Transforming Monocots Using Agrobacterium

Agrobacterium tumefaciens is said to infect dicots naturally. What are the potential obstacles in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of monocots? Discuss how did the breakthrough (success in transforming monocots using Agrobacterium) come about? (60 marks)
Gene transfer using Agrobacterium is a method of transferring genes by using a carrier to insert the gene of interest into the recipient host plant cells. This technology is based on the discovery of infection tumor in the dicotyledone plants caused by a bacterium, named Agrobactertum tumerfaciens. The species Agrobacterium is a soil bacterium which is capable to infect and caused plant wound and then developed into crown galls, normally formed at the trunk of many types of dicot plants. This Agrobactereium spp. has a special DNA, which has a small ring inside the cytoplasm called Ti plasmid (tumour inducing plasmid). On the Ti plasmid, there is a DNA fragment called T-DNA (transfer DNA) which contains the gene causing crown galls development. Plant cells have genes to code for the production of auxin and cytokinin, the two plant hormones which are used as energy sources by Agrobacterium. The use of Ti plasmid in gene transfer into plants is done by replacing the gene related to plant hormone production and the gene producing opine substance with the desirable trait gene on the T-DNA and then using the Agrobacterium to transfer the gene to the plant chromosomes.
Transformation of dicotyledenous plants using Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been well established and widely used but not so in the case of monocotyledonous plants. The potential obstacle in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of monocot plants includes:
Agrobacterium is responsive to phenolic compounds such as acetosyringone which are produced when the plant was wounded. The released phenolic compound from the wounded plant cells will stimulate the performance of vir gene on the Ti plasmid, leading to the transferring T-DNA to the plant chromosome. Most of the dicot plants produced this phenolic compound. On the other hand, most monocot plants did not produce the compounds or produced it in a smaller quantity, therefore resulted in the low efficiency of the Agrobacterium attachment. Furthermore, the wounded cells in the monocot plants multiplied less than in dicot plants.

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Tissue browning and necrosis following Agrobacterium infection is still a major obstacles especially in cereals. For example in case of wheat, following Agrobacterium infection, wheat embryo and root cells may produce hydrogen peroxide, which altered cell wall decomposition and resulted in a higher level of cellular necrosis and subsequently caused cell death. However the improvement method to resolve the cell death and to improve the transformation efficiency has been demonstrated in cereals (Frame et al., 2002)
Apart from necrosis, physical characteristic and genotype, other factors affected transformation efficiency are strains of Agrobacterium used, binary vector, selectable marker gene and promoter, inoculation and co-culture conditions, inoculation and co-culture medium, osmotic treatment, desiccation, Agrobacterium density and surfactants, tissue culture and regeneration medium (Cheng et al., 2004).
The Agrobacterium has specificity in attaching monocot plants. Most of monocot plants with important economic value are not hosts of the Agrobacterium, therefore the transformation efficiency involving them is low (Lippincott, 1978).
Explants type, quality and source also affect the transformation efficiency foe example embryogenic callus derived from mature seed of rice was reported to be the best explant for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of rice due to its active cell division (Hiei et al., 1994).
The breakthrough on the transformation of monocot plants using Agrobacterium started when Hiei et al. (1994), done a research on Japonica rice. They reported a stable transformation of Japonica rice by using Agrobacterium. They reported results of evaluations using molecular and genetic analysis on the R0, R1 and R2 progenies. The LBA 4404, the super-binary vector of Agrobacterium strain was demonstrated as the most effective vector for the transformation of three Japonica cultivars tested. Their success has open up the possibility of using Agrobacterium for transforming monocot plants such as maize, barley and wheat.
In 1996, Ishida et al., has done a transformation research on maize by using a similar approach as developed by Hiei et al (1994). Their transformation efficiency was further improved by the addition of silver nitrate in the culture medium. Other factors that may influence transformation efficiency were also investigated that included incubation time and co-cultivation period.
Zhao et al. (2002) optimized the transformation conditions based on Ishida’s protocol and it was demonstrated that maize can be transformed with high efficiency by using Agrobacterium method. The gene transfer was done by using a combination of standard binary vector with the addition of antioxidant cysteine in the co-culture medium. In the same year, other researchers included had demonstrated that elite maize cultivars could also be transformed by using Agrobacterium-medated transformation method.
Soon after maize, the successful Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of wheat and barley was reported (Jones H.D, 2005, Tingay et al., 1997). Compared with rice and maize, progress with wheat and barley has been slower. Various factors that influence the transformation efficiency have been further investigated. It was reported that the use of surfactant such as Silwett L-77 and desiccation treatment during co-cultivation increased the transformation efficiency of wheat.
In the case of barley, since the success of Tingay et al., (1997) in transforming barley by using Agrobacterium, a number of other researchers around the world have reported the successful production of transgenic barley plants. However majority of the successful reports of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of barley are restricted with model genotype ‘golden promise’ and ‘igri’. Therefore, optimizations of parameters are required to extend the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in other elite barley cultivars.
The transformation of sorghum is the least successfully manipulated. Zhao et al. (2000) developed an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for sorghum and from the research it showed that the embryos from the field had higher transformation frequency than those from the greenhouse. Other transformation of monocotyledon plant reported such as Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of turfgrasses, such as creeping bentgrass (Yu et al., 2000), Italian ryegrass (Bettany et al., 2003), and tall fescue (Wang and Ge, 2005) were also reported.
Although the delivery of foreign gene into several monocot species via Agrobacterium tumefaciencs has now become a routine technique, there are still serious limitations on the used of this technology on other major monocots. In order to achieve better success in transforming monocot using Agrobacterium, many factors and conditions were being investigated, such as selection of which target tissues which are highly responsive, adjustment of gene transfer conditions to increase the possibility of Agrobacterium attachment into the cell by adding phenolic substances such acetosyringone during co-cultivation period or in co-cultivation medium, that are similar to the substance released by plant cells when they are naturally wounded, using efficient promoter gene to stimulate the expression of the gene in monocot plants and the used of super-virulent of Agrobacterium strains to increase the transformation efficiency (Cheng et al., 2004).
 

Role of Chemical Engineering in Transforming Pollutants into Useful Products

Abstract

Lubricant oil is typically used to separate moving parts in a system. This has the benefit of reducing friction. However, once used they have special attention as if they’re disposed of while not treatment, they cause serious pollution problems. This research project is to develop a method or technique to re-refine the used lubricant oil by applying the knowledge of Chemical Engineering. In addition, to save the environment from the pollutants. Because a small amount of lubricant-oil can pollute major amounts of water. The effect of human activity is started to destroy the plant, but with our knowledge and technique in Chemical Engineering, we can prevent that. Buying re-refined oil reduces our dependence on base oil, reduces the depletion of natural resources, and helps create jobs. By victimization and promoting the utilization of re-refined lubricants, you will accomplish the following:

Preserve a non-renewable resource – oil.

Protect the environment against pollution.

 

Chapter 1

Introduction

 

Lube oils are only one of the many fractions, or elements, which will be derived from raw crude oil, that emerges from the wells as a yellow-to-black, flammable, liquid mixture of thousands of hydrocarbons crude oil deposits were shaped by the decomposition of plants and animals that lived concerning four hundred million years past. Because of climatically and geographical changes occurring at that point within the Earth’s history. Make full oil is extracted from fossil oil, that undergoes a preliminary purification method (sedimentation) before it’s wired into fractionating towers (Nadkarni, 2011). The fossil oil is transported from the well to the plant by pipeline or tanker ship. At the plant, the oil undergoes geological phenomenon to get rid of any water and solid contaminants, like sand and rock, that perhaps suspended in it (Bienkowski, 1993). Lubricant oils are used primarily for reducing friction between moving elements of assorted machinery or instrumentality, minimize material wear, and improve the potency of apparatus /machinery and for fuel and energy savings. Access to lubricants is crucial to any trendy society and not solely will lubrication scale back friction and wear by the interposition of a skinny liquid film between moving surfaces, but it additionally removes heat, keeps instrumentality clean, and prevents corrosion. One of its necessary applications includes gas and internal combustion engine oils (Widodo and Hanifuddin, 2016). Lubricating oils area unit wide utilized in industries to cut back friction and wear by interposing a skinny film of oil between metallic surfaces. During traditional use, impurities like water, salt, dirt, metal scrapings, broken down additive elements, varnish and alternative materials will get mixed in with the oil or be generated in it due to thermal degradation or oxidation (Durrani and Panhwar, 2011). Therefore, the oil quality gradually decreases to a level that the used oil should be replaced by a new one (Baladincz and Hancsok, 2008). Disposing of the used oil pollutes the environment to a great extent. Due to the increasing necessity of environmental protection and the additional strict environmental legislation, the disposal and recycling of waste oils become important. As a result, the used oil desires correct management to form it a valuable product (Hani and Alwedyan, 2011). Used oil has been re-refined using many techniques such as chemical (acid/clay) treatment physical treatment by distillation and thin film evaporation and solvent extraction. Furthermore, waste lubricant oil may be regenerated into transformation fuel (Manasomboonphan and Junyapoon, 2012).

 

1.1 Used or Waste Lubricant Oil:

The name implies on any petroleum-based or lubricant oil that has been used. The oil keeps our cars machines running smoothly. However, during normal use, impurities such as dirt, metal scrapings, water, or chemicals, can get mixed in with the oil, so that in time, the oil no longer performs well. Also, waste oil refers to the engine oil, transmission oil, hydraulic and cutting oils after use. It is additionally referring to the degradation of the recent lubricating parts that become contaminated by metals, ash, carbon residue, water, varnish, gums, and other contaminating materials, in addition to mineral compounds that result from the bearing surface of the engines (Udonne, 2011). These oils should be modified and removed from the car after some thousand kilometeres of driving as a result of stress from serious deterioration in commission. The amount of lubricating oils that are collected annually in Europe and the USA is incredibly massive, approximately 1.7 to 3.5 million tons. This large quantity of waste engine oils includes a vital impact on each economic and environmental aspects (Ogbeide,2010).

1.2 Sources of Used Lubricant Oil:

By far the biggest supply for used oil in developing countries is lubricating oils from cars, combustion engines, and gearboxes. Apart from that, minor amounts area unit generated from hydraulic systems, transformers, and different various industrial applications. Due to increase of the automotive traffic in developing countries the quantity of used oil from cars raised steadily within the past (Widodo and Hanifuddin, 2016).

 

Chapter 2

Environmental Impacts

2.1 Environmental Pollution:

It can have a devastating effect on the water environment, it spreads over the surface in a thin layer that stops oxygen getting to the plants and animals that live in the water. Also, the burning of used oil in kilns and incinerators produces a lot of ash and carcinogens inflicting environmental pollution. Waste oil may be a resource that can’t be disposed of arbitrarily because of the presence of pollutants (Polmear, 2015).

2.2 Environmental Effects of Used Lubricant Oil:

Harms animals and plants.

Disrupts the food chain.

Takes a long time to recover.

Cause damage to the surface of ground soil.

Mixes with water resources.

Floats over water in the sea.

Spoiling the beautiful beaches and a great threat to the environment.

Chapter 3

Treatment Methods

 

The idea of using used oil was bestowed within the year of 1930. At the start, the used lubricating oils were burnt to supply energy, and later these oils were re-blended to engine oils after treatment. Thanks to the increasing necessity for environmental protection and a lot of demanding environmental legislation, the disposal and use of waste oils have become important (Nagy, Baladincz, and Hancsok, 2010). The use of waste lubricating oils will be accomplished through 3 basic strategies, that are reprocessing, re-refining and destruction. Re-fining is that the use of distilling or processing processes on used lubrication oil to supply top quality base stock for lubricants or different crude oil products. The utilization of this methodology has multiplied enormously in developed countries, some countries reaching up to five hundredths of the country’s want for oil (Udonne, 2011). It needs the conversion of waste oil to a product with similar characteristics to those of virgin oil. the method usually involves, however, isn’t restricted to pre-treatment by heat or filtration, followed by either vacuum distillation with atomic number 1 finishing and solvent extraction (El-Fadel and Khoury, 2011).

 

Vacuum Distillation column

Dehydration

Heater

Filtration

Used oil

Condenser

 

 

Product

Residue

Fig.1 Block diagram of reprocessing of used lubricating oils (Andrews, 2008).

3.1 Filtration:  to remove the solid particulates from the used lubricant oil (Andrews, 2008).

3.2 Dehydration: The used oil must be heated up till 100 oc to remove the water. Not only water also other contaminants in the oil such as waxes, suspensions, carbon, and oxide insoluble (Andrews, 2008).

3.3 Distillation: The dehydrated used lubricant oil should feed into a vacuum distillation to start the separation process the lighter key from the lubricant oil (Andrews, 2008).

The products obtained are as follows:

Light fuel and diesel: It can produce enough diesel from the used oil feedstock to run all the burners and boilers.

Lubricating oil: The bulk of the feedstock will distill off in the plant to produce a lubricating oil fraction.

Residue: The non-distillable part of the feedstock. This residue is successfully used as bitumen extender for roads.

3.4 Extraction: Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) is mixed with the distilled oil to increase the relative volatility of the key component in the mixture between the mixture (Andrews, 2008).

 

Chapter 4

Testing Methods

 

4.1 API Gravity:

Determining the density, specific gravity and API gravity of the fluid is very important to classify the oil. The density of a substance is the relationship between the mass of the substance and how much space it takes up (volume). The level of impurities in the used oil is indicated by the density and specific gravity (Rand and Salvatore, 2003).

4.2 Color Test:

Color is a key indicator of quality in petroleum-based products and developing a color range is an important part of the refinement process (Rand and Salvatore, 2003).

4.3 Viscosity:

The viscosity of a fluid is an important property in the analysis of liquid behavior and fluid motion near solid boundaries. Also, the viscosity is the fluid resistance to shear or flow and is a measure of the fluid property (Rand and Salvatore, 2003).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5

Literature review 

Lubricating oil is a thick fatty oil used to make the parts of the car move smoothly. It has a high boiling point and low freezing point. Also, it has a high viscosity index and a high resistance to oxidation (Francois, 2006).

Lubricating oil creates a separating film between surfaces of moving parts to minimize direct contact between them, decreasing heat caused by friction (Whisman, 1978).

Waste or used lubricating oil refers to the engine oil, it’s a mixture of metals, ash, carbon residue, water, gums, and other materials (Bergel’son, 2011).

Environmental effects of used oil can cause damage to the surface of ground soil, mixes with water resources, killing plants, floats over water in the sea, spoiling the beautiful beaches and a great threat to the environment (Rincon, 2005).

Re-fining is the use of distilling or refining processes on used lubrication oil to produce high-quality base stock for lubricants or other petroleum products. The process typically involves, filtration, dehydration, followed by distillation and solvent extraction (Hur Lai, 1989).

A large vary of waste oils are often recycled and recovered during a style of ways that, either directly or once some sort of separation and refinement. As per the waste management hierarchy, the primary choice is to conserve the first properties of the oil leaving direct employ. Different choices may embrace convalescent its heating price and/or mistreatment in different lower-level applications. Sure styles of waste oils, lubricants particularly, are often reprocessed leaving their direct employ. the employment of waste oils, once treatment, are often either as make full base stock love refined virgin base oil or as clean-burning fuel (Pilusa, 2013).

Chapter 6

Discussion

 

Lubricants serve three primary functions in automotive stampings. They reduce friction in the forming process to improve formability of metals and reduce die wear, clean blanks to reduce dirt and prevent high spots on exposed surface panels and protect the engine metal and stamped parts from corrosion. In response to economic problems and environmental protection, there is a growing trend to regenerate and reuse waste lubricants. By proper recovery and refinement of it, a lot of valuable product can be obtained. The objective of re-refining is to remove the degraded additives and contaminants and to restore the properties of the oil identical to the standards. Also, all people think that re-refined oil is not suitable for better performance, but it acts as better engine oil. This process plants should not be working in the public sector refineries to control the pollution caused by the used engine oil.

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The environmental problem is that a small amount of pure lubricating oil can pollute major amounts of water e.g. groundwater as well as the land on which it is spilled. Used engine oil itself contains several additives and is contaminated by impurities and residues resulting from the combustion process. Also, the burning of used oil in kilns and incinerators produces lots of ash and carcinogens causing environmental pollution. And the waste lubricating oil is a resource that cannot be disposed of randomly due to the presence of pollutants. Finally, in response to economic problems and environmental protection, there is a growing trend to regenerate and reuse waste lubricants. By proper recovery and refinement of it, a lot of valuable product can be obtained. The objective of re-refining is to remove the degraded additives and contaminants and to restore the properties of the oil identical to the standards.

Chapter 7

Conclusion

Re-refining of waste lubricants could result in both environmental and economic benefits. Re-refining of waste oil to manufacture base oil cost more than re-refine the waste oil for use as fuel. The energy required to manufacture re-refined oil from used oil is only one-third of the energy required to refine crude oil to produce base oil. Therefore, re-refining is considered by many as a preferred option in terms of conserving resource as well as minimizing waste and reducing damage to the environment.

References

 

Nadkarni, R. A. (2011) Spectroscopic analysis of petroleum products and lubricants. ASTM International (ASTM’s monograph series: 9). Available at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=cat00594a&AN=aston.b1821307&site=eds-live (Accessed: 3 August 2019).

Bienkowski, K., 1993. Coolants and lubricants: the truth. Manufacturing Engineering(USA), 110(3), pp.90-92.

Widodo, S. and Hanifuddin, M., 2016. DESIGN OF LUBRICANTS FOR CNG-CONVERTED GASOLINE ENGINES. Scientific Contributions Oil and Gas, 39(3).

Durrani, H. A., Panhwar, M. I. and Kazi, R. A. (2011) ‘Re-Refining of Waste Lubricating Oil by Solvent Extraction’, MEHRAN UNIVERSITY RESEARCH JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, p. 237. Available at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsbl&AN=RN290652686&site=eds-live (Accessed: 6 August 2019).

Baladincz, J., Szabó, L., Nagy, G. and Hancsók, J., 2008. Possibilities for processing for used lubricating oils–Part 1. Development, p.3.

  Hani, F.B. and Al-Wedyan, H., 2011. Regeneration of base-oil from waste-oil under different conditions and variables. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(7), pp.1050-1153.

  Manasomboonphan, W. and Junyapoon, S., 2012. Production of liquid fuels from waste lube oils used by pyrolysis process. In 2nd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Technology, IPCBEE (Vol. 34, pp. 130-133).

Udonne, J.D., 2011. A comparative study of recycling of used lubrication oils using distillation, acid and activated charcoal with clay methods. Journal of Petroleum and Gas Engineering, 2(2), pp.12-19.

S. O. Ogbeide (2010) ‘An Investigation To The Recycling Of Spent Engine Oil’, Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review, (1), p. 32. Available at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsdoj&AN=edsdoj.fcba48dcb9954a8eb0d0c2611ece741b&site=eds-live (Accessed: 14 August 2019).

Polmear, R. et al. (2015) ‘The effects of oil pollution on Antarctic benthic diatom communities over 5years’, Marine Pollution Bulletin, (1–2), p. 33. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.11.035.

Nagy, G., Szabó, L. and Baladincz, J., 2010. Possibilities for processing of used lubricating oils. Development, p.2.

Udonne, J.D., 2011. A comparative study of recycling of used lubrication oils using distillation, acid and activated charcoal with clay methods. Journal of Petroleum and Gas Engineering, 2(2), pp.12-19.

El-Fadel, M. and Khoury, R. (2001) ‘Strategies for vehicle waste-oil management: a case study’, RESOURCES CONSERVATION AND RECYCLING, p. 75. Available at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsbl&AN=RN100191570&site=eds-live (Accessed: 9 August 2019).

Andrews, L., 2008. Compendium of Recycling and Destruction Technologies for Waste Oils. United Nations Environment Programme.

Rand, S. J. (2003) Significance of tests for petroleum products. ASTM International (ASTM manual series: MNL 1). Available at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=cat00594a&AN=aston.b1821021&site=eds-live (Accessed: 9 August 2019).

Audibert, F. (2006) Waste engine oils : rerefining and energy recovery. Elsevier. Available at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=cat00594a&AN=aston.b1824880&site=eds-live (Accessed: 10 August 2019).

Whisman, M.L., Reynolds, J.W., Goetzinger, J.W., Cotton, F.O. and Brinkman, D.W., 1978. Re-refining makes quality oils. Hydrocarbon Processing, 57(10), pp.141-145.

Bergel, son, M. B., Tatur, I. R. and Tonkonogov, B. P. (2011) ‘Tribological properties of extracts from selective treatment of oildistillates’, Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils, (1), p. 20. doi: 10.1007/s10553-011-0250-y.

J. Rincon, P. Canizares and M. T. Garcia (2005) ‘Regeneration of Used Lubricant Oil by Polar Solvent Extraction’, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 44(12), p. 4373. Available at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edo&AN=ejs7310881&site=eds-live (Accessed: 12 August 2019).

Lai, H.H., 1989. Minimization of waste oil in oily sludge by solvent extraction (Doctoral dissertation, Lamar University).

Pilusa, T. J., Muzenda, E. and Shukla, M. (2013) ‘Thermo-chemical extraction of fuel oil from waste lubricating grease’, Waste Management, 33(6), pp. 1509–1515. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2013.02.014

 

Transforming Rehabilitation: Effect on Offender Management

Transforming Rehabilitation will improve the Effectiveness, Governance and Legitimacy of Offender Management in England and Wales
Introduction
The aim of this paper is to examine Transforming Rehabilitation in terms of its effectiveness, governance and legitimacy. Starting out with an explanation of legitimacy and introducing The Carter Report 2003 and its recommendations. Moving on to explain some of the needs for a change in practice, and an insight of some of the views from probation staff themselves and perceptions of negatively withering away of staff. Importantly, there are some explanation of theory, especially regarding desistance and more recently the emergence of The Good Lives Model, as a continuation of The Risk Needs Responsivity model. The explanation regarding some of the outcomes expected by TR, and the need for modernisation. As part of TR a Fee for Service and Payment by Results are explained, with the use of charts for the reader. Managing risk is an important part of the proposed changes and a change in direction to promoting desistance.

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Overarching drivers legitimacy and the need to implement change
The term governance is a very old one, but it has been revitalized recently, and has become perhaps one of the most appealing concepts in social science, meaning a new notion reformed, associated with government and public administration.  Regarding TR, this may be perceived by many detractors as a case of “new wine in old bottles” Chui and Nellis (2003). Governance has been widely used in local governance. In the case of TR, the popularity of governance may have something to do with distrust about the government.  That said, The Social Exclusion Unit posited that, recommendations from The Carter Report (2003) stated that despite recent changes that have brought the management of the services closer together, no front-line organisation ultimately owns the target for reducing re-offending. This can lead to gaps in the system, for example, there is no joint national resettlement strategy and interventions in prison are often not followed up in the community, (Social Exclusion Unit 2002). This in turn leads to reconsideration of the traditional theories of public administration. Self-confidence of traditional public administration has been destroyed and it has faced an ‘identity crisis.’ Public administration, which has been supposed to be a powerful tool for solving social problems, falls down to a serious social problem itself. As a result, many theories have been proposed as alternatives to the traditional public, Ostrom (1986).
The case for an innovative approach to offender management is quite clear cut, as the previous attempts have been deemed costly. It is stated that in the UK more than £3bn is spent every year on prisons, and almost £1bn annually on delivering sentences in the community, MOJ (2013). Despite this, overall reoffending rates have barely changed over the last decade and the same faces are seemingly reappearing back through the system. Almost half of all offenders released from custody in 2010 reoffended within a year. Over 6000 offenders sentenced to short custodial sentences of less than 12 months in the year to June 2012 had previously received more than 10 community sentences, yet gaps in the sentencing framework mean very little can be done to prevent them from returning to crime once they are released back into the community MOJ, (2013). In 2014, under the Transforming Rehabilitation (TR) changes MOJ, (2013), and Probation Trusts were split into the National Probation Service (NPS) which became part of the civil service and 21 Community Rehabilitation Companies (CRCs) which were subject to marketisation and a commercial tendering process, as seen in Fig.1. with their Contract Package Areas (CPA).  After the bidding process was completed in 2014, eleven CRCs were owned by private sector companies leading a partnership with third sector organisations, three were joint ventures between the private, public, and third sector, three were a public, private, and third sector partnership; two were owned by the private sector exclusively; and another two were equity joint ventures between the private and third sectors (Deering and Feilzer 2015, p.13).

Fig.1. CPA Map showing the 21 Contract Package Areas

On 29 October 2014, the MoJ announced its preferred bidders to run the Community Rehabilitation Companies in these areas. Here are the successful bidders and as seen in Fig.2.

Sodexo and NACRO have been successful in six CRCs
Interserve who are leading partnerships in five CRCs
MTCNovo, a Joint Venture between MTC and a number of other organisations, have won London and Thames Valley.
Working Links are the preferred bidders in three CRCs.
The Reducing Reoffending Partnership  is a Joint Venture between Ingeus, St Giles Trust and CRI, who will run the two large Midlands CRCs , being Staffs & West Midlands and Derby, Leicester, Nottinghamshire & Rutland). Webster (2017)

Fig.2. Showing winning bidders in the Contract Package Areas

Clearly the changes imposed because of TR have had the potentia to affect all three types of legitimacy, but perhaps particularly more so upon self- legitimacy. (Robinson, Burke and Millings , 2016)
Around 50% of all crime is committed by individuals who have already known by criminal justice system (CJS). The cost to the taxpayer of reoffending is estimated to be £9.5 to £13 billion per year. There has been little positive change in reconviction rates and almost half of those released from prison go on to reoffend within 12 months. The need to reduce reoffending to reduce both the number of victims and the costs to the taxpayer. To achieve this, there is a need to adopt a tough but intelligent criminal justice system that punishes people properly when they break the law, but also supports them so they don’t commit crime in the future. (MOJ, 2015)
Others are more guarded in the way they anticipate the future of TR, and Canton (2011) in particular, stresses the importance of what the probation service continues to represent and its values, such as belief in the possibility of change and social inclusion. McNeill (2011) characterises probation as a justice agency, with key roles in advocating for probationers in relation to access to social goods that have been denied and mediating between law breakers, their communities and social institutions.
This ideal view contrasts with the reality of delivering community sanctions in a tough penal climate dominated by public protection, which is one of Liz Truss’s key priorities, with a reduction of violence to staff currently running at 40% and a spotlight on education as the 3rd priority, especially English and Maths, MOJ (2017). McNeill also argues that it is critical for the long-term legitimacy and credibility of probation. At this point in time, it may be uncertain as to whether a doom-ridden or a phoenix-rising vision of the probation future is more likely to come about, although some truths may be gathered from empirical evidence gathered from probation officers and trainees.
 There seems to be a great deal of optimism on one side of the camp for TR, as to how the recent changes will be implemented, but on the other side, a great deal of pessimism regarding the implementation of TR. NAPO (National Association of Probation Officers) and UNISON, (Public Sector Trade Union), collectively had made their feelings known. They both stated that a large majority of the 17,000 probation staff refer to TR as a “catalogue of errors” in terms of staff assignment, a mismatch between workload, staffing levels and staff location, compromised risk management, reduced IT capability with NOMS, nDelius case management system, although C-NOMIS already had inherent problems as seen in fig.3. Increased bureaucracy and a huge rise in the use of temporary and sessional staff were deemed to be the main problems. High performing Probation Trusts have been replaced with poorly performing replacements. (NAPO and UNISON, 2017). The probation staff were quick to point out that they were not to blame for the errors. Regarding the use of temporary and sessional staff will aid the ability to be dynamic and cope with peaks and troughs. The use of the voluntary sector with CRC’s may also be a sticking point with regular probation staff, although as stated by John Podmore, professor of applied social sciences, “NOMS was never an organisation that its employees proudly declared they belonged to.
Creating a National Prison and Probation Service that people aspire to join and importantly to stay in and develop skills and careers is a crucial step forward. But it must be much more than just name change”, Podmore (2017). Lizz Truss, current Minister of Justice as of April 2017, was keen to promote the newly created Her Majesty’s Prison and Probation Service with the following  bold statement, “The creation of HM Prison and Probation Service (HMPPS), will build a world-leading, specialist agency, dedicated to professionalising the prison and probation workforce, backed by an additional £100m a year and 2,500 additional prison officers, with a £1.3 bn budget to build new prisons, whilst at the same time closing old and inefficient prisons”, Truss (2017).  
Scepticism may be in the forefronts of most of the staff affected by the new era dawning, as previous ministers, namely Mr Gove and Mr Grayling had somewhat seemed to have  failed in their primary objectives for a reformed and efficient joined up agency.

Fig.3.Assesemnt of C-NOMIS National Audit Office 2009

The Need for Change
Accounts of the origins of probation and its realisation in organisational form give different emphases to its role in social justice, redemption, and control or separation of ‘suspect populations’ from respectable society (Vanstone, 2004). The history of the service has frequently been described in terms of ‘phases’, one notable example suggesting that it moved from the missionary phase through welfare and diversion from custody phases towards more recent orientations towards punishment in the community and then public protection (Chui and Nellis, 2003). The reality of practice is less straightforward, although changes in social and political norms certainly mean that the problem of offending, and, inevitably, law-breakers becomes enclosed by practitioners in different terms. Redeemable, treatable or unmanageable, safe or risky, motivated or unmotivated, (Canton, 2011: 29). With current reference to offender management stated that ,  rather than probation supervisionas the dominant way of describing the work of the probation service is a case in point. To what extent does this represent a real shift towards a technocratic and business-like approach? Or does the term seek to mask the essential continuity in both human interactions between probation officers and probationers, and the normalising function benevolent or otherwise of probation?
These questions are certainly not settled. Yet, in the face of the Transforming Rehabilitationreforms (MoJ, 2013a: MoJ, 2013b), they become highly significant when we consider the practices and values that might transfer out of the probation service into the new Community Rehabilitation Companies (CRCs) ,as staff move from one to the other. They are also relevant in anticipating what motivations and values might guide this new version of the NPS, tightly focused on work with higher risk offenders and in the courts to assist sentencing and enforcement procedures. From a critical perspective, Cavadino et.al.(2013: 134) fear the ‘withering away’ of supervision of probationers and even question the Transforming Rehabilitation, or transforming the occupational identity of probation workers?
Theory (Desistance)
As far back as the 1800’s, the French social scientist, Quetelet (1833), argued that the penchant for crime diminishes with age because of what was described as the “enfeeblement of physical vitality”. Given that one of the aims of the Criminal Justice System is to reduce crime, then does Transforming Rehabilitation support this? Desistance is one of the mechanisms that can aid TR, however desistance is a complicated process of many twist and turns on that journey to desist from offending. Transforming Rehabilitation is now well under way and reports on its success will be under much scrutiny in the coming months ahead. Desistance from crime, is described as the long-term abstinence from criminal behaviour among those for whom offending had become a pattern of behaviour, is something of a mystery. Producing or encouraging desistance is the implicit focus of much criminal justice policy, practice and research. It is one of the key outcomes that justice interventions are designed to achieve and much research treats reducing or ending offending as a key measure of effectiveness, McNeill et. al. (2012).
One of the few near eventualities in criminal justice is that for many individuals, offending behaviour peaks in their teenage years, and then starts to decline. This pattern is represented in what is known as the ‘age crime curve’. The age crime curve is of a symmetrical bell shaped curve that shows the prevalence’s of offending, that peaks between the ages of 15 – 19 and declines in the 20’s, Farrington (1986). Studies of desistance illuminate the processes of change associated with the age-crime curve (Kazemian, 2007). If we are to understand desistance from crime, particularly how and why crime tails off over time, we need both testable theories of this process and empirical evidence. There is a significant evidence base on the causes of crime but desistance research suggests that the factors behind the onset of offending are often different than the factors behind its abandonment. Understanding desistance also has more subtle impacts on criminal justice debates.
The most current version of The Good Lives Model, incorporates desistance theory and also elements of positive psychology Laws and Ward (2011), is strength based regarding the premise that humans are by nature, practical decision makers, who invariably adapt themselves to their environment. In relation to desistance, Maruna (2001), described what he coined the Pygmalion effect, stated that the elevated expectations of others will lead to a greater self-belief, aiding the process of ‘knifing off’, or cutting off bonds with their criminal past. In order to achieve these goals, a great deal of emphasis on social capital or opportunities and human capital or motivations and capacities, McNeill (2006) are necessary elements to aid primary and secondary desistance. With respect to the GLM as to its effectiveness, research into this model is rather ambivalent and rather scarce to date to be able to measure the evidence.
Offender Management Outcomes
Kirton and Guillame (2015), argue that staff feel that TR has deprofessionalized the service and that stress levels are high, due to higher workloads, job insecurity, less autonomy and reduced opportunities for training and progression. Many respondents in their study were considering leaving the service. Moreover, responses to the Ministry of Justice’s (2016) Civil Service People Surveyfor the NPS suggest that only a minority of NPS staff feel that they are involved in decisions that affect their work (38%); that poor performance is dealt with effectively in their team (35%); that there are learning and development opportunities (42%); and that there are career opportunities in the NPS (33%).
The NOMS Offender Management Model is the product of bringing together the policy requirements and the messages from research and other evidence, and defining what these together mean for the principles of how NOMS will go about managing individual offenders. It is the bridge between the broad brush strokes of policy, and the finer detail of practice. It forms part of NOMS’ commissioning framework, setting out the broad specification for the approach it expects those managing individual offenders to deploy, and acting as the basis for the development of Standards and performance measures, NOMS (2006). Post Carter report, this was simply a reply from this by concentrating on key themes like modernisation in the form of New Public Management (NPM), trying to control the increasing population in the prison system and by trying to find solutions to the lack of communication between services under the umbrella of probation supervision and prison and probation.
Payment by Results

Fig.4. Key Components of Fee For Service Mechanism

 The MOJ sets out the mechanisms of FFS: Fee For Service (FFS) is payment for mandated activities that deliver through the gate services, (TTG), the sentence of the court and licence conditions to time and quality. A recognition that volume risk, that is the risk that providers are required to deliver services for a larger or smaller number of offenders than expected has been raised as a serious concern, and therefore the risk needs to be shared between Government and providers. The FFS component will therefore be a fixed price for services with a volume related adjustment where changes to volume levels fall outside of an appropriately determined tolerance range, as seen in FIig.4. above. This volume tolerance range recognises that the likely reason for a significantincrease or decrease in volume is most likely to be due to external factors not within the control of a provider.
Payment by Results’ (PbR) seems to be an ideal mechanism in TR, particularly in the current economic climate and under a government which is so keen, to reduce public expenditure, but also to reduce the scale of the public sector, and innovative because possible failings may allow to transfer the costs to private companies involved.  Fox and Albertson (2011) stated, there are other potential benefits to PbR. The sheer possibility of making profits is expected to bring new providers into the field. This, combined with a financial incentive to achieve outcomes, is then expected to increase competition, sweep away unnecessary bureaucracy, and increase the desire to innovate. leading to a better understanding of what is effective, possibly leading to lower unit costs thus allowing for an element of profit to be paid. This is expected to facilitate the involvement of smaller providers who may not have the financial resources to sustain a service over several years while waiting for their results to be evident and their payments to be triggered. In all, if implemented properly then a huge success for private companies involved in TR.

Fig.5.Illustration of payment curve incorporating stretch targets.

Managing Risk
One also must bear in mind that the priority given to different purposes is likely to vary over time. Countries can change their penal philosophies, with different purposes and emphases being put on the role of probation within criminal justice. Kemshall (2010) and others, for example, have argued that, in the last decade or so, more emphasis has been placed on public protection and minimizing risk in England and Wales, with a linked priority on enforcement of breach. The government’s new consultation document, ‘Breaking the cycle: effective punishment, rehabilitation and sentencing of offenders’ may see a swing back towards rehabilitation and promoting desistance, whilst promoting community sentences for less serious offences and without compromising public protection (Ministry of Justice 2010).

Fig.6.Prochaska and DiClemente’s Cycle of Change Model

Conclusion
Lessons from the Thatcher government (1979–1990) taught us that her government targeted the large public sector organisations involved in the provision of utilities whom they presented as being inefficient, over-bureaucratic and unresponsive because they were not subjected to the ‘discipline’ of the market, such as the prison service. However, there was also the realisation that selling those public entities, who were profitable by virtue of their monopoly position, afforded a short-term opportunity to raise revenues, lower taxation and reduce public sector borrowing, now seen again in a Conservative government, Annison et.al. (2014). Do we state the obvious or is it a case of Deja vou? In this respect, it is worth remembering that earlier initiatives introduced by the previous Labour government to address this issue – such as the NOMS and Custody Plus3 were subsequently abandoned on the grounds of the costs involved.
At the heart of the government’s TR rhetoric is the idea of innovation, however as in some cases a phone call every 6 weeks from a CRC to a low risk offender may not be seen this way. TR has been communicated from the top down as an opportunity for providers of probation services to liberate themselves from central control and develop creative, effective solutions to the problem of reoffending (Ministry of Justice 2013a; 2013b).
 The question of perceptual legitimacy, internal, external, and self- legitimacy has become a core site of debate for probation. Bradford and Quinton’s (2014) conditions for self-legitimacy, namely levels of attachment to the new organizations, the internalization of organizational goals, a sense of being supported by the organization, and a belief that probation staff in both the CRCs and the NPS remain legitimate holders of authority.
As David Cameron once remarked whilst Prime Minister, ‘finding diamonds in the rough and letting them shine’. With effective rehabilitation methods in place and joined up working principles, maybe optimistically, we just might see many shining lights, and hail the implementation of Transforming Rehabilitation.
References
Annison, J., Burke, L. and Senior, P. (2014), ‘Transforming Rehabilitation: Another Example of English ‘Exceptionalism’ or a Blueprint for the Rest of Europe?’ European Journal of Probation, 6: 6–23.
Bradford, B. and Quinton, P. (2014) ’Self-legitimacy, police culture and support for democratic policing in an English constabulary’, British Journal of Criminology, 54, 1023–46.
Canton, R. (2011) Probation: Working with offenders Abingdon: Routledge
Cavadino, M., Dignan, J. and Mair, G. (2013) The penal system: An introduction London: Sage.
Chui, W.H. and Nellis, M. (2003) ‘Creating the National Probation Service – new wine, old bottles? In W.H. Chui, and M. Nellis (eds) Moving probation forward: Evidence, arguments and practice Harlow: Pearson.
Deering, J. and Feilzer, M.Y. (2015) Privatizing Probation: Is Transforming Rehabilitation the End of the Probation Ideal? Bristol: Policy Press.
Farrington, D.P (1986) ‘Age and crime’ in Tonry, M. and Morris, N. (Eds) Crime and justice: An annual review of research Vol 7, pp189-250.
Fox, C. and Albertson, K. (2011) ‘Payment by results and social impact bonds in the criminal justice sector: New challenges for the concept of evidence-based policy?’, Criminology & Criminal Justice, 11 (5) 395-413.
Kemshall, H. (2010). ‘The role of risk, needs and strengths assessment in improving supervision’, in F. McNeill, P. Raynor and C. Trotter (eds.) Offender supervision: new directions in theory, research and practice. Abingdon: Willan.
Kirton, G., and Guillaume, C., (2015). Employment Relations and Working Conditions in Probation after Transforming Rehabilitation. Available at: https//www.napo.org.uk/advice-and -resource(Accessed 24 April 2017).
Looman, J., & Abracen, J. (2013). The risk need responsivity model of offender rehabilitation: Is there really a need for a paradigm shift? International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, 8(3-4), 30-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0100980
McNeill, F. (2011) ‘Probation, Credibility and Justice’ in Probation Journal Vol 58(1): 9-22
McNeill, F., Farrall, S., Lightowler, C., and Maruna, S. (2012) How and why people stop offending: discovering desistance. Other. Institute for Research and Innovation in Social Services.
Maruna, S. (2001). Making good: How ex-convicts reform and rebuild their lives. Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association.
Ministry of Justice (2010). Breaking the cycle: effective punishment, rehabilitation and sentencing of offenders.  London: Ministry of Justice.
Ministry of Justice (2013a) Transforming Rehabilitation: A Strategy for Reform London: MoJ.
Ministry of Justice (2013b) Transforming Rehabilitation: Target operating model, rehabilitation programme London: MoJ.
Ministry of Justice (2016) Civil Service People Survey 2016:  The National Probation Service.https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/ file/573656/nps-people-survery-results-2016.pdf (accessed 26 April 2016).
National Audit Office (2002), Reducing Prisoner Reoffending.
Ostrom, E. (1986). An Agenda for the Study of Institutions. Public Choice. 48(1): 3-25.
Podmore, J., (2017). http://thejusticegap.com/2017/02/farewell-noms-need-name-change/. Website [accessed 24 April 2017].
Social Exclusion Unit (2002). Reducing Re-offending by ex -Prisoners.
Vanstone, M. (2004) Supervising offenders in the community: A history of probation theory and practice Aldershot: Ashgate.
Bibliography
Fig.1. CPA Map showing the 21 Contract Package Areas
Fig2. System Governance
Fig.3.Assesemnt of C-NOMIS National Audit Office 2009
Fig.4. Key Components of Fee for Service Mechanism
Fig.5.Illustration of payment curve incorporating stretch targets.
Fig.6.Prochaska and DiClemente’s Cycle of Change Model
 

The Center for Transforming Lives: History and Police Impact

Provide A Brief History of The Organization Program and Its Mission Statement. Include A Brief Overview of Some of The Organizational Programs And Services

 The Center for Transforming Lives (CTL) started out as the first YWCA in Texas. The program provided housing for the homeless and other services for women in need. Funding sources and name changes through the years, eventually settled on the title, Center for Transforming Lives and the program’s primary focus is providing services that promote anti-poverty for women and children (Transforming Lives, 2017). The following programs/services have been designed to fulfill the overall mission for Center for Transforming Lives which is to to elevate women and children out of poverty.  Their Mission statement is “Center for Transforming Lives lifts women with children from poverty to possibility through: Safe Homes – an on-site homeless shelter for women and off-site homes for families. Early Childhood Education – providing free or subsidized early childhood education to impoverished and homeless families. Financial Stability – individual financial coaching and other programs to promote financial self-sufficiency” (Transforming Lives, 2017).

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 The homeless service is called Rapid Housing for Families. In the program, emergency shelter is available for victims of abuse and crime then the service is extended to help women and children secure safe, permanent housing (Transforming Lives, 2017).  The early childhood development program offers free child care and access to the development program to homeless families. Low income families are also able to take advantage of the early childhood development program on a sliding scale pay basis. This means that they pay a small fee that is based on their income (Transforming Lives, 2017).  The financial empowerment program focuses on training/coaching mothers on how to manage their money responsibly (Transforming Lives, 2017).  The counseling service is provided a program named Healers of the Broken” (Transforming Lives, 2017).  The therapist in this program provide inhouse and off-site services that address many issues including but not limited to trauma and substance abuse(Transforming Lives, 2017).

Analyze Current Trends That Influence Social Policy And Social Change Relative To The Program/ Include A Description Of Current Trends That Impact The Program

 In Tarrant county Texas, 14,981 children in experience homelessness every year (Transforming Lives, 2017).  According to CTL. This problem will become worse over time due to a link between homelessness and trauma, and poor education, which lead to poor employment opportunities (Transforming Lives, 2017).    CTL seeks to change this trend providing what they describe as a two generational approach. They believe that this approach will ultimately break the cycle of poverty.  The cycle of poverty is that the hardships that the parent experience causes stress, and other financial issues. This in turn affects the children. They experience inadequate education, lack of health care and other issues (Transforming Lives, 2017).  Basically, the parent’s issues affect the children who then grow up maladjusted and experience that same hardships as their parents and so forth. The two generational model is designed to meet the needs of child and parent at the same time. The desired result being to stop this trend.

Describes How Those Trends Will Influence Social Policy And Social Change

These trends affect social policy and change by providing that conditions needed to intervene in the social problem. Kettner et. al., explains that if we want to change the problem we must modify or remove the factors that link to the condition. We must remove the cause that created a negative effect (Kettner et. al., 2017). This task can only be accomplished as a result of policy changes.

Center For Transforming Lives Part II

Describe Three Examples of Program Hypotheses

 Program hypothesis are statements that describe what you think will be the end product as a result of a certain action (Kettner et. al., 2017). For example, I hypothesize that if I apply pressure to a full balloon, it will pop. I then test my hypothesis by applying pressure to a full balloon to see if it indeed, does pop. In practice, this will look like “If I provide more food vouchers then we will eliminate food insecurity issues in our community”. Three examples of program hypothesis that are in play for CTL are:

If we provide free/subsidized early childhood education then parents will be free to work and become more self-sufficient.

If we provide classes on how to be financially stable then we will help eliminate homelessness caused by poverty.

If we provide trauma based counseling then we will eliminate homelessness due to abuse.

Provide A Thorough Description of One of The Researched Trends

Trauma is something that has cause major pain, distress, and fear. This can be mental, physical, or both (Bowen and Murshid, 2016). Service approach based on trauma realizes that trauma has a profound effect on many health and social issues. Though it is a sensitive subject, counselors understand that to focus on a client’s underlying trauma is important in the healing and recovery process. Social Policy regarding trauma based care has outlined the following categories or principles as the most important aspects of care: Trustworthiness, Safety, and Transparency (Bowen and Murshid, 2016). These three principles are paramount in the success of the Center for Transforming Lives Program.

Develop A Program Hypotheses for The Program You Selected.

CTL acknowledges that their homeless shelter is NOT a domestic violence shelter. If we establish a domestic violence shelter, then we will be able to fill that gap in services for women and children that find themselves homeless as a result of domestic violence. According to CTL, domestic violence and poverty go hand-in-hand (Transforming Lives, 2017).  The set of services needed, though similar, may be focused on victim services like protective orders, and developing escape plans. The facilities will be more secure and clients would have access to victim assistance funds to help with the transition. If we highlight these domestic violence services, then more victims will seek help through this program

References

Bowen, E. A., Murshid, N.S. (2016). Trauma-Informed Social Policy: A Conceptual Framework for Policy Analysis and Advocacy

Center For Transforming Lives (2017).  Retrieved from https://www.transforminglives.org/

Kettner, P., Robert, M., & martin, L. (2017). Designing and Managing Programs: An Effectiveness- Based Appoach. (5th ed.) Sage Publications