross sectional area (Zatsiorsky 2005). The larger the muscle, the greater the force produced. However, increase in the muscle size and muscle mass also can have adverse effects on biomechanical of the swimmer which by the increasing contractile force at certain level. It is a serious matter to look upon when considering the training especially to the competitive swimmers, to well known of how much strength that increases will be beneficial and not beneficial to them. Since the two components of power are strength and speed, it is vital focus to improve strength in order to create potential of more power.
2.4 Biomechanics of Swimming
Biomechanics is interesting area of study because this area of study shows much potential to enhance the swim performance. 10% increase in swimming technique provided increase over a range of performance rather than maximal aerobic and anaerobic power (Toussaint and Hollander 2004). Toussaint and Beek (2002) reported that the success for competitive swimmers relies on swimmers aptitude to produce force and to decrease resistance which to encountered during forward movement in the water.
Logically, water is denser than air. Therefore, swimmers will encounter more resistance when attempting the movement. Besides that, as the rate of velocity decreases, there is a proportional decrease in the resistance of the water. Resistance of the water is at the top area of the swimmers that against water as the body move through it. Drag, is the motion of resistance to the swimmers. (Malinlisho 2003). There are two type of drag which are passive and active drag. Passive drag is described as the resistance on the swimmers body in a static position (Chatard 2000). While active drag is the resistance of water that against the moving body. Measurement of the active drag is reported slightly higher than passive drag (Kolmogorov, Rumyantseva, Gordon & Cappaert 2007).
It is important to note that of the two types of drag, passive drag cannot be altered and it is constant speed, but increases a higher velocity. Passive drag is an important factor in the speed of the swimmer from a start or a turn off of a wall. The less passive drag a swimmer has, the more slowly they will lose momentum. Passive drag is related to the frontal surface area of an individual. Passive drag has been reported to be a factor that can contribute to the prediction of swimming performance (Chatard and Lacour 2000).
Velocity of swimming has been associated with drag, power input and power output (Toussaint & Beek 2002). Active drag can be modified on efficiency based on technique of swimming action (Toussaint 2002). Clarys (2003) stated that predominant factor in active drag was the swimming technique. It also stated that measurements of active drag on elite swimmers are lower than non- elite swimmers. While study by Kolmogorov (2007) reported that active drag for freestyle was less compared to breastroke swimming. It also reported that mechanical power output for skilled swimmer is lesser than mechanical power output in less skilled swimmers. This assumed because of the cost of swimming for an elite swimmer is much lower than a non-elite swimmer.
The more biomechanically efficient a swimmer is, the less energy requires swimming at faster rate of speed (Toussaint 2002). Further, as increase in velocity, the resistance of the water will also increase. Swimmers with more active drag have to produce more force on the water to go a certain speed and vice versa. (Maglischo 2003). The level of the athletes, anthropometric measures, velocity and swimming efficiency are related to the cost of swimming. These costs are similar either in men neither women that given similar relative measures (Chatard 2001) Chatard (2000) also stated that passive drag is determining by the frontal body area which can influence performance.
Other factor that is related to the biomechanics of swimming is the length of the swimmer. Larsen, Yanchen and Baer (2000) reported that, having length is one of the reasons why successful competitive swimmer is taller in height compared to others. Length of the swimmer will lesser their drag in the water. Further, successful swimmers achieve greater distance per stroke than less skilled swimmers (Craig 2005). Distance per stroke and stroke rate somehow is controlled by swimming velocity. Distance per stroke is best defined as the distance traveled in the water by a swimmer with each arm pull. And stroke rate is frequency of how fast the arms can move. Faster swimmers in freestyle had a longer distance per stroke and maintaining a slower stroke rate (Craig and colleagues 2005).
An experience swimmer can control their speed by maintaining certain distance per stroke in increasing stroke rate or in maintaining stage. It has been described above that the length of a swimmer having less drag is apparent with the longer distance per stroke also spent more time with their arms outstretched. This action will influence drag for a short period of time due to increase of the swimmer length. Furthermore, it is important to know that power is an important determinant in enhancement of swimming performance. There are two components of power which are the speed and force. Swimmer will not have the ability to produce as much force on water if they move their arms too quickly. It clearly shows the relationship between stroke rate and the optimal distance per stroke.
2.5 The Relationship of Power to Swim Performance
Power is classified as one of five determinants of swimming performance, and the others are metabolism (power input), drag, propelling efficiency and gross efficiency (Toussaint 2002). Specifically, power can be defined as Power = Force x Velocity (Harman 2004). Many investigators have noted the importance of power that demonstrated a positive relationship between power and sprint swim performance (Bradshaw & Hoyle, 2003).
Christensen and smith (2007) reported that power measured is a significant contributor to swimming performance and that sprint speed that is related to stroking arm force. Sprint swimming performance influences by the ability to produce power in an efficient manner and utilization of power specifically in the swimming action. (Costill 2003). Costill (2005) later discover that improvements in swimming were found strongly related with power production, both in measures of power in the water and on land. Sharp (2006) suggested that the ability to produce power plays a positive role in swimming performance if swimmer undergo specific training that can increase power. The peak swimming power is significantly correlated with sprint swimming velocity (Boelk 2007).
Powerful Swimmer is often faster (Malischo 2003). He suggested that swimming with specific training technique will increase power. These technique, are performing in short duration with high intensity bouts of swimming where the focus on producing the most powerful movement with the correct form. For some swimmers, power training may be beneficial and most important type of training (Bompa 1993). He concludes this by establishing a relationship between power and the importance of being able to maintain the increased power throughout the race.
2.5 Methods to Increase Power
Plenty types of training that can be employed to improve power. Most of the swim coaches use specific swimming exercises, such as all-out sprints for a short distance to improve swimming power (Maglischo 2003). Other types of training that have shown increased power production include dry land exercises such as weight training and plyometric training (Bompa 1993).
In contemporary swim training, the training program for competitive swimmers often includes dry land exercises. In comparison to the load during actual swimming these exercises should provide a greater resistance to the working muscles and hence increase maximal power output more effectively. However, as indicated earlier, the body adapts to adequately cope with the specific forms of exercise stress applied. This adaptive process is rather specific requiring for example that movement pattern during the strength training is similar to that during competitive swimming. It is known for quite some time that the movement patterns of the different swimming strokes are difficult to reproduce outside the water and thus any training effect may only partially, if at all, carry over to the competitive performance (Toussaint 2007)
Propelling muscle is where the power output delivered by swimmer. In this propelling muscle, mechanical power are converted from the aerobic and anaerobic power input. (Toussaint and Beek 1992)
 

Review Of Freestyle Swimming Physical Education Essay

Freestyle is the fastest of the four competitive swimming strokes, and is probably the stroke that most people are familiar with. The athlete swims freestyle in the prone (face down) position, propelling himself with the arms, which pull in an alternating pattern, accompanied by a flutter kick. (Riewald 2003).Athletes and coaches have a strong desire to be the best in competitive swimming. Over the years, researchers have been recruited to study, examine and research training methods that will lead to enhancement in swimming performance. Not surprisingly, various area of swimming and many considerations had been examined. Those studies are in energy system, technical proficiency and training volume.

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In swimming, technique is of utmost importance to performance. Efficiency in the process of movement, whether stroking through the water, lifting weights or swinging a club relates to the improvement in performance and a decrease in chance of injury. However, to swim faster, swimmer cannot simply focus on the time they want to swim. Instead, swimmer need to work on improving the technique and physiological capacity (Riewald 2003)
Generally, swimming performance is determined by the swimmer’s physiology (capacity for energy output, metabolic processes), morphology, neuromuscular properties and psychological profile (Toussaint and Beek 1992). Performance in swimming requires the full deployment of all powers a swimmer process. The development of those power require years of hard training. (Toussaint 2007) Several factors determinants performance includes drag, propulsion technique and mechanical power (Toussaint and Truijens 2005). Swimming fast will depend on the ability to produce a high mechanical power output enabling the generation of high propulsive forces, the ability to produce drag, while keeping power losses to pushed away water low (swimming with a high propulsive efficiency).
Essential performance is determining factors in free style swimming can be analyzed within a biomechanical framework, in reference to the physiological basis of performance. These factors include: active drag forces, effective propulsive forces, propelling efficiency and power output. The success of the swimmer is determined by the ability to generate propulsive force, while reducing the resistance to forward motion. (Toussaint and Beek 1992)
Dynamic strength is an important determinant of swimming performance. Studies have found that muscular strength and power output correlate highly with swim velocity over distances ranging from 23 to 400m. Also, swim and swim-specific resistance training (e.g. bio-kinetic swim bench training, reverse current hydro channel swimming and in-water devices that the athlete push off from while swimming) improves a competitive swimmer’s velocity in events up to 200m. This training can result in improved stroke mechanics, such as stroke force and distance per stroke. Research tends to conclude that mechanics may be more important in determining velocity and swim success than upper body strength. (Tanaka and Swensen 1998)
Powers and Howley (2007) stated that power is the result combination of force and time or the ability to produce force rapidly. Logically, swimming time can be decreased if swimmer can apply more force in the water (fast rate of 85% or more). In becomes important to determine the ways in which force and speed can be improved in an efficient manner since force and speed define power.
Swimming power especially lower body strength has been demonstrated to be crucial to success in sprint swimming. 80% of one’s performance in a 25-m front crawl sprint result from the swimmer’s strength component is less. At 100,200 and 400m, the contribution of muscular strength drops to 74, 72 and 58%, respectively. During slow, low-intensity swimming most of the muscle force is generated by slow twitch fibers. As the muscle tension requirements increase, the fast twitch fibers are incorporated. In sprint events (50-200m) demanding maximal strength, the second group of fast fibers sets in. The tendency is that the swimmers have higher percentage of slow twitch muscle fibers in their shoulder and particularly muscular deltoid. However, muscle fiber composition appears not to be a deciding factor in successful competition. Swimming is performed almost totally with concentric contractions (Costill, Maglischo and Richarson 1992)
The effective way to increase power in competitive swimmers is through dry land training (Magill 2007). Magill 2007 reported that increase in power results from increase in maximal strength and nervous system recruitment through weight training. Further, it is also believed that to compliment resistance exercise in weight training is because of the components of power. Speed and strength are the components of power (Powers & Howley 2007).
Problem Statement
The relationship between swimming power and swimming performance has been established. Therefore, with this relationship, in becomes necessary to study and search the most efficient means to increase power. This can be done by performing specific swimming exercise in land, which is through strength training and through plyometric training. It is believed that plyometric training and weight training can benefit the swimming performance of male competitive swimmers. This is predicting to occur due to the noticeable increase in muscular strength and power. The increase in power should improve the reaction time and improvements in stabilization that can directly enhance the swimming performance.
Purpose of the Study
To acquire data on the relationship of speed and power in swim performance based on two component which are leg speed and leg power with fitness testing since previous study that investigate the relationship of speed and power in swim performance only focus on the upper body of the swimmers.
Objectives
This study is concerned with the examination of the correlation study in swimming performance test results with fitness testing among adolescent age 17 to 18 years old. Based on the statement of the problem and the background of the study, the following below are the objective of the study:
To identify strength of relationship between leg power and swimming performance of male adolescent swimmers.
To identify the significance of relation between leg power and leg strength that will influence the swimming performance.
To evaluate the efficacy of speed in improving swimming performance based on 10m flatter kick test performance among male adolescent swimmers.
To evaluate the efficacy of strength in improving swimming performance based on wall squat test performance among male adolescent swimmers.
Delimitation
The result of this study is restricted to a number of delimitations:
Participants will be only male participants.
Participants aged in the range of 17-18 years old.
Using 10-m sprint test suggested by Delextrat & Cohen (2008).
No motivational factors influence the participants during the test.
The data will be analyzed individually.
This study also due to the restrictions imposed by time and cost.
Limitation:
The result of this study is restricted to a number of limitations:
Participants mortality
Differences in body composition of the participants may affect the testing result.
Injury prior to the test.
1.7 Research Assumption
All the test selection is a valid and reliable instrument for evaluation.
All participants that will participate in this study meet the requirements.
The participants understood about the procedure and direction of the test
All participants having the same fitness level.
Hypotheses
The hypotheses of this study are as follows:
There is no significance difference in 10m flatter kick of swim performance on male adolescent swimmers.
There is no significance difference in vertical jump of power performance on male adolescent swimmers.
There is no significant difference in wall squat of strength performance on male adolescent swimmers.
There is no significance difference in relationship of leg power and swim performance on male adolescent swimmers.
Justification of Research
This study is attempted that if dry land exercise is performed by manner which is specific to the competitive swimming, it will be an improvement in swimming performance due to the increasing power of an individual. The positive outcome in developing speed is mainly from the applied form of dry land training.
Significant of Study
This study tries to investigate whether there is a relationship between speed and power on swimming performance. The result of this study will help to serve a useful guide to coaches, teachers, and parents and also the administration incorporate to improve their athlete’ performance in sports.
This research study hoped to demonstrate that the relationship between speed and power on swimming performance will develop future planning for swimming training that will emphasize more on important fitness components. It also will helps to design and make a variation of training program that will increase interest of this sport and improve their swim performance. This study hopes to develop and improve the level of physical fitness among young participant. Besides that, it also helps the swimming academy to produce and identified a young talent for sports. It also helps to design and make a variation of training program to increase the athlete’s interest to improve their fitness level and participating in sports.
Operational Term
Club Swimmers- A social club sport for swimmers of all abilities.
Dry land training – Is a form of strength training.
Speed – The ability to move from one point to another in a straight line as minimum time as possible as being tested with 10-m sprint test.
Strength – Ability of a muscle or muscle group to exert force against a resistance as being evaluated using wall squat.
Power – The product of force and velocity as being tested with standing vertical jump.
Swimming Performance -Tendency to infer one’s ability through self-evaluation processes.
 

General Swimming Fitness Testing

Science can help fine tune the athlete, as in the end even a few hundredths of a second often decide the result of races. An exercise physiologist, strength coach or fitness trainer uses the science of muscle physiology and training to prepare the swimmer physically for their competition.
There are many aspects to a race, and the training needs to address each of these. The muscles should be prepared to enable the quickest reaction time at the start. The swimmer must have the strength and power for a powerful explosive start, and quick and powerful turn, while also possessing the stamina (aerobic endurance) to maintain their speed in the throughout the race. The importance of each of these physical aspects of the swimmer depends on the race distance and technique.

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Strength training should address the specific muscles used, such as the gluteus maximus and quadriceps which are important at the start and at each turn. The shoulder, chest and back muscles – which generate about 85% of the swimmers power, are also critical. While in the kick, the hamstring and quadricep muscles maintain body balance and the horizontal body position.
Fitness Tests
Fitness is a vitally important component of success in swimming. There are many components of fitness that make up a good swimmer, importance of each of these depends on the race distance and stroke. The fitness tests used to test a swimmer should also reflect the range fitness components, and the interpretation of the results should also be relative to the importance of each of these attributes.
Body Size and Shape – swimmers are usually tall and relatively lean. Some body fat is not a hindrance as it can add to buoyancy in the water. The usual anthropometric measures for swimmers would include:
1.1 height,
procedure: measurement the maximum distance from the floor to the highest point on the head, when the subject is facing directly ahead. Shoes should be off, feet together, and arms by the sides. Heels, buttocks and upper back should also be in contact with the wall.
equipment required: stadiometer or steel ruler placed against a wall
reliability: Height measurement can vary throughout the day, being higher in the morning, so it should be measured at the same time of day each time.
advantages: low costs, quick test
other comments: height or lack of height is an important attribute for many sports.
1.2 weight,
purpose: measuring body mass can be valuable for monitoring body fat or muscle mass changes, or for monitoring hydration level.
equipment required: Scales, which should be calibrated for accuracy using weights authenticated by a government department of weights and measures.
procedure: the person stands with minimal movement with hands by their side. Shoes and excess clothing should be removed.
reliability: To improve reliability, weigh routinely in the morning (12 hours since eating). Body weight can be affected by fluid in the bladder (weigh after voiding the bladder). Other factors to consider are the amount of food recently eaten, hydration level, the amount of waste recently expelled from the body, recent exercise and clothing. If you are monitoring changes in body mass, try and weigh at the same time of day, under the same conditions, and preferably with no clothes on. Always compare using the same set of scales.
advantages: quick and easy measurement when testing large groups, with minimal costs.
other comments: measuring weight can be used as a measure of changes in body fat, but as it does not take into account changes in lean body mass it is better to use other methods of body composition measurement
1.3 sitting height,
procedure: Sitting height gives a measure of the length of the trunk. It is a measurement of the distance from the highest point on the head to the base sitting surface. The subject sits with both feet on the floor, the lower back and shoulders against the wall, looking straight ahead. Distance can be measured from the floor, and the height of the box measured and subtracted from the total distance.
equipment required: stadiometer or ruler placed against a wall, box or chair.
reliability: Height measurement can vary throughout the day, being higher in the morning, so should be measured at a consistent time of day.
advantages: low costs, quick test
other comments: Upper body length or proportionally long legs is an important attribute for many sports.
1.4 arm span,
Arm span measurement is a simple measure that is important in the anthropometrical profiling of athletes in many sports in which reach is important, such as rowing and basketball. See also the related arm length measure, which is the length of each individual arm.
purpose: To measure arm length, as long arms may be advantageous for some sports which involve reaching and tackling.
equipment required: ruler or tape measure, wall.
procedure: facing away from the wall, with back and buttocks touching the arms are stretched out horizontally. Measure from one furthermost finger tip to the other.
results: The arm length measures can be compared to the person’s height. On average, arm span should be about equal to height. By subtracting a measurement for shoulder widthfrom this measurement you can get a measure of average arm length.
advantages: very low cost, simple and quick test
other comments: It is important for the subject to fully stretch to get the maximum reach, and that the arms are held exactly horizontally. To assist in keeping the outstretched arms horizontal, use a wall that has horizontal lines already on it such as a brick wall. Also measure out from a corner or wall protrusion so that one hand can be stable and all measurements are away from it.
1.5 hand span,
purpose: The size of the hand is advantageous for some sports which involve catching, gripping or tackling.
equipment required: flat surface and ruler or tape measure
procedure: The hand is placed palm down on a flat surface. The fingers are outstretched as far as possible. Measure the linear distance between the outside of the thumb to the outside of the little finger.
advantages: very low cost, simple and quick test
other comments: this test is used at the AFL Draft Camp
1.6 body fat using skinfold measures.
procedure: Estimation of body fat by skinfold thickness measurement. Measurement can use from 3 to 9 different standard anatomical sites around the body. The right side is usually only measured (for consistency). The tester pinches the skin at the appropriate site to raise a double layer of skin and the underlying adipose tissue, but not the muscle. The calipers are then applied 1 cm below and at right angles to the pinch, and a reading in millimeters (mm) taken two seconds later. The mean of two measurements should be taken. If the two measurements differ greatly, a third should then be done, then the median value taken.
the sites: there are many common sites at which the skinfold pinch can be taken. See the descriptions and photographs of each skinfold site.
results: Because of the increased errors involved, it is usually not appropriate to convert skinfold measures to percentage body fat (%BF). It is best to use the sum of several sites to monitor and compare body fat measures. In order to satisfy those who want to calculate a percentage body fatmeasure, there is a sample of equations for calculating this here. Below is a table of general guidelines for using total sum (in millimeters) of the seven main skinfold sites (tricep, bicep,subscap, supraspinale, abdominal, thigh, calf). There are also examples of some actual athlete results.

excellent
good
average
below average
poor
Normal
Male
60-80
81-90
91-110
111-150
150+
Female
70-90
91-100
101-120
121-150
150+
Athletic
Male
40-60
61-80
81-100
101-130
130+
Female
50-70
71-85
86-110
111-130
130+
equipment required: skinfold calipers (e.g. Harpenden, Holtain, Slimglide, Lange). These should be calibrated for correct jaw tension and gap width.
target population: suitable for all populations, though it is sometimes difficult to get reliable measurements with obese people.
validity: using skinfold measurements is not a valid predictor of percent body fat, however they can be used as a monitoring device to indicate changes in body composition over time. It is important to maintain correct calibration of the calipers (more about calibrating calipers)
reliability: the reliability of skinfold measurements can vary from tester to tester depending on their skill and experience. There are accreditation courses available through ISAK.
advantages: Skinfold measurements are widely utilized to assess body composition. It is a lot simpler than hydrostatic weighing and many of the other body composition techniques. After the original outlay for calipers, the daily tests costs are minimal.
other considerations: some subjects may feel uncomfortable stripping down in front of the tester, therefore every effect should be made to make them feel comfortable. For legal reasons, it is wise to have another person present, and to have females testers for female subjects. The right side measurement is standard, though in some situations you may need to test someone on the left side. If so, you must record this and endeavor to always test on the same side for that person. Reasons for testing on the left side may include injuries, amputation, deformities, or other medical conditions.
Reaction Time – the start can be very important, particularly over short distance events. The body’s physical reaction time is not something that can usually be trained, though starting practice, technique and improvements in power can improve a swimmers start.
Strength and Power – strength and power are important for a powerful explosive start off the blocks, and for quick and powerful turns.
3.1 A vertical jump test is best to measure the explosive power of the legs.
This procedure describes the method used for directly measuring the vertical jump height jumped. There are also timing systems that measure the time of the jump and from that calculate the vertical jump height.
equipment required: measuring tape or marked wall, chalk for marking wall (or Vertec or jump mat).
procedure (see also variations below): the athlete stands side on to a wall and reaches up with the hand closest to the wall. Keeping the feet flat on the ground, the point of the fingertips is marked or recorded. This is called the standing reach height. The athlete then stands away from the wall, and leaps vertically as high as possible using both arms and legs to assist in projecting the body upwards. The jumping technique can or cannot use a countermovement (see vertical jump technique). Attempt to touch the wall at the highest point of the jump. The difference in distance between the standing reach height and the jump height is the score. The best of three attempts is recorded.
variations: The vertical jump test can also be performed using a specialized apparatus called the Vertec. The procedure when using the Vertec is very similar to as described above. Jump height can also be measured using a jump mat which measures the displacement of the hips. To be accurate, you must ensure the feet land back on the mat with legs nearly fully extended. Vertical jump height can also be measured using a timing mat. The vertical jump test is usually performed with a counter movement, where there is bending of the knees immediately prior to the jump. The test can also be performed as a squat jump, starting from the position of knees being bent. Other test variations are to perform the test with no arm movement (one hand on hip, the other raised above the head) to isolate the leg muscles and reduce the effect of variations in coordination of the arm movements. The test can also be performed off one leg, with a step into the jump, or with a run-up off two feet or one foot, depending on the relevance to the sport involved. For more details see vertical jump technique.
scoring: The jump height is usually recorded as a distance score. The table below provides a ranking scale for adult athletes based on my observations, and will give a general idea of what is a good score. For more information, see a selection of vertical jump test results. It is also possible to convert jump height into a power or work score.
rating
males (inches)
males
(cm)
females (inches)
females
(cm)
excellent
> 28
> 70
> 24
> 60
very good
24 – 28
61-70
20 – 24
51-60
above average
20 – 24
51-60
16 – 20
41-50
average
16 – 20
41-50
12 – 16
31-40
below average
12 – 16
31-40
8 – 12
21-30
poor
8 – 12
21-30
4 – 8
11-20
very poor
advantages: this test is simple and quick to perform.
disadvantages: technique plays a part in maximizing your score, as the subject must time the jump so that the wall is marked at the peak of the jump.
comments: The jump height can be affected by how much you bend your knees before you jump, and the effective use of the arms. The test is also sometimes incorrectly spelled as the “Sergeant” or “Sargent” Test.
history: This method described above for measuring a person’s vertical jump height is sometimes known as a Sargent Jump, named after Dudley Sargent, who was one of the pioneers in American physical education.
3.2 Upper body strength can be measured using Bench Press 1RM or 3RM tests.
This is a specific repetition maximum (RM) test for the upper body (see the general description of 1RM fitness tests).
purpose: to measure maximum strength of the chest muscle groups.
equipment required: Bench with safety, bar and various free weights.
procedure: The subject should perform an adequate warm up. An example would be to warm up with 5-10 reps of a light-to-moderate weight, then after a minute rest perform two heavier warm-up sets of 2-5 reps, with a two-minute rest between sets. The subject should then rest two to four minutes, then perform the one-rep-max attempt with proper technique. If the lift is successful, rest for another two to four minutes and increase the load 5-10%, and attempt another lift. If the subject fails to perform the lift with correct technique, rest two to four minutes and attempt a weight 2.5-5% lower. Keep increasing and decreasing the weight until a maximum left is performed. Selection of the starting weight is crucial so that the maximum lift is completed within approximately five attempts after the warm-up sets. See the Bench Press Example Videos.
1 Rep Max Bench Press Table for adults
(weight lifted per bodyweight)
Rating
Score
(per body weight)
Excellent
> 1.60
Good
1.30 – 1.60
Average
1.15 – 1.29
Below Average
1.00 – 1.14
Poor
0.91 – 0.99
Very Poor
scoring: the maximum weight lifted is recorded. To standardize the score it may be useful to calculate a score proportional to the person’s bodyweight. The sequence of lifts should also be recorded as these can be used in subsequent tests to help in determining the starting lifts. See the table for general guidelines for interpreting the results. These ratings are for both males and females – as females are generally a smaller frame, there are expected to lift a lower actual weight to score an average rating etc. These scores are based on my personal experiences. There are also some athlete results for this test.
advantages: the required equipment is readily available in most gymnasiums, and the test is simple to perform.
disadvantages: This test should only be performed by those experienced at performing the bench press lift with good technique. Good technique will also enable the lifter to maximize their score.
comments: For safety, a spotter should stand at the head of the bench throughout the test. The results of this test may be specific to the equipment used (height of bench, variations in weights), so is best to use the same equipment for test-retest measures. The warm up procedure should also be recorded and repeated with further testing. If any variation in technique was allowed, this should be recorded on the results sheet for referral when the test is repeated. The test is also called one rep max, 1-RM, and one repetition maximum.
variations / modifications: Sometimes a three or five repetition maximum is used, particularly for less experienced lifters. These greater reps would require less weight and may be considered less dangerous. Changing the number of repetition also changes the muscle energy systems and validity of this test.
Anaerobic Capacity – The sprint swimming events rely heavily on the anaerobic system. The anaerobic system response to swimming can be measured by taking blood lactate measures after races and and training sets. You could also look at speed drop off during a maximal 6 x 50m set with short recovery, somewhat like this anaerobic sprint fatigue test.
purpose: this is a test of anaerobic capacity, the ability to recover between sprints and produce the same level of power repeatedly.
equipment required: 2 stopwatches, measuring tape,marker cones, at least 50 meter track.
procedure: marker cones and lines are placed 30 meters apart to indicate the sprint distance. Two more cones placed a further 10 meters on each end. At the instructions of the timer, the subject places their foot at the starting line, then on ‘go’ two stopwatches are started simultaneously, and the subject sprints maximally for 30m, ensuring that they do not slow down before reaching the end. One stopwatch is used to time the sprint, the other continues to run. Record the time. The subjects use the 10 meter cone to slow down and turn, and return to the 30m finishing point. The next sprint will be in the oposite direction. The next 30 meter sprint starts 30 seconds after the first started. This cycle continues until 10 sprints are completed, starting at 30 sec, 1 min, 1.5 min, 2 min etc after the start of the first sprint.
scoring: The fatigue index is calculated by taking the average speed of the first three trials and dividing it by the average speed of the last three trials. This will give a value approximately between 75 and 95%. Use the table below to determine the rating.
Rating
Fatigue Index
Excellent
> 89%
Good
85-89 %
Average
80-84%
Poor
target population: suitable for athletes involved in many multi-sprint sports such as basketball, hockey, rugby, soccer, AFL.
Endurance – aerobic capacity is important for a swimmer to maintain a high rate throughout the race, particularly the longer distance events. Land based endurance tests (e.g. treadmill VO2max) can be used, though specific swimming tests are more relevant, such as the Shuttle Swim Test or the more comprehensive Swimming Step Test.
Maximal Oxygen Consumption Test (VO2max)
The VO2max test is the criterion measure of aerobic power in athletes. Described here is the method to measure VO2max directly. Many other aerobic fitness tests estimate VO2max score from their results. See the other tests of Aerobic Endurance.
equipment required: Oxygen and carbon dioxide analyzers, ergometer on which workload may be modified, stopwatch. Expired air may be collected and volume measured via Douglas bags or a Tissot tank, or measured by a pnuemotach or turbine ventilometer.
procedure: Exercise is performed on an appropriate ergometer (treadmill, cycle, swim bench). The exercise workloads are selected to gradually progress in increments from moderate to maximal intensity. Oxygen uptake is calculated from measures oxygen and carbon dioxide in the expired air and minute ventilation, and the maximal level is determined at or near test completion (seeVO2max videos)
scoring: Results are presented as either l/min (liters per minute) or ml/kg/min (mls of oxygen per kilogram of body weight per minute). The athlete is considered to have reached their VO2max if several of the following occurred: a plateau or ‘peaking over’ in oxygen uptake, maximal heart rate was reached, attainment of a respiratory exchange ratio of 1.15 or greater, and volitional exhaustion. See also the Adult VO2max norm values.
target population: Any sport in which aerobic endurance is a component, such as distance runners, cross country skiiers, rowers, triathlon, cycling.
advantages: This test directly measures body oxygen consumption, which many other aerobic fitness tests try to estimate. You can also get direct measurement of maximum heart rate by recording heart rate during the test.
disadvantages: Relatively time consuming and high costs involved for each test
other comments: There is often variability between the performance of different analysis systems. Stringent calibration is necessary for both the expired gas and ventilation measurement systems.
caution: This test is a maximal test, which requires a reasonable level of fitness. It is not recommended for recreational athletes or people with health problems, injuries or low fitness levels.
5.2 10 meter Multistage Shuttle Swim Test (MSST).
This test is a variation on the Beep Test, or shuttle run, called the 10 meter Multistage Shuttle Swim Test (MSST). This test has been developed by sport scientists in Western Australia, for the assessment of aerobic fitness of competitive water polo players. See also the Water Polo Intermittent Shuttle Test (WIST).
purpose: To test the aerobic fitness of water polo players
equipment required: swimming pool, test cd, cd player.
procedure: This test is a variation on the established testing protocol for the running shuttle test, but specific for water polo players and carried out in a pool. The subjects swim a 10-meter distance at a progressively increasing speed until volitional exhaustion. The test starts at 0.9 m/s, and increases by 0.05 m/sec every stage. Each stage lasts approximately one minute and the shuttles are signalled by an audio cue.
scoring: The athlete’s score is the level and number of shuttles reached before they were unable to keep up with the recording.
target population: It is a test of aerobic fitness for competitive water polo players. The test is suitable for all players (male and female) ranging from school/club standard through to international level.
reliability: In the published research paper, test-retest reliability was determined using a sample of 22 female and 22 male water polo players. An intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.99 (p>0.05) was calculated between the two test scores. The technical error of measurement for the test was 2.3 shuttles or 5.0%.
validity: A validation correlation coefficient of 0.88 was found between the number of shuttles completed during the MSST and VO2max measured during an incremental tethered swim test to exhaustion. A stepwise multiple regression revealed that VO2max accounted for approximately 78% of the MSST variance.
advantages: The test allows a whole team to have their aerobic fitness effectively assessed using minimal time and pool space.
disadvantages: As with the running beep test, practice and motivation levels can influence the score attained, and the scoring can be subjective.
5.3 swim step test
The 7 x 200m swim step test is a very comprehensive swimming-specific physiological test. It is used to monitor training and improvements in aerobic conditioning. For information about aerobic stepping tests, see Step Tests.
purpose: To test fitness parameters during a standard swimming.
equipment required: a swimming pool (25m or 50m), pool pace clock, stopwatch, equipment for blood lactate testing, heart rate monitor.
procedure: All 200m swims are conducted at an even pace (even 50m splits), on 6 minutes (starting every new set exactly six minutes after the start of the previous one). The test is conducted using the swimmer’s specialist stroke (ie freestyle, backstroke, breaststroke). The swimming target time for each swimmer is based on age or intensity. For seniors, the last 200m is swum at maximum heart rate, and each 200m preceding this is at 10 bpm below the one before. For young age groupers, each swim is related to their personal best (PB), such that (for males): 1st 200m = PB +24 secs, 2nd 200m = PB +20 secs, 3rd 200m = PB +16 secs, 4th 200m = PB +12 secs, 5th 200m = PB + 8 secs, 6th 200m = PB pace, 7th 200m = Goal PB pace. For female swimmers the targets are 4 seconds less for swims 1 to 5.
measurements: Record all splits and total times, and stroke rate. At the end of each swim, record RPE (rate of perceived exertion on a scale of 1 to 20), heart rate, and at 3 minutes after each swim measure lactate.
results: Calculate average pace, heart rate, stroke rate, strokes per length. Use the results to plot heart rate/velocity curves or lactate/velocity curves. Changes in these over time are used to monitor changes in swimming specific aerobic conditioning. A measure of anaerobic threshold can be determined from these graphs.
target population: It is a test for swimmers. The test is appropriate for experienced swimmers (male and female), who have good pacing ability.
reliability: this test relies on good pacing ability of the swimmers. Practice will improve this, as well improve the reliability of results.
advantages: the comprehensive measures provide great feedback to the coach and swimmer.
disadvantages: The equipment and assistants required make this a costly and time consuming test.
comments: this test requires plenty of assistance, having one data collector per swimmer would be ideal.
Health – lung function is obviously important for the swimmer, and checks should be make to check that the lungs are healthy and functioning to their full capacity. See lung function tests.
procedure: The usual measures of lung function are of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expired volume in 1 second (FEV1). These can be measured with a full maximal expiration. Explain to the subject that they must fill their lungs completely, seal their lips around the mouthpiece, and empty their lungs as hard and fast as possible. The best of two trials is usually recorded.
equipment required: Spirometer (e.g. Vitalograph)
interpretation: Lung function tests are of little value for predicting fitness and exercise performance, provided that the values fall within a normal range. You must always take into consideration that lung volumes vary with age, sex and body size (especially height).
disadvantages: this test requires expensive equipment that is not always available. A simple inexpensive measure of lung function is the peak flow test.
Swimming Specific Fitness Tests
Fitness testing for swimming usually includes training or race type test, such as 8 x 200m step test, in which heart rate, blood lactate, split times, stroke rate and perceived exertion are recorded.
Here are some other fitness tests related to swimming:
Swimming Beep Test – water based multi-stage beep test.
Swimming Step Test – a very comprehensive swimming-specific physiological test
Shuttle swim test – a shuttle endurance swimming test like the running beep test that was designed for water polo players.
1 km swim – a 1 km swim designed for testing triathletes.
500yd / 450m Swim Test – used for the Navy assessment.
3.Ian Thorp
full name:
Ian James Thorpe
bio:
One of the greatest swimmers the world has ever seen. In his career, he won five Olympic gold medals, 11 world titles and set 13 long-course records and 23 overall. On November 21 2006 he announced his retirement from swimming after 10 years on the Australian team, citing that he has lost the desire, and “there are things in my life that are more important to me and I have to pursue them now”.
also known as:
the Thorpedo, Flipper, Thorpey
born:
13 October 1982
Milperra, a western suburb of Sydney, Australia
family:
Parents Margaret and Ken, sister Christina.
physical attributes:
Height: 195 cm (6’5″)
Weight:104 kg (229 lbs)
Feet Size: 17
Arm span: 195 cm
sport:
Swimming
coach:
Tracey Menzies since 2002-06.
Pre 2002 his coach was Doug Frost.
team / club:
SLC Aquadot / New South Wales / Australia
event:
100 meters, 200 meters, 400 meters, 800 meters freestyle, 100m backstroke, 200m individual medley, plus anything else he wants to do!
personal bests:
200m: 1:45.51 minutes, 400m: 3:41.33 minutes
achievements:
World Championships, Perth (1998), won 400m freestyle
Commonwealth Games in Kuala Lumpur 1998: 4 Gold medals (200m free, 400m free, 2x200m freestyle relay, 4x100m freestyle relay
Pacific Championships 1999: New world record, 400m freestyle, broke world record for the 200m freestyle twice in consecutive days
Australian Olympic Swim Trials 2000: bettered own 400m freestyle mark, lowered the 200m freestyle world record twice again
Sydney Olympic Results, 2000
200 metre freestyle (1 min 45.83 secs), 2nd
400 metre freestyle (3 mins 40.59 secs), 1st
4 x 100 metre freestyle relay (3 mins 13.67 secs), 1st
4 x 200 metre freestyle relay (7 mins 7.05 secs), 1st
4 x 100 metre medley relay (3 mins 35.27 secs), 2nd
Athens Olympics Results, 2004:
400m freestyle, 1st, 3:43.10
4 x 100m freestyle relay, 6th, 48.14 (3:15.77)
200m freestyle, 1st, 1:44.71 (Olympic record)
4 x 200m freestyle relay, 2nd, 1:44.18 (7:07.46)
100m freestyle, 3rd, 48.56
what you may not know:
Thorpe started squad training when he was just 8 years old. He was allergic to cholorine when he first started but has now grown out of that.
He holds the record for being the fastest 14-year old male swimmer in the history of swimming.
In 1997, at age 1
 

Mathematical Modelling of Swimming World Records

i ABSTRACT

Have you ever wonder what time we can expect for athletes to swim in the Tokyo 2020 Olympics? This the basis that encourage me to research the main question of the report, whether mathematical models can be used to foresee reliable result for future swimming times. The purpose of this report is to investigate where the human body has its limits, in turn if the world records also have limits, and if this can be forecasted using mathematical modelling. A variety of data collected online was used, and was processed through analytical forecasting than modelling. The investigation primarily concentrate on the models ability to foresee records and limits for the 100-metre freestyle for men and women. The report concludes with a discussion on my personal opinions of investigation, the reasonableness of the investigation and whether this investigation could be applied to other areas.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

LITERATURE REVIEW

RESEARCH DECISION, DESIGN AND METHOD

OBSERVATION OF DATA-MEN

OBSERVATION OF DATA-WOMEN

PREDICTIONS OF POSSIBLE MODELS-MEN AND WOMEN

LINEAR FUNCTION

QUADRATIC FUNCTION

EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION

LOGRAMTHIC FUNCTION

COSINE FUNCTION

SIN FUNCTION

TANGENT FUNCTION

SIGMOID FUNCTION

Logistic Function

Generalised logistic function

Gompertz Function

HYBRID FUNCTION

CONSTRUCTION OF MODELS-MEN

ASSUMPTIONS

LINEAR MODEL-MEN (BY HAND)

Strength and Limitations

QUADRATIC MODEL-MEN (USING TECHNOLOGY)

Strength and Limitations

CUBIC MODEL-MEN (USING TECHNOLOGY)

Strength and Limitations

QUARTIC MODEL-MEN (USING TECHNOLOGY)

Strengths and Limitations

POLYNOMINAL SIXITH DEGREE-MEN (USING TECHNOLOGY)

Strength and Limitations

EXPOTENTIAL MODEL-MEN (USING TECHNOLOGY)

Strength and Limitations

GOMPERTZ MODEL-MEN (USING TECHNOLOGY)

Strength and Limitations

GENERALISED LOGISTIC MODEL-MEN (USING TECHNOLOGY)

Strength and Limitations

HYBRID MODEL 1-MEN (BY HAND)

Strength and Limitation

HYBRID FUNCTION 2-MEN (USING TECHNOLOGY)

Strength and Limitations

MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS

DISCUSSION OF BEST MODEL-MEN

CONSTRUCTION OF MODELS-WOMEN

ASSUMPTIONS

LINEAR MODEL -WOMEN (BY HAND)

Strengths and Limitations

QUADRATIC MODEL-WOMEN (BY HAND)

Strength and Limitations

SIXTH DEGREE POLYNOMIAL MODEL-WOMEN (USING TECHNOLOGY)

Strength and Limitations

EXPOTENTIAL MODEL-WOMEN (USING TECHNOLOGY)

Strength and Limitations

GOMPERTZ MODEL-WOMEN (USING TECHNOLOGY)

Strength and Limitations

HYBRIB MODEL 1-WOMEN (USING TECHNOLOGY)

Strength and Limitations

DISCUSSION OF BEST MODEL-WOMEN

APPLICATION OF CHOSEN MODELS

CONCLUSION

OTHER USES OF MATHEMATICAL MODEL

BIBLOGRAPHY

The Olympics games has provided a source of limitless fascinations which has made it arguably the greatest sporting event to ever exist. It is open to an unlimited and diverse number of countries and competitors. Whether its 100-metre sprint or 100 metre freestyle every participant compete to capture the imagination to its millions of views. For example, people waited in anticipation to see whether Usain Bolt could beat his previous world record time. This is an intriguing point to consider. This begs a very interesting question. Is they a limit to world record times? For decades now researchers have tried to answer this very question using various analytical techniques to construct models of world records in various Olympic events. The question has proven to be difficult to answer however; due to the number of external factors that influence world record (e.g. headwinds), the improvement of technology, techniques and dietary of the years (and in the future). They is one assumption that can be made, that is, there is limit in human performance and world records times. For example, it is considered unreasonable that a swimmer will ever swim 100m freestyle in 1 second. So, the point of this investigation isn’t to argue whether there is a limit; but to explore the patterns, differences, and influential factors of records in swimming events over time, to assess the trends of world records in swimming events over time and to discover the possible threshold in which world records start to approach and ultimately find the limit values that these world record times  appear to be approaching and witness if there seems to be asymptotic convergence along these thresholds.

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LITERATURE REVIEW

To fully comprehend the direction of the investigation it’s important to acknowledge and consider previous literature on similar topics. In 1998 H.J. Grubb, in his journal “Models for Comparing Athletic Performances”, developed a three-variable model, which were: speed at long distance, the maximum speed over distance obtained and decrease in speed with respect to distance. The model was constructed in this manner due to the fact every athlete is built differently, has different strengths, and different endurance levels. The data than collected, the constructed model showed a decrease in world records over serval years and predicted lower bounds on these records using a variety of parametric forms. Given the fact that we predict that there is a limit for every world record and that there will be an asymptotic convergence above these limit, this was fascinating information. Given that our investigation is developing models that should display asymptotic convergence, an article titled “Are there limits to running world records?” was investigated. The article assessed world record for men and women using different modelling techniques. Unlike the previous journal, which used a linear model, the article decides to use the ‘S shaped’ logistic curve or a sigmoid function to ascertain a better fit for world record data overtime. This study showed a ‘slow rise’ in world records speeds at the beginning of the century. An acceleration period followed, which a major increase of speed and decrease in times occurred. This was mainly due to the enhancement of sports techniques and technology. The end of the century saw the opposite occur compare to the beginning. The appearance of a reduction in world record breaking was likely due to difficulties of beating previous records now that the sport is more advanced; indicating an approach to a limit. In another literature source, “Modelling the Development of World Records in Running,” the author showcased the progression of word record for running events, from 100m to a marathon, for men and women using time-series curve. A diverse range of fitting curves were examined including the linear model, exponential curve, logistic curve, and the Gompertz curve to identify the “best fit” for modelling world record data.  Ultimately the Gompertz-curve was chosen. The curve’s validity was analysed through the use of the R2 value. The literature reviewed indicated that a variety of models can used to predict limit values of world records and that curve which contain a asymptotic limit have the potential to accurately predict the limit of world records.

RESEARCH DECISION, DESIGN AND METHOD

The purpose of this investigation is model the development of world records in 100m freestyle and ascertaining a threshold on the world records. Throughout the process raw data was collected by world records (men and women) listed on Wikipedia. The only data that was used was the world records for 100m freestyle long course. This is due to fact that the long course world records provide us with a larger sample compared to the short course. The model that were constructed only included the best world record of the year. Meaning if the world record was broken twice in one year, the model will only represent fastest of those world records. The reason for this is that it creates distinct singular x and y variables for our models. Our models also excluded any world records that were broken between 2008 and 2009 because the FINA has banned the swim suit that were available during that time. It also excludes the world record measured in 1905 because the world 1908 was the first were the first to be done in a 100-metre pool not 100 yard like 1905.

Our report used a variety of methods to create and asses the validity of our models. The primary tool used to create and asses our model was JMP (statistical analysis). Other tool were used however, like Desmos and Excel. Our investigation also used a number statistical indicator and techniques which in combination helped us analyse the strength and limitation of our models. They are as follows:

R-Squared Value (R2)- is a goodness-of-fit measure for linear regression models. This statistic indicates the percentage of the variance in the dependent variable that the independent variables explain collectively and is given on scale from 0%-100%, 100%(or in decimals) meaning the dependent and independent variable of the models have no variance with the data set. The r squared value is limited in the sense that it only represents the accuracy of the model compared to the actual between the actual data intervals. The r squared won’t be considered when attempting to determine the ability of model to predict extrapolations.

Residual sum of squares (RSS), also known as the sum of squared residuals (SSR) or the sum of squared errors (SSE), is the sum of the squares of residuals (deviations predicted from actual empirical values of data). It is a measure of the discrepancy between the data and an estimation model. A small RSS indicates a tight fit of the model to the data. It is used as an optimality criterion in parameter selection and model selection.

An observation of the progression of the 100m freestyle world record helps highlight the impact the advancement of technology can have on world records time. For example, male swimmers wore full body suits up until the 1940s, which caused more drag in the water, compared to contemporary swimming equipment. The impact of this can be seen due to the fact from 1905-1944 the world record was broken 13 times. Compare this to the next 40 years’ period from 1944-1985 the world record was broken 26 times. Of course, these discrepancies weren’t only due to the change in body suit; pool design has also lessened the drag. Some of these design changes include, proper pool depth, elimination of currents, increased lane width, energy absorbing racing lane lines and gutters, and the use of other innovative hydraulic, acoustic and illumination designs which have drastically reduce the swimming resistance making the pool faster. Another anomaly indicating the impact of technological advancement on world records is the fact that within a 1 year span 2008-2009 the world was broken 7 times.  This was because Speedo introduced a 50% Polyurethane suit dubbed LZR. “The suit reportedly can lower racing times by 2–4%” (Nasr, 2009) This again highlights the impact technology and equipment advancement has on the progression of world records in 100m freestyle and implicitly showcase a key assumption that should be made for our models. The data also indicates around the 1970s the accuracy and reliability of record times was increased due to electronic timing equipment which allowed for the introduction of hundredths of seconds to the time records. The data also indicates that it’s been 10 years since the world record was last broken, which equals to the longest time passed between world record times. This potentially indicates that the world record is approaching a limit.

An observation of the progression of the women 100m freestyle world records shows a different story compared to the men. The data shows variety of time periods seemed to be dominated by on athlete. For example, from 1956-1964 all world record broken where done by Dawn Fraser. From the observed data, it also seems as if the women are further away from they limit as records were broken in 2016 and 2017. The impact of technology can also be seen, for example female swimmers wore full body suits up until the 1940s, which caused more drag in the water, compared to contemporary swimming equipment. The impact of this can be seen due to the fact from 1905-1944 the world record was broken 21 times. Compare this to the next 40 years’ period from 1944-1985 the world record was broken 30 times. Of course, these discrepancies weren’t only due to the change in body suit; pool design has also lessened the drag. Some of these design changes include, proper pool depth, elimination of currents, increased lane width, energy absorbing racing lane lines and gutters, and the use of other innovative hydraulic, acoustic and illumination designs which have drastically reduce the swimming resistance making the pool faster.

In this section of the report we will predict any possible model that can fit our male and female data set. The section will also discuss the properties of our predicted models and the limitation that could occur from those properties. The following tables and graph represent our men and 100m freestyle world record data with the exculsion.

Graph 1: Is a scatterplot of the men’s data set

Table 1: Is the men data set, with all the exclusion/adjustment that will be used as the basis of our models

Table 2: Is the women data set, with all the exclusion/adjustment that will be used as the basis of our models

Graph 2: Is a scatterplot of the women’s data set

LINEAR FUNCTION

A linear equation or linear model represent our most simplistic predictive model for our data.

It generally written in form of:
y=mx+b

Where m= to the gradient, rate of change or in this case the rate of the world records as the number of years passes.

B=to the y intercept or in this case the initial first world record

Graph 3: Is a basic linear equation which equal to y=-x where m=-1 and b=0

The fact that the linear equation is such a simplistic model also means it potentially has weakness. One of these is that the gradient or m represent a constant rate of change. This might affect the accuracy of the model cause we can notice in our data setsthat the world record doesn’t change at a constant rate. When analysing the domain, and range we see that the range for our linear model would be b (whatever they y-intercept is), to negative infinity. This means the limits and result may be considered unreasonable cause no one can swim negative seconds.

QUADRATIC FUNCTION

A quadratic function is a function whose rule may be written in the form
fx=ax2+bx+c
where a, b, and c are real numbers and a is not zero.

The quadratic function has the possible of fitting our data more accurately compared to a linear equation. The reason for this is unlike the linear equation the quadratic has an ever-changing gradient/rate of change unlike the linear which has a constant gradient. This means that the quadratic model has the potential to better replicate the variation in the rate of change of or world record times that can be seen in our data sets. The quadratic would also give us a maximum (fastest possible world record times) or what we could call a limit which would ascertained by looking at the y value of the turning point. However, a problem would arise if the quadratic function was used as our model. The fact is after the turning point the function than ascends meaning the record would get slower which would be an unreasonable prediction.

Graph 4: Is a basic quadratic function in the form f(x)=x2 where a =1 b=0 and c=0

EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION

In mathematics, an exponential function is a function of the form
fx=abx
, where b is a positive real number, and in which the argument x occurs as an exponent.

An exponential function could fit my data because it has constantly decreasing rate change. This means it can replicate our data due to that fact as time (x value) passes the rate at which the world records are broken would decrease at slower rate. An exponential function also contains a horizontal asymptote, which means as x approach infinity there’s a limit to the corresponding the y values. This means that we can potentially ascertain a reasonable limit for the world record time of 100m freestyle. The exponential function contains some weakness however. If we look at our data sets we can see that the data continuously goes down than flattens out than decreases again. Unfortunately, the exponential function wouldn’t be able to effectively replicate this type of variation, which might decrease the accuracy of the model.

Graph 5: Is a basic exponential function, ex where a=0 and b = e (Euler number)

LOGRAMTHIC FUNCTION

In mathematics, a logarithmic function is the inverse of the exponential function in is the general form of
logax
where a > 0.

As the log function is simply the inverse of the exponential function so it represents data in a similar fashion. But unlike the exponential function the log function has vertical asymptote which means it approaches a limit on the y axis. Which means it will be difficult to ascertain a limit to 100m world record time if the log function is used. It will however be difficult to use the log function as our model because when x =0 the log function would be undefined. This rectified by simply changing zero to a small decimal.

Graph 6: Is a graph of the natural logarithm
logex

COSINE FUNCTION

A cosine function is one of the periodic trigonometric function and is usually in the general form
AcosBx+C+D 
where A= to the amplitude, B= dilation, C=the horizontal shift and D=to the vertical shift.

The cosine function has the potential to fit the data sets due to the fact it starts at a peak and gradually decrease up until it reaches its minimum. The minimum point would represent where our limit exists (or the fastest world record). We will however have to set a domain range to insure our model doesn’t represent an unreasonable world record times.

Graph 7: Is a cos function with equation,cosx

SIN FUNCTION

The sin function is another periodic function which is in the general form of
AcosBx+C+D
. A= to the amplitude, B= dilation, C=the horizontal shift and D=to the vertical shift.

The sine function is similar to cosine in the way it can represent our data set. Unlike the cosine function however the sine function starts at the point (0,0) which means we will have to manipulate it in such a way so it starts at a peak. Like the cosine function will be able to ascertain the limit to the world records by simply looking at the y value of the minimum point. We will also have to set a domain and range so the model won’t give us any results that may be considered unreasonable.

Graph 8: is a sin curve with the equation sinx

TANGENT FUNCTION

The tangent function is another periodic function and its general form is
AcosBx+C+D
. A= to the amplitude, B= dilation, C=the horizontal shift and D=to the vertical shift.

The tangent function has the potential to fit my data due to the fact if its manipulated it can graph gradual decrease of y values as x values and an eventual flattening out of the data. Unlike the other periodic function, the tangent function contains horizontal asymptotes, which means we can find the limit of the world records as time (x) approaches infinity. Just like the other two periodic function it will probably required to set domain and range to the stop the repeating nature of the function.

Graph 9: is a tangent function which has been manipulated, the function is equal to
–x=tany

SIGMOID FUNCTION

A sigmoid function is a set of mathematical function which have a characteristic “S”-shaped curve or sigmoid curve. When discussing sigmoid function, we usually refer to the special case of the logistic function which is defined by the formula
exex+1

Sigmoid function are bounded by 2 horizontal asymptotes which means we can obtain limit to world record times for 100m freestyle. The fact that sigmoid function initial start flat then concave (up or down depending on how its manipulated) means that it represents the initial slow rate of records broken than also represent an acceleration in world records broken (as technology improved) than finally represent the slow down once again.

Graph 10: Is a logistic curve

Sigmoid function take a variety of forms and are large set of function that can be used to represent our data and their as follow:

 

Logistic Function

A logistic function as stated before is a common sigmoid function and its general form is:
fx=L1+e–kx–x0

Where

e=the natural logarithm base  also know s euler‘s number

x0=the x value of the sigmoid‘smidpoint

L=the curve‘s maximum value, and

k=the logistic growth rate or steepness of the curve.

Generalised logistic function

The generalised logistic function, also known as Richard’s curve, is an extension of the logistic function, allowing for more flexible sigmoid curve. It general form is:
Yt=A+K–V(C+Qe–Bt)1/v where t=time or x

Unlike the logistic function it also has five parameters which are as follow:

A=lower asymptote

K=upper asymptote when C=1. If A=0 and C=1 than K is called the  carrying capaicty

B=the growth rate

v>0:affects near which asymptote maximum growth occurs

Q:is related to the intial value Y0

C:is typically takes a value of 1. Otherwise, the upper asymptote is A+K–ACv

Gompertz Function

Gompertz function or Gompertz curve is a special sigmoid function because the right-hand or future value asymptote of the function is approached much more gradually by the curve than the left-hand or lower valued asymptote. In comparison to the simple logistic function which approaches both asymptotes symmetrically. Its general formula is:
fx=ae–be–cx

Where,

a=to the asymptote

b=the displacement along the x axis 

c=to the growth rate

e=to euler number

HYBRID FUNCTION

In mathematics, a hybrid function (also called a piecewise) is a function defined by multiple sub function each sub-function applying to a certain interval of the main function’s domain, a sub-domain. A hybrid function would be a good model because it allows us to use a variety of other function in different domain. Which means we can use some functions which fit a part of our data set well and use another function which fit other parts of our data well. It will simply allow for greater flexibility.

In this section of the report the constructions of the models (men) will be discussed and we will analyse the strength and limitation of the different models. We will also identify any assumption that need to be made for our models to be valid.

ASSUMPTIONS

It is assumed that no new regulations were introduced. This due to the fact any future regulations that would be introduce could possibly impact the world record times. It is also assumed that all electronic timing machines still only record times in hundredths of seconds. Our last assumption is that; we assume all external variables have little impact on the world record times past present and future.

LINEAR MODEL-MEN (BY HAND)

Our first model is a linear regression model which has been constructed by hand and it’s the general form is y=mx +b. In this case our m is equal to:
m=Nxysum–(xsumxsum)Nx2sum–(xsumxsum)

Where:

xsum=The sum of all the values in the x column.

ysum=The sum of all the values in the y column.

xysum=The sum of the products of the xn and yn that are recorded at the same time horizontal in this instance.

x2sum= The total of each value in the x column squared and then added together.

y2sum=The total of each value in the y column squared and then added together.

N= The total number of world record times

And b is equal to:
b=x2sumysum–(xsumxysum)Nx2sum–(xsumxsum)

After plugging the values from Table 1, we found that m=-0.1718932 and b=62.321052

Graph 11: Is our linear regression line with the equation,
y=–0.1718932x+62.321052
. It has a R2 value of 0.9583791 and an SSE of 27.039971

Strength and Limitations

Graph 11 shows that a linear fit of our men’s world record times through the first 92 year isn’t bad. This can be further corroborated by table 3 which compares the table of values of the actual data and the predicted data. Graph 12 also showcase the actual world record and the world record using the linear, it highlights the fact that they is really only one significant and large variation between the actual world record and the world record obtained by the linear equation. The linear function is however limited when attempting to ascertain limit. This is cause the graph indicates that the world record times would continue to decrease, even to the point it reaches 0. This means that an athletic could swim 100m freestyle faster than the speed of light, which is unreasonable.

Table 3: Is comparison of the actual data (left) and the data set using our linear model(right)

Graph 12: Is plot of the actual y response of the data (y axis) by the response of the predicted data (using the model, x axis). A good fit is indicated by more points being near the diagonal.

QUADRATIC MODEL-MEN (USING TECHNOLOGY)

As stated in the prediction section of the report quadratic function are usually in the form of
ax2+bx+c
.

Graph 13: Is our quadratic model and its equation is,
y=.000659572×2+–0.229505x+63.0802
. It has an R2 value of 0.9663 and a SSE of 21.8819

Strength and Limitations

Similar to the linear model the quadratic model also showcase a good fit to the data set (indicated by graph and table below) with an r squared value higher than 0.95. It also has a lower bound limit, which is a reasonable 43.16 secs that would hypothetically be hit in the year 2081. The problem is that the function begins to ascend after the plateau which means the result after the year 2081 would be unrealistic.

Table 4: Is comparison of the actual data (left) and the data set using our quadratic model(right)

Graph 14: Is plot of the actual y response of the data (y axis) by the response of the predicted data (using the model, x axis). A good fit is indicated by more points being near the diagonal.

CUBIC MODEL-MEN (USING TECHNOLOGY)

Graph 15: Is a cubic function with the equation,
y=–0.0000205014×3+0.00345569×2+–0.329383x+63.7108
. Its R2 value is 0.97124 and its SSE is 18.682167

Strength and Limitations

The cubic model provides a better representation of the data set compared to quadratic as it has a higher r squared value and a lower SSE. This also showcased by the graph ad table below. The cubic is however limited due to the fact it doesn’t provide us with any lower bound limit and the it also suggests the record would infinity decrease which is considered unreasonable.

Table 5: Is comparison of the actual data (left) and the data set using our cubic model(right)

Graph 16: Is plot of the actual y response of the data (y axis) by the response of the predicted data (using the model, x axis). A good fit is indicated by more points being near the diagonal.

QUARTIC MODEL-MEN (USING TECHNOLOGY)

Graph 17: Is a quartic function (polynomial to fourth degree) with the equation,
y=0.00000161494×4+ –0.0003158×3+ 0.020521×2+ –0.654068
x+64.8256.It has a R2 value of 0.9878819 and a SSE of 7.8727719

Strengths and Limitations

The quartic model like the other model fits the data well. But its seems to almost fit the middle section of the data set perfectly. This can be seen by comparing and looking at the table below. The quartic function also has a lower bound limit at 47.81. That would have to be considered unreasonable cause it has already been surpass so it isn’t a limit. Similar to the quadratic function the quartic also begins to ascend after passing its lower bound which is seen unrealistic cause it would imply that the world record times got slower as time passed.

Table 6: Is comparison of the actual data (left) and the data set using our quartic model(right). We can see that for the predicted data when x= 86 y=47.82 and when x=92 y=48.13 which implies over that period the record got slower which is unrealistic

Graph 18:: Is plot of the actual y response of the data (y axis) by the response of the predicted data (using the model, x axis). A good fit is indicated by more points being near the diagonal.

POLYNOMINAL SIXITH DEGREE-MEN (USING TECHNOLOGY)

Graph 19: Is a polynomial to sixth degree.  Its equation is below with the corresponding parameters.

Strength and Limitations

The polynomial to sixth degree seems to represent the middle section of my data set well even better than the quartic function. This can be corroborated by the table below comparing the actual data and the data using the model. The model however has a range of -infinity which is unreasonable and unrealistic.

Table 7:  Is comparison of the actual data (left) and the data set using our sixth-degree polynomial model(right)

EXPOTENTIAL MODEL-MEN (USING TECHNOLOGY)

Strength and Limitations

Graph 20: Is an exponential model with the function,
y=62.6733×0.996851x
. It has a R2 value of 0.9636797 and a SSE of 23.596326

The exponential decay of our model provides us with a good overall fit of our data.  It doesn’t represent any specific part of our data extremely well however. The exponential does however provide us with a limit, which is 0.996851 as x approaches infinity. Obviously, this can’t be considered as a reasonable limit to the world record times because it would imply that someone would swim 100m freestyle under 1sec.

Table 8: Is comparison of the actual data (left) and the data set using our exponential model(right)

Graph 21: Is plot of the actual y response of the data (y axis) by the response of the predicted data (using the model, x axis). A good fit is indicated by more points being near the diagonal.

GOMPERTZ MODEL-MEN (USING TECHNOLOGY)

As stated before the general equation for gompertz curve is:
fx=ae–be–cx

Graph 22: Is our gompertz model and has the equation,

Strength and Limitations

The gompertz model like all the other models provide us with a good representation of our data set. It doesn’t represent any part of our data set perfectly however. The gompertz also provides with a limit of 32.0491 which can be considered reasonable as its only 12 second from the current world record. When considering advancement in technology it seems completely plausible.

GENERALISED LOGISTIC MODEL-MEN (USING TECHNOLOGY)

As discussed the general form of generalised logistic function is:

Graph 23: Is a generalised logistic model with the equation:

Yt=A+K–V(C+Qe–Bt)1/v

Strength and Limitations

The generalised logistic model, like the other, represent the data effectively and has considerably high r squared valued. The models seem to represent the first three world record times almost perfectly from my observation. The model also has its limitation, due to the fact it indicates the world record time will infinitely decrease, which is not realistic.

HYBRID MODEL 1-MEN (BY HAND)

This hybrid was created by hand by creating several linear functions which would fit the data set.

Graph 24: Is a hybrid model defined by domains:

Strength and Limitation

By using a hybrid function, I could manipulate the functions in such a way that I could create multiple linear function and simply connect them together and set domains. This has created a model that represent our data with greater accuracy. However due to the fact we used linear function, it meant that our model would indicate the limit of world record times as -infinity, which I stated multiple times is unreasonable.

HYBRID FUNCTION 2-MEN (USING TECHNOLOGY)

My second hybrid function was thought of by looking and investigation the previous I had constructed and finding what part of the data did each model represent the best. A I also ensured that the last function I imputed had to contain a limit to infinity.

Graph 25: Is my second hybrid function which has been created by setting domains to the generalised logistic, linear function, polynomial to the sixth degree and the gompertz curve. The hybrid model is defined by the following domain:

*the domain for the polynomial is {23.809

Strength and Limitations

The hybrid model showcases and indicates all the key mission we need for our model. It represents the data well and we are also able to ascertain a limit using the model. The complexity of the model does however mean we can’t use any statistical indicator like the r squared value. We can only use observation analysis which is backed with mathematical logic.

MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS

MODEL FUNCTION

Y (0) =

Limit

R2

SSE

Rank

Linear

62.321

-infinity

0.9584

27.039971

10

Quadratic

63.08

infinity

0.9663

21.8819

8

Cubic

63.711

-infinity

0.9712

18.682167

7

Quartic

64.826

infinity

0.9879

7.8727719

4

Polynomial to sixth degree

64.635

-infinity

0.9888

5

Exponential

62.673

0.996851

0.9637

23.596326

9

Gompertz Curve

63.282

32.0491

0.9676

6

Generalised Logistic Curve

65.6

-infinity

0.9825

3

Hybrid 1

65.33

-infinity

2

Hybrid 2

65.57

32.0491

1

Figure 1

DISCUSSION OF BEST MODEL-MEN

Through the construction of our models of our models I found that the higher degree you go with polynomial the better the fit. The reason for this the higher the degree the more turning points meaning it can better represent fluctuations. I also realised different function fit different aspect of data better compared to other. For example, the generalised logistic model the first 3 point almost perfectly. That is how I came to conclusion of creating the hybrid function (my best model) as it combined a variety of other models and in combination fix the limitation some models had alone.

In this section of the report the constructions of the models (women) will be discussed and we will analyse the strength and limitation of the different models. We will also identify any assumption that need to be made for our models to be valid.

ASSUMPTIONS

It is assumed that no new regulations were introduced. This due to the fact any future regulations that would be introduce could possibly impact the world record times. It is also assumed that all electronic timing machines still only record times in hundredths of seconds. Our last assumption is that; we assume all external variables have little impact on the world record times past present and future.

LINEAR MODEL -WOMEN (BY HAND)

Our first model is a linear regression model which has been constructed by hand and it’s the general form is y=mx +b. In this case our m is equal to:
m=Nxysum–(xsumxsum)Nx2sum–(xsumxsum)

Where:

xsum=The sum of all the values in the x column.

ysum=The sum of all the values in the y column.

xysum=The sum of the products of the xn and yn that are recorded at the same time horizontal in this instance.

x2sum= The total of each value in the x column squared and then added together.

y2sum=The total of each value in the y column squared and then added together.

N= The total number of world record times

And b is equal to:
b=x2sumysum–(xsumxysum)Nx2sum–(xsumxsum)

after plugging the values from Table 2, we found that m=
–0.291168  and b=78.0608

Graph 26: Is our linear model with the equation,
y=–0.291168x+78.0608
. It has an R2 value of 0.8203 and a SSE of 714.18697

Strengths and Limitations

The linear function doesn’t seem to be a good representation of the women world record times. It has considerably low r squared value (0.8203) and high SSE (714.18697). It also has a limit of -infinity which would unrealistic

Table 9: Is comparison of the actual data (left) and the data set using our linear model (right)

Graph 27:Is plot of the actual y response of the data (y axis) by the response of the predicted data (using the model, x axis). A good fit is indicated by more points being near the diagonal.

QUADRATIC MODEL-WOMEN (BY HAND)

The regression equation for a quadratic equation is given by:

Graph 28: Is a quadratic model with the equation,
y=0.00365344×2+ –0.664291+83.5564
. It has a R2 value of 0.9255 and a SSE of 296.09582

Strength and Limitations

The quadratic model is better representation of the data set compared to the linear model. I also has a lower bound limit of 53.36 seconds would could reasonable. It just means that all records that are below are simply ahead of their time. The quadratic function concave back after hitting the lower bound which means the result after the lower bound limit are unreasonable and un-logical.

Table 10: Is comparison of the actual data (left) and the data set using our quadratic model (right)

SIXTH DEGREE POLYNOMIAL MODEL-WOMEN (USING TECHNOLOGY)

Graph 29: Is our sixth-degree polynomial model with the equation,

Strength and Limitations

The sixth-degree polynomial represent our data set well, specially the start and end of the data set. It appears as if it represents those points almost perfectly. It however limited in the sense it doesn’t allow us to ascertain a limit to the world record times. The model also concave upwards which isn’t reasonable or realistic.

EXPOTENTIAL MODEL-WOMEN (USING TECHNOLOGY)

Strength and Limitations

Graph 30: Is an exponential model with the equation,

The exponential decay model doesn’t really fit our data well with its low r squared value. It also provides us with an unrealistic world record limit of 0.995185.

GOMPERTZ MODEL-WOMEN (USING TECHNOLOGY)

Graph 31: Is a gompertz model which has the equation,

 

Strength and Limitations

The gompertz model provides us we a good representation of the data set especially the middle third of the data. The model also gives us a limit to the world record of 53.1938 which can be consider semi-reasonable.

HYBRIB MODEL 1-WOMEN (USING TECHNOLOGY)

Graph 32: Is my hybrid model which created by using sixth degree polynomial and a gompertz function. It has the equation, the sixth-degree polynomial has a domain of {0

 

Strength and Limitations

The hybrid function has been manipulated in such that it represents our data well using the sixth-degree polynomial while still giving a limit by using the gompertz curve. We are unable to ascertain a R squared value however so we no statistical number that tells how well the model represent the data.

DISCUSSION OF BEST MODEL-WOMEN

I concluded the best model that represent the women’s 100m freestyle world record is hybrid 1. The reason is that I went through similar process as I did for the men. I so that the best two function that represent the data effectively was the gompertz and the sixth-degree model. The gompertz model the middle third effective while the polynomial model the start and end of the data set particularly effectively. The sixth-degree polynomial also had a limit at -infinity unlike the gompertz model which had a reasonable 53.19sec limit. So, I combined the functions and set domains to ensure the function is continuous and manipulated it to ensure that the function has a limit.

Using the models that where chosen (hybrid 2(men) and hybrid 1(women)) we can now apply them in practical environment. For instance, what would the world record time be in 2020 Tokyo Olympics. The Tokyo Olympics are 112 year from 1908 so we sub in x=112 and find the corresponding y value to find the possible world record in 2020.

Looking at graph 33 we can that men world record time in the 2020 Olympics would 45.55 seconds. This is a unreasonable result because it would a 2 second difference from the last world record, our data takes into account, of 47.84 seconds in 2000.The world record has been broken over 19 years and it’s unlikely after another year it would be broken by almost 2 seconds

Graph 33: Is the hybrid model 2(men)

Graph 34: Is the hybrid model 1(women)

Looking at graph 34 it shows that the 100m freestyle world record for women would be 53.846 seconds. This is result is unreasonable because it implies that world record goes backward in the 2020 Olympic which doesn’t make any sense.

Again, using our model on what date will women surpass the time set by men in the 2000 Olympics? We can find that world record for men by subbing x=92 and subbing that corresponding y value into the women model. Per my model the world record for men in 2000 was 47.60 second

This means that per my models women would never pass the men 2000 world record because the model for women world record times has a limit at 53.2 seconds. The result is reasonable in the sense it what my model represents. But I do find unrealistic that with future improvement in technology and training and biological makeup that women would never break the world record set by men in 2000.

Last application is, on what date did men surpass the time set by women in the 2000 Olympics? We use a similar process to just before. We sub x=92 into the model for women and sub the that corresponding y value in to the model for men. According to the model for women the world record for women in the year 2000 was 54.47 seconds

This means that the men broke the world record set by women in 2000 in 1957.This is cute a reasonable result because if we compare Table 1 and 2 we see a that men broke the world record set by women in 2000 in 1961. They is only a 4-year difference.

Graph 35: Is the hybrid model 2(men)

As stated in the introduction the question whether they would ever be a limit to world record times, isn’t the real question we should be asking. Cause if we take the extreme, it’s fair to say “Humans cannot run [or swim] at, say, the speed of light, so there must be a limit to how fast it is possible to run [or swim]” (Jay, 2016). So, the real question isn’t whether they is a limit its, can we use mathematical models to ascertain where those limits are. For example, the result for our investigation concluded that the limit for 100m freestyle time was 32.04 seconds and for women was 53.2 seconds. These results are overstated and understated respectively. The reality is that our investigation simply didn’t consider enough external variable that impact the improvement of world records such as

“The use of more efficient running, jumping and swimming techniques, a biomechanical construct.

Improved training programs, which are exercise physiological and functional anatomical construct.

Enlarged population of athletes due to increased participation by more nations from which high performance athletes and swimmers are drawn. This will result in an increased sample from the human gene pool, a genetic construct.

Improved talent identification programs designed and implemented by national sporting organisations and sports institutes that will select and develop tomorrow’s high performance athletes.

Changes in human physiology, such as the recent ontogenetic trends of increasing height and weight in Australia.”(Heazlewood, 2006)

It also highlights an underlying limitation of mathematical models which is that they “pertains to observations made in the past, and so it can be used for policy making, and not for decision making which requires observations or situations in the present” (Ram Gopal Gupta,2016). The one consistent thing that all model showed was however continuous improvement due to all the factor above and more. Overall the investigation gave me in insight into the capabilities of human performance and our limits. It also highlighted the use of mathematical models as prediction tools not just in mathematics.

OTHER USES OF MATHEMATICAL MODEL

As discussed in the literature review section of the report they have been many other investigations that used mathematical models to ascertain limits for world record times. For example, in finance a Gaussian function—a bell curve can predict that extreme dip and rises in the financial market would be rare and wouldn’t be prone to following on after the other on succeeding days. In medicine a similar investigation could be used to elucidate the mechanisms of a phenomenon and predict its future course. The medical sector also uses mathematical models for “planning and evaluation of preventive and control programmes, clinical trials, measurement of health, cost-benefit analysis, diagnosis of patients and in maximizing effectiveness of operations aimed at attaining specified goals within existing resources.” (Verma Bl, 2019). Predictive mathematical models can also be used in public sector by analysing and investigation population growth, which would allow policy makers to be prepared for potential increase or decrease in the city or countries population.

 

An Essay on Wild Swimming Locations in Great Britain

Introduction
Wild swimming has been a feature of the British countryside for generations, with records dating back to the 18th century. However, it has witnessed a resurgence in popularity in recent years, with an increasing number of people flocking to the rivers, lakes, and seas around the UK. This article will look at some of the best places in the UK for wild swimming, from South East England to Scotland and Wales.
– A wild swimmer entering the water. Credit: Adobe Stock
Wild Swimming Near Me
South East England
There are many great places for wild swimmers to explore in South East England. The River Thames is a popular option, with many portions featuring crystal clear waters and breathtaking scenery (BBC News, 2019). In this part of the nation, the River Wey is another great choice for wild swimmers. It flows through Surrey, Hampshire, and Berkshire and is home to a variety of fauna (Wey & Arun Canal Trust, n.d.).

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South West England
The natural swimming locations in the South West of England are superb. Dartmoor National Park is an excellent location for a swim in one of its numerous rivers or lakes (Dartmoor National Park Authority, 2020). The River Wye also offers some fantastic opportunities for wild swimmers searching for an adventure (Kilvert-Hill et al., 2018). Chew Valley Lake in Somerset is definitely worth a visit; it’s one of the most attractive sites to go wild swimming in this region of England (English Heritage, 2020).
The West Midlands
Wild swimmers will find much to do in the West Midlands. The River Severn is a great place to go for a relaxing swim since its banks are fringed with trees and its waters are teeming with animals (Severn Rivers Trust, 2020). Another famous place is Bewdley Pool, which is located on the outskirts of Wyre Forest and is ideal for people looking to get away from it all (Wyre Forest District Council, 2019).
The East Midlands
When it comes to wild swimming, the East Midlands region offers several excellent options. Rutland Water has crystal clear waters that are ideal for swimming; it is also home to a plethora of wildlife. (Anglian Water Parks & Lakes Ltd., 2020). Carsington Water, near Matlock in Derbyshire, is another fantastic swimming site. It’s surrounded by beautiful landscape and is teeming with fish, so you’ll have lots of company while you swim! (Carsington Water Limited Partnership., 2020).
Eastern England
There are several locations in Eastern England that are ideal for wild swimming. The Norfolk Broads are one such choice, with miles upon miles of rivers ideal for swimming (Visit Norfolk Broads Ltd., n.d.). Another wonderful option is Lakenheath Fen Nature Reserve, which provides peaceful waters suitable for unwinding from daily life (Suffolk Wildlife Trust Ltd., 2019).
North West England
There are several beautiful areas in North West England where you can go wild swimming. Windermere in Cumbria has clear blue waters that provide for a wonderful backdrop for a swim (Lake District National Park Authority, 2020). Whitewater kayaking on the Eden River is a great option for those seeking for something a little more daring. It will undoubtedly raise your pulse rate! (Eden Rivers Trust Limited Company No 05868863., n.d.).
North East England
There are several fantastic places to go wild swimming in North East England. Kielder Water & Forest Park offers stunning landscapes as well as crystal clean waterways, ideal for swimming (Northumberland Wildlife Trust Ltd., 2018). If you’re searching for something more daring, consider sea kayaking along the shore. You may discover secret coves and take in breathtaking vistas along the route! (North Sea Kayak Adventures Ltd., n.d.).
Scotland
When it comes to wild swimming, Scotland has some genuinely fantastic options. Loch Lomond offers stunning vistas as well as crystal clean waters – ideal for getting away from it all! (Loch Lomond & The Trossachs National Park Authority, n.d.). If you’re searching for something more daring, consider sea kayaking along Scotland’s rough coastline. You may discover secret coves and take in breathtaking vistas along the route! (Sea Kayak Oban Ltd., n.d.).
Wales
Wales offers some absolutely wonderful areas to go wild swimming – Snowdonia National Park boasts stunning landscape as well as crystal clean rivers, making it ideal for escaping from everyday life. (Snowdonia Adventure Activities Ltd., 2017)
If you’re feeling daring, why not go coasteering around Anglesey? You may discover secret coves and take in breathtaking vistas along the route! 2017 (Anglesey Adventures Ltd.)
Safety Precautions & Advice For Wild Swimmers
Wild Swimming should be treated with caution; always take measures before entering any body of water, such as verifying weather conditions or currents before entering or ensuring someone knows where you’re going and when they should anticipate your return. (RNLI Lifeguards , 2021)
Wearing suitable clothes, such as wetsuits or buoyancy aids, is also essential. (RNLI Lifeguards , 2021) Finally, remember that open water is dangerous; never enter any water if you are unsure of how deep or powerful the currents are. (RNLI Lifeguards, 2021)
Conclusion
In conclusion there are many excellent spots in Britain where people can take part in Wild Swimming – whether they’re looking for something quiet or adventurous there’s bound to be something suitable no matter what region of Britain they’re visiting!.
References
Anglian Water Parks & Lakes Ltd.(2020) Rutland Water [Online] Available at:https://anglianwaterparks.co.uk/rutland-water [Accessed: 10 April 2021].
BBC News.(2019) Thames Path: Swimming through London’s history [Online] Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/uk-england-london-49118933 [Accessed: 10 April 2021].
Carsington Water Limited Partnership Company No 06739082.(2020) Carsington Water [Online] Available at: https://www.carsingtonwater.com/ [Accessed: 10 April 2021].
Dartmoor National Park Authority.(2020) Wild Swim Dartmoor [Online] Available at:https://www.dartmoor.org.uk/visiting/things-to-do/wildswim-dartmoor [Accessed: 10 April 2021].
Anglesey Adventures Ltd.(2017) Coasteering Anglesey Adventure Activity [Online] Available at: https://www.angleseyadventures.com/coasteeringangleseyadventureactivityhtml [Accessed: 10 April 2021].
English Heritage.(2020) Chew Valley Lake Nature Reserve [Online] Available at: https://www.englishheritage.org.uk/visit/places/chewvalleylake [Accessed :10 April 2021].
Eden Rivers Trust Limited Company No 05868863.(n . d.) Whitewater Kayaking on River Eden [Online] Available at:https://edenriverstrust.org.uk/whitewaterkayakingonrivereden [Accessed :10 April 2021].
Kilvert-Hill et al. (2018)
Wild Swim River Wye [Online] Available at :https://wildswim.com/riverwyeguide [Accessed :10 April 2021].
Loch Lomond & The Trossachs National Park Authority. (n.d.) Loch Lomond. Online]. Available at:
https://lochlomondtrossachsnp.org.uk/explorethepark/lochlomond/ [Accessed :10 April 2021].
North Sea Kayak Adventures Ltd .(n.d.) Sea Kayaking Scotland. [ Online ]. Available at:https://northseakayakadventures.com/seakayakingscotland.html [ Accessed :10 April 2021]
Northumberland Wildlife Trust Ltd. (2018) Kielder Water & Forest Park. [Online]. Available at:
https://northwt.org.uk/reserves/kielderwaterforestpark/index.html [Accessed :10 April 2021].
RNLI Lifeguards. (2021 )Wild Swimming Safety Advice & Tips | RNLI Lifeboats & Lifeguards. [Online Available at :
https://rnliorguk/safety/beachsafety/watersafetyadviceandtips/wildswimmingsafetyadviceandtips [Accessed:10 April 2021].
Severn Rivers Trust. (2020 River Severn | Severn Rivers Trust. [Online]. Available at:
https://severnriverstrustorguk/riversevern/ [Accessed :10 April 2021].
Snowdonia Adventure Activities Ltd .(2017) Snowdonia National Park | Snowdonia Adventure Activities. [Online]. Available at :http://snowdoniaadventureactivities.co.uk/aboutus_snp.html [Accessed:10 April 2021.
Suffolk Wildlife Trust Ltd . (2019) Lakenheath Fen Nature Reserve | Suffolk Wildlife Trust. [Online] Available at:http://suffolkwildlifetrust.org.uk/naturereserves/lakenheathfen.html [Accessed:10 April 2021]