The Syria Crisis: Overview and US Reactions

The Crisis in Syria
In Syria, anti-government shows started in Spring of 2011, some portion of the Arab Spring. The quiet dissents immediately heightened after the administration’s fierce crackdown, and furnished restriction bunches started battling back. By July, armed force turncoats had inexactly sorted out the Free Syrian Armed force and numerous nonmilitary personnel Syrians waged war to join the restriction. Divisions amongst common and religious warriors, and between ethnic gatherings, keep on complicating the legislative issues of the contention. Syria’s considerate war has made the most noticeably awful helpful emergency of our time. A large portion of the nation’s pre-war populace, more than 11 million individuals, have been slaughtered or compelled to escape their homes. Families are attempting to make do inside Syria, or make another home in neighboring nations. Others are taking a chance with their lives while in transit to Europe, planning to discover acknowledgment and opportunity. Furthermore, brutal winters and hot summers make life as a displaced person considerably more troublesome. Now and again, the impacts of the contention can appear to be overpowering. Be that as it may, one truth is basic: a huge number of Syrians need our offers of assistance. As per the U.N., $4.5 billion was required to meet the dire needs of the most defenseless Syrians in 2016, yet just $2.9 billion was gotten.

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Situation
The current situation in Syria is one of the most exceedingly awful substance bombings in Syria transformed a northern revolt held region into a harmful kill zone on, instigating global shock over the always expanding government exemption appeared in the nation’s six-year war. Many individuals, including kids passed on, some writhing, stifling, panting or foaming at the mouth, in the wake of taking in toxic substance that conceivably contained a nerve specialist or other restricted chemicals, as per witnesses, specialists and save laborers. They said the lethal substance spread after warplanes dropped bombs in the early morning hours. Some protect laborers developed sick and crumpled from nearness to the dead. The resistance run Wellbeing Division in Idlib Area, where the assault occurred, said 69 individuals has died, giving a rundown of their names. The dead were all the while being distinguished, and some philanthropic gatherings said upwards of 100 had passed away. The administration of Mr. Assad, who revoked compound weapons about four years back after a vast concoction assault that American knowledge offices finished up was done by his powers, denied that his military had been dependable, as he has done each time synthetic weapons have been utilized as a part of Syria.
In the after effect of
the chemical attack, President Trump said that the Assembled States had done a
rocket strike in Syria in light of the Syrian government’s synthetic weapons
assault this week, which killed more than 80 civilian people. The Pentagon
reported that 59 Tomahawk journey rockets had been let go at Al Shayrat landing
strip in Syria. The rockets were gone for Syrian warrior planes, solidified
flying machine covers, radar gear, ammo shelters, locales for putting away fuel
and air safeguard frameworks.
Analysis
The scale of the ambush undermined to additionally subvert a regularly damaged truce that had grabbed hold in parts of the nation since Mr. Assad’s powers retook the northern city of Aleppo in December with Russian help, encouraging the Syrian pioneer to think he could win the war. The assault additionally appeared to probably hose peace talks that have been directed by the Unified Countries in Geneva and by Russia and Turkey in Astana, Kazakhstan. Incredulous over the substance attack, compassionate gatherings requested activity from the Assembled Country’s Security Committee, where fanatic partitions over who is at fault for the Syrian war have deadened its individuals practically since the contention started in 2011. On Tuesday night, England, France and the Unified States were driving the Security Chamber to embrace a determination that denounces the assault and requests the Syrian government to give all flight logs, flight arranges and names of authorities accountable for air operations, including those for Tuesday, to universal investigators. The draft determination, consulted among negotiators from the three nations on Tuesday, was later coursed to every one of the 15 individuals from the Gathering. It could come up for a vote as ahead of schedule as Wednesday.
It has been a restricted voyage rocket strike focusing on one
Syrian airbase, bringing about an up ’til now obscure number of losses.
“Many Tomahawks were propelled against a solitary Syrian administration
landing strip. The choice to assault was an immediate response to the Syrian
administration’s gas assault that asserted 85 lives, including around two dozen
kids. Pictures of the Syrians who choked to death appeared to stun President
Trump. With the dead as yet being checked, White House squeeze secretary Sean
Spicer said that the US would look “rather senseless not recognizing the
political substances that exist in Syria,” where Assad’s hang on power has
been getting more grounded by the day, in expansive part because of Russian
military support.
Trump’s own underlying remarks concentrated more on his
forerunner’s past treatment of Syria than on Assad’s conceivable part in the
nation’s future. Trump said Assad’s “terrible activities” were an
“outcome of the past organization’s shortcoming and irresolution.
President Obama said in 2012 that he would set up a ‘red line’ against the
utilization of synthetic weapons and after that did nothing.” “When
you slaughter blameless kids, honest children, babies, little infants, with a substance
gas that is so deadly, individuals were stunned to hear what gas it was, that
crosses numerous, many lines, past a red line. Numerous, many lines.”
Trump’s choice to bomb the Assad administration as a result of its
utilization of concoction weapons is new. This isn’t the Trump of the current
past. However, Trump styles himself an extreme person, one willing to go where
his antecedent would not. Up until now, this implies sending US journey rockets
into Syria. This isn’t the America-first position of Trump’s battle; it’s the
begin of something new and strange, one that could possibly raise to a more
extensive US war against Assad. This is an earth shattering minute for the
Assembled States and Syria. Also, we have no clue, starting at right now, where
it will lead.
Work Cited
Michael R. Gordon, Helene Cooper,
Michael D. Shear, “Dozens of U.S. Missiles Hit Air Base in Syria” New
York Times , April 6, 2017 https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/06/world/middleeast/us-said-to-weigh-military-responses-to
yrian-chemical-attack.htmlAnne Barnard, Michael R. Gordon,
“Worst Chemical Attack in Years in Syria; U.S. Blames Assad,” New York
Times, April 4, 2017 https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/04/world/middleeast/syria-gas-attack.htmlKaram Shoumali, Ben Hubbard, “ U.S.
Strikes on Syria Brings Fleeting Hope to Those Caught in Brutal Conflict” New
York Times, April 8, 2017 https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/08/world/middleeast/us-strike-on-syria-brings-fleeting-hope-to-those-caught-in-brutal-conflict.htmlNeil MacFarquhar, “ U.S. Attack on
Syria Cements Kremlin’s Embrace of Assad” New York Times, April 8,
2017 https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/08/world/europe/us-attack-on-syria-cements-kremlins-embrace-of-assad.htmlMichael R. Gordon, “ With Strike Aimed
at Halting More Gas Attacks, U.S. Tries to Send Syrians Message” New
York Times, April 7, 2017 https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/07/world/middleeast/american-military-pentagon.htmlMercy Corps,” What You Need To Know
About The Syria Crisis”, March 9, 2017 https://www.mercycorps.org/articles/iraq-jordan-lebanon-syria-turkey/quick-facts-what-you-need-know-about-syria-crisisZack Beauchamp, Yochi Dreaxen, “The
United States has officially attacked Syria” Vox, April 6, 2017 http://www.vox.com/world/2017/4/6/15214758/us-syria-assad-bomb-cruise-missileKareem Khadder, Schams
Elwazer, Elizabeth Roberts, Eyad Kourdi, Tamara Qiblawi, “Suspected gas attack
in Syria reportedly kills dozens” CNN,
April 7, 2017
http://www.cnn.com/2017/04/04/middleeast/idlib-syria-attack/Helene Cooper, “After Chemical Attack, asking if
U.S. Remarks Emboldened Assad” Times
New Times, April 7, 2017 https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/07/us/politics/bashar-al-assad-syria-chemical-attack.htmlRichard Perez-Pena, Jess
Bidgood, “Syrian Refugees Laud U.S. Strike and, in ‘New Emotion,’ Trump” Times New Roman, April 7, 2017
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/07/us/syria-refugees-trump.html
 

The Crisis of Humanitarian Aid in Syria

The seven-year Syrian civil war has claimed the lives of approximately half a million people and displaced around eight million. The “human rights community,” both nations and international organizations, have responded with humanitarian assistance. While offering promising solutions, such transnational activism has been riddled with unforeseen consequences, biases, and blind spots effectively extending the conflict. Many countries give aid to Syria, only do so to further their strategic interests. The dark side of humanitarianism has states translating suffering to local and specific concerns in order to gain legitimacy on the domestic front. The European Union gave over 3 billion euros to Turkey, the site of refugee camps on the northern border, to further increase its economic bond with a non-E.U. Member. The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) gave 5.1 billion dollars to humanitarian organizations in Syria. USAID hoped that by adopting this strategy, they could control the situation in a more distant way, rather than the hands-on approach taken in Libya (Marks). Iran has been giving food, blankets, and water for the benefit of the Assad regime. The most unusual form of aid comes from the Israeli government through operation “Good Neighbor.”

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At the onset of the civil war, Israel provided aid to Syrian civilians wounded near the ceasefire line between Israel and Syria. The aid consisted of medical supplies, water, electricity, education, or food. Over 200,000 Syrians have received such aid, and more than 4,000 of them were sent to Israeli hospitals, including combatants (Gross). The IDF has granted special permits for Syrians who were critically injured to enter Israel and obtain the necessary medical treatment with the IDF escorting them to and from the hospital. In September 2018, the Netanyahu government announced that it was ending the aid program (Gross).
This response to suffering is an example of foreign aid being politicized and used as a guise for diplomacy. Israel sought to improve its standing in the eyes of potentially hostile Syrian citizens by creating a positive bond between the Syrian populace and the Israeli government. However, “Operation Good Neighbor” serves more as a tool of defense as it discourages combatants from potentially raiding Israeli territory. It also serves as a way of maintaining Israeli control of the Golan Heights. Even the vocabulary of human rights can create winners and losers. The legal definition of refugee can both exclude some who are in need of protection and legitimate the engagement of the UN.The Syrian civil war also saw the use of “humanitarian bombing.” In the early stages of the conflict, Syrian citizens were imploring the U.S. government to begin a bombing campaign in the name of human rights. Jessica Whyte notes, “Today, the line between human rights organizations and the militaries of Western states is blurred, and the human rights movement has “entered the thick of organized mass violence” (Aporia of Rights, 184). Humanitarian bombing in Syria is also used as a political tool as it gives Obama/Trump administrations the ability to intervene without risking the lives of Americans. It gives the American populace the moral justification they need to continue intervention in the area, without the feeling that they are sacrificing the lives of fellow Americans. The use of gas bombings by the Assad regime and the violation of the Geneva conventions is considered an acceptable reason to continue violence in Syria. Using this framework, issues of human rights are stripped of their aid component and are instead only tied to political matters. Compassion has been replaced by vengeance. The language of human rights is now a casus belli for Western Imperialism. Jessica Whyte writes “Ultimately, war itself has come to be viewed as a technical instrument for preventing the abuse of human rights.”(Aporia of Rights, 196). The universal vocabulary of human rights has become a tool not only for NGOs, but also the Pentagon.
In Crisis Caravan, Linda Polman writes, “There are no rules, no limits, and no requirements to have any understanding of the local balance of power, or to coordinate with other parties involved, humanitarian agencies included. In fact, for reasons of competition and public relations, aid agencies often choose not to discuss details with their fellow organizations (Crisis Caravan, 99).” Within the context of Syria, this has lead to disastrous consequences.
Much of the aid given internationally has fallen into the hands of Bashar AlAssad. U.N. Agencies such as the World Health Organization (WHO) have allowed the Assad regime to determine the use of a $30 billion international humanitarian response (Marks). The Syrian government has donor funds to skirt sanctions and subsidize the government’s war effort. Most of the money is diverted funds from the very same Western governments that imposed sanctions on the Syrian government.
In April of 2018, the U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) debated centering aid for the Syrian Civil War in Damascus (Marks). While no formal decision has been made, aid organizations have protested the suggested action, which would make humanitarian aid no longer appear neutral. The current base in Amman allows for a consistent flow of cross border humanitarian aid. Humanitarian actors in civil conflicts across the globe increasingly find themselves caught between the competing political interests of regimes, complicating the implementation of relief actions.
The humanitarian response in Syria is sharply divided over the issue of neutrality via the Syrian government. Humanitarian organizations operating across borders in rebel-held areas do so without the state’s consent. They hope that by doing this, they can both be providing aid and simultaneously reporting on regime violence against civilians. These actors are slowly disappearing from the stage as the Assad government regains and consolidates its military and administrative control. In response to how humanitarian actors deal with areas in conflict, Linda Polman writes,
“In war zones, there’s no chance of fair competition…. warlords and army commanders hold onto power, having transformed themselves into members of the highest post-war business and political circles, with whom INGOs negotiate. So most of the houses and services INGOs need are provided by local war elites. Cousins, uncles, and close friends of those in power have the best chance of being chosen to supply goods to INGOs and to run the restaurants and clubs where the foreigners spend their evenings. Providers of cheaper goods and services suffer intimidation to deter then from taking part in the tendering process.” (Crisis Caravan, 100). Neutrality, in terms of the material needs of humanitarian actors, can never be truly achieved as the reliance on one side over the other, generates perceived bias.
The proposal of a Damascus centralized humanitarian response is increasingly becoming the official international humanitarian presence in Syria. This new paradigm of aid facilitates government control and discretion over the distribution of services and aid. As a result, humanitarian actors who are now operating in Damascus, principally U.N. agencies and 31 other humanitarian groups, have become ingrained in the structure of the Syrian bureaucracy (Marks). This reality of providing aid in Syria has severely curtailed their ability to help citizens in need, regardless of political affiliation, and to implement programming and deliver aid effectively.
A Damascus controlled U.N. humanitarian effort will remain subject to the complicated government bureaucracy and its recurring administrative and bureaucratic constraints to access and programming. Aid would be limited to governmentcontrolled areas and propagandized. Such a move would enable the Syrian government to increasingly centralize control over the Syrian humanitarian response, resulting in a humanitarian regime more acquiescent to the interests of the Syrian state or, at the least, silent to the violence employed against Syrian civilians throughout the war.
This paradigm of human rights is a fundamental weakness in our international system of aid. Getting around it is extremely difficult and requires a certain commitment foreign government and aid organizations mostly are not willing to make, which is to seize control, themselves, of the politics of the region.
Bibliography
Gross, Judah Ari. “Operation Good Neighbor: Israel Reveals Its Massive Humanitarian Aid to Syria.” The Times of Israel, 19 July 2017, www.timesofisrael.com/operationgood-neighbor-israels-massive-humanitarian-aid-to-syria-revealed/.
Marks, Jesse. “Analysis | Humanitarian Aid in Syria Is Being Politicized – and Too Many Civilians in Need Aren’t Getting It.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 5 Aug. 2019, www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2019/08/06/humanitarian-aid-syria-is-beingpoliticized-too-many-civilians-need-arent-getting-it/#comments-wrapper.
Polman, Linda, and Liz Waters. The Crisis Caravan: What’s Wrong with Humanitarian Aid? Picador, 2011.
Yeatman, Anna, and Peg Birmingham. The Aporia of Rights: Explorations in Citizenship in the Era of Human Rights. Bloomsbury Academic, An Imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing Inc, 2016.