International Terrestrial Cable in Bangladesh

Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Introduction of the report:
The internet has become an essential part of human life as it is the main mode of communication now a days. Internet is the interconnected computer network where billions of devices are connected through the backbone of optical networking technologies in modern days. My interest was to observe the rapid development of this communication mode and for this I have studied the optical transmission and networking systems and different protocols by working as an intern in the NOC department of 1 Asia Alliance Communication Ltd. Finally I have made a report of whatever I have learnt throughout my 3 months long internship program.

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1.2 Reason for selecting the specific industry:
Telecommunication is growing with the vast use of internet in Bangladesh. The introduction of optical fiber transmission both in submarine and terrestrial over satellite communication made it easy to spread the global connectivity throughout the major cities in Bangladesh. 1 Asia Alliance Communication Ltd. is one out of six companies which has the ITC license. Thus it serves as a domestic internet upstream for all the major ISP, IIG and IGW companies in Bangladesh using its terrestrial optical transmission technology. To better understand the optical transmission system and the IP network system it was the best choice to join as an intern in a company like 1 Asia Alliance Communication Ltd.
1.3 Purpose of the Internship:

To fulfill the requirements for the degree of the Bachelor of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering.
To see the practical implementation of what was studied during the university program.
To learn how a telecom company operates its technical functions.
To make recommendations on the basis of the study done.

1.4 Methods of Collecting Data:
The data for making this report was collected in many ways. Primary data, as well as secondary data for completing the task of report writing about this internship were used. Some of the methods which are used are discussed below.
Use of Primary Data:
Primary Data which were used for completing the report are as follows:

Self-observation
Discussions with the officers
Informal interview from the customers

Use of Secondary Data:
Secondary Data which were used for completing the report are as follows:

1 Asia Alliance Communication Ltd. brochure
1 Asia Alliance Communication Ltd. websites
Several articles on the internet related with the field of study
Research reports of several authors related with the field of study

Chapter 2: Backgrounds
2.1 Background of ITC and IIG in Bangladesh:
International Terrestrial Cable (ITC) operator:
In 2006 the internet of Bangladesh has been connected to the world by a single submarine cable, Sea-Me-We 4 (SMW4). SMW4 is 18,800 kilometer-long optical-fiber system and its landing station of Bangladesh is at Cox’s Bazar. Since SMW4’s activation, national Internet outages have struck Bangladesh in regular basis. When any portion of this optical fiber system is damaged, it takes huge time for maintenance and thus virtually all internet bandwidth of Bangladesh disappears,pushing local internet providers to retreat to slow and expensive satellite services or to simply wait for restoration.
A 20,000 km long secondary optical fiber system SMW5 is under construction and the landing port in Bangladesh will be at Mongla The SMW5 consortium signed the construction and maintenance agreement on March 7, 2014. But the complexation will take long time. In the meantime, major disruptions of Bangladesh’s Internet service continue to occur.
The planned maintenances and failures in SMW4 system make all understood that how susceptible Bangladesh’s internet connectivity really is. These events thus encourage the Bangladesh Telecommunications Regulatory Commission (BTRC) to take alternative measures. In 2012, the BTRC issued licenses to six companies to connect to India via the International Terrestrial Cable (ITC).
The six International Terrestrial Cable (ITC) operators are:

1Asia Alliance Communication Ltd.,
Novocom Limited
BD Link Communication Ltd.,
Mango Teleservices Ltd.,
Summit Communications Ltd., and
Fibre@Home Limited.

This inauguration of an operational terrestrial connection to India to serve as an alternative to SMW4 is a great achievement for Bangladesh’s telecommunication sector. Currently these six ITC operators are connected to Tata Communications and Bharti Airtel via Benapole TCLS.
International Internet Gateway (IIG) operator
The telecom sector in Bangladesh is rapidly exposing. Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Commission (BTRC) is the regulatory authority for this sector. In 2007 BTRC offer the license forInternational Internet Gateway (IIG) and from then number of IIG operators grow in this country. Currently there are 36 licensed IIG operators in Bangladesh. Few Major International Internet Gateway (IIG) operators are:

1Asia Alliance Communication Ltd.
Aamra Companies
Abir Telecommunication
Apple Communication
Bangla Phone Ltd
bdHUB
BD Link Communication
BSCCL
BTCL
Cybergate
Delta Infocom
Earth Telecommunication
Equitel Communications
Fiber @ Home
Global Fair Communications
Greenland Technologies
Intraglobe Communications
Level3 Carrier
Mango Teleservices
MaxNet Online
NovoCom
Radiant Communications Limited
REGO Communications

IIGs in Bangladesh serve as a gateway for routing International incoming and outgoing Internet based data traffic additionally working as a national internet exchange (NIX) for exchanging national internet-based data traffic.
Most of the gateways are connected with country’s sole submarine cable SMW4 as their main link and with the satellite earth station/VSAT as back up until another submarine cable SMW5 is available. When ITC operators in Bangladesh were introduced these IIG companies started using ITC services as an alternative to SMW4. BTRC has made a rule that all ISPs in Bangladesh shall be connected to global internet through these IIGs.
IIG operators mainly provide their services to the ISPs, carriers and large corporations of the country. They use extensive local and international internet peering and transit. Even IIGs are interconnected with national IX (Internet Exchange) BDIX and several international IX thus their customers can access all global internet routes through the minimum number of hops. These operators give their customers the choice to subscribe the bandwidth based on the destination of their traffic. Their goal is to reduce network traffic congestion and maintain shorter latency.
2.2 Background of the company
About the company:
1Asia Alliance Communication Limited (1AACL) is a joint venture company formed between Alliance Holdings Limited, Bangladesh and 1Asia Communication (BD) Ltd. It is a sister concern of Singapore based 1Asia Communication Pte. Ltd. The company was formed by a group of NRBs with over 20 years’ experience in the telecommunications business.
The company carries the licenses from BTRC to provide ITC and IIG services to its clients in Bangladesh. 1AACL is also the first ITC operator in Bangladesh. Since its birth, 1AACL has established enormous footprints in the ICT sector of the country. It is running parallel with the country’s drive towards digitalization and higher internet penetration.
The ITC project of 1AACL brings a much required backup for to the country’s lone submarine cable SMW4. The company offers its services to several ISPs, IGWs, IIGs, and corporate clients across the country.
Licenses:

IIG: License awarded on 12/04/2012, commercially started on 01/10/2012
ITC: License awarded on 05/01/2012, commercially started on 12/12/2012

Services:

IPLC/MPLS
IP Transit
Satellite BW service
Managed data network service
VPN service
Co-location service

Client types:

IIGs
ISPs
IGWs
Enterprise customers

International PoPs (Point of Presence):

Chennai
Mumbai
Equinix Building, Singapore
Epsilon Global Hub, London
60 Hudson Street, NY

Local PoPs:

HQ-Alliance Building, Dhaka
Coloasia-Borak tower, Dhaka
Chittagong-Akhtaruzzaman Center, Agrabad
Benapole-Chowdhury Super Market, Zero Point, Check Post, Benapole

Technology Partners:

Tata Communication Ltd
Bharti Airtel
TIS
Chunghwa
Equinix-IX
SG-IX
Level3
Cogent
Google

Timeline of Infrastructure:
2012 to 2013

1AACL head quarter setup
Benapole POP setup
ITC backhaul setup
1Asia Alliance own WDM Network
Secondary ITC Network Setup
Tertiary ITC Network Setup
Interconnection Equinix, Singapore
Interconnection TATA, Chennai & Mumbai
Interconnection Airtel, Chennai
Interconnection TIS, Singapore

2013 to 2014

Chittagong Pop Setup
Pop at ColoAsia, Dhaka
London Pop Setup
Peering with Google, Facebook, Microsoft
Interconnection Epsilon GH, London
Interconnection Level3 & Cogent
Interconnection Equinix-IX & SG-IX

2014 to Present

Departments:

Administration
Accounts
Marketing
Sales
Logistics
HR
Technical : Transmission, IP Core, Service Delivery , NOC

Strength:

ITC Backhaul Systems (Dhaka- Benapole)
Primary ITC Network: 1Asia Alliance’s Own System WDM network with 8 Lamda capacity
Secondary ITC Network: Fiber@Home /Swapping
Tertiary ITC Network: ITC Consortium/City Cell
Number Of ITC Operators in Connection: 06
Cisco 12000 Series Flagship Routers as Core & Aggregation Equipment
Full Routing TABLE Implementation Auto Switch Over
Routing Through ITC with different upstream carrier
Switch Room Level Redundancy in National Segment
International PoPs at Chennai, Mumbai, Singapore, London, New York
Native IPv6 Peering (Upstreams & Major Players)
Direct Peering, Impressive RTD

2.3 Background study on research papers
Research Paper 1
Title: Soliton Transmission in Fiber Optics for Long Distance Communication
Authors: Mehul G.Patel (1), S. B. Khant (2)
Affiliation: PG Student [SP&C], Dept. of ECE, A.D.Patel Institute of Technology,V.U.Nagar,Gujarat, India (1) , Assistant professor, Dept. of ECE, A.D.Patel Institute of Technology, V.U.Nagar,Gujarat, India (2)
Research Problem: The research discusses the reasons for the limit in information carrying capacity of optical communication systems.
Research Methodology or Approach: Quantitative
Research Solution and Results: Soliton based optical fiber communication systems are more suitable for long haul communication because of their very high information carrying capacity and repeater less transmission.
Comments
The research paper highlights one of the important weakness of optical fiber communication in long distance. In that respect the research problem is a good one.
The research methodology is quantitative. But it could be better if more practical surveys were implemented.
The result shows the mathematical solution of the problem. But it could be better if some practical result/evidence was shown.
Strengths vs. Weaknesses: The discussion on the current problem in optical transmission is the strength of this research. But the result showing only mathematical solution is the weakness.
Opportunities: Advantages and disadvantages of optical fiber communication, Dispersion Phenomenon
References:
[1] Gerd Keiser,Optical Fiber Communications, 4thedition, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2008.
[2] http://hank.uoregon.edu.
[3] R. Gangwar, S. P. Singh, and N. Singh, “Soliton based optical communication’’,Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 74, 157–166,
2007.
[4] Akira Hasegawa, “Soliton-based ultra-high speed optical communications’’, Vol. 57, Nos5 & 6-journal of physics Nov. & Dec. 2001.
[5] Opsim-appnotes.pdf.
[6] R. Ganapathy, K. Porsezian, A. Hasegawa, Life Fellow, IEEE, and V. N. Serkin,“Soliton Interaction Under Soliton Dispersion Management’’,
IEEE journal of quantum electronics, Vol. 44, NO. 4, April 2008.
[7] David S. Ricketts, Member, IEEE, Xiaofeng Li, Student Member, IEEE, “On the Self-Generation of Electrical Soliton Pulses’’, IEEE journal
of solid-state circuits, Vol. 42, NO. 8, August 2007.
[8] Yang Jing Wen and Xiang Lin Yang,Senior Member, IEEE, “Quasi-Transform-Limited Pulse Transmission in Dispersion Managed Soliton
System’’, IEEE photonics technology letters, Vol. 11, NO. 4, April 1999.
[9] Kuppusamy Porsezian, Ramanathan Ganapathy, Akira Hasegawa, Life Fellow, IEEE, and Vladimir N. Serkin, “Nonautonomous Soliton
Dispersion Management’’, IEEE journal of quantum electronics, vol. 45, no. 12, December 2009.
[10] Hiroyuki Toda, Katsuyuki Mino, Yuji Kodama, Akira Hasegawa, Life Fellow, IEEE, and Peter A. Andrekson, Member, IEEE, Member,
OSA,“Influence of Noise in Optical Pulse Source on Soliton Transmission’’, journal of lightwave technology, vol. 17, no. 6, June 1999.
Research Paper 2
Title: Optical Fiber Based Communication Network
Authors: Dr. Dharamvir Singh
Affiliation: Assistant Professor, Ch. Devi Lal University, Sirsa-125055 (Haryana) India
Research Problem: This research discuss about the different technologies used in the fiber based communication network. It also focuses the advantages of newly developed technology over the conventional ones.
Research Methodology or Approach: Correlation
Research Solution and Results: The physics of the optical fibers are discussed here and it points to a solution that technological revolution of fiber optic communication is happening due to the development of capacity increasing methods and the introductions of high speed devices.
Comments
The research paper discusses the very basic requirements for an optical fiber communication. It is very helpful to understand the optical fiber communication technology at a glance
The research methodology is correlative. And it is a better method to show the advantages of new technology over the existing one.
The research does not reflect to any strong solution for a particular problem rather it describes the different aspects of the optical fiber communication.
Strengths vs. Weaknesses: The discussion on the different technology used in optical fiber communication is the strength of this research. But it does not focus to any specific problem which needs to solved which is its weakness
Opportunities: Transmission Windows, Attenuation, Transmitters, Receivers
References:
[1] S.G. Karshenboim, “Fundamental physical constants: looking from
different angles“, Can. J. Phys. 83, 767-811, (2005).
[2] S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye,
“Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber
networks”, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[3] C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov , M. Guinet, C.
Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A.
Clairon, G. Santarelli, M.E. Tobar and A.N. Luiten, “Long-Distance
Frequency Dissemination with a Resolution of 10-17”, Phys. Rev. Lett.
94, 203904 (2005).
[4] Alwayn, Vivek, Fiber-Optic Technologies. Cisco Systems, 12- 31
(2006).
[5] S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye,
“Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber
networks”, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
Research Paper 3
Title: Next Gen. Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing
Authors: Shaikh Bilal Anees (1) Sameer Khan (2), Shah Akhtar Ali (3)
Affiliation: Electronics Telecom Dept. AIKTC, Mumbai University, India, (1), (2), (3)
Research Problem: The existing DWDM system does not meet the current bandwidth requirements of the corporate, which is up to 1Tb/s. In this research it broadly describes the advantages of the next generation DWDM over the existing system and how it can meet the required demand. It also describes the other possible solutions.
Research Methodology or Approach: Meta-analysis
Research Solution and Results: The research ends with two solutions. One solution is to use the modulation technique RZ-DPSK over long haul systems. Second one is the utilization of DCF
Comments
This paper discusses several options to increase the capacity of optical fiber transmission over long haul. It could be better if some more studies are put into this.
The research methodology is meta-analysis. It relates all the possible solution to come up with the goal of this research, and for this it is the successful approach.
The research comes up with a good solution.
Strengths vs. Weaknesses: Its focus on the recent development to transmit high capacity data is its strength. Few more studies like the modulations techniques could be described, which is its weakness.
Opportunities: The ideas of DWDM, Light Sources and Detectors, Optical Fiber Distortion
References:
[1] Muralikrishna Gandluru ―Optical Networking And Dense Wavelenght Devision Multiplexing (DWDM)â€-.
[2] Biswanath Mukherjee ―WDM Optical Communication Networks: Progress and Challengesâ€-.
[3] Introduction to DWDM Technology by Cisco ltd .
[4] Fibre Optic Essentials by Casimer M. DeCusatis and Carolyn J. Sher DeCusatis .
[5] Optical Fibers and RF: A Natural Combination by Malcolm Romeiser .
[6] New functionalities for advanced optical interfaces (Dispersion compensation) byKazuo Yamane Photonic systems development dept. FUJITSU.
[7] I. P. Kaminow, et al, ―A Wideband All-Optical WDM Networkâ€-, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol.14, No. 5, June 1996, pp. 780 – 799.)
[8] Melián, B., Laguna, M., and Moreno, J.A., “Capacity expansion of fiber optic networks with WDM systems: Problem formulation and comparative analysis”, Computers and Operations Research, 31(3) (2004) 461-472.
[9] E. Lowe, “Current European WDM Deployment Trends”, IEEE Communications Magazine, Feburary 1998, pp. 46-50.
 

International Terrestrial Reference Frame 2000

Transformation coordinates from International Terrestrial Reference Frame 2000 to World Geodetic System 1984
Geodetic network is an essential frame of spatial data. Also it is an information system for geodetic and engineering surveys, land management, geodetic support of construction, monitoring of buildings and structures deformations, topographical mapping, development of geographical information systems, transport navigation. There are several coordinate systems to solve tasks as described above. Using Global Navigation Satellite Systems cause a problem of installing communication between coordinate systems. G.I.S. specialists should know how to work with various kinds of geospatial data, that are acquired from terrestrial surveying, Global Navigation Satellite System observations and online GNSS processing service. Besides coordinates can relate to global, regional and local reference systems (Bosy J., 2014). Geodesists should understand and be able to handle with reference frame conversions in order to get high-quality geospatial data: maps, digital models of the Earth. The aim of this research is to find better transformation model between ITRF2000 and WGS84 by comparison Bursa-Wolf and Molodensky-Badekas models.

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First of all, short definitions on two reference frames should be done. The ITRF is stands for International Terrestrial Reference Frame. It is earth-centered and earth-fixed datum. It was presented in 1988. Coordinates are based on the GRS80 ellipsoid, which was designed to suit the shape of the geoid. The geoid is an irregular surface, which coincides with the surface of the water in the seas and oceans. It is perpendicular to the direction of gravity at any point. ITRF is sustained by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (Altamimi Z., 2011). Also it is a global network with points that have accurate coordinates. Coordinates are derived from geodetic measurements using GNSS and different laser rangings (Jannsen V., 2009). This network contains 800 stations that are distributed over the globe. The latest realization of the ITRF was done in 2008. The realization is a defining of stations’ coordinates and linear velocities (Altamimi Z., 2011).
In contrast, WGS84 is a regular Terrestrial Reference System. It is geocentric, right-handed, orthogonal coordinate system used in geodesy and navigation (NIMA, 2000). The WGS84 Coordinate System center is a geometric center of the WGS84 Ellipsoid. The National Geospatial Intelligence Agency operates this common Terrestrial Reference System. Due to National Imagery and Mapping Agency (1997) the last reference system is developed in order to match International Reference System. The X and Z axes are consonant with the Reference Meridian, Reference Pole consequently. Also Y axis is stationed on ninety degrees from X and Z axes (NIMA, 2000).
Furthermore, ITRF coordinates might differ from WGS84 coordinates in different regions at sub-metre level (Winter S., 2014). Consequently, two reference systems’ convention increases with time (Jannsen V., 2009). Aghamohammadi in his work stated that those varieties might be solved at the centimeter level by using seven-parameter conversion (Aghamohammadi A.).
Therefore, one datum can be transferred to another datum by the Helmert 7-parameter transformation (Knippers R., 1998). Those parameters are: three rotations (α, β, γ), origin shift of three coordinates (ΔX, ΔYandΔZ) and scale (s). The Helmert transformation model is a seven parameter transformation. It is either a position vector and coordinate frame conversion. In the coordinate frame transformation parameters are transformed for the whole reference system. The Bursa-Wolf transformation model is the position vector transformation (Deakin R., 2006). In contrast to the coordinate frame transformation it uses rotations that are refer to the point’s vector. These two models are almost the same. Yet their rotations have reversible signs.
Moreover, Aghamohammadi tested two transformation models – Bursa-Wolf and Molodensky-Badekas (Aghamohammadi A.). The first model’s formulas were done by Bursa in 1962. In 1963 Wolf had improved it. It is a seven-parameter model. It transfers three dimensional Cartesian coordinates between two datums. This model uses origin shifts of coordinates, rotation angles and scale change. Below its matrix-vector form:

The second model is Molodensky-Badekas model. It was introduced by Molodensky in 1962, then developed in 1969. It is also seven-parameter conformal conversion of Cartesian coordinates between different datums. The formula of transformation is:

Where ΔX, ΔY, ΔZ are the shifts between the barycenter and centroid of two networks. And rx, ry, rz are rotation of positions, ds – is a scale change.
Moreover, Aghamohammadi stated that Molodensky-Badekas model dissimilar from Bursa-Wolf model by the point about which axes are rotate and scale is changed (Aghamohammadi A.).The Molodensky-badekas model is often used for the conversion coordinates between terrestrial and satellite datums. Yet for that condition the central point should be the barycentre (Aghamohammadi A.).
In contrast the Bursa-Wolf transformation model does not need the centroid coordinates as in the Molodensky-Badekas model. Aghamohammadi described those two models in his work (Aghamohammadi A.). That author wrote that research was done in Iran region, where he compared transformation models to find appropriate model. The main issue of that work was that Iranian Permanent Network’s coordinates are estimated in ITRF. National GPS network coordinates are in WGS84 coordinate system. And differences from two reference systems can be more than ± meter. Due to results and some parameters concluded that Bursa-Wolf model is better that Molodensky-Badekas model (Aghamohammadi A.). The author wrote that the first model is simpler and easier to use than the second. Also it is better suits to the satellite datums.
Finally, there are many computer programs that allow us to transfer coordinates from one system to another. However, it is important to know which method you will choose in order to achieve expected result. I suppose that this work covered theoretical part of the issue. Besides the Bursa-Wolf model can be proposed as good model due to its simplicity. In the future work I can choose this model to transform coordinates from ITRF2000 to WGS84.
References

Aghamohammadi A., Nankali H. R., Djamour Y. Transformation from ITRF2000 to WGS84. [e-journal] Available though: National Cartographic Center of Iran website http://ncc.org.ir/_DouranPortal/Documents/a-aghamohammadi.pdf [Accessed 2 November 2014].
Altamimi Z., Boucher C., Sillard P. (2011) New Trends for the Realization of the International Terrestrial Reference System. [e-journal] Available through: University of Liege website http://www.ltas-vis.ulg.ac.be/cmsms/uploads/File/ITRS.pdf [Accessed 2 November 2014].
Bosy J., (2014) Global, Regional and National Geodetic Reference Frames for Geodesy and Geodynamics. [e-journal] Available through: scientific publisher Springer link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00024-013-0676-8#page-1 [Accessed 2 November 2014].
NIMA (2000) Its Definition and Relationships with Local Geodetic Systems. [e-journal] Available through National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency website http://earth-info.nga.mil/GandG/Publications/tr8350.2/wgs84fin.pdf [Accessed 2 November 2014].
Deakin R., (2006) A note on the Bursa-Wolf and Molodensky-Badekas transformations. [e-journal] Available through ResearchGate social networking website http://researchgate.net/publication/228757515_a_note_on_the_bursa-wolf_and_molodensky-badekas_transformations [Accessed 1 November 2014].
Knippers R., (1998) Coordinate systems and Map projections, ITC-notes. [e-journal] Available through: International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation website http://kartoweb.itc.nl/geometrics/publications/kt20003coordtransuk.pdf [Accessed 1 November 2014].
Jannsen V.,(2009) Understanding Coordinate Systems, Datums and Transformations in Australia. [e-journal] Available through: University of Tasmania Library website http://eprints.utas.edu.au/9489/1/Janssen_2009_SSC2009_proceedings_version.pdf [Accessed 1 November 2014].
Winter S., Rizos C., (2014) Dynamic Datum Transformations in Australia and New Zealand. [e-journal] Available through: CEUR Workshop Proceedings publication service http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1142/paper6.pdf [Accessed 2 November 2014].

 

Basalt Compositions from Earth and Other Terrestrial Bodies

Basalt by definition, according to the International Union of Geological Sciences classification system, is a fine-grained igneous rock with somewhere between 45% and 53% silica (SiO2) and less than 10% feldspathoid (very similar to feldspar but with a different structure and lower silica levels)  by volume, and where at least 65% of the rock is feldspar in the form of plagioclase[1]. It is the most common volcanic rock type found on Earth and formed from the rapid cooling of magnesium-rich and iron-rich lava due to volcanic eruptions. It is a key component of the Earth’s crust, making up the majority of the oceanic floor and many the mid-oceanic islands, including Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Réunion and the islands of Hawaiʻi.

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So, where does basalt come from? Most of the basalt found on Earth has been produced either by oceanic divergent boundaries, oceanic hotspots, or mantle plumes and hotspots underneath continents. The lava when it reaches the surface, from the mantle, is about 1100 to 1250° C. It then cools over a span of a few days or weeks and forms solid igneous rock. The two types of volcanic basalt are described by the Hawaiian words ‘a’a and pahoehoe. ‘A’a basalts have rough, almost pointed, jagged surfaces, and form from fast flowing lava. While pahoehoe basalts have a smooth and odd rope like texture. The ropes or some even say waves in the rock form when the surface of the flow cools, but the lava underneath continues to move[2]. These basalts on earth have a pretty consistent make up, usually having a composition of of 45–55 wt% SiO2 (as stated above), 2–6 wt% total alkalis, 0.5–2.0 wt% TiO2, 5–14 wt% FeO and 14 wt% or more Al2O3. There is also the amounts of CaO that are commonly near 10 wt%, and of MgO which can possibly range from 5 to 12 wt%[3]. These compositions change however when one moves slightly away from our terrestrial body these compositions seem to differ.  
The closest terrestrial body to us is the moon. Now there are many hypotheses about how the moon was formed such as it is believed that the moon is essentially just a chunk of the earth that was thrown into space during a very cataclysmic event early in Earth’s history. Whatever the case may have been, the lunar basaltic compositions, although similar, differ from Earth’s is several ways. Most basalt knowledge from the moon comes from studying lunar maria which are dark, flat, and often circular regions as seen on the moon. The formation of these mare basalts was covered in Taylor (2007) and it is said that they likely originated through partial melting at depths around 300 km in the lunar interior and at temperatures of about 1200°C. The basalts are derived from the zones and mounds of minerals developed at varying depths during crystallization of the magma ocean that the moon once had. The isotopic make up of these mare basalts seem to indicate that the source region had crystallized by approximately 4.4 billion years. Partial melting then occurred hundreds of millions of years later in these mineral zones due to the buildup of heat caused by radioactive elements. Around 25 types of mare basalt were erupted over an interval of more than 1 billion years, but the total amount of melt so generated amounted to only about 0.1% of the volume of the Moon. This forms a stark contrast to the state of the Moon at accretion, when it may have been entirely molten[4].
Lunar basalt samples seem to differ most noticeably in their iron contents, which is slightly higher and usually range from about 17 to 22 wt.% FeO[5]. Lunar basalts also contain a wide range of titanium concentrations found in ilmenite, ranging from less than 1 wt.% TiO2, to up to around 13 wt.%[6]. This has led to most lunar basalts being classified according to their titanium content, with classes being high-titanium, low-titanium, and very-low-titanium. Global geochemical maps of titanium acquired from the Clementine mission demonstrated that the lunar maria possess a wide range of titanium concentrations, and that the highest concentrations are the least abundant. These varying concentrations most likely reflect the relative abundances and lack of abundance of ilmenite mantle sources in certain areas. This theory is backed by the distribution being consistent with the models of the formation of mare source regions from the lunar magma ocean5.
The second terrestrial body that is known for its basalts is in fact another planet, Mars. As mentioned above the most common form of volcanism on the Earth is basaltic, and this is most likely the truth when it comes to Mars as well. One key difference, however, between the two bodies is their slight differences in formations due to the differing environments. On Earth, magma that forms basalts usually erupts as highly fluid flows, which can emerge either directly from vents or other sources already stated. Although these styles are also common on Mars, the lower gravity and lower atmospheric pressure on the planet allows formation of gas bubbles to occur more frequently and at greater depths than on our planet. As a result, Martian basaltic volcanoes are also able to have Plinian or Vesuvian-style eruptions and throw out large quantities of ash. These eruptions of course being named after the infamous eruption of Mount Vesuvius. The lower gravity of Mars also generates less buoyancy forces on magma rising through the crust, therefore if magma on Mars is able to climb and get close enough to the surface to erupt before solidifying, it is most likely quite a large body. This in turn means that eruptions on Mars are less frequent than on Earth but are on a much more enormous in scale and eruptive rate[7]. In somewhat puzzling fashion however, the lower gravity of Mars also allows for longer and more widespread lava flows. Lava eruptions on Mars have the potential to be unimaginably huge, such as one the size of the state of Oregon that has been recently has discovered in western Elysium Planitia[8]. The flow is believed to be one of the youngest lava flows on Mars and happened over the course of several weeks.
With only slight differences in the formation processes of Martian basalt and Earth basalts, it is no surprise that the two terrestrial bodies have very similar chemical compositions when it comes to their igneous rocks. It has been determined that the dominant surface rocks on Mars are tholeiitic basalts that were most likely formed by partial melting and do not show signs of any extreme weathering. In October of 2012, the Curiosity rover at the Rocknest site on Mars performed the first diffraction analysis of Martian soil and chemically revealed the presence of several minerals all usually present is basalts. This included feldspar, pyroxenes and olivine, and it is said that the Martian soil sample from this particular area had characteristics similar to weathered basaltic rocks of the Hawaiian Islands[9].
The chemical composition of these basalts has been studied through the testing of shergottite meteorite (named after the Shergotty meteorite) basalts. These tests can and have provided important knowledge on magma origin and mantle processes in Mars and were highlighted by Trieman (2003). From these analyses of the Martian meteorites two separate groups were created. These two groups are aptly named Group 1 (Gl), which includes highly incompatible elements such as La and Th and Group 2 (G2), which includes moderately incompatible elements such as Ti, Lu, and Al. Correlated variations of these G2 is consistent with partitioning between basalt magma and pyroxene and olivine. This fractionation is a result of partial melting to form the shergottites and their crystallization. All in all, abundances of Gl elements are separate from those of G2. When comparing abundances of Gl elements with the abundances of G2 elements, the ratios do not appear to be random, however, shergottites with a certain ratio do not necessarily have the same crystallization age and may also not fall on a single fractionation trajectory. These observations point to the G1/G2 families being established before basalt formation. It also suggests enrichment of their source region of high G2 elements, by a GI rich component. It would seem that Group 1 elements were efficiently separated from G2 elements very early in Mars’ history. The efficiency at which the fractionation seemed to have occurred is not consistent with simple petrogenesis; it requires many fractionations, and a more complex process[10]. The behavior of phosphorus in these early fractionation events is unheard of and hard to explain by normal processes and minerals. Several explanations have been brought up, however, and are possible.
As one can see, basalt seems to be a consistent entity on several terrestrial bodies in space. Although I did not delve into other bodies, they do include the asteroid Vesta and other terrestrial planets where basalt has been found. These basalts can tell us a lot about formation and mantle/magma processes of terrestrial bodies, yet there is still much to learn. I feel that the desire to find similarities between earth and other bodies gives us hope and the idea that there is the possibility that we will find a similar planet to ours.
References

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“Basalt.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 11 Dec. 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basalt#Morphology_and_textures.
“Basalt Rocks.” Windows to the Universe, 1 Nov. 2005, https://www.windows2universe.org/earth/geology/ig_basalt.html.
Giguere, Thomas A., et al. “The Titanium Contents of Lunar Mare Basalts.” Meteoritics & Planetary Science, vol. 35, no. 1, 4 Feb. 2000, pp. 193–200. Wiley Online Library, doi:10.1111/j.1945-5100.2000.tb01985.x.
Grotzinger, J. P. “Analysis of Surface Materials by the Curiosity Mars Rover.” Science, vol. 341, no. 6153, 2013, pp. 1475–1475., doi:10.1126/science.1244258.
Jaeger, W.l., et al. “Emplacement of the Youngest Flood Lava on Mars: A Short, Turbulent Story.” Icarus, vol. 205, no. 1, Jan. 2010, pp. 230–243., doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2009.09.011.
Ling, Zongcheng, et al. “Correlated Compositional and Mineralogical Investigations at the Chang′e-3 Landing Site.” Nature Communications, vol. 6, no. 1, 22 Dec. 2015, doi:10.1038/ncomms9880.
Mcsween, H. Y., et al. “Elemental Composition of the Martian Crust.” Science, vol. 324, no. 5928, 7 May 2009, pp. 736–739., doi:10.1126/science.1165871.
Program, Volcano Hazards. “Basalts.” USGS, 8 Apr. 2015, https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/vsc/glossary/basalt.html.
“NASA.gov.” NASA.gov, 30 Oct. 2012, https://www.nasa.gov/home/hqnews/2012/oct/HQ_12-383_Curiosity_CheMin.html.
Taylor, Stuart Ross. “The Moon.” Encyclopedia of the Solar System, 2007, pp. 227–250. Science Direct, doi:10.1016/b978-012088589-3/50016-5.
Treiman, Allan H. “Chemical Compositions of Martian Basalts (Shergottites): Some Inferences on b; Formation, Mantle Metasomatism, and Differentiation in Mars.” Meteoritics & Planetary Science, vol. 38, no. 12, 2003, pp. 1849–1864. Wiley Online Library, doi:10.1111/j.1945-5100.2003.tb00019.x.
Vickers, Les, et al. Fire-Resistant Geopolymers: Role of Fibres and Fillers to Enhance Thermal Properties. Springer, 2015.
Wilson, Lionel, and James W. Head. “Mars: Review and Analysis of Volcanic Eruption Theory and Relationships to Observed Landforms.” Reviews of Geophysics, vol. 32, no. 3, Aug. 1994, pp. 221–263. AGU100, doi:10.1029/94rg01113.

[1] Bas, M. J. Le, and A. L. Streckeisen. “The IUGS Systematics of Igneous Rocks.” Journal of the Geological Society, vol. 148, no. 5, 1991, pp. 825–833. GeoScienceWorld, doi:10.1144/gsjgs.148.5.0825.
[2]“Basalt Rocks.” Windows to the Universe, 1 Nov. 2005, https://www.windows2universe.org/earth/geology/ig_basalt.html.
[3]Vickers, Les, et al. Fire-Resistant Geopolymers: Role of Fibres and Fillers to Enhance Thermal Properties. Springer, 2015.
[4] Taylor, Stuart Ross. “The Moon.” Encyclopedia of the Solar System, 2007, pp. 227–250. Science Direct, doi:10.1016/b978-012088589-3/50016-5.
[5]Ling, Zongcheng, et al. “Correlated Compositional and Mineralogical Investigations at the Chang′e-3 Landing Site.” Nature Communications, vol. 6, no. 1, 22 Dec. 2015, doi:10.1038/ncomms9880.
[6] Giguere, Thomas A., et al. “The Titanium Contents of Lunar Mare Basalts.” Meteoritics & Planetary Science, vol. 35, no. 1, 4 Feb. 2000, pp. 193–200. Wiley Online Library, doi:10.1111/j.1945-5100.2000.tb01985.x.
[7]Wilson, Lionel, and James W. Head. “Mars: Review and Analysis of Volcanic Eruption Theory and Relationships to Observed Landforms.” Reviews of Geophysics, vol. 32, no. 3, Aug. 1994, pp. 221–263. AGU100, doi:10.1029/94rg01113.
[8] Jaeger, W.l., et al. “Emplacement of the Youngest Flood Lava on Mars: A Short, Turbulent Story.” Icarus, vol. 205, no. 1, Jan. 2010, pp. 230–243., doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2009.09.011.
[9] “NASA.gov.” NASA.gov, 30 Oct. 2012, https://www.nasa.gov/home/hqnews/2012/oct/HQ_12-383_Curiosity_CheMin.html.
[10] Treiman, Allan H. “Chemical Compositions of Martian Basalts (Shergottites): Some Inferences on b; Formation, Mantle Metasomatism, and Differentiation in Mars.” Meteoritics & Planetary Science, vol. 38, no. 12, 2003, pp. 1849–1864. Wiley Online Library, doi:10.1111/j.1945-5100.2003.tb00019.x.