Air Pollution Through Transportation in Kootenay

Air Pollution Through Transportation in Kootenay

Abstract

This report has focused on Kootenay that is a region in Southeastern British Columbia. In Kootenay, air pollution is getting higher due to transportation systems along with off-road vehicles and mobile equipment. The situation recently got worse when the emissions from transportation systems combined with wildlife fire created a fog in the area that is not only reducing the area of view but also is threatening the health of the residents of Kootenay. This report will mainly highlight how different transportation systems and off-road vehicles are causing air pollution in Kootenay.

Table of Contents

Introduction

Issue of air pollution through transportation in Kootenay region

Figure 1: Air Pollution through transportation in Kootenay

Figure 2: Emissions of air pollutants from transportation systems along with off road vehicles and mobile equipment in Kootenay

Conclusion

References

In Canada, still, most of the transportation systems are powered by fossil fuels. As a result, transportation has become the biggest source of air pollution and Green House Gas emissions in Canada and British Columbia. Transportation systems through which regions of British Columbia are having issues of air pollution are aircraft emissions, marine emissions, rail emissions and vehicle emissions (Manohar and Kavuri 2017). The purpose of this report is to shed light on issues of air pollution due to transportation in Kootenay that is a region in Southeastern British Columbia and the name Kootenay came from Kootenay River. Kootenay region is also known as Kutenai, Ktunaxa where mostly indigenous people of the United States and Canada are living.

Figure 1: Air Pollution through transportation in Kootenay

(Source: Lavigne et al. 2018)

Transportation along with off-road vehicles and mobile equipment are causing some major amount of air pollution in Kootenay. The burning of fossil fuels for the purpose of running vehicles and engines are causing emissions of many air pollutants. Due to the air pollution in Kootenay formation of Ozone, smog and development of fine particular matter are seen (Pinault et al. 2017).

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As per the reports published in 2015, transportation combined with off-road vehicles and mobile equipment is causing more than half of total country’s emissions of Carbon Monoxide and Nitrogen Oxides in Kootenay (Lavigne et al. 2017). On the other hand, transportation in Kootenay is also responsible for 37% total emissions of VOCs that are Volatile Organic Compounds (Lavigne et al. 2018). The images below will describe the situation in a proper manner.

The image below will highlight the emissions of air pollutants from transportation systems along with off-road vehicles and mobile equipment in Kootenay.

Figure 2: Emissions of air pollutants from transportation systems along with off-road vehicles and mobile equipment in Kootenay

(Source: Wang et al. 2015)

In terms of transportation, in Kootenay, large trucks and buses along with rail and marines are highly depended on diesel fuel (Wang et al. 2015). On the other hand, aviation in the region entirely depends on aviation turbo fuel. These sources are considered as the largest source of Nitrogen Oxide. Due to the transportation in the region, it is estimated that a total of 721 kilotons of Nitrogen Oxide is being released in the environment of Kootenay (To et al. 2016). On the other hand, there are also passenger vehicles and trucks. These sources are also causing some serious pollution in Kootenay (Stieb et al. 2015). It is estimated that in urban areas of Kootenay passenger vehicles and the trucks (both big and small trucks) released 1105 kilotons of Carbon Dioxide, 96 kilotons of VOCs and 5 kilotons of NH3 in the atmosphere of Kootenay. Now, it is already mentioned that Kootenay is responsible for 37% air pollution in British Columbia (Lavign et al. 2016). Now, it is also true that air pollution in Kootenay that is caused by off-road vehicles is also responsible for 31% air pollution in the entire region of British Columbia (Erickson et al. 2016). Now, air pollution or emission of air pollutants through marine vessels was also high in Kootenay. However, in previous some years emission of SOx from marine vessels reduced by 90% in Kootenay due to the introduction of more strict regulations and policies.

 The condition has worsened recently when Environment Canada and the British Columbia Ministry of Environment recently released a Special Air Quality Statement in effect for East Kootenay. It is stated that this statement issued mainly due to the impact of wildfire smoke. It is also mentioned that due to wildfire smoke the condition in East Kootenay has worsened quit quickly and is varying every hour (Cobb 2019). This statement has also mentioned that people Kootenay can face several bad symptoms that include but are not limited to the problem in breathing, pain in the chest, sudden onset of cough, irritation in throat and headache. It is requested that if any person in Kootenay experience such symptoms then that person should immediately contact with regional health care providers (Cobb 2019). As per the Health Care providers in the regions, people with problems such as Asthma and COPD will face more problems as these people are highly sensitive to air pollution. Now, this serious condition in Kootenay is not only due to wildlife fire (Cobb 2019). It is already mentioned above that due to transportation the condition of air pollution is extremely poor in Kootenay. With this poor condition, the wildlife fire has created to the current extreme condition in Kootenay (Cobb 2019). The condition has become so poor that people of Kootenay are even suggested staying indoor normally and if they are having any health problems such as breathing problem (Cobb 2019). It is also suggested that people of Kootenay must use air conditioners that not only cools the air but also filters the air.

In this condition, the concern of the government and any environment association must be on reducing the air pollution in the area through transportation. The amount of visibility in Kootenay is extremely low and the chances of an outbreak of health diseases for this condition can increase drastically. This poor condition is taking place not only due to the reason of wildlife fire. The air of the Kootenay is already polluted highly due to emission from transportation systems. Now, when the smoke from wildlife fire was mixed with the air in Kootenay, the condition worsened.

Conclusion

In this report, detailed information is provided about the current air pollution in Kootenay. In Kootenay, the air pollution is extremely high and it can be stated that the in Kootenay air pollution is almost highest in all over Canada. Canada is a country where federal and state governments are taking several steps to reduce environmental pollution such as focusing highly on renewable energy sources. In such a nation it is quite unexpected that Kootenay is facing so much trouble due to air pollution. It is also found that recently when Environment Canada and the British Columbia Ministry of Environment recently released a Special Air Quality Statement in effect for East Kootenay. This condition has happened mainly due to this air pollution through transportation systems in Kootenay, not because of wildlife fire created smoke. Therefore, in Kootenay, it is the high time for the federal and state government to take the required steps to deal with this problem.

Cobb, I., 2019. Air quality alert issued for East Kootenay | Columbia Valley, Cranbrook, East Kootenay, Elk Valley, Kimberley, Ktunaxa Nation. [online] East Kootenay News Online Weekly. Available at: https://www.e-know.ca/regions/east-kootenay/air-quality-alert-issued-for-east-kootenay/ [Accessed 16 Feb. 2019].

Erickson, A.C., Ostry, A., Chan, H.M. and Arbour, L., 2016. Air pollution, neighbourhood and maternal-level factors modify the effect of smoking on birth weight: a multilevel analysis in British Columbia, Canada. BMC public health, 16(1), p.585.

Lavigne, É., Bélair, M.A., Do, M.T., Stieb, D.M., Hystad, P., van Donkelaar, A., Martin, R.V., Crouse, D.L., Crighton, E., Chen, H. and Brook, J.R., 2017. Maternal exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of early childhood cancers: a population-based study in Ontario, Canada. Environment international, 100, pp.139-147.

Lavigne, E., Chen, L. and Stieb, D., 2018, August. Interactive Effects of Air Pollution and Air Temperature on Preterm Delivery in 24 Major Cities across Canada. In ISEE Conference Abstracts (Vol. 2018, No. 1).

Lavigne, E., Yasseen III, A.S., Stieb, D.M., Hystad, P., Van Donkelaar, A., Martin, R.V., Brook, J.R., Crouse, D.L., Burnett, R.T., Chen, H. and Weichenthal, S., 2016. Ambient air pollution and adverse birth outcomes: differences by maternal comorbidities. Environmental research, 148, pp.457-466.

Manohar, G. and Kavuri, S.R., 2017. AN EVOLUTIONARY PATH FOR CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM ROAD TRANSPORT. Environmental Engineering & Management Journal (EEMJ), 16(1).

Pinault, L., van Donkelaar, A. and Martin, R.V., 2017. Exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution in Canada. Health reports, 28(3), p.9.

Stieb, D.M., Judek, S., Brand, K., Burnett, R.T. and Shin, H.H., 2015. Approximations for estimating change in life expectancy attributable to air pollution in relation to multiple causes of death using a cause modified life table. Risk Analysis, 35(8), pp.1468-1478.

To, T., Zhu, J., Larsen, K., Simatovic, J., Feldman, L., Ryckman, K., Gershon, A., Lougheed, M.D., Licskai, C., Chen, H. and Villeneuve, P.J., 2016. Progression from asthma to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Is air pollution a risk factor?. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 194(4), pp.429-438.

Wang, X., Kindzierski, W. and Kaul, P., 2015. Air pollution and acute myocardial infarction hospital admission in Alberta, Canada: a three-step procedure case-crossover study. PLoS One, 10(7), p.e0132769.

Sustainable Transportation Policy In Malaysia

Climate Change, or Global Warming, is one of the most serious environmental threats of the 21st century. According to NST article on Top 10 list Global Warming Cause, Carbon dioxide emissions from burning gasoline for transportation responsible for about 33% of emissions. With the population growing at an alarming rate, the demand for more cars and consumer goods means that we are increasing the use of fossil fuels for transportation and manufacturing.
The problems of greenhouse gas emissions and urban air quality are focusing attention on sustainable transport. There are many definitions on sustainable transportation. A sustainable transport system as defined by The Centre for Sustainable Transportation (Gilbert and Tanguay, 2000) is as follows:
Allows the basic access and development needs of individuals, companies and societies to be met safely and in a manner consistent with human and ecosystem, health, and promotes equity within and between successive generations.
Is affordable, operates fairly and efficiently, offers choice of transport mode, and supports a competitive economy, as well as balanced regional development.
Limits emissions and waste within the planet’s ability to absorb them, uses renewable resources at or below their rates of generation, and uses non-renewable resources at or below the rates of development of renewable substitutes while minimizing the impact on the use of land and the generation of noise.
How can transportation become more sustainable? According to The Center for Sustainable Transportation it is defined as:
With respect to society, transportation systems should:
Meet basic human needs for health, comfort, and convenience in ways that do not stress the social fabric.
Allow and support development at a human scale, and provide for a reasonable choice of transport modes, types of housing and community, and living styles.
Produce no more noise than is acceptable by communities.
Be safe for people and their property.
With respect to the economy, transportation systems should:
Provide cost-effective service and capacity.
Be financially affordable in each generation.
Support vibrant, sustainable economic activity.
With respect to the environment, transportation systems should:
Make use of land in a way that has little or no impact on the integrity of ecosystems.
Use sparingly energy sources that are essentially not renewable or inexhaustible.
Use other resources that are renewable or inexhaustible, achieved in part through the reuse of items and the recycling of materials used in vehicles and infrastructure.
Produce no more emissions and waste than can be accommodated by the planet’s restorative ability.
According to the Center for Sustainable Transportaion also, there are several barriers to the attainment of sustainable transportation. Four of the most important are these:
More than for most other areas of human endeavour, decision-making about
transportation by governments, corporations, and individuals has become locked into modes that reinforce the present unsustainable arrangements and trends.
There is a mindset that achieving sustainable transportation is too costly, difficult, and will threaten our quality of life and lifestyle.
Combustion of low-cost oil provides more than 99 per cent of the energy for motorized transportation and creates many of the environmental problems that result from transportation. Harnessing renewable alternatives will be a major challenge.
Mechanisms for identifying improvements in sustainable transportation, and disseminating resulting success stories, and beneficial trends are inadequate.
The effort towards achieving sustainable transport includes technological improvements of cars and lorries, fuels and infrastructure. However, using vehicles more efficiently (higher load factor for lorries, and fewer single occupancy private vehicles) would be a good start towards a smarter use of transport.
Walking and cycling are the ‘greenest’ and most sustainable forms of transport. However, public transport is a key option but it is not receiving the priority which it should be. Transport becomes sustainable only when it does not harm the environment or uses fuel from renewable sources such as wind and solar. In terms of human mobility, this means more use of public transport (including integrated mobility services), and non-motorised modes of transport like walking and cycling. For movement of goods, rail freight is more fuel efficient than trucking.
The public transportation system in Klang Valley includes busses, commuter Light Rail Transit (LRT), monorail, buses and taxis. Public transport passengers are just as inconsiderate as the drivers. Lining up is a practically unknown phenomenon is frustrating and time consuming
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
Whenever a car is started, sitting idle or driving it is producing emissions that are filling our atmosphere. These emissions include nitrogen gas (N2), carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapour (H2O), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons or volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2, together called NOx). Bryant et al. 2008.
Carbon dioxide represents about 80 percent of the manmade greenhouse gases blamed for global warming. 15% of the manmade carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Earth’s atmosphere comes from cars, trucks, airplanes, trains, and ships. The remaining 85% of atmospheric CO2 comes from industry, buildings and agriculture. Current trends show atmospheric CO2 concentration would double by the end of the century (Jan Fuglestvedt 2008)
Figure 1: Projected concentration levels assuming continuing “business as usual” behaviour (Source:University of Maryland)
According ESMAP, Traffic congestion can affect human health due to pollution with high levels of particulates, hydrocarbons, lead and NOx. there are three principal sources of particulate air pollution: vehicle exhaust, re-suspended road dust, and solid fuels,
The Federal Highway Administration has documented the levels of these emissions and
how much of each compound is produced by cars (see Figure 2).
Air Pollutant
Proportion from On road Motor Vehicles
Note
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx)
34%
precursor to ground‐level ozone (smog), which damages the respiratory system and injures plants
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)
34%
precursor to ground‐level ozone (smog), which damages the respiratory system and injures plants
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
51%
contributes to smog production; poisonous in high concentrations
Particulate Matter (PM10)
10%
does not include dust from paved and unpaved roads, which are the major source of particulate matter pollution (50% of the total)
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
33%
thought to be primary contributor to global warming
Figure 2: Transportation Air Quality: Selected Facts and Figures 2002. Sterba 2009
According to study on Hybrid Cars (Michael et. al 2010), their higher price turns consumers away and makes the vehicles a less attractive economic investment. Energy efficient processing techniques need to be developed before the advanced materials in hybrids can help add to their clean image. Widespread change to advanced hybrid technologies is not a feasible option in the near future because of both cost and the limited amount of hybrids on the road today. Overall, hybrid technology has a lot of potential in the distant future, but as for right now they are not a significant improvement over today’s internal combustion engine.
To deal with the severe traffic problems in Malaysia especially in Klang Valley the transportation planners will have to look to solutions such as using public transport and introducing more environmental friendly vehicles.
In the 10TH Malaysia Plan, a sum of RM2.8 billion is allocated for improving urban public transportation was chosen as one of six National Key Result Areas (NKRAs), which are priority areas under the Government Transformation Programme. During the 10MP period, connectivity across different modes of public transport will be improved through the establishment of multi-modal transfer hubs for services within cities, from suburban areas into cities and for intercity travel.

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The Strategic Plan is a document which determines the direction of future transportation system in Malaysia. According to The strategic Plan of The Ministry of Transport (2008 – 2015), development of transport infrastructure a seamless, integrated, sustainable and competitive to meet the aspirations countries is emphasised. One of the plan objective is to ensure that environmental not contaminated by the land transport, air and
maritime. TERAS 2 The strategy highlighted is to optimize new technologies in transport by promoting the use of environmentally friendly vehicles and providing seamless transportation system by improving the park n ride facilities at all stations of urban transport to meet the objective to strengthen and provide world-class integrated transport infrastructure.
Park and Ride (P&R) system are known as incentive parking system. This facilities system consists of car parks with connections to public transport. The user will use public transportation to travel into city and leave their personnel vehicles in a car park. P&R system are generally located in suburbs of metropolitan areas or on the outer edges of large cities. Many countries had using this system such as United Kingdom, United State, Japan and Singapore. Park and Ride was first initiated in the United Kingdom (UK) in the 1960s and 1970s that enjoy most success in cities historic in nature and quite small capacity of controlling that balance to their inhibiting urban structure. In a range of settings across the UK, however, some of which very different in size and nature to the earlier host centres, Park and Ride has subsequently emerged as a major component of local transport policies. In Malaysia, the government starts using Park and Ride system such as Kuala Lumpur, around Klang Valley and Putrajaya According to CASE STUDY ON AWARENESS AND EFFECTIVENESS OF PARK AND RIDE AT PUTRAJAYA, MALAYSIA the awareness level for both Putrajaya citizens and visitors is not high enough to reach the target of the Park and Ride system. This is because, about only half of the people is using the system while the rest refuse to use the system and do not know to us the system. The understanding about the system need to be well explicate to the both Putrajaya citizens and also the visitors. Therefore, the user of Park and Ride may increase and many traffic problems could reduce.
Conference on Environmentally Sustainable Transport (EST) provide an illustration of how criteria and targets can be linked to significant environmental and health quality objectives. These targets are long-term – specific intermediate targets and milestones should be set to focus action. The quantitative target levels below are not prescriptive and could be adapted according to national, regional or local circumstances. What is essential for the EST approach, is that target levels are set to achieve environmental and health quality objectives.
CO2
Climate change is prevented by reducing carbon dioxide emissions so that atmospheric concentrations of CO2are stabilised at or below their 1990 levels. Accordingly, total emissions of CO2 from transport should not exceed 20% to 50% of such emissions in 1990 depending on specific national conditions.
NOx
Damage from ambient NO2and ozone levels and nitrogen deposition is greatly reduced by meeting WHO Air Quality Guidelines for human health and eco-toxicity. This implies that total emissions of NOxfrom transport should not exceed 10% of such emissions in 1990.
VOCs
Damage from carcinogenic VOCs and ozone is greatly reduced by meeting WHO Air Quality Guidelines for human health and ecosystem protection. Total emissions of transport-related VOCs should not exceed 10% of such emissions in 1990 (less for extremely toxic VOCs).2
Particulates
Harmful ambient air levels are avoided by reducing emissions of fine particulates (especially those less than 10 microns in diameter). Depending on local and regional conditions, this may entail a reduction of 55% to 99% of fine particulate (PM10) emissions from transport, compared with 1990 levels.
Landuse/Landtake
Land use and infrastructure for the movement, maintenance, and storage of transport vehicles is developed in such a way that local and regional objectives for air, water, eco-system and biodiversity protection are met. Compared to 1990 levels, this will likely entail the restoration and expansion of green spaces in built-up areas.
Noise
Noise from transport no longer results in outdoor noise levels that present a health concern or serious nuisance. Depending on local and regional conditions, this may entail a reduction of transport noise to no more than a maximum of 55 dB(A) during the day and 45 dB(A) at night and outdoors.
Minister of Transport Malaysia in his speech mention that “The transport sector has now entered the new era of a more challenging and requires a high commitment from all sides. It is now requires a mode of transport and more integrated services and quality system. In addition environmental aspects should also be given emphasis in the planning of all projects for the Ministry of ensure sustainable development.” (Message from DATUK ONG TEE KEAT, Minister of Transport Malaysia)
3.0 METHODOLOGY
This is Life Cycle Analysis academic writing which needs a lot of journals and article readings, internet surfing and knowledge. Some articles were from Ministry of Transport, 10th Malaysia Plan and Malaysian Strategic Planning to ensure that suggestion proposed relevant to the direction of Malaysia development (Dasar Pembangunan Negara). However, more detailed studies should be done to get ideas that can contribute to achieving the goals.
4.0 DISCUSSION
What are the holistic approach toward sustainable transportation policy in Malaysia? Several strategies can be developed such as:
1. Develop of national transportation strategy
Transportation networks are an important piece of the communications infrastructure of a country. We are completely dependent on our transportation networks to move goods and people throughout the country. A national transportation strategy such as highlighted in The Strategic Plan would help Malaysia create a sustainable transportation policy. More strategies must emphasis on green technology.
2. Enhance national public transportation strategy
In order to reduce the number of private cars on the road, the government must plan their short term and long term strategies for public transportation. People must be encouraged to choose public transport for the movement of goods and people. Long term strategies need to plan on how people can move around in the future by using public transport as a priority and reach the destination faster, convenient and comfortable.
The Malaysian government has stated a goal to have 40% of the population using public transportation in the future. Unfortunately, at a meantime we have limited choices for safe, convenient, reliable public transportation. For example, we have a very limited train to travel from North to South. Road accidents which involved express bus are often happen in the country.
Thus, task force group which include expertise from relevant field must be formed. This group will come out with the national public transportation strategies and also to advice the stakeholders on how to achieve the mission
3. National public transportation department
Public transportation should not be run as a profitable business. It must be look as a choice of transportation that people can choose. Minimum fare should be charge to the people. More subsidies must be given to this department. People will surely use public transport if it is convenient and comfortable with the low fare.
It is time for the government to upgrade the public transportation to the first class facilities by locating more money in this department.Research and development unit must also form in this department. This unit will always do research on new technologies to upgrade the transportation systems or transport which environmental friendly like was done in Seoul as an earth friendly transportation city.
4. Expanded national railway network
Railway technology is still the most efficient way to move goods and people. Successful rail networks in Europe, Japan, India, China, Taiwan, and soon in Argentina, show us that the movement of passengers by rail is faster, easier, and better than car or air travel. Thanks to the English Channel Tunnel and the Eurostar High Speed Train, London and Paris are now two hours apart by train. Trains move more people, avoid congestion on the roads, use less energy, and are far more appealing than planes or cars.
A nation like Malaysia should have a reliable railway transportation network for freight as well as a fast passenger railway network connecting all major cities. High Speed rail connections between Kuala Lumpur and neighbouring capital cities must be explored. Thus, the full double-tracking and electrification of all rail lines within Malaysia is necessary. In addition, triple tracking and the construction of additional rail lines should be considered.
5. Regional/local public transportation authority
As we can see in the urban area, there is a more than one public transportation company. for example in Klang valley, Rapid KL and XXX are the famous bus companies. It is suppose to be only one authority which responsible for the planning, regulation and oversight of public transportation. This local authority has the duty to control the bus systems so that it operates under an effective an efficient system. This would eliminate unnecessary and wasteful competition and encourage stability and reliability in public transportation.
6. Additional, secure funding for regional/local public transportation
Public transportation service is important infrastructure. It should not be operated like a business. There should be no reason why a bus company should even try to operate a sustainable business. All world-class public transportation services do not make money. They in fact lose money, and their additional costs are borne by a combination of government funds, bonds, and additional investments.
The best way to build stable, reliable public transportation infrastructure is to fund it properly and fund it early on. This means capital investment and regular operations subsidies are necessary. No world class transportation agency should even be attempting to recover 50% o more of their revenues from fares paid by passengers. Instead, they should be receiving money from public and private investment.
Currently the state government of Terengganu is planning the introduction of Rapid Terengganu, a state-level bus service. While any bus service improvements are good news, this news is even better because it shows that the state government is committed to improving public transportation through government regulated service.
One small point, however. The name “Rapid” is overused, and perhaps should be limited to big cities only. A state-level service should have an appropriate name that reflects the service being offered, not a marketing tool. I personally like “Bas Negeri Terengganu” and I think the acronym “Bantu” (for “Bas Negeri Terengganu”) would be a very appropriate as the word “bantu” reflects the concepts of helping and supporting each other.
7. Expanded KTM Komuter Service
We have to realise that KTM Komuter has the lowest costs and greatest potential for expansion among all modes of transportation. An expanded KTM Komuter service (that means, higher frequencies, longer trains, faster trains, and more lines) would encourage people to use rapid transit. It simply costs too much to build enough LRT lines to make a difference in the transportation infrastructure in the Klang Valley.
KTM Komuter expansion plans include new networks in the north and south, extensions from Sentul to Batu Caves, Rasa to Tanjung Malim, and Seremban to Senawang. A plan is underway to rebuild more than a dozen damaged electric-multiple unit (EMU) trains, which would allow higher frequency and more reliable service. The government must commit to a real expansion of KTM Komuter service, meaning more lines, enough trains for five minute frequencies, and reliable service.
8. More urban mass-transit lines
LRT and mass transit should be built in urban areas, rather than suburban or rural areas. The cost of construction is increasing daily, and this is why the government should be committing to build lines in urban areas, not suburban or rural areas. There is no reason, for example, to build an LRT from Kuala Lumpur to Klang, when Kuala Lumpur itself still needs at least four more LRT lines (in addition to the new Kota Damansara-Cheras line).
Urban areas need mass transit. Urban areas have vast numbers of people and they have the population density to make mass-transit cost effective. Suburban areas do not need mass transit such as LRT lines. They really need enhanced, frequent and reliable bus service to move the vast numbers of people spread out over a wider area.
The planned Kota Damansara-Cheras LRT line will travel through Kuala Lumpur. The Sentul-Batu Caves extension will change transportation in the northern areas of Kuala Lumpur. However, additional lines are needed in Kuala Lumpur to create the core of a mass-transit network. The government should be building in urban areas, not the suburban areas. Extensions are for the future. The core of the mass-transit network needs to be built now.
9. Promoting Park and Ride
The government should enforce the user of Park and Ridein urban area. But before that the quality of service of Park and Ride system need to be improved where more frequent service of the buses to fetch the people from one point to another. Besides improve the service, other strategies to increase the number of bus user is provide enough information to the customer. Kiosk and information centre is suitable to notify the information about Park and Ride system to the people. Marketing and promotion such as image advertising, new resident promotion and fare incentives may also affect the number of bus user.
Malaysians seem to have an obsession with LRT and a misunderstanding of traffic congestion. We also think that traffic problems can be solved with massive projects rather than simple solutions. I won’t bore you with the details of why.
LRT is a mass-transit, and it is costly. As stated before, there is no possible way to build all of the LRT lines that are needed to create quick, reliable, convenient public transportation. This means that other rapid transit alternatives must be explored. Alternative forms of rapid transit include rapid trams, and bus rapid transit. Even simple things like traffic signal priority, bus lanes, and traffic monitoring cameras will make a huge difference.
Sadly, the majority of people in Malaysia still cling to the belief that traffic lights, reduced number of lanes, and roundabouts contribute to traffic congestion. The truth is that traffic congestion is caused by having too many cars on the road at the same time. Fewer cars equal lower congestion.
There is hope that the arrival of local public transportation authorities will make a big difference, expanding and enhancing public transportation. Radical ideas need to be implemented to reduce the number of cars on the road. Bus lanes are only a start but they are easy to implement. Bus Rapid Transit would be the next step.
A reliable Bus Rapid Transit service running along major roads like Jalan Puchong, Jalan Klang Lama, the Federal Highway, Jalan Ipoh, Jalan Kepong, and others, would also help. The government must announce a plan to invest in tram lines, not just additional LRT lines.
10. Reduction in petrol subsidy and incentives to encourage the use of public transportation
Petrol subsidies may make the lives of some people easier, but economics say that anytime you fix the price of an item below its natural price, demand will increase and this will ultimately result in shortages of the product. We have seen this happen in Malaysia with cooking oil, sugar, and diesel fuel. Petrol and wheat may be the next items facing shortages.
The price of petrol in Malaysia is low (compared to world markets). Malaysians are driving more and demanding more petrol. The supply is less and less reliable. Any imbalance is paid through taxes and government funds.
Other countries such as Indonesia (2005) and Myanmar (2007) have seen huge increases in the price of fuel after the government could no longer afford the subsidies.
One way to reduce the demand for petrol is to reduce the subsidy (thereby raising the price at the pumps) and directing that money into enhanced public transport service. The government needs to accept that this decision, though unpopular at first, will be in the best interests of the people.
To make their point clear, the government should reduce the petrol subsidy by an amount of RM0.08 per litre, which would lead to an increased pump price of RM2.00 per litre. An 8 sen increase in the price of petrol (after the election, of course) would be much easier to accept than a 60 sen hike in 2 to 3 years time. The government should allocate the funds saved towards improving and enhancing public transportation.
There are many simple things that the government can do to enhance public transportation across the country, and these can be implemented quickly. An expanded Touch ‘N’ Go service, subsidies for bus operations, tax incentives on the purchase of monthly transit passes, and investment in funding of public transport authorities would make a huge difference for Malaysia.
Summary
The proposals here are relatively uninteresting and less glamorous than new LRT lines or monorails in every city that asks for one. The fact is that public transportation can be interesting and glamorous and inspiring. However, before that can all happen, there must be changes in the attitude of the government and the people.
It is good to think that improved public transportation is part of the solution to traffic congestion in Malaysia. However, many people do not speak out and demand better public transportation, and do not actually intend to use the improved public transportation.
They are missing the point. We can only have inspiring, glamorous, interesting and effective public transportation if there are changes at the government level. Once the government makes the necessary changes, creates a national public transportation strategy and a National Public Transportation Department, then we will finally be on track to a great future.
a regular user of public transport, is deeply concerned that government plans to encourage the use of public transport will ultimately fail because of poor planning and lack of support from the public.
5.0 CONCLUSION
Ensuring progress towards sustainable development suppose to be a priority of the Malaysian government. Transport is a particularly challenging sector. It is indispensable to modern life, but has many adverse effects on health and environment. Most transport trends are unsustainable. More effort must be put on to develop public transport because study found that using public transport can minimize the environmental pollution and impact of health to human.
Although there is a lot of bad news – the good news is it’s not too late! We can implement solutions, but we need to act fast and we need our government to take the lead.
 

Commuter Preferences on Road Transportation Modes

COMMUTERS’ PREFERENCES/CHOICES ON ROAD TRANSPORTATION MODE IN THE NIGER-DELTA: A CASE STUDY OF WARRI METROPOLIS, NIGERIA
ATUBI, A. O.
ABSTRACT
Road transportation is essential/n the life of any modern society; this is because it entails the movement of people, goods and services from one place to another. It is the main medium used to revitalize the social, economic and political structures. The data used for this study were mainly from primary and secondary sources and from the analysis of the data, it was revealed that commuters in Warn metropolis prefer the use of motorcycle transportation to other means of transportation. For more rigorous analysis, an inferential statistical technique known as the multiple correlations was used.
INTRODUCTION
This study of transportation is multi-disciplinary, involving various disciplines each in a strict sense, with its own area of emphasis. For instance, whereas pricing and regulations are the main area of focus of economists, transport systems analysis is usually the interest of the engineers (Ikporukpo, 1998). It is generally recognized that the geographer’s interest is essentially the spatial perspective (Hoyle and Knowles, 1992: Knowles; 1993; Tolley and Turton, 1995). Indeed, Eliot-Hurst (1973) has argued that “transportation is a measure of the relationship between areas and therefore, is essentially geographical”. In spite of the disciplinary boundaries, it is increasingly becoming clear that the study of transportation is best approached through an interdisciplinary perspective.

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Ogunsaya (2002) recognized this when he said; although the process of spatial economic development of any country is a complex one involving several variables, transport stands out as a catalyst in the process of change in its development. Its role in agriculture, industry, commerce, health, education, tourism, among other is recognized’. Kraft et al (1971) observed that transport becomes a critical factor in regional growth since it determines the extent of which an area can capitalize on its economic development. Transport, as a derived demand, is the artery, which all human activities flow. Transport as the Bridge of spatial in equality that enables/aids development, is often use as an indicator of the overall development of a nation. No wonder, Onakornaiya and Ekanem (1977) said, any nation is as developed as her transport sector which is a basic service sector to all other sectors of the economy developed.
Changes in the way economic activities are organized are well understood. However, as yet, the role of transport in facilitating these changes is well defined. Most recently, economic forces have been supplemented by technological changes, which have allowed many transactions to be carried out simultaneously. The quantity and speed of transactions have increased exponentially. A number of authors discussed these issues, the most notable being Downs (1989), Sassen (1999); Castells (2000; 2004). Transportation enables consumers to enjoy the availability of goods, which are not provided as produced in their immediate locality because of climate or soil condition, the lack of raw materials, utilities or labours or the cost of production. Such a system allowed consumers a choice of goods, which would not otherwise be available (United States Department of Transportation, 2000; 2004; Kruger et al 2001; Atubi and Onokala, 2003; Rodrigue, 2004).
Recent urban transportation studies address the identification and measurement of behavioural variables in the development of spatial choices models. However, the choice of destinations is generally remain divorced from other travel choice, such as mode of travel and time of trip (Dommecich, 1985), as well as attempt to explain travel mode choice as a significant component of urban travel behaviours. For example, Ruston (1991), investigated consumer behaviours in space, which are based upon revealed preferences. This observed behaviour, may say very little concerning individual preferences. Individual attitudes are most often defined in terms of persons (Golob, 2000).
Hartgen (1998) noted that the employment of attitudes as explained by variables is made choice of quantitative aspect of consumers demand. This modelling strategy is not limited to those attributes such as travel times and out of pocket cost which are easily quantified and characterized by an established and easily accessible metric. Hartgen and Tuner (2001) employed an attitudinal index to prevent travel mode choices. Allen and Isserman (1999) found that attitudinal variables are useful in discriminate models of mode choice, employing attitudinal and demographic variables within the framework of an automatic interaction detector analysis.
Thomas (1997) observed that transport researchers have traditionally concentrated on a limited number of situation influence: socio-demographic variables such as age, sex, education, occupation etc. mode is for example sequential versus simultaneous has been shown to affect the estimated coefficient of spatial choice model. Banister (1989) in his study noted that the urban travel network, which has involved for example excessive fuel consumption, deterioration of urban air quality, peak hour congestion etc., provides an aggregate level of mobility that is unprecedented. However, the same urban network is also responsible for the existence of several travels disadvantaged minorities and a rapid decentralization of urban population and employment. It is generally agreed that the choice of travel has both contributed to and evolved from a decentralized urban form.
PARTICIPANTS AND PROCEDURES
Warn is the headquarters of the Warn South Local Government Area. It located in the Western Niger Delta region of Delta State and lies approximately between longitudes 5°44’ latitude 5°30’ and 6°15’ (see fig. 1). Its location in the Niger Delta area makes it a very low-lying town. The position of Warn is about 6 metres above the sea level on the average and nowhere does it rise above 8 metres. The Warn River borders the town on the South and Eastern sides.
For the purpose of data collection in the study area, purposive sampling technique was used to divide the study area into three zones for convenience. They include Enehren junction, Okere round about and cemetery road. These three areas were chosen because they are the most useable and busiest roads in Warn metropolis. People usually leave their place of resident for employment places between the hours of 6.30am and 7.30am. Also between the hours of 4.30pm and 6.30pm workers return from work.
Based on this observation, traffic count was conducted in specific major roads in the study area. The count was done with a view to establish observable characteristics of the three models of transport (that is, taxi cabs, buses and motorcycles). The instrument used to elicit necessary information from the respondents include questionnaire, personal observation and oral interview. However, only two hundred (200) persons were selected to represent the target population through random sampling method. In analyzing the data the statistical tools used include the use of tables, percentages and statistical technique such as the multiple correlation statistics.
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
In Warn metropolis, percentage of 6:30am to 9:00am count total was computed
Table 1: Traffic Count at the Three Strategic Points in Warn

Point

Enehren Junction

Okere roundabout

Cemetery road

Vehicles

6.30am to 9.00am

4.00pm to 6.00pm

6.30am to 9.00am

4.00pm to 6.00pm

6.30am to 9.00am

4.30pm to 9.00pm

Private car

725

489

546

572

478

321

Taxi cabs

318

158

231

246

206

154

Buses

56

112

154

37

87

78

Lorries

18

7

13

12

23

27

Motorcycles

1173

822

903

934

452

489

Total

2290

1588

1847

1801

1255

1069

Percentage

42.6%

35.6%

34.4%

40.4%

23.3%

24.0%

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Source: Field survey, 2005
for each of the three points. The same was done for the 4:00pm to 6:00pm count. The morning count summed up to 5377 vehicles. While the evening count summed up to 4458 in all the three points (see table 1).
Enehren Junction by Warri-Sapele road attracted 42.6% of the traffic in the morning. While in the evening it attracted 35.6% of traffic flow in the different locations. This means that the number of vehicles that passed through this point in the morning far exceed vehicles that passed in the evening. This is as a result of most residents using the point to get to their work place and leave for different location after work in the evenings, as such some vehicles that did not pass this point in, pass it out. The same process was also obtained for the other locations.
Okere Round About is located in such a way that it link together different routes in Warn metropolis. But this area does not have work places likes companies around it, likes what is found in Enebren axis. As such cannot rate as high as Enebren Junction axis in terms of vehicles tra1c flow. In the morning the route attracted 3 4.4% of traffic in the three points. While in the evening this route attracts 40.4% of traffic. The percentage of traffic flow in evening was high compared to that of the morning. This is as result of the fact that more routes are now being used in the evening after closing hour than what was used in the morning.
The third route/zone where the traffic count was done was at Cemetery Road. This route attracted the least number of vehicular traffic flow, both in the morning and evening amongst the three routes used. It attracted 23.3% of traffic count in the morning and 24% of traffic count in the evening. This is as a result of the fact that the route does not link any major area like industrial area but it is a link to two markets in Warn (that is, Warri main market and Igbodu market). All the observations made with respect to directorial flow of traffic in the town show that most people prefer to use motorcycle to bus and taxi cabs.
Table 2: Time of Operation

Starting tune

No. of cabs

%

No. of buses

%

Motorcycle

%

Part time

21

52.%%

23

38.3%

33

33%

Full time

19

47.5%

37

61.6%

67

67%

Total

40

100%

60

100%

100

100%

Source: Field survey, 2005
Table 2 shows that 21 representing 52.5% of cabs operators are on part time while the remaining 19 represents 47.5% of cab operators on full time basis, 23 representing 38.3% while the remaining 37 representing 61.6% operates on full time basis. It was also observed that some operators on shift hour, that is, vehicle driven by two persons. In order to have a clear understanding of problems often faced by motorcycle, taxi cab, bus operators each of the operators interviewed was requested to identify some of the problems affecting his operation. The table below shows problems encountered by bus transport operators in Warn metropolis. This problem include commuters attitude to public transport, lack of fuel currency denomination etc.
Table 3: Operational Problem

Operational problems

No. of cabs

%

No. of buses

%

Motorcycle

%

1

7

17.5

9

1.5

10

10

2

0

1

1.7

13

13

3

5

12.5

7

11.7

19

19

4

3

7.5

13

21.7

17

17

5

20

50

20

33.3

22

22

6

5

12.5

10

16.7

19

19

Total

40

100

60

100

100

100

Legend:1 – Vehicle maintenance
2 – Commuter Attitude
3 – Fuel
4 – Security Harassment
5 – Bad Road/hold-up
6 – Currency Denomination
Table 3 above shows that bad roads and Police harassment have the highest percentage of problems encountered by the commuter operators. For every trip made a minimum ofN2O is obtained from Police by force or else they would be delayed from operating. Bad condition of roads is another factor that hinders smooth operation of transport in the study area. Most traffic jams and hold-ups are as the result of bad roads in Warn Metropolis. From the multiple correlations the result shows that 56% of commuter preference/choice cannot be explained by the effect of road transport mode in Warn Metropolis. This means that 56% are motorcycles. Commuters prefer the use than 44%, which are both taxicabs and buses. The implication of the result shows that there is a significant relationship between commuter preference/choice and road transport mode in Warn Metropolis.
CONCLUDING REMARKS
Warn Metropolis has been favoured by her position and location. The emergence of transport has helped to accelerate the growth rate and development. Since the emergence of motorcycle transportation there has been a significant change in the social and economic life of the inhabitants. This research has revealed that people prefer the use of motorcycle than taxicabs and buses as a result of its citywide access.
The introduction of public transportation service has helped in alleviating the problem of mobility in Warn Metropolis. The implication of effective transportation planning demands knowledge of the traffic situation, the transport needs of the commuting population, as well as the transportation modal mix and contribution of transportation to economic growth. This requires the availability of transport related data. This is important in the sense that the success or failure of transportation planning lies on the accuracy of data collected.
Public sector investment should be encouraged in road infrastructure construction and maintenance of road network to cater for all the different modes of transportation since they complement and compete with each other for road space. This would have the desired effect of increasing the efficiency of the transport system.
REFERENCES
Allen, W. B. and Isserman, A. (1999). Behavioural Modal Split. High Speed Growth Transportation Journal, l79-l99pp.
Atubi,A. 0. and Onolcsb, P. C. (2003). Road Transportation and the Socio-Economic Development of the Niger-Delta: A Case Study of Warn Metropolis Journal of Social and Management Sciences Review Vol. 1, (1): 102-113.
Banister, D. (1989). Transport, the Environment and Sustainable Development. London: E and FN Spon.
Castells, M. (2000). European Cities, The Information and Society and the Global Economy; Oxford: Blackwell.
Castells, M. (2004). The Information Age: Economy Society and Culture. Oxford: Blackwell.
Dommecich, T. A. (1985). Urban Travel Demand. Amsterdam: North Hall and Publishers.
Downs, A. (1989). How Transportations Arteris Impact Land values. In Urban Transportation: Perceptiveness and Prospects. H. S. Levinson and R.A. Weant. (eds) Wesport: C. T. Eno Foundation, 105-109.
Ekanem, N. F. (1973). Transportation in Nigeria Nation Development. NISSER, 445-489pp.
Eliot-Horst, M. E. (1973). Transportation and Societal Framework. Economic Geography, 49:163-80.
Golob, T. F. (2000). An Attitudinal Model Choice. Transportation Research Vol. 10: 229-310.
Hartgen, G. T. (1998). Urban Transportation Planning. A Developmental Approach. London and New York: Routled, D.
Hartgen, G. and Tanner, C. (2001). Sustainable Cities. Regional Studies Association. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Hoyle, B. S. and Knowles, R. D. (1992). Transportation Geography. An Introduction in Hoyle, B.S. and Knowles, R.D. (eds) Modern Transport Geography. New York: John Will ey and Sons. 1- 10pp.
Ikporukpo, C. 0. (1998). Transport Studies. In Areola. O. and Okafor. S.I. (eds) 50 Years of Geography in Nigeria the Ibadan Story. Ibadan: University of Press, 135-1 56pp.
Knowles, R. D. (1993). Research Agendas in Transport Geography for 1990s. Journal of Transport Geography Vol. 1 l,):3-1].
Kreft, A. and Singh, K. (1971). Transport Demand Analysis. New York: McGraw Hill Books Company.
Kruger, S. K. et al (2001). Highway Engineering. Nemchand and Bros, Rorkee. 7 Edition.
Ogunsanya, A. A. (2002). Issues and Problems in Nigerian Transport System in the Trainer. Journal of the Nigerian Institute of Transport Technology Vol.], (1): 4-l0pp.
Rodriique J.P. (2004). Road Transportation. Http// www. People. Hostra. Edu/geotras/ eng/ chzn. html
Ruston, G. (1991). Analysis of pa1ial Behaviour. Anals of the Association of American Geographers Vol. 59, 391-400.
Sassen, S. (1999). Cities in a World Economy.
Thomas, B. O. (1997). An Adaptive Model for Designing Transportation System. London: University Press.
Tolley, R. S. and Truton, B. J. (1995). Transport System. Policy and Planning. A Geographic Approach. England: Longman Group Limited.
US Department of Transportation 2000). National Transportation Statistics, 64pp.
US Department of Transportation (2004). Role of Highways in Development.

 

CO2 & Modes of Transportation

Modes of transportation using combustion plays a huge role in our environment by contributing to the release of carbon dioxide (Co2) in the atmosphere. This contributes to the release of Co2 in the atmosphere because the tailpipes on the cars release of Co2 into the atmosphere. According to the Union of Concerned Scientist (2014), “Collectively, cars and trucks account for nearly one-fifth of all US emissions, emitting around 24 pounds of carbon dioxide and other global-warming gases for every gallon of gas.” This means that 24 pounds of Co2  is being emitted by only 20% of all U.S emissions that come from our vehicles that we use. In total, the US transportation sector—which includes cars, trucks, planes, trains, ships, and freight—produces nearly thirty percent of all US global warming emissions, more than almost any other sector.”(Car Emissions,n.d.) According to Humans Blamed for Global Warming (1996), “Some greenhouse gases occur naturally as a result of biological and geological processes on the planet. Others are produced when humans burn fossil fuels, such as oil, coal and gas, for industry, transportation and heating.” This evidence shows that humans use these modes of transportation cause climate change, combustion that contributes to greenhouse gases(ghg) and CO2. According to U.S. Sources of Greenhouse Gases Outlined (1993), “ Almost all of the carbon dioxide released is the result of burning the fossil fuels oil, coal and natural gas . . .The burning of fuel in cars, trucks and other forms of transportation emits slightly less than 1,600 million metric tons.” This quote or evidence shows the main causes of carbon dioxide or Co2 and how much metric tons burning of fuel in different kind of transportation emits. People can connect this to what they see differently about the planet because the Co2 that is being emitted right now is causing severe weather changes, rising sea levels and an increase of the Earth’s temperature. In fact, the community can also see that there are more hurricanes than usual  on the Earth which is affecting lost of people. Thus, concluding to how modes of transportation using combustion relates to the release of Co2 in the atmosphere.

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 There are three actions that people can do in order to reduce Co2 that comes from transportation using combustion. According to the “How You Can Help Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Transportation Choices” (2016), people can use a carpooling, use public transportation and buy a car that produce less Co2 such as an electric car. Carpooling is when a person takes a ride with someone so there will be less cars being used on the streets. As a result of carpooling, by the year 2025, there will be 43 million cars used for carpooling, which is measured in million units. (“Number of Carpooling Vehicles,” 2015). Public transportation is just using the MTA, (Metropolitan Transportation Authority) bus or MTA train. Now there are hybrid buses which produces less Co2 than regular buses. Another way is using electric vehicles because these vehicles do not require gasolines and produce less emissions than a regular car does(Car Emissions, n.d.) Even though electric cars are expensive, you can buy hybrid cars. “Hybrids also use an internal combustion engine—and can be fueled like normal cars—but also have an electric motor and battery (How hybrid cars work,n.d.). They are also cheaper to own which is beneficial  Last possible way to reduce is use public transportation, walk, or riding a bicycle(Top 10 ways to reduce,2012) Using these modes of transportation are greenhouse friendly and might be cheaper than paying for gasoline for your car.  These are the actions that people can take to reduce Co2 levels.

 There are multiple ways government can help reduce the release of Co2 in the atmosphere from transportation using combustion One way is “Informing Consumers Information on Fuel Economy and Advanced Technology Cars (Carbon Pollution,2017.) This is basically something the government have done to tell the consumers about ghg and how much does cars contribute to co2. Another way the government can contribute is”The numbers of cars in the world are growing rapidly. In the short term it is possible to make the cars far more fuel efficient. In the longer term electric cars charged by wind turbines, for instance, seem to be a fine solution for the global energy system. In the long term, cars powered by fuel cells and hydrogen can supplement electric cars. Road charges can also help reduce CO2 emissions, regulate traffic and reduce local pollution. There should be emphasis on more kinds of alternative fuels, so that vital transport activities are not affected by supply failures (Ways to Reduce,n.d.)” In other words this evidence is saying that the government should push the car industry to make a car that is capable of using more than one renewable resource.  Last but not least, the government should train vans and truck drivers to drive efficiently in order of co2 reducing (Ways to Reduce,n.d.) This can apply to people that do taxi, car service, or uber (etc.) if everyone contributes small to help reduce co2 the goal will be accomplished. In the end, the Government can help reduce co2 and exhaust, this will all benefit us in the future and for many more years to come. These are action the government can do to reduce the Co2 levels in the atmosphere.

References

 

Transportation and Distribution Management

Transportations and distribution industry plays an important role in bridging the gap between the producer and the consumer. Forms of transportation available include air, water, rail and land. The transport industry is one of the driving forces for economic development. The cost of transportation is a major cost that all firms in this industry would like to reduce (Markowitz, 2011). The economic benefits of reducing transportation cost are notable and are a direct way of improving profits for any firm. According to Hines (2004) the question of how to reduce these cost remain one of the constantly explored by many transportation firms. Each firm desires to develop an effective strategy to reduce the costs.

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Distributions is important since it ensures production and needs are in balanced thus it is an important part of the economy. Moving products from producers to the consumers regionally, nationally and internationally can account for more than half of the total cost of the products. Therefore, the management of transportation and distribution should focus on the economic aspects (Rodrigue, et al. 2010). Efficiency and effectiveness of the transport system is vital in reducing the costs. Subsequently, management of the operations includes analysis of the costs of everything involved. Operations administration is carried out depending on the nature of the products or services that the organization is dealing in.
Discussion and Analysis
On 31 November 1981, I and five other partners came together and initiated a privately own a transport company Swift world transport Ltd. The company provides innovative, cost effective and reliable transportation of food products. Swift world transport Ltd specializes in food products shipment and carriage between various states and towns. After realizing that an opportunity exists in coordinating of food products, we launched a strategy to fill the void. Our trucks and carriers deliver food products to one destination and return with another load to another destination. The company desires not only to meet customer’s expectations but also to exceed it every time. Currently we have over 500 trucks operating around five states. Since transport costs account for a considerable portion of the selling price of food products, we put emphasis on making smart economic decision (Rodrigue, et al. 2010).
Swift world transport Ltd. Deals with a wide range of food products. The products range from cereals, soft drinks, biscuits and cookies, baked goods, ready meals and frozen foods. Other products that we transport in smaller quantities include dairy products, honey and seafood. Swift world transport Ltd. Is ISO-certified and will be celebrating 30 years in existence late this year. Though the company began from humble beginnings, it has grown to be one of the market leaders in transportation of food products. It has more than 300 employees and is strategically located with its head office in New York. Swift world transport Ltd upholds integrity and abides by the rules and regulations in the transport industry (Markowitz, 2011).
At Swift world transport Ltd we value the customers hence we use the latest technology and equipments in handling the products to meet customer’s needs of quality. We have refrigeration services to keep perishable products from being spoilt. The ministry of health officials has approved our warehouses as safe for storage of edible products. Our trucks are monitored via satellite hence we have an error free billing system (Rodrigue, et al. 2010). Swift world transport Ltd. Has three main departments. The first department deals with the transport infrastructure. These include the trucks and the sea vessels. The second department includes the food handling facilities such as refrigerators and warehouses. Finally, the last department ensures that there is always adequate supply of the products depending on the demand.
Physical distribution involves the transportation of the food products from the various sources to the customers. The manager directing the physical distribution has the responsibility of assessing and controlling the cost of transport. He is also charged with the responsibility of ensuring the most efficient way of storing them. This in some cases may require warehouses hence inventory control. A manager should thus ensure that the right goods arrive at the proper destination in the right condition and to the correct client. As explained by Halldorsson et al. (2003) the goods should be in the right quantity.
The transportation strategy adopted by the Swift world transport Ltd swiftly responds to all aspects of our operations with priority on customers and suppliers. The strategy acknowledges customer requirements as an important aspect of all its activities. The supply chain is a involves movement of products from suppliers to the customer. The transportation activities should focus on meeting customer needs. Transportation and shipment must therefore progress according to the timings (Rodrigue, et al. 2010). Customers require that products be delivered at their premises on a particular day and time. This needs to be accomplished in order to provide customer satisfaction. Being able to meet these deadlines has given Swift world transport Ltd a competitive advantage over other firms. The size of our firm also causes our customers to trust in our ability to be reliable. They believe that small firms are not reliable. Comparing performance is important for the firm to know how well our strategies are working (Larson, & Halldorsson, 2004). In order to remain economically sound, we measure our expenses every now and then in order to have tight control over them. Estimation of general expenses and freight costs assists the company in budgeting.
A supply chain is a system that brings organizations, people, information and other resources in bridging the gap by ensuring that goods and services move from supplier to consumers. Supply chains ensure that goods are delivered to the end user. The management of a supply chain involves planning and management of activities ranging from sourcing, procurement and the logistics. At Swift world transport Ltd. coordination and collaboration with the suppliers and customers and other third party service providers is our priority. The company has created a supply chain that integrates all activities with the main responsibility of linking our suppliers and the customers (Rodrigue, et al. 2010). A model of a supply chain begins from receiving the products from producers and suppliers and ends with the delivering to the consumer. Swift world transport Ltd adopted the model whose framework is developed on business processes that are not only cross firm but also cross functional. A team manages the cross-functional processes with representatives from purchasing, finance, logistics and research and development (Halldorsson, et al. 2003). Since each process interacts with customers and suppliers at some point, customer relations and supplier’s relations form an important part in the supply chain. The company must make the right decision when moving products from one point to the other. Distributing products faster and cheaply leads to higher profits and more satisfied customers. In order to do this, Swift world transport Ltd stays informed on the current trend within the industry. For illustration, most companies are moving in the southern states because where doing business is more cost effective. The company has been analyzing facts and trying to make a decision whether to move south.
In 1990, Swift world transport Ltd. adopted the supply chain management (SCM). This was adopted after realization that most food products require integration of many business processes, from the original supplier to the customer (Halldorsson, et al. 2003). The suppliers provide the company with products, services and important information that boost our business. SCM enables us to exchange information with other stakeholders regarding market fluctuation. After realizing the importance of information, we adapted the SCM to enable us access relevant information. This is made possible since all the companies in the supply chain help optimize the entire chain. The company can therefore plan its distribution activities better hence leading to customer satisfaction. In addition, incorporation of SCM leads to reduction of competition (Hines, 2004). This is because the competition is not from one company to the other but on supply chain and supply chain.
The aim of supply chain management is to uphold customer satisfaction by using the available resources efficiently. It seeks to keep the demand and supply at equilibrium. Since many food products are perishable, it pays to liaise with producers to minimize bottlenecks. The products are obtained from farmers and suppliers at the lowest cost (Hines, 2004). Transporting is followed by distribution and finally delivering the products to customer markets.
Conclusion
One of the main challenges that Swift world transport Ltd faces is the presence of congestion in our road system. The causes of congestion come from higher requirement for mobility, which many times go beyond the facilities that support it. Other causes can be random events like accidents, which normally disrupts the flow of vehicles. Congestion is not only present on the roads, concentration of traffic is observed even on maritime transport. This is so common especially in terms of weight. Traffic concentration is causing many problems at the ports. In the past few decades, international trade has been experiencing higher growth than the global economy resulting in congestion at the ports. Congestion has the effect of delaying products on the road hence causing late Deliveries. Late deliveries in turn lead to loss if business opportunities and dissatisfied customers.
Recommendation
As a major stakeholder in the transport industry, we have joint hands with other like-minded firms to put pressure on government to build more road network. A transport policy that will provide solutions to congestion problems should be developed. This requires long term planning to build of more roads and ports in order to ease the congestion. States with port facility should apply for grants from the federal government in order to improve their inadequate facilities. These are the solutions to preventing the constant congestion.
 

Eco Friendly Transportation Cycling Physical Education Essay

Introduction
Ecologically friendly is activities that are good for the environment, and cycling is a transportation of the use of the cycling which power by human with 0 pollution. Go green, recycling, eco-friendly, “reuse”, etc, these words are everywhere and what we see every day. To be an environmental person, how can we change the world by one man power? The public think that it is not changing a thing if only one person is being eco-friendly; however, every little helps the “sick earth”. Especially I am studying in the Bicycle town – Nottingham, because it is the home of Raleigh, the largest cycle manufacturer in the UK. Make me interesting and reflective thinking in cycling to the environment which is connected. Helping the environment by cycling is a great way, either healthy or saving cost. In this essay, I will talk about the benefits and disadvantages of cycling, public using it as a transport in many different ways. Also, the influences of cycling to environment, relationship between bicycle designs and environment will be discussed at below. In first paragraph, I will explain what a bicycle is, following with basic information of bikes. Then, the reasons of people choosing bicycle as a transport method will be discussed next paragraph. Also, many benefits will be suggested and supporting the advantages of cycling by survey and experts. However, there are some accidents and death rate can be found easily which makes cycling dangerous. Thirdly, public using bicycle as transport to work and school, supporting by organization “Sustran”. On the other hand, education sectors do not really recommend children cycling to schools. Follow by the traveling by bicycle, there is a trend that cycling is getting popular and use for travelling between cities even countries. At last, I will talk about cycling is improving the environment gradually. In additionally, bicycle designs are helping the cities day by day. At the same time, government designs bicycle renting in London to help the public improving the air and quality in the capital. Finally, I will give a brief conclusion to end up this dissertation.

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Bicycle – cycling and design
What is Bicycle?
A two wheels vehicle connected to a frame, controlled by a rider via the handlebar, powered by human. The definition of bicycle from Oxford Dictionary (2012) explained that a vehicle consisting with two wheels held in a frame one behind the other, propelled by pedals and steered with handlebars attached to the front wheel. As so many different type of bicycle in this century, a more relevant explanation of bicycle would be a vehicle consisting with at least two wheels held in a frame, propelled by pedals and steered with handlebars attached to the frame. As same as design, there was always starting with a basic, development, and outcome as final design. In the 18th century, the first bicycle was born in the Europe; this vehicle required balancing by the rider as a transport to go around. This invent became very popular and produced in huge amount quickly. According to the international bicycle organization (2013), the whole world bicycle production had reach 100millions in 1950-2000. Now in 2013, bicycles produced more than 10 million and kept increasing. The range of bicycle usage was children’s toys, racing, general fitness, military, travelling, courier service and etc. As transportation, bicycle had been employed for bicycle commuting and utility cycling. For working, bicycle could deliver food or mail, police patrol. For recreating the bicycle, it could be mountain biking, BMX, physical fitness and for fun. Also for racing, such as track, time trial, tour de France, etc. Thus, different types of bicycle had been creating for different needs. Common types were mountain bikes, BMX, road bike and single speed, on the other hand fixed gear bike and folding bike were less common. Different designs fit different customers, some liked simple designs, and some liked functional designs. Bicycle was a human-powered transport which meant it need to power by the rider him/herself. Cycling was a very efficient and effective mode of transportation, and it was the most efficient human-powered land vehicle at the same time. Cyclist need to hold the handlebar and keep pedaling to keep the bike going forward, otherwise it will fall or crash when lost control. When designers designing, they always faced failure same as cycling, also there was always a reason for designing and cycling.
“Life is like riding a bicycle – in order to keep your balance, you must keep moving.” 
By – Albert Einstein
Why cycling?
Many people ride a bike for many different reasons. For the body, cycling could be done by people of all ages, from childhood to adult, when achy joints did not allow for more stressful exercise like jogging. For State of mind, cycling helped people to releaser stress. Regardless of if riding purely for pleasure or for a specific purpose, feeling relaxed and energized when you arrived the destination. For community, being out on the bike was good for the people around you as well. Cyclist was able to go to the place that they wanted to go and yet put one less car on the road. Cycling was a great eco-friendly way for fun, fitness and also to enjoy the fresh air. Matthew (2012) said that whether it was to boost the fitness, health or band balancing, or as an environmental choice, taking up cycling could be one of the best decisions. Thus, cycling gave people many benefits and experiences in many ways. Illinois University’s researchers found that 5 out of 100 people improved in cardio-respiratory fitness from cycling led to an improvement of up to 15% in mental tests. Because of cycling helped build new brain cells in the hippocampus- the region responsible for memory which deteriorates from the age of 30. According to University of Bristol, cycling helped boost the bowels, meaning the benefits of cycling extend deep into your heart. Dr Ana Raimundo said that helped decreasing the time which took food to move through the large intestine by physical activity, controlling the amount of water absorbed back into the body and leaving only the softer stools, which were easier to pass. On the other hand, Experts at University of Stanford found that riding bicycle frequently could protect human’s skin instead of harming from UV radiation and reducing the signs of ageing. “When flushing harmful toxins out, nutrients to skin cells and circulation through exercise deliver oxygen increasing circulation more efficiently. Also creating an ideal environment within the body to optimize collagen production by exercise, it letting the skin created less wrinkles and heal faster. A test testing insomnia suffers to cycle for 30 or less minutes every day, insomniacs sleeping time increased almost an hour and fall as sleep time required go down to half. Professor Jim Horne from Loughborugh University’s sleep research centre explained that the sunshine shine on the skin when doing exercise at outdoor, helped get the circadian rhythm back in sync, also riding the body of cortisol, the stress hormone that could prevent deep, regenerative sleep. Beating the illness by cycling, riding was the way to keep the doctor away. Chief dietician at St George’s hospital in London said medium level exercise made immune cells more active, and made them always ready to fight with bacteria. Researches also showed that people got less sickness if people cycle for 30 minutes five days a week. Group of scientists compared over 2400 identical twins and found those who did the equivalent of just three 45minutes rides per week were 9 years “biologically younger” even after discounting other influences, such as body mass index (BMI) and smoking. Dr Lynn Cherkas claimed that lower risk of cardiovascular disease been found on those people who exercise regularly, all types of cancer, high blood pressure and obesity. And the body became very efficient at defending itself and regenerating new cells. Cutting 50% risk of heart disease by cycling regularly. According to British Heart foundation (2013), around 10.000 fatal heart attacks could be avoided each year if people kept themselves fitter. About keeping fit, sports specialist found that body’s metabolic rate – the efficiency with which it burns calories and fat, was not only raised during cycling, however for few hours after stop. One study showed that cyclists who incorporated fast intervals into their ride burned three and a half times more body fat than those who cycled constantly but at a slower pace.
Apart from health, cycling helped people go to their destination faster in UK’s major city. Research by Citroen showed that workers get to location in half the time of cars and commuting by bike in the UK’s major cities. In fact, if driving for an hour in rush hour, drivers cannot go anywhere further in 30 minutes and average just 7mph, compared to averaging around 12-15mph while cycling. A study of 200 people carried out by the University of Bristol found that employees who exercised before work or at lunchtime improved their time and workload management, and it boosted their motivation and their ability to deal with stress. The study also reported that workers who exercised felt their interpersonal performance was better; they took less brake and found it easier to finish work on time. Unfortunately, study found nothing was linking between getting a promotion and cycling. Riding to work could save the money of transport, without the weather condition, cycling to work at less save you £30 a month. Enjoying the fresh air before go to work, refreshed the mind and worked more efficiency. In the weekend, the whole family could go cycling together. Studies suggested that children were influenced by their parents exercise choices. Which meant if your kids saw you riding bicycle a lot, they thought it was normal and would want to follow. Replaced any other harmful dependency such as alcohol, computer and cigarettes, you were developing a positive addiction by riding bicycle. Result of positive addiction to cycling was became a happier and healthier person in life. Riding could be doing as much good as the actual exercise on the social side. Socialising released the hormone oxytocin helped you made friends and stay healthy. Naturally feeling good endorphin released when exercising and counters stress which made happiness. If you happy but tired? The best thing you could do was go for a ride. Even a few minutes of physical activity was a surprisingly effective refreshing mind. A review of 12 studies on the link between exercise and fatigue carried out between 1945 and 2005 found that exercise directly cut down weariness levels. Nothing was better than cycling with partner. Many couples made one or two riding “dates” every week, helping release feel-good hormones, so after a ride, the couples would have a warm feeling towards each other. Appreciating the time you spent together and chat though cycling.
However, there might be some disadvantages while many benefits had been found.
With hundred of issues could be found to affect the cyclist while cycling. Riding on the roads next to aggressive drivers could be very dangerous. Wind, raining, heat, cold and hills etc, all these conditions affected the people who was riding and cause serious problem. According to the Fonant (2012), statistically cycling was generally considered to be more dangerous than travelling by car, much safer than riding a motorbike, and roughly as safe as walking. The actually values depended on whether counting accidents per mile, journey or hour, so the figures were quite variable. In practically, cycling felt a lot more dangerous it truly was. Also, choices of bike could make a huge different; a stable city bike felt more comfortable in traffic than a risky BMX bike. Bicycles were much more flexible than cars, so sometimes find quiet routes that avoid the busiest roads. Large cities and towns always published route maps which might helped. However, these “cycle route” were built by non-cyclist and so could be relatively useless and stupid, even sometimes they were more dangerous than the roads they ran along. Fonant (2012) claimed that the danger to cyclists on the roads decreased very much if there were more people cycling. Vehicles became more used to passing cyclists, and they were less surprised to see them. In additionally, the more car drivers thee were that also cycle, the more the motoring public would understand cyclists needs and fears. This phenomenon was known as the “Critical Mass”, also the name of demonstration bike riders that take place in towns all over the world. In the UK, drivers were very bad at passing cyclists, specially the elder people. For some reason they think cyclist were happy to have just a few inches of space. Drivers forgot that cyclist were balancing, and often needed to swerve to avoid potholes. Fortunately, being hit from behinds was a rare occurrence for a cyclist, so while there was a strong perception that there was danger in reality this was not the case. Not a good experience with hitting by a passing car, the feeling would ever forget. The worst possibility to do was ride close to the kerb. Not only the cars would pass by faster and closer, but if the front wheel hits the kerb you fall off. More obvious to ride where the cars’ left hand side wheels have made the road better, and you would get a lot fewer punctures. As I mentioned, car drivers seemed not to like cyclists. Reasons were because driving was already a stressful and competitive activity, and cycling next to them got even worse. In practice a cyclist almost never would make the journey time longer of a car driver. A cyclist would be overtaken, only to overtaking back at the next traffic lights or queue. Car drivers also afraid that they might hit and injure a cyclist while driving on the road. Even divers were not worrying physically but in sub-conscious, something that modern cars did all that they could to remove, by insulating the car occupants from real world as much as possible. Except the car driver, weather was another problem for cyclists. Most of the non-cyclists thought that raining was the worst weather problem for cyclists, but since starting to ride a bike you would found out how much effort was needed to cycle into a strong wind. Comparing with climbing a hill, cycling was worse as the wind would often be against you for the whole journey, and sometimes it even turned so it was against you on the way back as well. To solve this problem, many regular long distance cyclists used traditional dropped handlebars. Drop bar allowed crouching down comfortably to reduce the frontal area. Wearing a windbreaker with an ultimate wind-resistance bicycle such as recumbent bike could help to go smoother. Some said raining just as much of a pain as wind, but less common thankfully. Although raining was not a big deal for the rider, the bicycle getting wet was not a good thing. The bicycle got wet without drying in a long term, causing rust and damage could be dangerous for the cycling activity. Riding with all wet outfit certainly was not a good idea, especially in winter when you wearing lots of layers and getting cold plus wet was horrible. In cold weather, wearing too many cloths for cycling would be clumsy which affected the reaction of the cyclist. Suggesting to wear windproof clothing than it would be warm enough even in freezing weather. To cancel the problem of sweat-induced moisture it was best to dress so that would be chilly at the beginning with, and soon warm up. At the same time, hands and feet were needed more attention as they getting to be the coldest part of the body. Try extra socks and windproof gloves, they helped more than ever. Furthermore, took great care in hot weather to keep drinking. Keep sweating without drinking water might lead to heat stroke, so just brought a bottle of water with you and drank it frequently. Apart from weather, the bicycle was one of the condition that cyclist needed to care about. Parking, maintenance, cost etc. When cyclist wanted to park the bike, made sure it was secure to beware of bike thief as bicycle parts were easy to uninstall. As the commodity price were increasing in all over the world, the cost of bicycle parts and maintenance were getting more expensive. Ensure the bike was in good condition before riding, otherwise any part loosed might cause accident. To reducing the cost of maintenance, bike owner might buy their own tools to fix the bike. Spending once on the tools was enough, instead of costing money on maintenance every time in shops.
Transportation – to work
Bicycle commuting was the way that people go to work by cycling from home to the place they work. CTC (Cyclist touring Club)(2013) claimed that commuting by bicycle in the UK was becoming more and more popular. Cycling was one of the simplest ways to keep fit while saving money at the same time. Author of “Cycling to work: a beginner’s guide” Rory McMullan said that once you ride a bike few times, you would be surprised how easy and quick it was. Mandi (2012) suggested that though U.S. had seen 40 percent growth in bicycle commuters since 2000, their numbers had yet to surpass 1 million. Improving individual’s health, wealth and standard of living were not the only reason biking to work; however the combination of more cyclists and less cars on the road could give the whole country a much-needed boost (Mandi, 2012). Many reasons and benefits could be found by cycling to work and school. Due to rising fuel costs and tire upkeep, the cost of owning a car increased nearly 2% in 2012. According to the Sierra Club, if American drivers were to make just one four-mile round trip each week with a bicycle instead of a car, they would save almost 2 billion gallons of gas. Cycling was widely cheaper than driving; also the cyclist was doing exercise at the same time. Lisa Callahan, MD, of the hospital for special surgery in New York City said that Bike commuting could be a very effective cardiovascular benefit. “If you are overweight and start an exercise program, sometimes it is harder on your joints because of overweight, thus sports such as swimming or biking that was not pounding on the joints could be a good thing.”On the other hand, riding to work did not even need to own a bike. Bicycle hire was available in London city centre so that workers could rent one and ride to work. Barclays Cycle Hire had more than 6000 bikes and 400 stations which could be found in central of London. University of Nottingham found that public transit riders were 6 times easier to receive from acute respiratory infections. Fresh air did a body good, another study found a host of illness-causing viruses hidden in passenger seats and car, including E.coli, salmonella and campylobacter. Cycling was individual and fresh air came onto the face directly. When bicycle commuters arrived the place they work, parking the bicycle would not be an issue. Many company such as Apple and Tesco offered bicycle parking for employees. In American, hundreds of major companies had entered the American League of Bicyclists “Bicycle Friendly Business” program and cities require commercial office buildings by law to offer some sort of bike storage. Folding bikes were another useful option, as they could be packed into a bag and stashed easily under a desk or a closet.
Evans Cycles had a program helped employee to cycling to work which called “Ride2work”. “Ride2Work” was a leading provider of the Government’s cycle to work scheme, which promoted cycling through tax incentives to offer fantastic saving on the cost of a new bike and safety accessories.(EvansCycles,2012) The “Ride2work” plan could save at less 40% of retail prices without any extra cost to the employer. Any sizes companies could take part in the scheme which promoted much healthier journeys to work, and reducing congestion by offered a positive lifestyle benefit to employees. More than 10 companies already joined the scheme, such as Channel 4, Gatwick Airport, Toyot and Virgin Media etc. According to EvansCycle(2012), the “cycle2work” scheme works as an annual tax exemption which allowed employees to purchase bikes to be hired to employees as a tax-free benefit. And the cost of purchasing the bikes was recovered though salary sacrifice, which normally ran over 12 months. For employers, it provided a popular employee benefit at no additional cost, helping employees to save money, promote healthier journeys to work and meet CSR objectives and to save the cost of car parking. For employees, to save around 30%-40% on both bike and accessories, divided the cost over 12-18 months to make cycling more affordable, getting fitter, healthier and happier through cycling. Through this process, “Ride2Work” benefited employers and employees at the same time. Thus, there were no disadvantages to join it.  Additionally, cycling to school or university was a great activity for children.
Transport ation- To school
Cycling was an ideal from of transport for young people providing a healthy, cheap and environmentally friendly way to get about, together with a degree of freedom and independence (Sustrans, 2012). According data in the UK, a high proportion of children said they would prefer to cycle to school instead of taking public transport. Since walking was about 3 times slower than cycling, it was perfect for journeys to and from school which was too far to walk to and it an easier way to keep fit. The government suggested that young people should have a minimum of one hour’s moderate physical activity each day to keep healthy and help prevents serious illness in later life.
Cycling to school regularly was a simple and practical way of achieving this. Sustrans safe route (2012) claimed that some family and school were worried about the speed and volume of road traffic. Cyclingblog(2011) said that almost all children had a bike of some sort yet it was estimated that less than 1% of school children actually cycle to school. In addition, surveys of school travel appeared to suggest that up to 50% of children would like to travel by bicycle, so there appeared to be an issue somewhere. Cyclingblog(2011) discussed that the main concern centre around the perception of UK roads being dangerous or active discouragement by school themselves. Parents were afraid of allowing school children to cycle to school; said fears were often illogical as the roads were not as dangerous as they were led to believe. Besides, cycling to school was not a necessary and only way on the same route that was taken by mum who drives kids to school by themselves. According to Bikeability(2013), a victim of economic cuts, there were still cycle instructors our there working hard to teach children good cycling technique. Those children who lived within 2 miles of their school, particularly primary schools and this therefore offered the trained child cyclist the perfect experience that will increased over time and lead to better equipped adult cyclists. The problem of at what age should a child be allowed to cycle to school maybe a contentious one, however, with children cycling to school run there was clearly the opportunity of riding together as a group, which provided that extra safety in numbers.
The other main reason cycling to school was taken up by so few children was the stance taken by the majority of schools, particularly infant and junior schools. Many schools discourage cycling through promotion of poor road safety advice and their lack of bicycle storage facilities. Schools could not legally ban cycling to school; they had no right to decide how people arrived to and from their home. What normally schools could do was ban bicycles from the school area or they could actually ban by not providing anywhere to park their bicycle securely and safely. The cost of installing bicycle parking stands was not challenging, once installed they need very little of maintenance and upkeep. The legal position was that schools were not liable for students travelling independently to or from school; that meant that a school would be liable for a student on a school-operated bus, but it was not liable for a student cycling on his or her own. Furthermore, schools were not liable for theft or damage caused to bicycles on school grounds, just as schools were not liable for theft or damage to a student’s jacket theft in a classroom or the pencil case in their bag. Cyclingblog(2011) suggested that if more children cycling to school what was needed was a proactive attitude, better facilities at schools and infrastructure on the way to school along with continued cycle training. More importantly was parents to understand that cycling itself was safe and encouraging children to be active in an age when the TV or games console was the first point of call.
Transport – Travel
Riding the bike to a location was popular in all around the world. Instead of travelling by airplane, train or ship, traveler who rode a bike has much greater fun and exciting experience. Many people became interesting with the idea of traveling by bicycle but did not know where to get started. The Adventure Cycling Association (2013) suggested that experienced riders know the simplicity of bike travel was one of its great joys, but to the curious newcomer this new world of possibility could appear confusing. Bicycle travel was attractive for many reasons; an exciting challenge that allowed people to explore new landscapes and cultures, built physical fitness, and experienced the joy of breathing fresh air and meeting new people in some point. The author of Lonely Planet (2012) said that bike travel gave you heaps of freedom, plus it was eco-friendly and a great form of exercise. No doubt travelling with bike was a forceful thing to do, so traveler must need a plan before started. Importance of recognized the risks and time, because you could not take a year off to bike somewhere. Same any other way of trip, traveler must have to confirm that the time you allot was sufficient for the place you would like to go. Since bike had been traveling by people in recent years, there were plenty of bike routes maps on the internet and some provide by organization. Bike route helped a lot when you were planning the specific bike tour. Guide bike tour could be found as well if you preferred. Made sure to go where actually planned to go, not ride to a destination because of convenience or in passing. Self preparing before the trip was important as well. Helmet, cycling clothing, phone, snacks, water, passport (if overseas), backpack and etc. Depending on the place you traveling to, also the location and weather which would ride pass. If it was more than a day, you might need to check hotels, hostels or camping. Some organization set out maps that helped traveler to find a place to stay at the end of every day journey, depending on how well the plan was. If you were biking across the desert, some tent and camping would be needed. And food, all of which was going to increased the weight of the pack. Make sure if you had a heavier load to carry, your bike could support it. To help you determine exactly how much could handle, taking some rides with predicted weight that would be carrying. The good thing about cycling was the cyclist did not need to be a “superman” to cycling around. However, training on bicycle before the trip would be a “free insurance”. The best to do was to be realistic about what people actually could do and create achievable goals. One of the pleasures of bike travel was that riding into progressively better and better shapes as you go. The varies of how far can you ride in a day depending on the overall fitness, personal goals, the style of touring and the terrain(Adventure Cycling Association,2013). With a bit of bicycle training, an average physically fit adult carrying more than 18 pounds of other gears on their bike could expect to travel at an average pace of 65 miles per day on roads and still had time to stop and enjoyed the view. With more gear about 35 pounds. The average pace to plan for should be lowered to 55miles per day. Also if the terrain was particularly flat or mountainous, the average would increase or decrease accordingly. Experienced bicycle travelers could ride further, but for most people, planning to exceed these averages had a tendency to increase the physical challenge and decrease the enjoyment. Always plan the time in the day and days off in the trip, for unexpected challenges and good opportunities. A bicycle tour certainly needed a good bike to ride on; many types of bicycle could be used for touring. Although some bicycle were specifically designed for touring, most quality bike could be customized for touring use, with the exception of road racing bikes, as they pay attention on weight saving and quick handling over durability and comfort. For conclusion, the choice of bicycle was based on type of touring and personal preference. Although cycling travel was a good activity, the death rate was surprisingly high in 2000. Most common cycling accidents were cyclist rode into the path of vehicle, motorist emerging into path of cyclist and turning across path of cyclist, child cyclist playing or riding too fast, etc. According to the survey done by DETR(Secretary state for the environment, transport and regions), deaths rate per billion journey of bicycle was 170. Reports showed those cyclist casualties in the UK; Killed, 170; seriously injured 3085, slightly injured; the sum of casualties was 19215. These figures only counted the numbers of cyclists who killed or injured in road accidents and were reported to the police, even when the cyclist was injured badly enough to be taken to hospital. The figure was not included cycling accidents what happened on other places instead of road. Rospa(2012) reported that around 15% of the cyclist killed and injured were children, cycling accidents increased as children grow older. Meaning there was a risk of cycling from kids to adult, even more dangerous until about the age of 60. On the other hand, most cycling accidents happened in urban areas where most cycling took places, more than half death or serious accidents occurred in urban areas. Data from The Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents (2012) showed that more than 20% of cyclists killed or seriously injured were involved in collisions at, or near, a road junction, with T junctions being the most commonly involved. And roundabouts were particularly dangerous junctions for cyclists. Besides of personal casualties, cycling helped a lot for the environment.
Eco-friendly
World’s major problem was pollution. Different modes of transport such as cars, buses, trams, trains and others caused noise pollution, heavy air pollution and depart massive carbon footprints. Organization such as “Bicycle NSW Environmental Trust” helped and promoted bicycle riding as an environmentally beneficial means of transport. Cycling did not require any fuel or emitted any poisonous gases; as well it had practically no carbon footprint. For a fresh air to breath and pure water to drink, a reduction in all those pollution levels was essential. Cycling was an environmentally as well as eco friendly mode of transport. Day by day, the cost of fuels was rising quickly. In such situation, cycling was a cheap mode of transport, ideal for short local trips and made up of our everyday journeys. According to European Environment Agency (EEA, 2003), the transport sector in the UK was both the fastest growing consumer of energy and the fastest growing producer of greenhouse gases. Air pollution was not happening in a country but in globally, everyone had responsible for it and need to improve it as soon as possible. The national cycling charity claimed (CTC, 1991) that the main atmospheric pollants emitted by motor vehicles were hydrocarbons, carbon Monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides, Ozone, particulates, acidic compounds and Carbon Dioxide, all of which had a detrimental impact upon the environment. These issues affected the world everyday and causing environment problems including global warming, acid rain and greenhouse effect etc. Driving a car had a seri
 

How did Transportation Change During the Industrial Revolution?

The world had gone through two industrial revolutions. The first revolution began in the 1700s. And the second revolution happened in the 1860s. Both of the revolutions were the most important periods in the history of human society because they influenced almost every aspect of life and especially brought the world entirely new kinds of transportations. Steam engine, waterway, road, and railroad experienced mainly improvement during the first revolution, and the second revolution brought the inventions of automobile and airplane; both they played an essential role in the development of transportation in history.

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The steam engine was one of the most vital components that had been invented during the first industrial revolution. It contributed a lot to the improvement of transportation. Thomas Newcomen was the first person who invented the steam engine. However, the use of the steam engine was expensive and not efficient. (World History textbook) Until 1765, James Watt, one of the greatest contributors to transportation, reformed the steam engine to be more efficient and consume less fuel by adding a separate condenser to Newcomen’s engine. Watt’s improvement had saved almost 75 percent of the fuel that had previously been used by the engine. (Kendra Bolon) After the improvement, the steam engine had been used broadly on the other transportations, such as steam ship and steam locomotive. The steam engine not only improved the way of transporting, but also the quality of life. For example, people could travel by taking locomotive and steam ship. Moreover, they could enjoy the life by watching the landscape during the trip. Therefore, the steam engine was the most incredible transportation in the world.
Roads, canals, and railways were three major components of transportation improved during the first industrial revolution. People used the roads as the basic way to transport the goods from one place to another. Roads were in very bad repair before the first revolution, and it were not efficient for people to transport goods. (World History textbook) John MacAdam, Thomas Telford, and John Metcalfe all developed the new roads construction techniques. Thomas Telford made new foundations in roads with large flat stones. John MacAdam equipped roadbeds with a layer of large stones; therefore, people could transport goods on a rainy day. Canal was another vital part of transportations, which allowed goods to be transported through a series of man-made waterways. Transporting goods by canal lowered the risks of smashed products during route. Moreover, a canal barge could carry more products than the other forms of transportation during that time. Canal also cost less money for transporting merchandise. For the reason of transporting heavy goods from place to place, the improvement of railway began in 1800, which made a great leap in transporting technology in human history. The improved steam engine led the running locomotive with properly powered technique of rolling. The improvement of railways allowed the towns and cities to grow rapidly. In the mid-18th, Abraham Darby made a plate way of cast iron on top of rails that allowed the furnaces working and able to lift the iron plate. In 1789, William Jessop developed an “L” shaped rail which held the wagon on the track. Goods could be transferred within a short amount of time, which helped to foster the agricultural and fishing industries. The locomotive was capable of transporting triple amount of goods compared to the horse-pulled wagons. (Mrs. Abiah Darby) The improvement of road, canal, and railway changed the way of transporting, the amount and distance of transporting goods increased significantly and affected how people lived accordingly.
The automobile and airplane were the two most incredible forms of transportations that were been invented during the second industrial revolution in the 1860s. Automobile was crucial form of transportation since it affected the whole world. The automobile was first invented by Karl Benz in 1886. Later on, in 1908, Henry Ford made the automobile affordable for people by introducing the assembly line. (World History textbook) Automobile enabled people to go anywhere they wanted to at any time. It’s the most convenient tool for people to move.
As for the other important invention, airplane, was built in 1903 by Wilbur and Orville Wright. (World History textbook) Around 400 BC, Archytas was reputed as the first person designed and built the first self-propelled flying device. While the Wright brothers made the first successful try to carry a man rose by airplane. The first airplane flew naturally at even speed, and descended without damage. Although the flight lasted only 59 seconds, it marked an important start of the aircraft industry. The appearance of automobile changed the whole world entirely in that it provided a convenient and affordable way to transport and move for people. The creation of airplane broadens the scope and distance of the transportation, which may transports passengers and goods across continents and land. These two inventions both brought significant influence to people.
In conclusion, during the first and second industrial revolutions, transportation had gone through dramatic change and improvement. It not only brought effective and efficient way of transporting, but also influenced and shaped people’s life, almost every aspect in people’s daily life. With the advance of technology, transportation progressed. The steam engine led to the application of locomotive and steamboat, which increased transporting capacity and thus facilitated more production machines for manufacturing in other industries. Trade expansion was fostered by the introduction of canals, improved roads and railways. The invention of automobile grounded the basic way of transportation for people while the airplane provided a faster way from place to place. The first and second industrial revolution marked a turning point in human history, and transportation played a vital role affecting people’s life socially and economically.
Bibliography:
Bolon, Kendra. The Steam Engine. N.p.: Kendra Bolon, 2001. N. pag.
http://www.history.rochester.edu/steam/thurston/1878/ . Web.
Bustamante, Crystal. Transportation during the Industrial Revolution. N.p.: Crystal
Bustamante, 2009. N. pag. Web. 26 Jan. 2009.
Bulter, Scott, Keats, Thedawnbringer, Hedleygb, and Peter. How has transport changed since the Industrial Revolution? N.p.: n.p., n.d. N. pag. Web. 13 Nov. 2013.
Industrial revolution research. N.p.: HTML5 UP, n.d. N. pag. Web.v Mack, Pamela E. Transportation. N.p.: n.p., 2002. N. pag. Web. 27 Sept. 2002.
Roads, Canals and Railways – the Transport revolution. N.p.: n.p., UK. N. pag. Web. 2013.
The Industrial Revolution: 1750-1900. N.p.: n.p., n.d. N. pag. KCCIS. Web. 14 Nov. 2013.
Transportation. N.p.: n.p., n.d. N. pag. Web. 22 Nov. 2013.
 

Are Electric Cars the Future of Transportation?

To boost the research and purchases of electric cars to reduce future pollution of the environment, manufacturers and consumers would benefit from subsidies and incentives from the government. This could provide a more economical and environmental friendly means of transportation in the future that would help in protecting the environment. There is the debate on the research and development of a more efficient electric car would produce more pollution by means of manufacturing. The long term gain in managing to produce an electric car that does short distance travel as well as long distance could mean less pollution as the technology advances to make on that is more efficient than today’s version of electric cars.

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As children from the 1960s to the 1980s, we watched The Jetson’s with the idea that one day the future would be very much like life living there. Flying cars, robot maids, instant full meals, and also traveling around with jet packs. Life seemingly made much easier with the use of technology. So far today, transportation has progressed in technology from horse drawn carriages to gasoline powered cars and now on to the way of electric cars. There has been an effort in trying to lower the effects of pollution from the technology of standard cars in the last few years. Cars have been manufactured for years, however, in the early years there was not a cause for concern with the environment. The main reason being the amount of cars on the road were not as many due to that many people could not afford one since it was considered a luxury.
Over the years, cars became more affordable. Families were able to afford more than one car and soon became multi car families. With the addition of more cars being manufactured and running on the road, the emissions being produced have increased creating pollution that is causing many issues. With the current technology, manufacturers are attempting to find ways to make electric cars that are more affordable, reliable, and efficient. Once electric cars are more readily affordable, became able to travel long distances, and the installation of charging stations, the emissions would decrease and the environment would being to improve from the lack of pollution.
There are a few advantages to electric cars. The first is dependency on fossil fuels by standard cars would be gone, which would reduce the costs of fuels if one purchased a hybrid of an electric and fuel cross type of car. If one purchased a fully electric car, then the fuel costs would be completely cut and thus saving money by having no fuel expenses. This would mean either a substantial decrease or complete cut in fuel costs with either type of car given the current rising costs in fuels. The other advantage over changing from a standard car to an electric one is that if there was a complete switch to an all-electric or a plug-in extended car, the nation would save 15 billion gallons of gasoline each year. (Pasadena Star-News, 2013). Thus reducing the costs for gasoline for both the nation as well as consumers.
Maintenance is another issue with both standard and electric cars. There is a cost difference between the two. The advantage with electric cars are that a lot of mechanics observe that even though electric car engines still have moving parts, the maintenances is way easier, faster and cheaper (PR Newswire US, 2014). With an electric car, the rides should be quieter and smoother than a standard one.
There’s a $7,500 federal tax credit for buyers of plug-in electric vehicles, and there are incentives for building charging stations and battery plants. (Fort Worth Star-Telegram, 2013) With federal and state tax credits, some models of electric cars are arguably competitive with standard mid-line economy cars. The cost of a Nissan Leaf, is listed for $30,000 to $31,000 at the Boulder Nissan dealership, will drop to $17,500 to $18,500 after federal and state credits. (The Denver Post, 2013) Tax credits, subsidies, fuel, maintenance, no emissions, and reliability are just to name a few more of the advantages to owning an electric car. The idea that being able to cut costs towards fuel purchases and maintenance is appealing when faced with the rising costs of both as well as the credits to lower the initial purchase cost.
Battery, plug-in hybrids, hybrids, and hydrogen fuel-cell cars are the four types of electric cars currently in development. Battery electric cars have electric motors and battery packs with no other means of propulsion. The distances is usually about 100 miles. Plug-in hybrids act like an electric car from the first 15 to 50 miles, then can be switched over to a onboard internal-combustion engine that acts as a generator. Hybrids either use an electric motor as assists for the gas engine, or allow short bursts of electric-only driving. The hydrogen fuel-cell cars has a fuel cell that produces electricity from hydrogen which replaces the battery pack (Motavalli, 2012). While these are the current standards with these types of electric cars, the improvement in technology will change those over time.
Environmental advantages with the electric car versus a standard one is that an electric car does not emit any emissions. A standard car emits pollutants from by the way they are powered. The way a standard car works is by combusting fuel, which in turn creates carbon dioxide that cannot be minimized through the use of emissions-control devices (Kliesch, 2011). A full electric car does not require any fuel, which in turn would not emit any emissions to create pollution.
While there are many advantages to owning an electric car, there are disadvantages as well. One is the currently the way electricity is used to charge one is produced. Depending on the source of electricity generated will determine the amount of pollution. There are several different sources used in how electricity is generated. There are renewable sources, such as solar, wind and hydropower. Then there is the natural gas, coal-fired and nuclear plants. While the renewable sources would mean for the electric car to be manufactured by no pollution effects to the environment. The next in line for least amount of pollution is the natural gas plants, while coal-fired is the worst to emit high levels of carbon dioxide as well as particulate matter. Nuclear plants, while not a threat from global warming or smog-forming pollution standpoint, pose the dangerous threats of nuclear disasters and nuclear proliferation (Kliesch, 2011). Renewable sources are still being incorporated into the current technology and life styles.
While there is quite a few different types of pollution, a car produces 3 different types. The types produced from cars are categorized as – in-use, upstream and vehicle-manufacturing emissions. The definition of in-use is when a person is actually driving the car. While upstream emissions result from the production and transportation the fuel a car uses to where it is used. The third manufacturing-related emissions, accounts for about 10 to 20 percent of a vehicle’s lifetime greenhouse output (Kliesch, 2011). To be fair, that is only a portion of what contributes to pollution on a large scale. Those are what accounts for a standard car’s emissions. The electric car produces no in-use emissions, but they do have upstream emissions from where the electricity is produced in order to charge the battery.
If one looks at the amount of pollution emitted by a standard car versus an electric one, it can be seen as to how much of a difference there is. A difference that is also affected by the location the car is driven in. If one lived in California and had an electric car, driving 12,000 miles in a year would emit about 1.6 tons of carbon dioxide. However, by contrast a hybrid would emit about 2.9 tons and a 25 mile per hour car would emit about 5.9 tons (Kliesch, 2011). Being that California has the most advantage with the cleaner of electricity produced, it would be a huge impact on reducing pollution by changing from a standard car to an electric one.
The reason the government should be offering incentives and subsidies to the consumer as well as manufacturers are to help in reducing the dependency upon petroleum-based fuels. By investing into cleaner energies and cleaner cars, the impact of pollution caused by those would help the environment over a period of time. As the population that inhabits the Earth, this is the only planet able to sustain human life and needs to be protected for future generations to live here. In time there will be too much pollution that will cause many more health issues and possibly make the Earth unlivable in the future.
With purchasing an electric car, one would have an immediate change in fuel costs. It would depend on the type of car purchased. If it were an all-electric car, then fuel costs would be eliminated. With a hybrid type, the amount of fuel purchases would possibly be cut up to half or perhaps more. To put it to numbers, drivers may ultimately compare fuel efficiency by how much it would cost to purchase fuel versus cost to charge with electricity. If gas costs $3 per gallon and typical mileage is 25 miles per gallon, it will take 4 gallons of gas to go 100 miles, at a total cost of $12. The per-mile cost is one hundredth of that, or 12 cents per mile. For the Prius, at 50 miles per gallon, fueling costs are half that: 6 cents per miles (PR, N, 2014). This is a considerable difference in cost per mile for standard car versus an electric car.
As long as technology improves in different areas, then the advantages will outweigh the disadvantages on owning an electric car. The current means of manufacturing and ways to recharge an electric car to be improved to reduce the level of pollution side effects on the environment as well as lower the costs to purchase an electric car. The improvements with an electric car being able to travel further distances by improving the battery capacity and then implementing of charging stations much like gas stations. While those improvements are being made with electric cars, the technology for current production of electricity will be improved upon as well. This will reduce the pollution created from not only standard cars, but as well as the general usage by homes and businesses. This will bring forth protecting the population to being able to live in a healthier, better breathing environment much like in the days prior to the invention of cars.
With the ground work in place for evolving the future of transportation to improve the environment, it is also going to be making an impact on the future of how electricity is made. While technology will change to improve the electric car, it will also change how electricity is produced. This will reduce the impact to the environment with the emissions produced from some forms of electricity production and standard cars. The placement of incentives and subsidies will enable consumers and manufacturers to purchase and develop a cheaper, environmental friendly electric car. The research into making an electric car travel further distances will also boost research into changing how electricity is used to recharge the battery. In time there will be charging stations very similar to today’s gas stations, allowing people to travel further instead of staying within a certain distance. The quiet and smooth ride of an electric car could change the comfort level versus the standard. With the rising costs of fuel and maintenance for a standard car would decrease if each home were able to afford the initial purchase of an electric car. In time, electric cars will be manufactured for less and be similar in purchase cast a standard car, or perhaps even less. The future of the environment seems dependent on putting more effort into the research and manufacturing of a more economical and efficient electric car.
References
PR, N. (2014, March 7). Electric Cars set to offer consumers a number of benefits as advocacy towards sustainable automobiles grows. PR Newswire US.
(2013). Plugging in; Many benefits of electric cars justify subsidies for public charging infrastructure in Colorado. The Denver Post (Denver, CO).
KLIESCH, J. (2011). WHY ELECTRIC CARS ARE CLEANER. Mother Earth News, (244), 58.
(2013, October 20). Are electric cars the vehicles of the future?. Fort Worth Star-Telegram (TX).
(2013, December 15). The Green Way; Americans missing benefits of electric cars; About 45 million households meet criteria for driving battery or electric plug-ins but don’t have vehicles. Pasadena Star-News (CA). p. 9.
Motavalli, J. (2012). The Road Ahead for Gasoline-Free Cars. Futurist, 46(2), 6-7.
 

Transportation Structure for a University

Introduction
This chapter is discusses about the theories that related to the definition of university facility and service, its concepts, and also the university in campus transportation structure. In addition, this chapter also included the role of students as primary participants in university. In addition, this chapter also discuss about the issue on having own transport in campus and strategy of implementation for in-campus transportation structure.

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University facilities and services
The word ‘facility’ can be defined an instrument that used by those involved in an organization that seeks to carry out their tasks or missions. Donald Shoup (2005) had indicated that big universities are one of the higher education institutions organizations. They consist of facilities, main halls, hostels, clinic, library, offices, parking, canteens, stores, theaters and classrooms. Facilities must bring users to feel comfortable when they are using, which known as ‘service’. Thus, the facility is expressed something ‘tangible’ while service is ‘intangible’.
According to Abdul Rahim Bin Romle (2002), universities are seen as a process or in which students act as ‘products’, as output and having a utility value on the labor market. The main purposes of every university are to provide extra knowledge, seek for academic development, educate the students, and coordinate national development demands, which had stated by Johnes and Taylor (1990). Maimunah Sapri et. al. (2009) had addressed that achieve the core teachings and research missions, universities need to have substantial facilities and services. The facilities not only contain laboratories, lectures theatres and offices but also had student hostels, catering facilities, in campus shuttle bus, and sports and recreations centres. Additionally, with increasingly the student population, there are also requirements for the universities to provide other services, such as students support services, students welfare services, medical services, and career guidance.
Generally, students view as the primary participants of universities’ facilities and services, because they need a healthy environment for create a better learning environment. Thus, universities sensitivity in provide facilities and services purposely to fulfill the students’ needs and requirements. Most of the universities are the same types in providing facilities to students which are library, laboratories, lectures theatres, hostels, mosque, catering facilities, shuttle bus, and sports areas.
University Transportation System
According to T. Shannon et al. (2006), most of universities had provided their students with in campuses transportation service in the campuses. Based on a past research who survey by Limanond, T. et al (2010), there are classified five major the transport modes in a rural university of Thailand namely Suranaree University of Technology. The first mode is drive own transport in campus to the destination. By following, students ride with their friend who drives. Next is students using in campus shuttle bus, city bus, or an intercity bus. Lastly, students walk and cycle to the destination, respectively.
According to Nor Hazani Mat Daud (2008), bus and taxis are the mostly public transportation services available to fetch people from and to Universiti Teknologi Mara (UITM) main campus, Shah Alam. These two types of public transportation are easy to meet the requirement from students, staff and visitors. The bus and taxi service is to cater the students stay outside and surrounding the campus to the destination. Most of universities had allowed registered taxis to enter the campus.
In addition, the in campus bus service is also available at all of the students. The in campus shuttle bus service is provided for the students easy to move to a location from another, especially to their faculties and main library. A system serving a university that primarily provides in campus shuttle bus because providing of shuttle bus to the internal campus circulation purposes. Additionally, providing mobility where from student hostels to faculties needed to take long distances and thus there is insufficient time to walk between classes. Another goal of providing of shuttle bus is one of the solutions to reduce the traffic congestion (all transport modes) in campus. (John Dagett and Richard Gutkowski, 2003)
Besides that, in campus shuttle bus had operate around a complete loop of the core area of the campus with every university own schedule fix periods. Even though it is free, it is not a popular service for those students who have alternatives because of the infrequent headways and its route, which are not direct. Outside the time periods of the bus, some of the students have drive own vehicle or have a ride-share arrangement with friends who having own vehicles in campus. Additionally, bicycle trips are mostly for recreational purposes and usually occur in the campuses. (Carlos Balsas, 2003)
On the other hand, a prior researcher had stated that walking and cycling are more suitable modes of transportation to get to and around the campus. Most of the colleges had a high percentage of students live on campus, and another considerable percentage of students are reasonable walking and cycling distance. The bicycle offers riders speed and flexibility over short distances. Waking also is the primary mode of transportation for the students because walking is fast, direct, and has no costs involved. The students are physically more fit, have restricted budgets, live close to campus and already own a bicycle. These two modes have many health benefits too.
In general, there are different types of transportations in universities. Bus and taxi are the public transports that had provided in the campus. While, other transport modes are walking and cycling and these modes are encouraged by universities. Walking and cycling are exercises that good for students healthy too. Because of reason flexible, some of the students are having their own vehicles in the campus. Both of these transport modes have their own benefits to students.
Students as Primary Participants
Students have been viewed as the primary generation of education, so that they should be treated as participants. This perspective stems from the understanding that educational institutions are highly competitive in the education market with alternative strategies being aggressively developed to fulfill pupils’ needs and requirements in order to attract a sustainable facility and service. (Joseph and Joseph, 1998).
Based on the past research, most of them are focus on the participants of students as the students are considered as users who receives the service in university or higher education institutions which consist of the facilities provided such as the accommodation, computer lab, hostel, cafeteria, library, mosque, sport complex, shuttle bus, and others. Hence, Hill et al. (1995) stated that “pupils’ self-perception of their educational experiences provide significant measurements for the evaluation of university outcomes.” It could be inferred that students’ knowledge of facilities as services is an important predictor of satisfaction with facilities and services that had provided.
According to Elliot and Healy (2001), student’s satisfaction is a temporary behavior that results from the evaluation of their experience with the education facilities provided. It should be focused on the issue that carried out within the student’s satisfaction analysis and results. (Harvey, 1995; Hill, 1995). More than that, Aldridge and Rowley (1998) also had indicated that some of the universities had carry out some evaluation on the expected of students experience through the assessment of the facilities in campus.
However, university as the service provider should think the ways to improve the delivered services continuously and relatively with all the changes in terms of the students as customer needs as satisfaction among the factors that will ensure their retention because of their confidence of the services provided. Determining which features of the student experience are most closely related to satisfaction may provide information about actions that can be taken to maintain high levels of satisfaction and improve student learning.
Students Having Own Transports in Campus
According to Limanond, T. et al, (2010), there is public transportation system in a rural university in Thailand namely Suranaree University of Technology which naturally of poor quality, with long headway, low accessibility, and insufficient network coverage. This is one of the reasons that influence most of the students to having own transport to the destinations. In addition, the rural university surrounding is lack of infrastructures and neighbourhoods, such as shopping malls, cinema, and entertainment places. Thus some the students lack to go outing and they spend more time together with their colleagues in campus. If not, they have to travel long distance to the city for better places. With all these characteristics, it can sure that in rural universities might be different from in urban universities. Therefore, there might require alternative in campus transportation strategies.
For the urban universities, it also impact neighbouring communities in many ways, such as parking, traffic, service access and off campus housing. Hence, most of universities are not encouraging their students having own vehicles in campus because in campus shuttle bus also had provided to the students in the campus. Tolley (1996) had indicated that the major environmental impacts of transportation system in the campuses which are include disturbance to teaching, loss of natural environment and greenery, exploitation of the visual environment by parking provision, and health effects on the students. In detail, the issue of disturbance to teaching is because of some of students who having their own transports, they would like go to classes at the last minutes. One of the reasons affects the issue on exploitation of the visual environment by parking provision had happened is the exploitation of campus’ land to build more car parking because over demand of parking space. On the other hand, less exercise also will bring effect to the students’ healthy.
Hence, there are many of reasons that cycling, walking, taking in campus shuttle bus are more alternative modes of travel than having own transport in the campus. These include health benefits, personal and social costs, and also benefits to the environment. However, cars are suitable because of status symbols and the flexibility go to destination without spending a long times, but these mode of transports had meet several of problems and options which are the maintenance and repair cost of the car, its fuels costs, insurance, parking, congestion, road costs, land values, municipal services, pollution, noise, and another resource consumption. (Todd Litman and David Burwell, 2006).
Accidents among students
According to Gudrun Faller et al. (2009), accidents experienced by university students are classified as occupational, if they happen had related with their studies, including accidents on the way to and from university. Based on report of The German Social Accident Insurance (DGUV), there are found that the data are not complete because of several problems. First, not all of the accidents are reported by students, this is because many students do not know that accidents are classified as occupational, particularly the accidents happening on the way to university or from university back home are likely not to be considered occupational. Next, only accidents are recorded, which are subject to registration. Thus, no serious injuries are excluded in registration, which under less lucky circumstances could have led to severe injuries. Third, additional information such as socio-demographic elements are not collected in the official registration.
Furthermore, the increasing on having own transports by students and staffs also one of factors that affect accidents happened in the campuses. The reason behind is increasing vehicles will affect the traffic congestion in the campuses. Mostly injuries are motorcycles based on the past researches. Some of them because the careless of drivers in the campuses.
Strategies of Implementation on In-campus Transportation Structure Problem
According to Tolley (1996), the transportation structure planning plays role as one of main parts of a university’s environmental management or sustainability plans.
Based on T. Shannon et al. (2006), some of universities are implementing strategies to reduce the having own vehicles in campus and increase the use of alternative modes of transport, such as internal shuttle bus, bicycle, and walking. In the same time, there are attempt to reduce both the demand for parking and the environmental impacts of commuting. There are the health benefits that may result if decreasing the having own transport in campus and corresponding increase in the use of active transport mode, such as walking and cycling. Way to encourage the active transport has been identified as one means of achieving the public health goal of increasing physical activity.
Besides that, to plan a strategy of in campus transportation structure is needed to consider the expected of students on their requirements. For another better way, the students can walk or cycle to faculty from hostel, in addition as one of exercises in campus. Walking and cycling are two main elements of the Transportation Demand Management (TDM) strategies. Actually, TDM can be defined as parcel of planning strategies, incentives and disincentives, which change to the alternatives from drove own transports for traveling. The most extensively implemented solutions are parking management, car sharing, park schemes, in campus shuttle bus, having own vehicles in campus, alternative fuels, and the transportation information (Victoria Transport Policy Institute).
In University of California, Los Angela (UCLA), the planning laws had required minimum of parking, because expensive of cost to build it. Shoup (2005) had argued that the eliminating minimum in parking requirements would substantially to reduce the cost of urban development, improve urban design and reduce the having own vehicles. In campus parking is a common problem with different slants. These different solutions are being realized by a growing number of campuses, which are not only restricting parking in the campus core, but are also implementing parking management programs which charge higher fees and are coupled with innovative ways to promote alternative modes, that are in campus shuttle bus, bicycle and walking.
Besides that, many universities also are exploring a range of environmentally appealing solutions to in campus traffic congestion and improve safety due to federal requirements concerning air quality, increasing congestion, lack of land for parking, the high cost of constructing parking structures, pressures to reduce traffic’s impact on surrounding neighborhoods, and constraints on financial resources. (Limanond, T. et al, 2010)
According to Del Peterson et al. (2005), appropriate campus design and transport policies also important strategies. It would make it easier for students to use sustainable transport in the campus. The campus design should put faculties, main halls, canteens, laboratories, hostels and shops within walking or cycling distance, so that students and staff can travel from building to building on foot or by bicycle comfortably and safely. Besides that, for a campus located on a hillside, special care would be needed for the bicycle route network design to ensure satisfactorily comfortable bicycle rides. In addition, covered walking streets with a well-mannered landscape and nice atmosphere would encourage students to use walk to the destination. Additionally, the administration department could create policies to promote sustainable transport in the campus, such like a free on campus transit service with good coverage and adequate frequency.
In Cornell University, there are all of aspects needed for a critical focus on transportation structure planning. First of all, the planning has been alternative and strategies that is concentrated on balancing open space and density on the central campus. Additionally, maintaining a suitable environment with preserving the landscape features and views and meeting the building needs will continue to be concerns for the future. (Franklin Crawford, 2006)
In the other words, there is “The University in a Garden”, the concept as conceptualized by Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) in a final report entitled “A Walkable Campus Project”(2003), which a policy document which was prepared to guide the adoption of a sustainable environment approach in USM. The vital goal of the “A Walkable Campus Project” was to provide a conductive environment, through the creation of a garden atmosphere, for the well-being and enjoyment of the whole campus community. In the same time, it purposely in solving in-campus traffic problems, support students walking as a healthy recreation suits to the university life hence, to have a healthy lifestyle amongst the campus community.
Most of universities had faced in campus transportation problems. This suggest that many universities can adopt similar reforms, it helps to decrease number of having own transport in the campus, creating a more green, safe, and livable campus immediately. It also raises awareness among students of sustainable transport, resulting in greener, safer, and more livable communities in the long run. (Shoup Donald, 2005)
Conclusion
As define early, university is one of the Higher Education Institute organizations that main purposely in providing educational services to students. Other than that, related supportive facility and service to the students also one of main aspects that focused by university in the way to satisfy students expected requirements who as the main participants. As the result, a sustainability facility and services in university should be focused and implemented.
 

National Transportation Safety Board Aircraft Accident Brief

 
Accident Summary
The Hendricks Motorsport plane crash occurred on 24 October 2001.  The airplane crashed in the mountainous regions in Stuart Virginia killing the crew and passengers aboard. The plane crash occurred after a missed landing on the runway 30 of the Martinsville Blue Ridge Airport (NTSB, 2006).  The plane contained two crewmembers and eight passengers who were part of the Hendricks Motorsport Racing team.  All the people on the aircraft died in the accident.  The plane crashed and exploded into flames after impact.  The team was traveling from Concord airport in North Carolina for a racing event.

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Information from the FAA records of communications and operations of the flight shows that the plane followed all the right procedures including altitude and headings.  However, the problem arose while approaching the Martinsville airport runway (NTSB, 2006).  The plane scheduled a landing on runway thirty but failed to do so under the advisement of the controller tower.  The controller informed the crew that they were second in line for the runway and initiated a holding pattern that extended to 28 minutes.  The flight crew received the message and started 5-mile legs to wait.
The team undertook a five-mile holding pattern by making a right turn and ascent to 4000 ft.  The team went on with the holding pattern until the controller cleared them for landing and instructed them to announce their approach to the runway (NTSB, 2006).  The crew followed instructions, informed the controller of the inbound approach, and began their descent to the runway.  The controller confirmed the approached through the radio frequency and the crew proceeded with the approach by descending from 3900ft to 1400ft.  The plane maintained this attitude for approximately over one minute.  It was then that the team announced a missed approach was prompting the controller to ask for confirmation.  The crewmembers ceased all communications after confirming the missed approach.  The Controller further advised the flight crew to ascend to 4400ft but received no response and lost the radar.
The Bull Mountains of Stuart Virginia were the scene of the crash about 2400ft away from the landing site.  Eyewitness reports indicated that the aircraft was operating efficiently before the accident.  The engine produced a smooth continuous sound that may have meant idling (NTSB, 2006).  Further reports showed that the plane was flying extremely low at a slow velocity.  There did not seem to be any challenges to the aircraft’s performance at the time. However, it is important to note that there was fog in the atmosphere at the date of the crash.  The fog was a factor limiting visibility as it covered the Bull Mountains.  Reports indicate the visibility was up to a quarter mile.
A review of the pilot’s credentials presented him as qualified. He had an estimated 10,733 hours of flight with almost 2000 in the Beech aircraft.  He was 51 years of age and had a significant amount of experience as a pilot.  He had also undergone rigorous training and passed his previous reviews.  The first officer had less experience totaling to 2090 hours of flight (NTSB, 2006).  However, she was qualified evidenced by her qualifications and past performance.  The multiengine plane had passed inspection a few months later with an accumulated flight time of 8079 hours.  The plane had a GPS system with an old database.  It also lacked ground proximity detectors that would have warned the pilot when flying at low altitudes.  The plane was scheduled for a systems upgrade later in the year.  The weather report during the accident indicated cloudy atmosphere with high humidity and patchy fog.  A pilot for the plane ahead of the Hendricks’s Motorsports plane claimed that the climate under the clouds had relatively high visibility up to 2 miles.  However, the weather kept on shifting during the flight.
Reference
NTSB, (2006). Accident Investigations – NTSB – National Transportation Safety Board. App.ntsb.gov. Retrieved 15 February 2017, from https://app.ntsb.gov/investigations/fulltext/AAB0601.html