The Types Of Disabilities Health And Social Care Essay

The basic aim in this chapter is to describe about disability of a special person, mentioning its nature of irregularities, types of difficulties faced by them and its remedy, kinds of disabilities and category model wise disabilities.
The term disability when it is explained with respect to humans refers to any condition that impedes the completion of daily tasks using traditional methods. A disability is a condition or function judged to be significantly impaired relative to the usual standard of an individual or group. The term is used to refer to individual functioning including physical impairment, sensory impairment, cognitive impairment, intellectual impairment mental illness, and various types of chronic disease.
Some disabilities are not obvious to outside observers; these are termed invisible disabilities.[2]
According to the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, a person with a disability is defined as
A person that has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities,has a record of such impairment, or is regarded as having such an impairment.
Under the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (DDA), a disability is a physical or mental impairment that has a long-term or substantial effect on a person’s ability to carry out day to day tasks.
Some disabilities are not obvious to outside observers; these are termed invisible disabilities.
Types of disabilities include various physical and mental impairments that can hamper or reduce a person’s ability to carry out his day to day activities. These impairments can be termed as disability of the person to do his or her day to day activities.
These impairments can be termed as disability of the person to do his day to day activities as previously. Disability can be broken down into a number of broad sub-categories, which include the following
This includes people with no vision, or some functional vision. For example, screen readers are used by the blind to read web pages, and someone with poor vision may use screen magnification or adjust their browser settings to make reading more comfortable. This group also includes people with color blindness and those with eyesight problems related to ageing.
Disability in mobility can be either an in-born or acquired with age problem. It could also be the effect of a disease. People who have a broken bone also fall into this category of disability. [3]
Spinal cord injuries (SCI) can sometimes lead to lifelong disabilities. This kind of injury mostly occurs due to severe accidents. The injury can be either complete or incomplete. In an incomplete injury, the message conveyed by the spinal cord is not completely lost. Where as a complete injury results in a total dis functioning of the sensory organs. In rarest of cases spinal cord disability can be a birth defect.
Brain Disability
A disability in the brain occurs due to a brain injury. The magnitude of the brain injury can range from mild, moderate and severe. There are two types of brain injuries:
Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
ABI is not a hereditary type defect but is the degeneration that occurs after birth.
The causes of such cases of injury are many and are mainly because of external forces applied to the body parts. TBI results in emotional dysfunctioning and behavioral disturbance.
Vision Disability
There are hundreds of thousands of people that suffer from minor to various serious vision injuries or impairments. These injuries can also result into some serious problems or diseases like blindness and ocular trauma, to name a few. Some of the common vision impairment includes scratched cornea, scratches on the sclera, diabetes related eye conditions, dry eyes and corneal graft.
Hearing disability
This category includes people that are completely or partially deaf. People who are partially deaf can often use hearing aids to assist their hearing. Hearing impairments can be evident at birth or occur later in life from several biologic causes, for example Meningitis can damage the auditory nerve or the cochlea.
Cognitive disability
Is a kind of impairment present in people who are suffering from dyslexia and various other learning difficulties. People having dyslexia face difficulties in reading, writing and speaking.
Invisible Disabilities
Invisible Disabilities are disabilities that are not immediately apparent to others. It is estimated that 10% of people in the U.S. have a medical condition considered a type of invisible disability.
1.3 Anomaly Of Special Persons
It is likely that different people could have different responses to the question of whether any of the above-listed characteristics would result in disability, and some might say, It depends. This illustrates the differences in the terms disability and handicap, as used by the U.N. Any of the above traits could become a handicap if the individual were considered disabled and also received disparate treatment as a result.
figure 1.1: Anomalies of a special person
1.4 Comparison Of Normal & Special Person
For a normal person major life activities means functions such as caring for one’s self, performing manual tasks, walking, seeing, hearing, speaking, breathing, learning, working and receiving education or vocational training.
Special people are those who lack in any of the following abilities as compared to the normal person
Visionary problem [Blinds]
2. Hearing and speech problem [Deaf & Dump]
3. Physical disabilities [Missing any part of body]
4. Mental disability [Mentally Abnormal]
1.5 Categorization
The categorization of a special person with respect to their disability can be of the following nature.
1.5.1 Blind Person
As it is very evident from the name that blind cannot see anything from their eyes .This type of disability in any special person may be present by birth, or he can suffer through any accident or by any other mean.This category can further be described as:
figure 1.2: Categorization of a blind person
1.5.2 Deaf And Dump
The Special persons having this disability lack in them the problem of either hearing or speaking and sometimes both. This category can further be described as:
figure 1.3: Categorization of a deaf and dump person
1.6 Model For Disabilities
Any sort of disability in a special person which includes blind, deaf and dump, handicapped, etc is directly connected to brain from where it is sensed and controlled.
BRAIN_2
figure 1.4: The brain model [4]
Brief descriptions of disability models are explain as follows:
1.6.1 The Moral Model
This is historically the oldest and is less prevalent today. However, there are many cultures that associate disability with sin and shame, and disability is often associated with feelings of guilt, even if such feelings are not overtly based in religious doctrine. For the individual with a disability, this model is particularly burdensome. This model has been associated with shame on the entire family with a member with a disability. Families have hidden away the disabled family member, keeping them out of school and excluded from any chance at having a meaningful role in society. Even in less extreme circumstances, this model has resulted in general social ostracism and self-hatred. [4]
The Medical Model
The medical Model came about as modern medicine began to develop in the 19th Century, along with the enhanced role of the physician in society. Since many disabilities have medical origins, people with disabilities were expected to benefit from coming under the direction of the medical profession. Under this model, the problems that are associated with disability are deemed to reside within the individual. In other words, if the individual is cured then these problems will not exist. Society has no underlying responsibility to make a place for persons with disabilities, since they live in an outsider role waiting to be cured.

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The individual with a disability is in the sick role under the medical model. When people are sick, they are excused from the normal obligations of society: going to school, getting a job, taking on family responsibilities, etc. They are also expected to come under the authority of the medical profession in order to get better. Thus, until recently, most disability policy issues have been regarded as health issues, and physicians have been regarded as the primary authorities in this policy area. [5]
One can see the influence of the medical model in disability public policy today, most notably in the Social Security system, in which disability is defined as the inability to work. This is consistent with the role of the person with a disability as sick. It is also the source of enormous problems for persons with disabilities who want to work but who would risk losing all related public benefits, such as health care coverage or access to Personal Assistance Services (for in-home chores and personal functioning), since a person loses one’s disability status by going to work.
Rehablitation Model
The rehabilitation model is similar to the medical model; it regards the person with a disability as in need of services from a rehabilitation professional who can provide training, therapy, counseling or other services to make up for the deficiency caused by the disability. Historically, it gained acceptance after World War II when many disabled veterans needed to be re-introduced into society. The current Vocational Rehabilitation system is designed according to this model.
Persons with disabilities have been very critical of both the medical model and the rehabilitation model. While medical intervention can be required by the individual at times, it is naive and simplistic to regard the medical system as the appropriate locus for disability related policy matters. Many disabilities and chronic medical conditions will never be cured. Persons with disabilities are quite capable of participating in society, and the practices of confinement and institutionalization that accompany the sick role are simply not acceptable.
Disability Model
This model regards disability as a normal aspect of life, not as a deviance and rejects the notion that persons with disabilities are in some inherent way defective.
As Professor David Pfeiffer said:
…paralyzed limbs may not particularly limit a person’s mobility as much as attitudinal and physical barriers. The question centers on ‘normality’. What, it is asked, is the normal way to be mobile over a distance of a mile? Is it to walk, drive one’s own car, take a taxicab, ride a bicycle, use a wheelchair, roller skate, or use a skate board, or some other means? What is the normal way to earn a living?”
Most people will experience some form of disability, either permanent or temporary, over the course of their lives. Given this reality, if disability were more commonly recognized and expected in the way that we design our environments or our systems, it would not seem so abnormal.
The cultural habit of regarding the condition of the person, not the built environment or the social organization of activities, as the source of the problem, runs deep. The disability model recognizes social discrimination as the most significant problem experienced by persons with disabilities and as the cause of many of the problems that are regarded as intrinsic to the disability under the other models.
1.7 Identify Disability
Another important issue related to the topic of the definition of disability has to do with disability identity. There are many persons who unarguably fit within the first prong of the ADA definition who do not consider themselves disabled. …there are many reasons for not identifying yourself as disabled, even when other people consider you disabled. First, disability carries a stigma that many people want to avoid, if at all possible. For newly disabled people, and for children with disabilities who have been shielded from knowledge of how most non-disabled people regard people with disabilities, it takes time to absorb the idea that they are members of a stigmatized group. Newly disabled adults may still have the stereotypes of disability that are common among non-disabled people. They may be in the habit of thinking of disability as total, believing that people who are disabled are disabled in all respects. …They may fear, with good reason, that if they identify themselves as disabled others will see them as wholly disabled and fail to recognize their remaining abilities, or perhaps worse, see their every ability and achievement as ‘extraordinary’ or ‘courageous’.
The reason that so many people reject the label disabled is that they seek to avoid the harsh social reality that is still so strong today. Having a disability, even though the ADA has been in place for almost a decade, still carries with it a great deal of stigmatization and stereotyping. It is ironic that those who could benefit from the law choose not to do so because they wish to avoid the very social forces that this law seeks to redress and eradicate.
People who may fall under the coverage of the ADA because of the presence of a genetic marker are certainly not likely to think of themselves as disabled. While there may be discomfort at the thought of coming under this label, it is worthwhile to recognize that no one with a disability, visible or otherwise, wants to experience the stigma and discrimination that is still all too common for those who society considers disabled. There are many others who do not consider themselves to be disabled but who do experience discrimination.
1.8 Remedy
From a policy point of view, there are two possible options that could be pursued to avoid coming under the coverage of the ADA: (1) an amendment to the ADA to explicitly state that persons with genetic markers are excluded from coverage under the definition; and/or (2) separate legislation to redress discrimination based on genetic characteristics.
The first option would operate like the proverbial phrase, cutting off one’s nose to spite one’s face. The possibility of genetic discrimination is quite real, and it would be a poor bargain to lose one’s civil rights in exchange for avoiding disability based stigma. It could also cause significant problems with legal interpretation of the ADA definition; the risk is that courts could use any exclusion to deny ADA coverage to others.
The second option is also politically and legally fraught with risk. Politically, people with genetic markers are a much smaller group than the very large confederation of disability organizations and individuals who came together to work towards passage of the ADA. Thus, the chances of gaining the strong legal protections that are now available in the ADA are not very high. It could also be expected that well-financed corporate interests would oppose such legislation. Enactment of any new legislation would be a tough, uphill battle that would probably result in a compromised version of the original proposal. In addition, the existence of two overlapping pieces of legislation could result in unfavorable judicial interpretation.
On December 13, 2006, the United Nations formally agreed on the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the first human rights treaty of the 21st century, to protect and enhance the rights and opportunities of the world’s estimated 650 million disabled people. Countries that sign up to the convention will be required to adopt national laws, and remove old ones, so that persons with disabilities would, for example, have equal rights to education, employment, and cultural life; the right to own and inherit property; not be discriminated against in marriage, children, etc; not be unwilling subjects in medical experiments.
The ADA provides a legal remedy when this occurs. Since the ADA definition recognizes the social construction of disability, whether it can apply to a person is a function of the social treatment that the individual receives. In other words, the question of whether a person with a genetic marker is covered by the definition does not arise in the abstract. If the individual has experienced discrimination based on the individual’s physical or mental characteristics, then that individual may take advantage of the ADA to redress that discrimination.
1.9 Conclusion
The disability rights movement is working towards a society in which physical and mental differences among people are accepted as normal and expected, not abnormal or unusual. We have plenty of methods and tools at our disposal to accommodate human differences. Paradoxically, the growth of technology in our lives provides us with both the ability to detect more human differences than ever before, as well as the ability to make those differences less meaningful in practical terms. How we react to human differences is a social and a policy choice. We prefer to advocate for a social structure that focuses on including all people in the social fabric, rather than drawing an artificial line that separates disabled people from others.
 

Types of Traditional Chinese Dance

Dance is one of the oldest art of humankind, and expresses the feelings and thought of art through rhythmic, refined and organized human movements. China has one of the oldest and continuous cultures in the world, with over 5,000 years of recorded history. Dance is an inseparable part of the Chinese history. With traditional dancing in China dating back to the Zhou Dynasty, numerous transformations have befallen the practice both positively and negatively. After several dynasties, the Tang Dynasty has marked the peak of the practice with thousands of singers and artist coming up with more than sixty compositions outdoing the recorded figure at the time. However, with the onset of the foot binding custom, women dancers were restricted in their movements, and this led to the downfall of the dancing traditions. Also, at the time, social values and morals that limited the dancing of women were put in place further worsening the tradition. The Song Dynasty as the name suggests revived the tradition and to date has been through multiple evolutionary stages (Van Zile 54-55). Due to the long history of China and many minorities, there exist many different kinds of traditional dances in China, and have been grouped into three: classical dance, folk dance, and opera dance.
Classical Dance
Chinese classical dance has a very long history. Originated in ancient China, broad and profound, it combines a lot of martial arts, opera in the action and shape, with particular emphasis on the role of the eyes in the show. It emphasizes the coordination of breathing, full of rhythm and sense of style, unique oriental Hardness, and beauty of the dance, intoxicated. Chinese classical dance mainly includes body rhyme, shenfa, and skill. The rhyme is the connotation of Chinese classical dance, the charm of each dance is different, two people jump the same action, and the appeal is different. Shenfa is the dance and action. Rooted in the traditional Chinese culture fertile soil classical dance is much stressed that “both shape and spirit, physical and mental integration, internal and external unity,” the body rhyme. Charm is the soul of Chinese classical dance. God in the shape of the outside, “to God collar shape, to form the gods,” the feelings of the mood made the actual meaning of the body rhyme. In ancient times, classical dance belonged to court dance. The court had a dedicated dance team for the emperor. Most of the classical Chinese dance music using Chinese different folk musical instruments, such as guzheng, erhu, pipa and so on. Chinese classical dance clothing antique, according to the specific requirements of the dance also have their characteristics, most of the Han and Tang Dynasties dance traditional Chinese dress.

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The classical dance is characterized by the unique body movements, the intimate relationship between the body motion and the inner feelings of the dancer, and its utilization of only natural body strength and muscles. The body movements associated with the classical dancing combined with different facial expressions express different inner feelings articulately without confusion to the audience. These feelings could be love, peace, joy, anger, and disappointment among others. Also, it is the internalization of these feeling that guides the motions and movements of the dancer who in turn does not require greater than the standard muscle power obtained through various daily activities to perform the dance. Unlike in many other dances, the classical dance does not require the dancers to have built their muscles. The flip move obtained from martial arts is the most common classical dance move with almost all performers incorporating it in their dance regularly.
Folk Dance
Folk dance is probably the oldest of the Chinese dancing culture having been created by the fathers of long gone days in line with the different belief of the day then. Folk songs were mainly ritualistic and geared towards receiving favors from the supernatural which would have included successful hunting expeditions, good farm harvests, and are dated to as early as the fourth millennium BC from archaeological evidence recorded of hunting art scribbled on a pot. Folk dances differ in the different ethnic groups and often depict the group’s religious, social and cultural customs. Performers are clothed in colorful, choreographed costumes, and the dances though different from ethnic group to the other also show some similarities. Jealousy, forgiveness, love and communal unity are some of the shared themes and play a significant role in strengthening the bond between the community members. Today, folk dances still exist and have paved its way to the Chinese formal theater. However, the journey has been long and has seen the transition of the dance. War and struggle for survival nearly saw its end but was revived soon after. There are three popular folk dances that have stood the test of time; lion dance, the court dance, and the dragon dance.
Lion Dance
The lion dance is accredited the most popular of all the folk dances. It is based on the perception of the male lion among the Chinese. In the North, the dance is performed in red and orange costumes and is full of the ferocity and agility showed by the animal. It’s mostly done by acrobats. In the south, on the contrary, the dance is performed in no particular color and does not involve acrobats. It’s meant to show the role of the animal which is to guard (Hays).
The Court Dance
This dance involves several dances all falling under the same. The common are the Prince Qin’s Cavalry dance performed to celebrate the imperial army.It passed a call to courage and preparedness for battle and involved a huge number of actors. Nichang Yuyi was another court dance inspired by the Tang Dynasty’s emperor from visions encountered in a dream he had and turned out to be an excellent piece (Jung-rock 17-55).
Dragon Dance
The dragon and lion dance to date are still the primary performances in any festivity among the Chinese. The Dragon symbolizes wisdom, dignity, and power. The dancers animate the huge long creature, and their number is dependent on the size of the mock dragon. Fire might also be incorporate in the dance to bring out the animals fierce breath effect on the audience (Hays).
Opera Dance
Just like the other dances, the opera dance can be traced to have begun long ago in China. It attained its maturity later in the Song dynasty and is characterized by the incorporation of various styles including martial arts, songs, literary art, and acrobatics all in one. The performers of the dance have their faces painted in different colors bearing different meanings to show the characters emotions, fate, and role. For example, the color white is painted on villain characters depicting their credulity, evil and craftiness. Green and red represent impulsiveness and bravery respectively. Chinese opera is categorized into several branches with the main difference being due to location variation. They include Cantonese opera, Beijing opera, kunqu Opera, Shaoxing opera and Lvju opera. Today, this dance is not as common as other dances and is only staged on the formal opera house and in some festivities but not a primary dance.

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The Chinese dances are a very broad form of representing, conveying and preserving their culture. Within the three most important categories of the dance, there exist several subcategories, and they differ within different ethnic groups. Performances of the dances follow different styles including acrobats and martial arts with the characters dressed in costumes to match the dance. Over the past, these dances have played a significant role not only preserving the culture but also preaching peace and unity among the communities. With time, the dances have transformed and may not portray the rich culture that was passed through generations but still hold meaning to the people. However, the communities should strive to ensure the continuity band originality of the dances.

The different types of budgeting systems

Budgeting systems of different types, usually customised to the needs of individual organisational managements, are in use in various types of organisations, business, governmental and not for profit, across the world.
The use of traditional budgeting has in recent years come under intensive critique by different academic and experts for its detrimental impact on different organisational areas and especially upon the overall performance of organisational employees and consequently of organisations. Such developments present a difficult conundrum to organisational managers of the actual utility of budgets in performance management and control.
This dissertation takes up the investigation of the role of budgeting in organisational performance, especially so in planning and control of organisational activity, both in theory and in practice. The information obtained from intense study of literature is augmentation by the investigation of budgeting practices at two leading fast food and restaurant chains, Pizza Hut and Burger King.
The research reveals that whilst traditional budgeting practices dominate organisational policies for planning and control, modern budgeting concepts are slowly being adopted by organisations with some success.
1. Introduction
1.1. Overview
Budgeting systems of different types, usually customised to the needs of individual organisational managements, are in use in various types of organisations, business, governmental and not for profit, across the world (Andrews & Hill, 2003, p 135-158).
Traditional budgeting methods emerged as important management tools in the pre Second World War era, when Fordist and Taylorist management principles directed the working of most business organisations (Grizzle & Pettijohn, 2002, p 51-58).
Traditional budgeting techniques involve the comparison of actual organisational performance in different areas of work with budgeted targets, the computation of variances between budgeted targets and actual performance, and the analysis of both favourable and unfavourable variances in order to determine the reasons for such differences (Pilkington & Crowther, 2007, p 29-30). The chart provided hereunder explains the sequence of budgeting activities and the relationship of the process to internal and external factors (Tales, 1998, p1).
Variance analysis helps in corrective action during the currency of an operating period and helps organisations to achieve various objectives. Analysis of variances and comparison of actual achievement with budgeted targets help in the measurement of performance of responsibility heads, managers, groups of employees, and individual employees (Pilkington & Crowther, 2007, p 29-30).
Budgetary control has over the years been found to be very useful for planning and controlling of organisational performance (Chapman et al, 2007, p 7-51). Budgets have also been found to be useful in the monitoring and achievement of group objectives and in the facilitation of team work (Chapman et al, 2007, p 7-51).
Budgeting, despite its inherent utility in the planning and control of organisational performance, has come under increasing criticism from modern day management accounting experts like Kaplan, Argyris, Hofstede, and Hopwood, who argue that lack of thought and rigidity in the use of budgeting essentially results in the development of Theory X type management control tools that can cause various organisational problems like increased stress upon employees, organisational disagreement and dissention with inappropriately set budgets, and organisational de-motivation (Chapman et al, 2007, p 7-51).

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Recent years have seen the development of modern budgeting techniques like the balanced score card, rolling budgets and beyond budgeting techniques (Chapman et al, 2007, p 7-51). Whilst such new concepts in the area of budgeting are undoubtedly being taken up for discussion, study and implementation by some progressive firms, the overwhelming majority of business organisations continue to use traditional budgeting techniques suitably customised to the circumstances and needs of individual organisations (Chapman et al, 2007, p 7-51).
1.2. Purpose of Study
The use of traditional budgeting has in recent years come under intensive critique by different academic and experts for its detrimental impact on different organisational areas and especially upon the overall performance of organisational employees and consequently of organisations. Such developments present a difficult conundrum to organisational managers of the actual utility of budgets in performance management and control.
This dissertation takes up the investigation of the role of budgeting in organisational performance, especially so in planning and control of organisational activity, both in theory and in practice. The information obtained from intense study of literature is augmented by the investigation of budgeting practices at two leading fast food and restaurant chains, Pizza Hut and Burger King.
This dissertation should hopefully help students, managers and academics through the generation of new perspectives in the area and help in improving the process of planning and control of organisational activities through the use of appropriate budgeting techniques.
1.3. Aims and Objectives
The aims and objectives of this dissertation are now elaborated as under:
To examine the elements of budgetary control and its application in actual practice.
To examine the various actions involved in the preparation and planning of budgets, with special reference to the role and importance of accurate information inputs.
To examine the key resources required by firms for gathering of information for the preparation and planning of budgets.
To examine the limitations of budgeting.
To examine recent developments in budgeting and recommend the adoption of the most appropriate system of budgetary control by organisations.
1.4. Structure
This study has been sequentially structured. This introductory section is followed by a literature review and thereafter by the formulation of appropriate research questions. Subsequent sections take up the description and explanation of the adopted research methodology, the data obtained from such research, the analysis of data, and finally conclusions and recommendations. An extensive alphabetical list of references at the end of the study provides details on all source material used for the dissertation.
2. Literature Review
This review of existing literature attempts to examine the published material available in the public domain on the issue of budgeting and its role in performance management of organisations, departments and employees.
Budgeting emerged as an important management accounting and management control tool in the early years of the 20th century and forms a staple item of all text books on financial management and management accounting (Davila & Foster, 2005, p 1039-1068). The budgeting process came under severe criticism in the 1980s with the publication of critiques budgeting by experts like Kaplan, Argyris, Hofstede and Hopwood. Recent years have seen the emergence of newer budgeting techniques like flexible budgeting, rolling budgets, the balanced score card approach, and beyond budgeting techniques (Davila & Foster, 2005, p 1039-1068).
2.1. Role of Budgeting in Planning and Control Activities
Planning and control are agreed to be among the most important of organisational managerial activities (Bhatnagar, et al, 2004, p 92). Budgets play a central and key role in the planning and control processes of business firms. The importance of budgets in planning and controlling functions makes management accounting and the provisioning of management information a critical organisational function. Surveys of UK business and industry reveal that most business organisations use budgeting techniques of some form, even as larger organisations have institutionalised and developed budgeting mechanisms (Bhatnagar, et al, 2004, p 92).
The role of budgeting is best examined by locating its place within the wider framework of organisational planning and control (Carruth & Digregorio, 2003 p 13-26). The chart provided hereunder explains the relationship of budgeting in the larger control framework of a firm. Management and operational control form very important components of the broader framework of planning and control. Management control represents the process through which managements ensure the execution of pre-determined strategies by their organisations (Carruth & Digregorio, 2003 p 13-26). The process is essentially short term in nature, implemented through middle rung managers, and forms an important routine management activity. Operational control on the other hand represents the process of ensuring the efficient and effective conduct of specific tasks. The time spheres for such controls are short term, consist of periods that can extend from a day to a month, and are executed through junior managers (Pilkington & Crowther, 2007, p 29-30).
With regard to planning, the use of budgets calls upon and directs managers to think ahead about the utilisation of resources for achievement of company policies and objectives in their area of work (Grizzle & Pettijohn, 2002, p 51-58). Such planning involves the obtaining of relevant, accurate and valid information, (either from reliable historical sources or by logical estimation), the analysis and appropriate extrapolation of such information, and its use for projection of future operational figures in different areas like sales, production, income and expenditure (Grizzle & Pettijohn, 2002, p 51-58).
The relevance and effectiveness of budgets is to a large extent dependent upon the accuracy of information on which it is based (Hassel & Cunningham, 1996, p 245). The overwhelming majority of budgeting exercises make use of historical information that is available within organisations. Important environmental information is also however often used by management accountants for projecting future developments and their impact on performance (Hassel & Cunningham, 1996, p 245). Inaccurate or unreliable information can, it will be obvious, erode the reliability and credibility of the assumptions on which budget preparation is based, and therefore invalidates budgets (Craig, 2002, p 57). Modern day organisations, especially if they are large, adopt elaborate and complex methods for retrieval, study, investigation and analysis of the data needed for budgets. Manual accounting inputs for preparation of budgets have largely been discarded by most organisations (Craig, 2002, p 57). Complex accounting and information retrieval systems that span departments, functions and geographies are used by most large organisations. Modern day Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) plays an important role in the provisioning of management information in the preparation of budgets (Hassel & Cunningham, 1996, p 245).
The control function of budgets is executed through the allocation of responsibility to specific individuals for the achievement of specific budgeted targets and by the comparison of actual performance with budgeted targets (Craig, 2002, p 57). Such comparisons result in the establishment of positive or negative variances and reveal the extent to which people with responsibilities have been able to achieve their specified tasks. The extent of variance denotes the margin of success or failure (Pollitt, 2006, p 25). The reasons for such variances can be examined to ascertain the causes of success or failure of employees with accountability. Budgets have traditionally proved to be effective in performance control because they (a) establish specific, pre determined, and logically computed targets, (b) allocate responsibilities to specific organisational employees for achievement of targets, (c) establish widely known and uniform performance yardsticks and benchmarks, (d) provide a basis for assessment of actual performance and (e) pinpoint the people who can be held to be responsible for organisational failure, and (f) allow for analysis and determination of causes of failure (Pollitt, 2006, p 25).
Budgets help in controlling performance by establishing benchmarks for performance and consequently for rewards against such performance (Andrews & Hill, 2003, p 135-158). Organisational employees are often promised and provided rewards on the basis of their success in achieving targets in different areas of work (Andrews & Hill, 2003, p 135-158).
2.2. Limitations of Budgeting
Budgeting undoubtedly constitutes a critical and essential component of management control techniques that are employed by business firms for planning their future actions and thereafter controlling them.
Whilst the importance and role of budgeting in achievement of organisational objectives and competitive advantage is widely accepted and also illustrated by the fact that the overwhelming majority of business firms across the world engage in some type of budgeting activity, the process has come under severe criticism in recent decades (Chapman et al, 2007, p 7-51). Experts like Kaplan have argued that traditional budgeting techniques have essentially not changed over the last 70 years and have become increasingly inappropriate for the modern day economy and the changed internal and external environments in which business firms operate (Chapman et al, 2007, p 7-51). Whilst traditional budgeting operates both on top down and bottom up approaches and are based both upon historic information and current information that is available in the public domain, budgets are in the overwhelming majority of cases finally decided by top management and imposed upon different levels of organisational managers (Chapman et al, 2007, p 7-51).
Such imposition of budgets and their association with performance measurement, rewards, remuneration, and career progression of organisational employees leads to the development of various complexities, some of which are elaborated as under.
Budgets are very infrequently felt to be fair and right. Budgeted targets are by and large felt to be either too soft or too hard, depending upon the perspectives of different persons (Hassel & Cunningham, 1996, p 245).
Such perceptions often lead to organisational dissention and ill will between subordinates and superiors and broad resentment of employees against organisational authority (Chapman et al, 2007, p 7-51).
Soft budgets are felt to be contradictory to organisational well being and build environments of complacency and slackness. Difficult budgets on the other hand often prove to be unattainable and lead to de-motivation, resentment, criticism, dissension, and ill will. It is thus not an easy task to formulate a budget that furthers organisational objectives, stretches organisational employees to improve their performance, and acts as a good motivator and fair tool for judgement of performance (Hassel & Cunningham, 1996, p 245).
Argyris and others have pointed out that group attitudes towards budgets significantly affect performance and ultimate achievement of budget targets (Smith, 2001p 1).
Geertz Hofstede elaborates that appropriate setting of targets is also very important for achievement of budgets. Hofstede states that whilst group participation was important, the attitudes of senior managers, especially the game spirit with which they play the budget game form a key ingredient of the budget process. (Hofstede, 2003, p 12-18)
Hopwood (1972) identified different styles of budgeting, the budget constrained style, the profit conscious style and the non-accounting style. Whilst all three styles exerted pressure on workers, it was only the profit conscious style that drew involvement without eliciting defensive approaches (Hopwood, 1972, p 156-182)
Hope and Bunce assert (2003) that autocratic and rigid budgeting approaches lead to the development of organisational bureaucracies that focus on finding fault with employee performance, rather than motivation and encouragement (Hope & Bunce, 2003, p 1).
Undue emphasis on achievements of budgets can divert management attention from other important organisational aspects like the importance of quality and staff morale with detrimental impact upon organisational wellbeing (Hassel & Cunningham, 1996, p 245).
The association of monetary and career rewards with the achievement of budgets can lead to a range of unethical activities like fudging of figures, window dressing of performance, and skirting with the law. The wrong decisions taken by managers of banks and financial institutions, (which greatly contributed to the development of the financial crisis of 2008) are closely related to the greed of managers to access the performance bonuses that were linked to achievement of ever-increasing performance targets (Chapman et al, 2007, p 7-51).
2.3. New Developments in Budgets
Dissatisfaction with important aspects and outcomes of traditional budgeting principles has led to extensive research in alternative methods of optimisation of organisational and individual control and performance (Hearn, et al, 2006, p 286). Such efforts, both in areas of theory and practice, have resulted in a number of alternative approaches and modifications to traditional budgeting theory and practice. Some of the more important of these developments are represented by flexible budgeting, rolling budgets, the balanced score card approach and beyond budgeting principles (Hearn, et al, 2006, p 286).
Rolling budgets are prepared for 6-9 months in detail, (unlike traditional financial budgets that are made for complete financial years), followed by broader and less detailed budgets that extend to 1 ½ to 2 years (Subramaniam & Ashkanasy, 2001, p35).
Flexible budgets on the other hand deal with operations and contain different estimates for various products and services (Subramaniam & Ashkanasy, 2001, p35). Such methods allow for changes in costs or volumes and allow organisations to respond swiftly to changing situations and thereby maintain profitability and competitive advantage (Subramaniam & Ashkanasy, 2001, p35).
The balanced score card approach aims to translate strategy into practice from four dimensions, namely customer, financial, learning and growth, and business processes (Bhatnagar, et al, 2004, p 92). Its use helps organisations to pay attention to different aspects of organisational performance over the length of business cycles, which are longer than traditional budget periods and thus essentially more volatile. The use of this approach, along with Key Performance Indicators, (KPIs), enables organisations to built holistic targets and track performance in different dimensions (Bhatnagar, et al, 2004, p 92). Beyond Budgeting is a comprehensive and elaborate holistic approach that incorporates modern concepts like rolling budgets and the balanced score card approach and focuses on two groups of principles related with performance management. The first group of principles is process oriented, whilst the second set is leadership oriented. Taken together Beyond Budgeting principles enable organisations to motivate their employees, improve performance and enhance organisational creativity (Bhatnagar, et al, 2004, p 92).
2.4. Framing of Research Questions
The research questions for this dissertation, framed in line with the aims and objectives of the dissertation and the results of the literature review are detailed as under:
How does budgetary control help in planning and controlling of performance of employees?
How are budgets used by successful organisations (Pizza Hut and Burger King) to plan and control performance?
How do organisations ensure accuracy of information for preparation of budgets?
What types of resources are used by organisations to gather information and prepare budgets?
What sort of constraints and limitations do modern day organisations face in using traditional budgeting techniques?
What measures can be adopted by organisations to make budgeting exercises more effective in planning and controlling performance?
3. Research Methodology
3.1. Important Research Factors
Research in areas of finance, management, and business come under the broad ambit of economic research (Bryman & Bell, 2007, p 12-28). The research methodology for such assignments is by and large determined in accordance with the tenets of social research and is of course shaped by the nature of the subject under investigation and the infrastructural and other resources available with the researcher. The determination of appropriate research methods and techniques involve the choice of specific research methods and the most suitable sources of information (Bryman & Bell, 2007, p 12-28).
3.2. Quantitative and Qualitative methods of Research
Social research methods are shaped by two broad and quiet different research approaches, namely the quantitative approach and the qualitative approach. These approaches are shaped by different epistemologies and involve the utilisation of different research techniques, both for obtaining and for analysis of data (Darlington & Scott, 2002, p 33-47).
The quantitative approach is guided by positivist epistemology and is closely related to scientific research methods (Darlington & Scott, 2002, p 33-47). Quantitative approaches involve the application of scientific theory and aim to measure the responses of research subjects in easily quantifiable and numerical terms. Such methods are used in the majority of economic and business research efforts and are particularly useful in the gauging of broad trends of thoughts or opinions of chosen populations (Darlington & Scott, 2002, p 33-47).
Qualitative methods of analysis are essentially different and are used when the issue under study is subjective in nature and open to different ways of interpretation (Neuman, 2005, p 18-36). Qualitative research methods are shaped by interpretivist epistemology and involve detailed investigation of complex subjects that are often multilayered and incapable of being answered with yes or no responses. Such research is most appropriate for issues that involve questions that are what, why and how in nature and are best conducted by expert and involved researchers (Neuman, 2005, p 18-36). Qualitative research is far more time consuming and detailed than quantitative research and is mostly conducted with the help of direct one-to-one interviews and focus group discussions, in which researchers participate with the subjects under study and observe their reactions and responses in minute detail (Neuman, 2005, p 18-36).
Whilst most research assignments call for the use of either quantitative or qualitative methods, some complex and multidimensional issues require the use of both techniques (Neuman, 2005, p 18-36).
3.3. Choice of Information Sources
Information sources are broadly categorised into primary and secondary sources. Secondary information sources consists of all the information on the subject that is available to the public at large in the form of published material, more specifically books, articles, both journal and magazine, and other publications (Bryman & Bell, 2007, p 12-28).
Primary information is however obtained from sources that are part of or are integral to the subject under study (Bryman & Bell, 2007, p 12-28). Whilst primary information is most commonly obtained from interviews and focus group discussions, such information is also available from specific public domain sources like organisational or departmental publications, publications authored by the subjects under study, interviews given by them to reliable media publications, and otherwise from information disseminated through personal or organisational websites. (Bryman & Bell, 2007, p 12-28).
3.4. Adoption of Research Methodology
The subject issue, as detailed by the aims and objectives, the literature review and the research questions of this study, is essentially complex, multilayered and open to interpretation in different ways (May, 2001, p 41-59). The use of budgeting techniques for planning and controlling performance in business organisations is an intensely debated topic and has multiple aspects. The interests of research on this issue will certainly not be appropriately served with the use of yes/ no/ multiple choice surveys administered to sample population groups (May, 2001, p 41-59).
The elimination of quantitative methods of research for the assignment by extension also removes the relevance of mixed models and leaves only qualitative methods for use (Neuman, 2005, p 18-36). This research study therefore uses only qualitative methods for researching information. The research approach has been formulated on the basis of the aims and objectives of the dissertation and the information unearthed during the literature review (Neuman, 2005, p 18-36).
This research effort attempts to obtain answers to the research questions through a detailed investigation of the budgeting practices of two well known and successful organisations in the fast food and restaurant industry, namely Pizza Hut and Burger King UK. Information for research has been obtained from a host of secondary and primary sources (Neuman, 2005, p 18-36).
Study of information available in the public domain on the use of budgets for planning and control of performance in these organisations will provide a balanced multi-prospective view of their organisational policies and practices (Neuman, 2005, p 18-36). Primary information is sourced from an examination of organisational websites, observation of their work processes onsite and informal open ended discussions with members of their staff. The information obtained from secondary and primary sources has been carefully collated and thereafter subjected to appropriate analysis (Neuman, 2005, p 18-36).
3.5. Ethics
Appropriate care has been taken to ensure the adoption of ethical rules and norms that are pertinent to business research (Bryman & Bell, 2007, p 12-28).
All information sources used for the purpose of study have been acknowledged carefully and comprehensively. All participants have been informed of the nature of the assignment and its purposes. Respondents have been informed of their right to confidentiality and of refusing to answer all or any of the questions asked of them. All respondents have also agreed in writing of their unilateral and unforced willingness to participate in this study (Bryman & Bell, 2007, p 12-28).
3.6. Limitations
The results of this study are limited by the actual reading carried out by the researcher. Whilst efforts have been made to ensure extensive examination of available literature, it is always possible that some important information may have been missed out (Darlington & Scott, 2002, p 33-47). The actual investigation of businesses for ascertainment of budgetary control in practice is also restricted to two organisations, which may well be unrepresentative of the entire business fraternity. The result of this research study is subject to these limitations (Darlington & Scott, 2002, p 33-47).
4. Data and Findings
Information for research has been obtained from a range of secondary and primary sources. Secondary information on budgeting at Pizza Hut and Burger king has been obtained from information available on the subject from a range of sites in the public domain, even as primary information has been obtained by study of their organisational web sites. The information sources used for secondary information on budgetary control for Pizza Hut and Burger King have not been cited here but have been placed together at the end of the list of references for easy access.
Primary information has also been obtained by visits to retail outlets of Pizza Hut and Burger King in London, observation of the work processes at these outlets and open ended conversations with their employees.
It has been difficult to obtain relevant information on budgeting because information about budgeting practices belongs to the private information domain of the companies and is not openly discussed at public forums. The employees at such outlets are also more involved in servicing customers and their knowledge of budgetary control methods is restricted. Relevant information has however been accessed from discussions with middle managers at Pizza Hut stores and franchise representatives at Burger King.
The information obtained from study of public domain information, onsite observations and interviews with middle managers of Pizza Hut and Burger King are provided below:
Information from Study of Public Domain Information of Pizza Hut
Pizza Hut is a US headquartered multinational chain of restaurants that offers different types of pizza’s and associated foods.
The chain which belongs to Yum brands operates in more than 100 countries, contains approximately 34,000 outlets of different types and employees more than 30,000 people.
The company is headquartered at Addison Texas and has grown enormously since its founding in 1958.
The company operates its own stores in the majority of its locations in the US. It does however have some franchised units in countries outside the United States.
The company is well known for its high quality and standard food and has faced very few quality complaints.
The HR section on its website and information obtained from the public domain state that the company pays great attention to the selection, recruitment, training and performance of its employees.
Pizza Hut operates a complex and detailed management information system with the help of extensive computer systems that connect all its global units with regional headquarters and to organisational headquarters at Texas.
The computer systems used for the management information function are modern and constantly updated.
Budgetary control forms an integral element of Pizza Huts overall management information system.
The budgetary control system is extremely detailed and is prepared for every quarter of a calendar year.
Budgets are multi dimensional and monitor both operational and financial aspects of the organisation.
Budgets are prepared for all departments, all functions and for each restaurant operated by the chain.
Much of the purchasing functions are done through annual regional contracts and employee of local retail outlets are not involved in these functions.
Employees of retail outlets are however expected to add to organisational sales and competitive advantage through constant improvement of customer relationship and customer satisfaction.
The chain has recently introduced the balance score card method for improving the performance of employees at retail outlets.
Employees at Pizza Hut outlets are now assessed on a variety of counts that concern the provisioning of customer service, the achievement of customer satisfaction, the improvement of customer relationships and finally of the quantum of repeat customers.
The company proposes to extent the balance score card method of budgetary and performance control to other areas of work.
Information from Study of Public domain Information of Burger King
Burger king is also a US headquartered international chain of fast food restaurants.
Headquartered in Florida. Burger King is the second largest seller of hamburgers in the world. It has approximately 12,000 outlets, operates in 73 coun
 

Community Correction Types, Extent, and Problems

 

Community Correction Types, Extent, and Problems.

 

 

Introduction:

Community Correction programs in the United States attempt to accomplish many goals. Typically these community correction programs oversee an offender’s time outside of jail or prison. Community correction programs extend all across the United States. Each state has a criminal justice system and laws that are intended to keep the community safe. Once these laws are broken, offenders then enter the criminal justice system and their future may vary depending on the severity of their crime and funding of that state. That is where community correction programs come in. Latessa and Smith define community corrections as, “Numerous and diverse types of supervision, treatment, reintegration, control, restoration, and supportive programs for criminal violators” (pg. 3)

Types of Community Corrections:   

There are several community correction programs that offenders can be apart of. Some community correction programs begin pre-imprisonment and some begin after imprisonment and are considered part of their terms and conditions of being released.  Some pre-imprisonment community correction programs include community service, restitution, house arrest, and others. Some post-imprisonment community correction programs include probation, work release, shock parole, as well as others.

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Probation is one of the largest type of community correction program in the United States. Latessa and Smith define it as, “ A sentence imposed by the court that does not usually involve confinement and imposes conditions to restrain the offender’s actions in the community. The court retains authority to modify the conditions of the sentence or re-sentence the offender if he or she violates the conditions”(pg.5). Probation is a way for an offender to be under correctional supervision while being a part of the general population and not confined in a jail. According to Latessa and Smith, a study done in 2012 showed that 56% of Americans in the criminal justice system are on probation, that’s roughly about 1,633 per 100,000 residents (pg.5). The purpose of probation is to allow an offender to have another chance in the community, and still be monitored by the criminal justice system to ensure they are not breaking any laws or conditions of their probation.

 The second largest community correction program in the United States is parole. Latessa and Smith define parole as, “The release of an offender from confinement prior to expiration of his or her sentence on condition of good behavior and supervision in the community” (pg.5). In the same 2012 study, it was determined that 12% of Americans in the criminal justice system are on parole. 12% is about 353 residents per 100,000. Similar to probation, the purpose of parole is to allow an offender to reintegrate into the community after incarceration, but still be monitored by the criminal justice system to ensure they are not breaking any laws or conditions of their parole.

 Community service is also another form of community corrections in the United States. Community service is typically non-paid work that is preformed for a specific amount of hours that was imposed by the court system. Most of the time community service hours can be completed at a charitable organization or public service organization. The purpose of community service is to keep small offenses committed by an offender out of jail, and to support the community in which the crime took place.

 Restitution programs are court ordered and are a condition of probation. This form of community corrections requires an offender to make financial payment to the victim of their crime or supporting funds to assist the victim with services. The purpose of restitution is for an offender to compensate the victim for their loss and serves as a way for the offender to be held accountable for their crime.

 House arrest is another form of community corrections that requires the offender to stay in their place of residence for periods of time throughout the day. There are minor exceptions to when an offender can leave their home such as work, grocery shopping, and community service. A part of being on house arrest means the offender has to wear an electronic monitor to track their movements and ensure they are not breaking the rules of house arrest. The purpose of this community corrections program is to ensure the offender is confined to their home and not a danger to the community.

 Some offenders may not be on house arrest but are still monitored by electronic monitors. This form of community corrections ensures that the inmate is home by their scheduled curfew. Often times electronic monitoring comes with visits from an offenders probation or parole officer as well as routine drug testing. The purpose of electronic monitoring is so the criminal justice system can still track an offender’s movement and ensure they are abiding by the conditions, but allows them to also begin to integrate back into the community.

 Community residential centers, also known as halfway houses are another form of community correction. Community residential centers are residential facilities that are non-confining and are intended as an alternative to jail for those who may need assistance with reintegrating back into the community. Its purpose is to assist those who may not be fully ready to integrate back into the community on their own. Typically these community residential centers come with programs that can help the offender once they are back on their own in the community.

Extent of Community Corrections:

Community correction programs can start prior to imprisonment or post imprisonment. Although there are programs that are post imprisonment, some programs can be combined with incarceration. In chapter two, figure 2.3 illustrates different types of community corrections. According to the figure, prison, jail, work release, halfway houses, house arrest and electronic monitoring are all considered residential and most restrictive forms of community corrections. Intensive supervision, day reporting, probation, community service, financial sanctions and pretrial diversions, are considered nonresidential and least restrictive forms of community corrections (pg.32). The extent of community corrections is primarily going to focus on probation and parole, as these forms of community corrections are the most commonly used in the United States.

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Latessa and Smith state, “Probation is a conditional sentence that avoids an offender being incarcerated; in other words, it is an alternative disposition available to the court” (pg.42). Many criminologists describe probation as providing an offender with a second chance. What makes probation so popular is that it does not confine an offender to an institution or their home, but also does not allow the offender to be released from the criminal justice system and court authority. When an offender is granted probation, supervision by a probation officer is implemented and there are terms and conditions of probation, which an offender is expected to follow.  Probation can be granted for adults and juveniles, and it can even be used on a federal level.

There are several factors that go into a judge decision to grant probation. Factors such as a defendants educational level, monthly salary, occupation, residence, stability, and participation in the community are just a few. These factors are ranked and compared to the defendants prior records and number of arrest. Once probation is granted, the offender is now responsible for abiding by the terms and conditions of their probation. These terms and conditions imposed on an offender are suppose to be monitored by their probation officer. Offenders are expected to follow both the general and specific terms and conditions of their probation. General conditions of probation are typically conditions that all offenders on probation are to abide by. Specific conditions of their probation are more specific to the needs of that offender. Part of being on probation means an offender is responsible for paying probation fees. According to Latessa and Smith, probation fees can range between $10 and $120 per month (pg.62).

A condition of being on probation could be an offender is responsible for paying restitution to its victim, or the offender is responsible for doing community service. Restitution requires an offender to make monetary payments to their victim to offset the damages done from their crime. Community service is a condition of probation that is often used if there is no direct victim. There are also alternative probation procedures such as split sentences, and modification of sentences that can be imposed on an offender.

Parole is another largely used form of community corrections. Parole is the release of an offender either temporarily or permanently before they complete their sentence. Being granted parole typically means an offender is going to be on good behavior while they are reintegrating into the community. In order for an offender to be granted parole they must first go before the parole board. According to Latessa and Smith a parole board is, “any correctional person, authority, commission, or board that has legal authority to parole those adults (or juveniles) committed to confinement facilities, to set conditions for behavior, to revoke from parole, and to discharge from parole” (pg. 89). Depending on the offense, parole boards can even shorten a prisoner’s sentence.

Typically, if an offender is given an indeterminate sentence, they can be granted parole. An indeterminate sentence is a range of time given by a judge or prosecutor. There is no definite amount of time that an offender has to serve. Due to that, prisoners can be sentenced 5-20 years, and be incarcerated only 5 of those years and are granted parole for the remaining. Nearly every jurisdiction in the United States has a parole system.

There are two types of releases when it comes to parole. Discretionary release is described as the parole of an inmate from prison prior to the end of the maximum sentence. Mandatory release is the release of an offender by a parole board because they have served the equivalent of the maximum sentence.  When it comes to mandatory release, typically the offender was not released for parole prior to them serving their maximum sentence that was imposed by the court.

Several factors influence parole decisions. When determining parole, parole boards look at factors for granting parole based on the probability of recidivism, factors for granting parole other than probability of recidivism, and factors for denying parole other than probability of recidivism (pg. 103). Ultimately, parole decisions are based off of that states specific statue. If an offender is granted parole, they do have conditions of their parole that they are expected to follow. Latessa and Smith describe the release of parole as a contract between the state and the offender (pg. 104). If an offender abides by the conditions of their parole then freedom is granted, but if they do not there is a possibly that their parole can be revoked and they can be returned back to jail.  Like probation, there are general conditions and specific conditions that an offender must follow while they are on parole.

Problems with Probation and Parole:

 There are problems with both probation and parole. Neither are one hundred percent perfect, nor not everyone granted release on probation or parole are going to follow the conditions of it. Neither probation nor parole has been found to reduce recidivism.

 The U.S Department of Justice believes there are several issues with probation. These issues are outlined in an scholarly article titled Critical Issues in Adult Probation written by Harry E. Allen, Eric W. Carlson, and Evalyn C. Parks in September of 1979. Their article outlines several issues with probation such as issues with probation management, issues with probation caseload predictions and treatments, as well as issues within probation research. One of the issues that stood out to me the most in regards to issues with probation is the issue facing an offender’s probation treatment. A part of their probation treatment is predicting the offenders expected future behavior. Due to predictions being intuitive, you never really know if an offender is going to abide by the conditions of parole or not. That can be a challenge, especially if the offender does not abide by the conditions of their probation and is sent back to prison. At that point, resources have been wasted because of an intuitive decision.

 Out of all community correction programs, parole faces the most challenges. There are several criminologists who seek to have indeterminate sentencing and parole completely abolished. Some find that parole in ineffective and a waste of taxpayer’s money. There are also legal challenges to parole. According to Latessa and Smith, “The basic legal challenge raised against parole was that the placing of control over sentence length and criminal penalties in the hands of a parole board was unconstitutional (pg. 94). Lawsuits have focused on the separation of powers, and clauses in the federal and state constitutions. Those involved in these suits believe that parole release is an impairment of judicial sentencing power, improper delegation of legislative authority, and usurpation of the executive branch’s power of clemency (pg.94).

References

Latessa, E. J., & Smith, P. (2015). Corrections In The Community(6th ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

Allen, H. E., Carlson, E. W., & Parks, E. C. (1979). Critical Issues in Adult Probation. 1-258. Retrieved February 7, 2019, from https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/ciap.pdf.

Types Of Natural Resources

Resource is a general term for substance, energy and information that can be exploited and developed by human. It is a naturally occurring substance that widely exists in nature and human society which can bring wealth to humanity. According to Elcome (1998), natural resources are the natural commodities and features of the Earth’s physical environment that are exploited by the human populations. Natural resources are extracted from the Earth to use in their existing form and often changed in form during the manufacturing process, which turns natural resources into products.
The world is heading for an “ecological credit crunch” far worse than the current financial crisis because humans are over-using the natural resources of the planet, an international study warns today.
The Living Planet report calculates that humans are using 30% more resources than the Earth can replenish each year, which is leading to deforestation, degraded soils, polluted air and water, and dramatic declines in numbers of fish and other species. (Jowit, 2008)
Basically, natural resources are classified into two major categories, which are renewable resources and non-renewable resources. Renewable resources are further sub-categorized into sustainable and perpetual resources, while non-renewable resources are divided into consumable, recoverable and recyclable resources.
Renewable resources are the first major category of the types of natural resources. “Renewable resources are the resources which regenerate through natural processes within a reasonable time period. They have the potential to regenerate as long as it is not used up faster than it is replaced” (Bagad, 2009). As shown in Diagram 1, renewable resources are sub-distinguished into sustainable and perpetual resources. A sustainable resource has a few characteristics which make it naturally to be classified as one of the sub-classes of renewable resources. One of its characteristics is the ability to maintain its resources for a period of time because its supply are currently available to be used and believed to sustain for the coming hundred and even thousand of years. It is also reliable in a perspective way as its usage hardly or does not cause any pollution to the environment. In turn, this uncountable and environmentally friendly resource can be utilized effectively. Examples of this class resource include soil, forest, and water in aquifers. To improve the perspective towards sustainable resource characteristics, forest is chosen to be illustrated. Forest is formed with thousands of trees and every single of them has the capability to reproduce and renew themselves, where need not human to assist for growth or produce. Forest has large production capacity, long rotation time, and multiply uses (Nine unique features of forest, n. d).

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To be qualified holds the position as the second sub-class of the first major category of natural resources, perpetual resource has certain features which differ as well as share with sustainable resource. Particularly, perpetual resource has unbounded supply of its resource to be repetitively used forever, as compared to that of sustainable. While its reliability to be used and cause free-pollution to the environment is the characteristics sharing with sustainable resource. Tidal, wind, wave and solar energy are the examples for perpetual resource. Let further discuss on wind and solar energy for better understanding of the characteristics for perpetual resource. Wind contains tremendous amount of energy and it uses sophisticated turbines to convert this energy to electric power. Wind is just moving air created as the sun heats the earth’s surface. As long as the sun is shining, the wind remains an infinite. Though wind only generated little power in the United States in 2009, “it is the fastest growing source of the new electric power,” according to U.S. Energy Information Administration. For the case of solar energy, the Sun has produced energy in the form of heat and light since the Earth formed. This formation of the heat is categorical as solar. Since solar energy is originated from the Sun, it does not bring harmful pollution to environment and its infinity supply definitely make it has feasibility and might substitutes any other form of resources. Ashok (n.d.) stated that in the 21st century solar energy is expected to become increasingly attractive as an energy source because of its inexhaustible supply and its nonpolluting character, in stark contrast to the finite fossil fuels coals, petroleum, and natural gas.
In addition to the first major category pointed in above, the non-renewable resources likewise make up the second major category of the types of natural resources. As discussed by Perman, Yue, McGilvray and Common (1999), non-renewable resources are formed by geological processes that usually take millions of years, so that they can be viewed as existing in the form of fixed stocks of reserves which, once extracted, cannot be renewed. Most experts and scientists translate non-renewable resources as not environmental friendly, cause to damaging effects towards living things, lead to imbalance of the ecosystem. In fact, non-renewable resources are sub-classified into three forms, which comprised of consumable, recyclable and recoverable resources as illustrated in Diagram 1. The first sub-class of the second category of natural resources is consumable resource and as its name implied, it can be consumed either partially or completely of its supply. In order to indicate the quantity of this resource that could be undertaken before its depletion occurs and requiring replenishment, a rate of consumption or capacity has been introduced. Fossil fuels are the best example to fit into this sub-class because it is consumable and it has limited resource to be supplied for long term. It is composed of oil, natural gas and coal, these 3 major types and they are all have broad usage to anyone in any country, which makes it be the most useful resource among others. Now, with only about 4.5 percent of the world population, the United States accounts for a quarter of total fossil fuel use, the largest per capita consumption of any country (Pimental & Patzek, 2006).
Whereas, the second sub-class of the second category of natural resources goes to recyclable. Recyclable resource has a unique characteristic, which is it can be reused again by applying some technological advance such as in machinery to reproduce it into either a brand new product or renew it alike original product. This recycling resource is beneficial to society as well as can remains its scarce resource, and thus it is worth to be recycled. Materials from discarded industrial products are usually being recycled. Holechek, Cole, Fisher and Valdez (2000) discussed that recycled metals become increasingly important as resources are depleted in the U.S. because metal recycling is cost-effective, progress continues to be made in recycling technology. Metallic ores are compatible to be an example for this sub-class as it is now widely being recycled and modified into different types of products.
The third sub-category of non-renewable resources is recoverable resource. Recoverable resources are the amount of resources identified in a reserve that are technologically or economically feasible to extract. Mineral reserves and all other deposits that may eventually become available, either known deposits that are not economically or technologically recoverable at present, or unknown deposits, rich or lean, that may be inferred to exist but have not been recovered yet. Rock, though it is hard and strong, does not stay that way forever. When it undergoes the process of weathering, small grains and tiny particles are worn out and sand is formed. One of the examples of recoverable resources is sand. Mattern (2005) mentioned that weathering and erosion are processes that use natural forces like wind, water, and ice to break down and transport rocks and other material. It takes thousands or millions years to form sand, depending on the climate changes and environmental elements. The most abundant constituent of sand is silica, usually in the form of quartz. There are lands on Earth that are still unexplored. It is believed that much sand will be discovered in the future.
In conclusion, the types of natural resources are classified into renewable and non-renewable as its two major categories. While each of this major category can be sub-differentiated into several classes, i.e. sustainable and perpetual for renewable and consumable, recyclable and recoverable for non-renewable. Each of these sub-classes has its unique and specific characteristic which holds it from being categorized into the others.
 

User Interface: Complexity, Types and Performance

User interface complexity
A user interface is the means in which a person controls a software application. A user interface should provide the user with an easy experience, allowing them to interact with the software in a stress-free and natural way. The GUI (graphical user interface) is a program that contains graphical controls which the user can select with a keyboard or mouse. “The GUI complexity is the most important value to consider when selecting a technology for user interface classes. (Rayhan, 2003)”. To decide on the complexity of the user interface it is important to consider all possible user interfaces for the ePS system. We should also reflect on a variety of categories which include simple data input, static view of the data, customisable views, dynamic view of the data and interactive graphs.

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The simple data input allows the user to enter data into the system. The static view of data can be either a table, tree or graph that is not affected by the changes in the system data. “The customisable view allows the user to customise the appearance of static data without making a new request to the server. The dynamic view of data is automatically refreshed to stay current while the underlying system data changes. The interactive graphs are similar to dynamic views. The graphical view is automatically updated as the underlying system data changes (Rayhan, 2003).”
Below is a list of user interfaces for the ePS system:

Login user interface: The login user interface allows the user to enter their username and password to gain access to the system.
Create E-Prescription user interface: The Create E-Prescription user interface allows the general practitioner user to create an E-Prescription for a patient, view their personal details and view their medical history.
Dispense medicine user interface: The dispense medicine user interface allows the pharmacist user to view the patients E-Prescription, check if the medication is in stock and dispense the medicine.
Manage ADR report user interface: The manage ADR report user interface will load a ADR report form on a web page for the user to enter in their adverse drug reaction to a particular medicine.

Deployment constraints for user interfaces
The deployment constraints are as imperative as the complexity of the user interface. When considering deployment constraints it is essential to have categories in which to compare. The following deployment constraints can occur within our ePS system:

Any web browser on the internet: This deployment constraint must allow the user interface to perform on any web browser on any computer. The web browser Opera does not support Java which means that all images and much less dynamic HTML, so the user interface would be presented in text form only.
Late-Model web browser on the internet: If each web browser is no more than a few generations old then we will also know that the computer is also no more than a few generations old.

Number and types of users
The number and type of users influence the technology selection in two ways. One influence being that a large number of users can force the technology for the entity, control and lifecycle classes to balance well. A large number of users can also encourage the selection of user interface technology. A larger audience makes straightforwardness of deployment and maintenance costs major factors.

Small number of dedicated users: These are a small group of users who can help to outline the system and who profits from the system. Since these groups are willing to invest their own time to learn the system, functionality is the main priority.
General use within an organisation: In regards to the system, this group of users are generally much larger, but they can be less motivated. These types of systems tend to support the organisation rather than contributing to the business. For example time tracking and benefits management.
Large audience with high interest: The ePS system must have a large audience that are extremely involved. These users may be unconnected from one another. The users may log on to the system to exchange information e.g. the E-Prescriptions or to collaborate information about the patients and the medicine.
Huge audience with low interest: In terms of the ePS system, it must attract and serve indecisive audience. If the ePS system runs slowly and wastes the audiences time it will cause the audience to be disengaged.

Available bandwidth
The bandwidth available is also another crucial factor when selecting technologies. Certain groups of technologies can allow developers to meet low bandwidth restrictions. However, other technologies make bandwidth constraints worse. The categories for bandwidth restrictions are as follows:

Dial-Up connection: The dial-up connection is now the least common type of connection to the internet. However, Dial-Up connection is suitable for systems that let users view text, images and to enter data. This would be suitable for the ePS system when the user logs in and loads the ADR report form. The ADR report will load up on a web page.
Fast internet connection: Fast internet connections consist of digital transmissions over phone lines, cables and satellite transmissions. This is mainly to enable a quicker internet connection.
Dedicated network between client and server: This type of connection will allow the client and serves to exchange data at considerably high speeds.

Types of System interface
The technology for a system interface is determined by a current outer system. If an external system is not available, you must describe the system interface and then select an applicable private technology. System interfaces are divided into the following three categories:

Data transfer: Many system interfaces exist merely to transfer large lumps of information from system to system. These interfaces are referred to as electronic data interchange.
Services through a protocol: This system interface will allow a system to make requests through an agreed protocol. The server will allow a system to validate itself and request data by sending predefined codes.
Direct access to system services: This system interface will allow a client system to directly call selected methods in the server. The server exposes these certain methods for remote access.

Performance and Scalability
The performance and scalability requirements are becoming one of the most important features in the selection of technology. Performance must be balanced against data integrity and any multiuser system and there aren’t many single user systems left. The performance and scalability factors are usually found by inspecting the class diagrams and sequence diagrams from the analysis model. The following are the three main categories that may affect the performance and scalability:

Read-only: Certain systems only allow the user to view system data, but do not allow them to update it.
Isolated updates: In most systems the user is allowed to change the systems data and the changes do no conflict with one and other.
Concurrent updates: In some systems many users change the systems data, but with some changes affecting the same data.

The following sections below describe the performance and scalability factors for each use case in the ePS system:

Create E-Prescription use case: In the Create E-Prescription use case the system retrieves and displays the patient’s record. After the user enters the diagnosis and the system must update the current data with the new data. This use case is described as “Isolated updates” or “Concurrent updates”.
Dispense medicine use case: In the dispense medicine use case the system retrieves and displays the patients E-Prescription. After the user checks the stock levels and dispenses the medicine the system must update the status to “Complete”. This use case is either described as “Isolated updates” or “Concurrent updates”.
Record ADR use case: In the record ADR use case the system retrieves and displays the ADR entity objects. After the user updates the entities the system must update the data with the new data. This use case is either described as “Isolated updates” or “Concurrent updates”.
Login use case: In the login use case the system locates the user entity object that corresponds to the actual user. Once the object is located, the system must determine whether the username and password is valid. The means the systems needs to read the username and password from some sort of persistent store. No data will be updated therefore the “Read-only” description is appropriate.

 

Influence of Types of Play on Children

It is important to understand the different types of play and how they help children’s development in order to plan activities for children. This will help them to develop holistically.
The Early Years Foundation Strategy says that “play underpins all development and learning for young children” (The Early Years Foundation Stage Practice Guidance p1.17 Crown 2008).
Learning through play is a very important principle of Early Years education, staff must provide opportunities for all the types of play:-
Imaginative Play Construction Play
Home corner Lego blocks
Dressing up Building towers
Small worlds

Physical Play Creative Play
Examples: tricycles, Sensory Play Drawing and
skipping ropes Water and sand play painting, crafts
Children may play in different ways to what you expect, this doesn’t matter, it shows their creativity. They may be running round outside in a superhero costume waving a sword they made out of a cardboard tube (physical + imaginative + creative), this helps them to develop holistically.
Types of play for children ages 2 to 8
Physical
This is any play with a focus which is physical. Children can be playing indoors or outside with balls, ride on toys. They can be climbing, running about or throwing and catching a ball. Physical play helps with motor skills, this gives more confidence. The children interact with each other when they are playing games outside, they learn the rules, how to negotiate, take turns, solve arguments, this helps with social skills.
Resources needed
To help with motor skills and co-ordination you would provide balls of various sizes, ride on toys and trikes, and skipping ropes, hula hoops. Space to play games like hopscotch, tag or football. For 6-8 year olds you could have a basketball hoop, inline skates and bikes.
Example from nursery
In my nursery setting the children play outdoors and there is equipment accessible for them at all times such as scooters. There are only two scooters which gives the opportunity for children to learn how to share and take it in turns to use the scooter. They must communicate with each other in order to ask if they can have a go on the scooter and have to wait their turn to use it, this improves their social skills and language. The scooters help to improve the children’s physical development greatly as the children have to be able to balance and use their legs to be able to move around the area on the scooter. They enhance the children’s gross motor skills. When the children are riding the scooters they can make their own decisions on where they want to go and think for themselves improving their cognitive development.
Development through physical play may be affected if there aren’t enough resources available so children have to wait a long time for a go on a tricycle for example. This can be helped by sending children out in small groups so you have enough things for them to play on.
Imaginative
Children enjoy pretending, it helps them with their speech language and communication skills, their social skills, their identity. There are lots of different types of imaginative play:-
Pretend play – children make an object into something else, a ruler can be a wand for a magician.
Role play – using props, the children play act different roles they are familiar with such as Mummy & Daddy, brothers and sisters, going shopping.
Socio dramatic play – a group of children play out scenes from real life such as taking their dog to the vet. This type of play is better for children with good language skills, children with English not their first language will not get as much out of this, they will need support from staff to help improve language skills.
Superhero – children dress up to act out their heroes from films they have seen like Toy Story, Shrek, Spiderman and Frozen.
Small world – using small animals, cars, toy soldiers children enjoy making up situations and manipulating the objects. They could act out a battle or be a farmer looking after the animals.
Resources
Plenty of dressing up costumes in different sizes
Everyday items for baking, shopping at supermarket,
Farm and zoo animals, miniature cars, toy soldiers
Play house
Example from nursery
In the home corner we have used containers of real products that have been filled with coloured liquid or a substance that isn’t dangerous for the children, such as a used Vimto bottle filled with water which has been coloured with purple food colouring to look like actually Vimto. There is also a washing up powder box filled with table salt as well as more everyday objects that the children will watch their parents handling. These resources give the children a real-life experience enabling them to use their imagination and creativity. They can also improve their fine motor skills as they pretend to poor drinks and serve food. Children can improve their communications skills as they talk to the other children and role play situations they have witnessed at home. These resources also help the children to enhance their social skills as they interact with the other children.
Good language skills are needed for imaginative play so children will find it harder to join in if they have delays in language. Practitioners need to be aware of this so they can support the children with a different type of play which helps their holistic development.
Sensory
Experiencing how water, sand, play dough, gloop feel and what you can do with them helps with fine motor skills and eye-hand coordination. At the same time children are learning about texture and properties of materials, maths concepts of volume and shape.
Resources
Sand and water
Play dough – bought or home made
Food – mashed potato, pasta
Example from nursery
In my nursery, they have a sand tray which they have access to all the time. There are different objects in the sand such as stones, buckets, spades and miniature animals. The sand can be made into different consistencies, it can be completely dry with no water this allows the children to feel the sand between their hands and put it into containers and pour it out. When water is added to the sand it makes it malleable so the children can build sandcastles and other things with it. It promotes the child imagination and creativity. This type of sensory play is very relaxing for the children and is very good for children with disabilities, they can enjoy the feel of the sand on their hands. Sand play can advance a child’s physical development, they use their upper bodies to handle the sand and play with the objects. They can dig, poor, scoop and grab the sand which also improves the children’s hand eye coordination. When children play in the sand they usually play alongside other children therefore this encourages their social skills. They must learn how to share the objects and get a space around the sand tray for themselves. Sand play also promotes cognitive development as the children are learning about the conservation of matter as they play with the sand, pouring it into different size and shape containers.
Creative
Creative play is when children make or create something, they use the resources you provide but it is important they choose what they want to do. This helps with fine motor skills, eye-hand coordination, expressing and releasing emotions. They learn to manage frustration and how practising something helps you improve. When the child succeeds after they keep trying, they feel a lot of satisfaction. An example of this is making a necklace from beads. This requires good eye-hand coordination to thread the beads and patience if they keep falling off the elastic. The child learns to persevere and not give up. Also, they can help each other which develops their social skills. It is important for staff to not jump in to help, to encourage the child to keep trying.
Resources
Drawing and painting – paper, card, paints, crayons, brushes
Musical instruments – mouth organ, kazoo, recorder, drums, small keyboard
Collage materials – glitter, textiles, glue, beads, feathers, string
Junk for modelling – boxes, tubes
Modelling kits for 6-8 year olds
Example from nursery
In the nursery, there is a box with lots of recycled containers and materials such as, milk cartons, cardboard boxes, straws and lots more. The chldren can make whatever they want with the materials and they are given the freedom to do so. All the materials help develop the children’s creativity, they can experiment with the resources and use their imagination to think up ideas of what they want to make. When children handle the materials they are improving their fine motor skills as they are using their muscles in their hands to cut with scissors, and use their fingers to stick things together.
Construction
Children enjoy putting things together such as jigsaws, wood blocks and constructing things for example lego/duplo. They can make dens from sheets over chairs or out of large boxes. This helps with hand-eye coordination, spatial awareness, how things work. Building a tall tower gives a sense of achievement this helps self-esteem.
Resources
Jigsaws, bricks, model aircraft and trains
Different sizes of cardboard boxes
Example from nursery
In the outdoor space of my nursery they have a construction area with large coloured plastic bricks. The children can build towers and walls and knock them over and rebuild them. Playing with the bricks gives the children a good opportunity to advance their social skills and communication as they cooperate to build a tall tower. They must be able to share the bricks with the other children and take it in turns to build what they want to. They use their gross motor skills to place the bricks on top of each other and as the tower gets taller they have to reach up to place the bricks on top. If another child knocks down their tower, they have to learn how to express their emotions of anger, frustration, upset and assert themselves to tell the child not to do it again.
Case Study 2-8 year olds
In “The Secret Life of 5 year Olds” TV programme Jude struggles with being on the losing team when they are doing an obstacle course challenge. The winners get some chocolate and he wants some as well. He thinks it isn’t fair that only the winners get the chocolate, he gets very upset and angry and cries. He asks his friends to get it for him. At first they try but it annoys the other children so they stop playing with him. Jude isn’t able to control his emotions and accept he lost. He can’t put himself in their shoes to see their point of view. The teacher sees that Jude needs her help and support to manage his emotions. In the next episode she takes him to one side and quietly supports him, she explains a better way to react. This enables Jude to behave differently the next time, he has developed his social and emotional areas of development. In the next task he shows that he has learned how to manage his feelings when he loses because he says “Well done” to the winning team (episodes 1 and 2 Channel 4 Nov 29th and Dec 6th 2016). The other children want to play with him more because he isn’t having a tantrum. Sometimes you have to get involved to help a child develop to the next level. If the teacher had just left Jude to carry on getting angry, he would have lost his friends and not learnt a better way to lose.
Types of play for children ages 0 – 2
Play is different for babies, they learn through their senses. Also, they need a lot more interaction and supervision from adults.
Treasure basket
Elinor Goldschmied had the idea for Treasure Baskets. This is an activity for babies who can sit on the floor unsupported and grasp objects. Lots of natural objects are put in a low basket that a baby can reach into. The adult is nearby to supervise in case the baby tries to put things in her mouth. Kathy Brodie says “No plastic!” (KathyBrodie.com) She means that you should provide natural resources with lots of different shapes and textures. Toys are smooth and plastic so the baby won’t learn much from picking one up, they are too young to do much more than touch, smell and taste at this age. It is important to let the baby choose what to explore, the role of the adult is to supervise so the child is safe and to reassure them by being nearby.

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The objects can include things which are light or heavy, rigid or squishy, warm or cold. Lots of variety stimulates the baby’s senses, this helps development in the brain, new neural connections are made. Using the treasure basket helps develop hand-eye coordination, it also helps the baby get stronger muscles. The activity could last as long as 45 minutes depending on the child’s interest and concentration. If they put things in their mouths you need to clean them before another child gets the basket. Review the contents regularly and change the objects to keep the babies interested.

Example of resources
Low sided basket with about 30 objects in
Natural – fir cones, pebbles, shells
Wood – spoons, pegs, wooden curtain rings
Metal – bells, whisk, small pan, teaspoon
Others – pot pourri bag, soap, fabrics, hairbrush, mirror, lemon
Heuristic Play
This is for older babies and toddlers, they want to find out what they can do with objects, not just touch them like the babies. As well as the objects from a treasure basket, you can add man-made things so the toddler can widen their exploring. Bigger objects can be used as the children can stand up, they have more control over their movements. This is a child-directed activity like for the treasure baskets, adults just supervise, they don’t get involved unless there is a danger or the child invites them.
In communityplaythings.co.uk Helen Huleatt says “When toddlers make an enjoyable discovery – for instance when one item fits into another, or an interesting sound is produced – they often repeat the action several times to test the result, which strengthens cognitive development as well as fine muscle control and hand/eye coordination.”
Heuristic play needs a clear space for the objects and children, objects are grouped into types for example, all the tins in one group, the fabrics in another. The role of the practitioner is to set out the area then sit quietly nearby. At the end of the session the children can help to clear away, they can develop cognitive ability by sorting types of objects or colours into boxes they came out of.
It is important to choose the right time for this activity, if the children are tired, they can’t concentrate very well. Observing what the children interact with and how they use the objects will mean you can develop these interests in other types of play. For example, if you notice a child who enjoys sorting things by colour, you could help them to learn the names of the colours in a construction activity with different coloured bricks.
Supervision is important to ensure the children don’t put things is their mouths or break things causing sharp edges. Staff need to be near enough to intervene but not distract their concentration. If a child doesn’t seem to be interested, they may be tired or hungry, there may not be enough objects to attract them.
Example of resources
Objects from the treasure baskets can be used
Cotton reels, buttons, fabrics
Containers of different shapes and size, made of different materials
Tubes for pushing things through, cardboard boxes
Peek a Boo and Hide and Seek
Babies enjoy games like Peek a boo. As well as being fun it helps them to learn about object permanence. At first when something is out of sight a very young baby will think it no longer exists, they are surprised when you peek out. By about 4 or 5 months old babies know an object still exists even if they can’t see it, they start to anticipate seeing you. Older babies and toddlers like playing Hide and Seek, especially when the adult pretends they can’t see them. The game encourages children to develop problem-solving skills by finding a place to hide or looking for everyone. They improve physical ability by running about looking for a hiding place to squeeze into. They develop social skills by taking turns
Resources
Provide small spaces where children can hide
Roll a ball
Roll a ball helps a young child’s holistic development. They develop hand-eye coordination and balance by rolling the ball, they learn about taking turns which develops social skills; their communication skills develop by listening to an adult talk about the activity.
Resources
Different sized balls
Case study – 11 months old
The baby I have been observing plays Peek a Boo with her Mum. Her Mum said at first she got upset when she hid behind her hands but slowly she realised her Mum was still there. When I watched, the baby was laughing and smiling. She wanted her Mum to keep doing it. This game helped the baby to understand that when her Mum leaves the room she will come back so she doesn’t get upset and cry for her. A strong attachment is very important for young babies to develop so they need to learn this as soon as possible.
Resources to support play and learning
A good variety and amount of resources are needed to support children If they are good quality they will last longer, there is less chance of the children being injured. All resources need to be safe for children to use, they have to have the safety marks to show they have been tested and are safe. These are the CE mark, the Lion mark and the Kite Mark.
Each age group and ability/stage of development will need its own resources. Too many toys limits creative and imaginative play so provide lots of blocks, shells and containers instead of actual toys. You need somewhere to store them all so if you put them in boxes the children can play with the boxes as well.
Older children might have particular interests for example dinosaurs so you could provide a set of different types of dinosaurs, books about them, and clay for them to make models. The 6-8 year olds could make a video using their models – this would help their ICT skills as well as language skills. They would improve their fine motor skills by modelling and work together to make the video, improving social skills.
Another thing is about different cultures and religions. If you have children from another country, like asylum seekers, they will do things differently so you must provide resources that they recognise. This could be dressing up clothes from other countries or different play foods for the home corner. Dolls should be of different colours so a black or asian child can identify with them. Books should show children from different races and cultures being heroes, not just white children, this helps them to have a positive sense of identity.
As the children grow and develop the way they play changes, it depends on the individual child. Play is more social for 4 year olds than 2 year olds because their communication skills are better, they play cooperatively, they are more imaginative. 2 year olds need supervision to ensure safety and help them engage in play but 5- 8 years olds are very independent compared to 2 year olds, they don’t want adults getting involved except to sort out problems. Older children like board games, they understand rules and taking turns whereas toddlers don’t have the cognitive abilities. They are not good at sharing, they think if they want something they should have it.
“Research on successful outcomes of Early Years provision – both in the short term and for later success in school and as adults – has pointed to some general guidelines. The best outcomes for children’s learning occur where most of the activity within a child’s day is a mixture of:
• child-initiated play, actively supported by adults
• focused learning, with adults guiding the learning through playful, rich experiential activities.” (Learning, Playing and Interacting 2009)
If children only do free play then some areas of development and skills can get missed out. They may keep repeating the same activities so they don’t learn anything new. If adults direct all their play it is less fun and prevents them gaining independence, it is better to plan a range of activities and opportunities during each day or week, this ensures their needs are met.
Children aged 0-2 benefit more from adult-initiated play than 2-8 year olds. This is because the older children have developed a lot further, they need less help. Older children like to make up their own games and decide what to do. If they are offered the same resources, the younger and older children will use them differently.
Babies and toddlers enjoy water play because it feels good, they can splash about, it is relaxing. They develop fine motor skills using buckets and spades. However, older children play with water in a different way. They like to measure out different amounts, see what sinks and floats. They will do experiments to test out ideas or use water in role play.
Conclusion
Supporting children’s learning and development through play and activities is the best way to develop the child holistically. Children are unique, they develop at different rates, practitioners must observe all the time so they have a good understanding of each child and their interests. They can plan a range of opportunities to help them develop more and provide resources the child will enjoy, also to provide a challenge so they develop.
References
The Early Years Foundation Stage Practice Guidance 2008 p1.17 Crown
Learning, Playing and Interacting: Good Practice in the Early Years Foundation Stage 2009 p5 Department for Children Schools and Families Crown 2009
http://www.kathybrodie.com/articles/treasure-baskets/ accessed 11/12/2016
www.communityplaythings.co.uk/learning-library/articles/heuristic-play accessed 11/12/2016
Bibliography
http://www.ebay.co.uk/gds/8-Reasons-Why-Playing-in-the-Sand-Is-Good-for-Kids-/10000000177634049/g.html
Tassoni, P. A parent’s guide to treasure basket and heuristic play (2015) Nursery World p30-32
Tassoni et al 2014 Pearson Education Limited, Harlow

Recognition of Types of Abuse and Neglect

Current guidelines and safeguarding concerns – Recognition of types of abuse and neglect.
My setting is committed to promoting awareness of child abuse issues throughout its training and learning programmes for adults. They are committed to empowering young children, through its early childhood curriculum, promoting their right to be strong, resilient and listened to. The Staff have undertaken relevant and up to date safeguarding and child protection training through induction and specific safeguarding training as required by the London Borough of Islington. Training for all staff is updated every three years as required and every two years for the designated officer. Agency staff, volunteers and students are also briefed on their roles and responsibilities during their induction to the setting which covers how to identify signs and symptoms of abuse and how to share their concerns with the designated safeguarding person (Bennett Court Playgroup).

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Bennett Court playgroup are committed to safeguard and protect children. Children have the right to freedom from abuse and harm. They work with children, parents/carers and the community to ensure the rights and safety of children and to give them the very best start in life. Bennett Court’s Safeguarding and Child Protection Policy is based on the London Child Protection and Safeguarding Children Procedures (LSCB 2013) and in line with Islington council’s Early Years Safeguarding and Child protection procedures and Guidance (2011) along with the Working Together to Safeguard Children (DCSF 2013). Children with Special educational needs are welcomed and supported to make a smooth transition to the setting by discussing how they can best meet their needs, gain the appropriate support and services before starting the setting  (Bennett Court Playgroup). Please see (Appendix 2) for current procedures meeting the Safeguarding Children and child protection requirements.
‘Whistleblowing’ is when a member of staff, in any line of work provides information of improper and unacceptable behaviour within a setting against an employee, other working professionals or a member of the public. An example of improper or unacceptable behaviour may be when someone is discriminating, bullying or harassing their colleagues and/or others. Within legislations ‘whistleblowing’ is known as The Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998. This act is to safeguard employees that may be experiencing types of prejudice, disadvantages or harm during their employment or they may be disregarded by their employer if they have disclosed information in obedience to the legislation (Brookes, 2015).
My setting believes that children and parents are entitled to expect courtesy and prompt, careful attention to their needs and wishes. they welcome suggestions on how to improve the setting, will give prompt and serious attention to any concerns about how the setting is run (Bennett Court Playgroup).
Any concerns of bad practice should be managed appropriately before ‘whistleblowing’ is needed. When staff are made to feel openly comfortable raising concerns about bad practice within the setting during staff meetings and under constant supervision, this will allow bad practices to be revised and modified before any types for cause of concern will result in harm towards a child and/or member of staff/public. Any member of staff involved in ‘whistleblowing’ within the setting holds the responsibility to be able to indicate the bad practice, be able to record and report factual information of the incident to required parties for e.g. your manager or agencies like Ofsted and children’s social services, keeping copies of all relevant information shared between agencies and ensuring to follow the settings procedures for complaints, please see (Appendix 3) for my settings complaints procedures. Practitioners must follow the ‘whistleblowing’ procedure whether or not they will be treated differently or become involved in conflict with other colleagues. Staff who may come across bad practice and choose to ignore this can result in implicating the individuals in the bad practice. Dealing with bad practice should be risen within the early stages to obstruct any further escalations (Small wonders child care, no date).
Early Years Practitioners have a duty to the safeguarding, protection and welfare of children when left in their care by parents/carers. My setting commits to developing and maintaining a culture of openness and honesty when working in partnerships with parents/carers to ensure the best interests of children and their families are met. An EYP must be able to identify signs and symptoms of abuse whilst children are in their care, they must be knowledgeable to diversity, promote equality of opportunity between children through various activities and in planning that will support the safety, welfare and protection of children for e.g. motivating and teaching children different ways to keep safe for e.g. when taking children out on trips teach them to stay together and how to cross the road correctly, to be able to express themselves openly and to be confident sharing their concerns. If a child ever discloses any form of abuse made towards them, an EYP must not interfere whilst the child is talking, make notes of facts only and not interpretations of what was said, also if a child asks them to keep this to themselves, they must explain in a gentle way for the child to understand that they must tell someone in order to keep this child safe, that the child has done the right thing, it is not not their fault and they are in no trouble. EYPs have a statutory responsibility to notify agencies if they have reason to believe that any child’s safety and welfare are of any cause for concern (Bateman, 2013).
When dealing with confidentiality all suspicions and investigations must be kept in an individual file in a locked cupboard or files on a PC with a secure password and shared only with those who require access to it. In my setting any information is shared under the guidance of Islington’s Safeguarding Children Board and follows the legislation, Data Protection Act (1998). All practitioners must follow their settings confidentiality policy and procedures to ensure that they are aware of what can be kept confidential and what causes for concerns need to be reported and how. In my setting we have a designated safeguarding person and also someone who acts in her absence, I have been made fully aware of who and where to report any concerns I may have. Practitioners must never share information about children out of the setting or to unnecessary parties  (Bennett Court Playgroup).
When working with others for the safeguarding, protection and welfare of children, this can benefit them in many ways. For e.g. as an EYP there may be some things you may not be able to help a child with, possibly SEN or disclosures of harm or abuse, so you must be able to report and refer a child to the right services that best suits their needs. Some services that may work together to safeguard children can be children’s social services, health services, schools, psychologists, GPs, local police, the UNCRC etc. also working in partnership with parents supports the safeguarding of children, unless this will put the child at risk or further harm. Working in partnership also allows services to pinpoint any issues within the family and help resolve these issues in the best possible way, conducting constructive meetings to expand and assess each individual child. Where children may have certain health problems it is important to gain information and learn about how to handle any condition at any point and also be aware of who to contact when needed, for e.g. you may need to report certain symptoms to the child’s parents/carers, GPs or health specialists  (Bennett Court Playgroup).
Practitioners must be aware that the abuse of children may occur in different forms, the four categories of abuse are physical, emotional, sexual and neglect. Bullying is also a form of abuse, as like female Genital Mutilation, the impact of domestic violence (DV) including Honour based violence which comes across all cultures and communities. Practitioners must be mindful that these forms of abuse can fall into one or more of the above categories and are often taken to great lengths to be disguised. This may include refusing freedom or contact with others, taken out off or forced to leave the country. Children that may be suffering from physical, emotional or sexual abuse may be experiencing neglect and this may be demonstrated through direct or indirect disclosures or through their behaviours within the setting. Practitioners must be able to recognise the signs, symptoms, indicators and behaviours that may cause concern, for example the child may unexpectedly become quiet, tearful, withdrawn or aggressive. Notable changes in a child’s appearance e.g. loss of weight without a medical explanation, eating problems, for instance, overeating or loss of appetite, unexplained bruising or marks or signs of neglect, some signs of neglect may be when a child is wearing inappropriate clothing for the weather or clothes that are too big/small, a child may not have appropriate lunch to eat if provided by parents/carers, or they have not been washed, had their hair combed properly or untreated lice.  A child may show changes during their play, they may disengage from other children they may also hurt or be cruel to other children, a child may be knowledgeable to adult sexual behaviour, or they may participate in sexual play which is unsuitable for the children’s age  (Bennett Court Playgroup).
In my setting where there is a concern about a child’s welfare or wellbeing, or a concern that a child may be in need of protection, this should be recorded using the Islington’s concerns tracking form and then passed on and discussed with one of the designated child protection officers for action (or if unobtainable seek advice from Islington’s Children’s Social Care Team). The records placed must include the actual disclosure or concern, date, time and the name of the person who has recorded the concern and stored in the child’s personal file in a secure cupboard. All staff and also volunteers are made aware to report any concerns immediately to the designated member of staff,  all concerns will be discussed with parents/carers unless this will put the child in further risks of harm or abuse, records of concerns, emails, notes or phone conversations and actions are noted and confidentially stored in a secure place. In my setting when we have concerns about a child’s welfare we need to focus on, the needs of the child, their physical and emotional welfare, be sensitive, taking into account individual family’s circumstances and discuss this with one of the designated members of staff. If it is suspected that a child is in immediate risk of ham or abuse this must be reported as soon as possible to the police and/or children’s social services (Bennett Court Playgroup).
Appendix 1
LegalFramework- Legislations for the safeguarding, protection and welfare of children in my setting.
Primary Legislation

Children Act (1989)
Protection of Children Act (1999)
Data Protection Act (1998)
The Children Act (Every Child Matters) (2004)
Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act (2006)
Help Children to Achieve More (2010)
The Early Years Statutory Framework (2014)

Secondary Legislation

Sexual Offences Act (2003)
Criminal Justice and Court Services Act (2000)
Race Relations (Amendment) Act (2000)
Equalities Act (2010)
Data Protection Act (1998)

Further Guidance

Working Together to Safeguard Children (revised HMG 2013)
What to do if you’re Worried a Child is Being Abused (HMG 2006)
Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and their Families (DoH 2000)
The Common Assessment Framework (2006)
Statutory guidance on making arrangements to safeguard and promote the welfare of children under section 11 of the Children Act 2004 (HMG 2007)
Information Sharing: Practitioners’ Guide (HMG 2006)
Other useful publications: Child Protection Record (2007)

                                                (Bennett Court Playgroup)
Appendix 2
Current procedures to Safeguarding Children and child protection requirements in my setting.
We carry out the following procedures to ensure we meet the Safeguarding Children and child protection requirements, we do this by

Recognising that all children have the right to freedom from abuse and harm.
Promoting joint working with parents in the interests of children’s welfare and well being.
Ensuring all our staff and volunteers are carefully selected and vetted ensuring that they carefully selected through the CRB and DBS recruitment process, have the relevant qualifications and experience and accept responsibility for helping to prevent the abuse of children in their care. We have a named designated safeguarding  officer who takes specific responsibility for young children’s and young people’s protection, safety and well-being. There is also a second designated safeguarding officer who acts in her absence.
Supporting all staff to in bringing their concerns to the attention of the Designated member of staff, so they can be considered and acted upon if necessary. Responding quickly and appropriately to all suspicions or allegations of abuse.
Providing parents /carers, children /young people with the opportunity to voice any concerns they may have.
Adopting positive behaviour management procedure and strategies which are non-violent and do not impose humiliation or bias attitudes.
Reviewing the effectiveness of the organisations child protection policies and procedures yearly (unless something proved to be ineffective).
Working with external agencies, for example children’s social care team, police and  health visitors, to ensure as far as possible young children/ people are protected
Not tolerating bullying. Incidents of bullying will be investigated and treated seriously and action will be taken in partnership with parents.
Children are supported to form positive relationships and refrain from harming each other through anti-bullying practice (Bennett Court Playgroup).

Appendix 3
Complaints procedures in my setting.
All settings are required to keep a ‘summary log’ of all complaints that reach stage two or beyond. This is to be made available to parents as well as to Ofsted inspectors.
Stage 1

Any parent who has a concern about an aspect of the setting’s provision talks over, first of all, his/her concerns with the setting leader.
Most complaints should be resolved amicably and informally at this stage.

Stage 2

If this does not have a satisfactory outcome, or if the problem recurs, the parent moves to this stage of the procedure by putting the concerns or complaint in writing to the setting leader and the owner or chair of the management committee.
For parents who are not comfortable with making written complaints, there is a template form for recording complaints in the above-mentioned publication; the form may be completed with the person in charge and signed by the parent.
The setting stores written complaints from parents in the child’s personal file. However, if the complaint involves a detailed investigation, the setting leader may wish to store all information relating to the investigation in a separate file designated for this complaint.
When the investigation into the complaint is completed, the setting leader or manager meets with the parent to discuss the outcome.
Parents must be informed of the outcome of the investigation within 28 days of making the complaint.
When the complaint is resolved at this stage, the summative points are logged in the Complaints Summary Record.

Stage 3

If the parent is not satisfied with the outcome of the investigation, he or she requests a meeting with the setting leader and the owner/chair of the management committee. The parent should have a friend or partner present if required and the leader should have the support of the chairperson of the management committee, or the proprietor/senior manager, present.
An agreed written record of the discussion is made as well as any decision or action to take as a result. All of the parties present at the meeting sign the record and receive a copy of it.
This signed record signifies that the procedure has concluded. When the complaint is resolved at this stage, the summative points are logged in the Complaints Summary Record.

Stage 4

If at the stage three meeting the parent and setting cannot reach agreement, an external mediator is invited to help to settle the complaint. This person should be acceptable to both parties, listen to both sides and offer advice.  A mediator has no legal powers but can help to define the problem, review the action so far and suggest further ways in which it might be resolved.
Staff or volunteers within the Pre-school Learning Alliance are appropriate persons to be invited to act as mediators.
The mediator keeps all discussions confidential. S/he can hold separate meetings with the setting personnel (setting leader and owner/chair of the management committee) and the parent, if this is decided to be helpful. The mediator keeps an agreed written record of any meetings that are held and of any advice s/he gives.

Stage 5

When the mediator has concluded her/his investigations, a final meeting between the parent, the setting leader and the owner/chair of the management committee is held. The purpose of this meeting is to reach a decision on the action to be taken to deal with the complaint. The mediator’s advice is used to reach this conclusion. The mediator is present at the meeting if all parties think this will help a decision to be reached.
A record of this meeting, including the decision on the action to be taken, is made.  Everyone present at the meeting signs the record and receives a copy of it.  This signed record signifies that the procedure has concluded.

The role of the Office for Standards in Education, Early Years Directorate (Ofsted) and the Local Safeguarding Children Board

Parents may approach Ofsted directly at any stage of this complaints procedure. In addition, where there seems to be a possible breach of the settings registration requirements, it is essential to involve Ofsted as the registering and inspection body with a duty to ensure the Welfare Requirements of the Early Years Foundation Stage are adhered to.
If a child appears to be at risk, our setting follows the procedures of the Local Safeguarding Children Board in our local authority.
In these cases, both the parent and setting are informed and the setting leader works with Ofsted or the Local Safeguarding Children Board to ensure a proper investigation of the complaint, followed by appropriate action.

Records

A record of complaints against our setting and/or the children and/or the adults working in our setting is kept, including the date, the circumstances of the complaint and how the complaint was managed.
The outcome of all complaints is recorded in the Summary Complaints Record which is available for parents and Ofsted inspectors on request. (Bennett Court Playgroup)

Types Of Offence And Hate Crime Criminology Essay

The following essay aims to critically assess the above statement with reference to its implications for hate crime scholarship and policy. In doing so, it will first outline what is meant by hate crime and the problems posed by the difficulty in accurately defining it. Then two case studies will be introduced – namely the death of Sophie Lancaster, and football hooliganism – both examples of crimes which throw up definitional problems for hate crime theorists. We will consider in greater depth whether most hate crimes can be thought of as ‘ordinary’ types of crime committed by ‘ordinary’ citizens before discussing the implication this has for policy makers in the law enforcement sphere. We will also look briefly at legislation introduced by the current British Government, which attempts to establish a framework under which bias-aggravated crime attracts a higher range of penalties than ‘ordinary’ offences.

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Background
Hate crimes are an increasingly important area of study for academics and policy makers, given their relevance in an increasingly cosmopolitan society in the global era. People of different social, cultural, ethnic, religious and national groups are increasingly being brought together by factors outside of their own control. For all the benefits, this social restructuring also brings tensions, and finding a way to mitigate these is in the interests of societies the world over.
It is difficult to characterise offences as hate crimes, even though their definition is fairly well established. Commonly, “a hate crime can be defined as a criminal offense committed against a person or property which is motivated in whole or in part by the offender’s prejudice against the victim’s race, religion, ethnicity or national origin, disability, or sexual orientation” (Johnson & Byers, 2003, 227).
This would seem straightforward enough, except that it is very difficult to apply in practice. By way of example, consider the following excerpt, taken from an American psychology journal shortly after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Centre in New York on 11 September 2001. The passage is taken from an article discussing recent attacks on people who the writer identifies as ‘Arab-Americans’. It reads:
Most Americans would never overtly act on the feelings of mistrust that may have developed since the attacks. But a small proportion of Americans have participated in incidents ranging from name-hurling to full-blown hate crimes, like the much-publicized murder of a Sikh gas-station owner by an Arizona man or another person’s attempt to run over a Pakistani woman in a Huntington, N.Y., parking lot (DeAngelis, 2001, 60).
In this excerpt, notice how the author distinguishes between “name-hurling” and “full-blown hate crimes”. If ‘name hurling’ is not considered to be a “full blown hate crime”, then what is? What is telling in this example is way in which one form of hate crime is seemingly downplayed. In effect, it gives the impression – even if only through subtext – that it is fine to act on racist impulses, as long as nobody gets ‘seriously’ hurt in a physical sense.
Name calling is not uncommon; it might even be called ‘ordinary’. But perhaps as these offenses accumulate, they reveal something more sinister – something that the hate crime victim experiences every day, while other members of society hardly notice. Yet despite this seeming indifference, society is outraged when something more dramatic happens – when an innocent youth gets murdered because of their skin colour, for example.
Moreover, research into hate crime suggests that offenders do not fit the pattern that we have been conditioned by the media to expect. Rather than being depraved sociopaths, most offenders seem average, almost ‘normal’ – meaning there was nothing that would make anyone suspect that they would eventually act out in such a way. This makes preventative measures very hard to target. In the words of one analyst, Paul Iganski,
What the experiences of victims shows is that, contrary to media depictions of the problem, many incidents of ‘hate crime’ are not committed by extremist bigots, do not involve premeditated attacks by thugs who are pre-disposed to violence, often do not involve physical violence at all, and in many instances do not involve ‘hate’. Instead, many incidents are committed by ‘ordinary’ people in the context of their ‘everyday’ lives in patterns consistent with ‘routine activity’ of crime” (Iganski, 2008, 3).
Intuitively, it is logical to say that murder and ‘name-hurling’, for example, are different offences. Certainly any murder, under relatively normal circumstances, attracts a higher sentence in legal systems around the world than a simple case of verbal abuse would. But should a hate-based murder be treated any differently to an ‘ordinary’ murder? At what point can crimes become hate crimes? How do we differentiate? These are questions that this essay will consider.
The problem lies in how difficult it is to define hate crime, given that our only means of conceptualizing it is as a contributing factor in the commission of a particular offence. Hate is not a crime, until it is acted on – thoughts alone cannot be punished. We will now introduce two examples which show how difficult it is to distinguish between cases where hate may be a factor.
Case studies
The following cases will feature in our further discussions on whether hate crimes, and the people that commit them, are ‘ordinary’. Both can be shown to throw into question the very definition of ‘hate crime’, but for different reasons. Both were also singled out for analysis by researchers Neil Chakraborti and Jon Garland in their book Hate Crime: Impact, Causes and Responses.
The murder of Sophie Lancaster
On 11 August 2007, a 20-year-old woman named Sophie Lancaster and her 21-year-old boyfriend Robert Maltby were walking home from a friend’s house through a local park in Bacup, Lancashire. The two were viciously attacked by a group of young males, resulting in horrific injuries for Robert and Sophie’s ultimate death. The ‘reason’ for the attack – or rather, the reason that they were targeted – was that Sophie and Robert were ‘goths’. Goths are a subcultural group who listen to a particular style of music and sport piercings, dreadlocks, and black clothing as common forms of attire.
The judge who eventually sentenced the young offenders who committed the attack stated that “this was a hate crime against completely harmless people who were targeted because of their appearance was different” (Hodkinson, 2008). Certainly no other conclusion could be reached, given the admission of a witness that “this mosher’s just been banged because he’s a mosher”, in reference to Maltby (Hodkinson, 2008).
The problem this poses for hate crime scholarship is that the identification of Sophie and Robert with a particular subculture does not fit the ‘traditional’ definition of a hate crime. It was not on religious, racial, or ethnic grounds that they were targeted; nor did it have anything to do with their sexuality. Neither was disabled, either. What it does suggest is that the definition of hate crime must be broadened in line with new forms of identity politics at work in contemporary society.
Football Hooliganism
While Sophie’s death might seem unusual for being based on sub-cultural affiliation, it is interesting to compare this with football hooliganism. As something that was often historically referred to as ‘the English disease’, football hooliganism refers to the unruly, often violent and usually destructive behavior engaged in by football fans – often initially taking the form of aggression between supporters of different teams. The issue has been considered such a problem in the past in the United Kingdom that a specific Act was introduced by Parliament under which to prosecute such offences (HMSO, 1991).
Officially titled the Football (Offences) Act 1991, it is actually listed on the Home Office website as part of the legal framework under which hate crime falls. However, this is itself subsumed under the larger umbrella category of violent crime.
Interestingly, football club affiliation could almost be considered a subculture; certainly many people identify so strongly with it that plays a meaningful part in shaping their value system. However, perhaps the reason it is not seen this way is that team affiliation is often based on other factors, themselves formative in identity construction in the first place. This is perhaps most common in clashes between supporters of different national teams – arguably then, there may be racism or nationalism involved. Domestically, incidents in Northern Ireland may be underscored by religious differences for example, while different clubs in London may represent different ethnic communities or be based on race. In any case, it is the connection between club and one of these wider sociological tropes, and arguably not club affiliation per se, which is the underlying motive for the tendency to act out.
Despite this and the Home Offices’ characterization of the offence, there is no firm consensus over whether football hooliganism should be considered a form of hate crime. Theorists Chakraborti and Garland think it should not, arguing that “football hooliganism has too many dissimilarities with hate crimes for it to be treated as such” (Chakraborti & Garland, 2009, 104). They contrast it with so-called “clear cut” hate crimes, of which Sophie Lancaster’s death is said to be one.
Discussion
Chakraborti and Garland’s point is that hooliganism is a form of mob violence, usually resulting in acts of vandalism. The racial component event, when apparent, is typically downplayed because it is difficult to weigh racist motivations against other possible causes. It is, for them, an ‘ordinary’ crime in contrast to the murder of Sophie Lancaster, seen as an obviously “clear cut” offense.
But, having said this, even supposedly ‘clear cut’ hate crimes can be tried as ordinary offenses. Hate is, at best, only a motive. The youths who were eventually convicted for the murder of Sophie Lancaster were initially charged with causing grievous bodily harm with intent, with the charges upgraded to murder following her death. However, there was no ‘special category’ under which they were charged. It was an ‘ordinary’ offence as far as the legal system was concerned.
‘Ordinary’ hate crime has no specific legal grounds. The example of ‘name-hurling’ mentioned earlier is such an example: at worst this is a form of abuse, but the characterization of it as such hardly seems to recognize the more sinister overtones the crime contains. If these acts count, then most hate crime does occur in everyday acts which may be perceived as threatening to the victim, but are largely dismissed by society at large. Summing up this predicament, researchers Johnson and Byers note that “most of the recorded hate crime fits into the categories of ”intimidation” and ”harassment” (Johnson & Byers, 2003, 229).
Undervaluing ordinary crimes with a hate-based dimension downplays the impact that they have, and sends out the wrong kind of message to the community.
The pervasive nature of hate crime, affecting both ‘ordinary’ crime as well as the more “clear cut” examples poses a further problem: in those cases which are not “clear cut”, it is not so easy to identify offenders.
Take for example racist attacks perpetrated by skinheads. In these cases, no-one is surprised by the profile of the attacker. But in less clear-cut cases, it is not so easy to predict likely perpetrators.
Take for example a study of disabilist hate crime commissioned by the Scottish Parliament. Respondents interviewed during the course of the study, all of whom were disabled and had encountered hate based violence, reported “under 16-year olds were responsible for almost half of the incidents, and they were most commonly a stranger or a group of strangers” (Disability Rights Commission Scotland, quoted in Iganski, 2008, 9).
Minors, who are not granted the right to vote because they are not considered to be able to make these kinds of complex decisions, would hardly seem to be the most logical choice when asked to predict who the most likely perpetrators of hate based crime might be. Nor is an isolated case: it seems that more and more, those who are committing hate based crime in contemporary society are not the people “we might automatically associate with the commission of hate offences” (Chakraborti & Garland, 2009, 143).
Certainly in the murder of Sophie Lancaster, those responsible were legally children. Many commentators have noted that they largely came from broken homes and lived in housing estates, as some way to explain their behavior where other explanations fall short. However, this is hardly convincing as some kind of causal argument: plenty of children who are socio-economically disadvantaged and raised by single parents do not go on to kill passers-by based only on their choice of clothing.
Iganski argues that in such cases, it is possible that “the offenders had taken the snap decision to restore justice as they see it by inflicting a harm on the victim for the harm that they perceived had been inflicted upon themselves” (Iganski, 2008, 6). But in the case of Sophie Lancaster, it is difficult to imagine what harm the victim’s subculture could have wrought on the boys that killed her. The explanation falls short.
Perhaps such an explanation is more convincing when used to explain a passing racist remark or jibe, but it is hard to imagine what harm the disabled pose to physically healthy Scottish teenagers.
Psychology offers conflicting information when it comes to explaining why people commit hate crimes. According to some researchers, “those who commit hate crimes are not mentally ill in the traditional sense–they’re not diagnosably schizophrenic or manic depressive… What they do share, however, is a high level of aggression and antisocial behavior (DeAngelis, 2001, 61). Yet at the same time, others argue that perpetrators are able to recognize the violation of social norms which is committed when they commit a hate act – hardly the response of a sociopath. For instance, Home Office research indicates that “most people accused of a racially aggravated offence vehemently deny the accusation not merely because they fear a heavier penalty but because they recognise the shame of a racist label” (Burney & Rose, 2002, 115).
Hate crimes are committed by ordinary, rational people. Perhaps the fact that they are, is fuelled by a kind of false bravado which comes from the perception that they are on the side of the majority. In Iganski’s words, “Individual offenders serve as proxies for the sentiments and values shared by many in the communities to which they belong” (Iganski, 2002).
Implications for scholarship and policy
The implication that these observations have for scholarship and policy are numerous. The most obvious is the challenge for policy makers to put formal procedures for dealing with offenders in place when there is no formal basis for prosecuting hate crime directly. Surprisingly, “the term ‘hate crime’ has no legal status in the United Kingdom. No law uses the term… What’s more, when the motivating impetus behind so-called ‘hate crime’ is examined the emotion of ‘hate’ often has little to do with the crime in question” (Iganski, 2008, 1).
There are groups who have argued that hate crimes should be tried under their own legal framework, in order to send a message to the offenders and bolster public support for the victims. A Home Office research study suggested that “there are groups, mainly minorities, who have been victimized by powerful majority groups, so that special laws, such as hate crime laws, are needed to protect these victimized groups, and that these advocacy organizations are fighting to see that such laws are passed” (Johnson & Byers, 2003, 229).
This does, however, raise ethical questions: for instance, how would one weigh the value of a life taken by a random act of violence as opposed to a random act of violence based in hatred?
Under the Labour government, British policymakers have introduced various acts under the Criminal Law legislation in order to try Bias-motivated Violence. Under the Crime and Disorder Act 1998, racially-aggravated offences were introduced in England and Wales. The Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001 further amended this Act to include specifically “religiously aggravated offenses”. For offences falling under the new provisions, the maximum penalty for each offence is higher where racial or religious aggravation can be proven than had that element not been involved. Similarly, changes to the Criminal Justice Act 2003 have bought into effect enhanced penalties where bias on the basis of sexual orientation or disability can be proven.
While obviously meeting some of the concerns of those who argue for a specific hate crime framework, the question is whether these provisions go far enough. Certainly, there are many kinds of bias that would not qualify, such as gender-based violence. There is also a failure to treat bias as an Aggravating Factor to Specific Common Crimes (Human Rights First, 2010). This being so, it is questionable what degree of success such laws will have – for instance, Sophie Lancaster’s killers would not achieve a higher sentence under these laws, as the reason for targeting her fits none of these categories.
More fundamental issues are of an academic nature and relate to whether or not it is even proper to enact means of differentiating ‘ordinary’ hate crime from other offences is preferable, given that it may impinge upon notions of free speech. For instance, analysts have noted that “the debate continues as to whether, on the one hand, prosecuting ‘identity crime’ is unconstitutional and divisive or, on the other hand, it is a necessary expression of fundamental social values” (Burney & Rose, 2002, 5).
The brunt of the impact has to be borne by operational policy makers who work largely in the law enforcement field, as it is their responsibility to see that police respond adequately respond to the changing face of hate crime. Their efforts are hampered at the outset, for two main and related reasons. The first involves under-reporting of hate crime, typically ‘ordinary’ hate crime. This stems from that perception that it is of lesser importance than ‘clear cut’ cases, and the fear of victims that they will simply be dismissed if they come forward. What’s more, they may perceive that by making their experience into ‘an issue’, they risk drawing attention the phenomenon and thus increasing the frequency of instances.
The second challenge, related to under-reporting, stems from the uneasy relationship between some potential victims of hate crime and law enforcement authorities which also makes them wary to be identified as victims. This may be particularly prevalent when, say, the victim experiences race-based hate attacks and they come from a community in another country which has traditionally associated police with corruption, making them reluctant to put any faith in officers.
There have been moves made by British police to increase the level of hate crime reporting, in order to gain a more realistic picture of the phenomenon and help identify repeat offenders. They work to a definition which must see the victim self-identify as a hate crime victim. There is now a “requirement for all incidents to be recorded by the police even if they lack the requisite elements to be classified as a crime widens considerably the scope of the hate umbrella: any hate incident, whether a prima facie ‘crime’ or not, must be recorded if it meets the threshold originally laid down by the Macpherson definition of a racist incident—namely, if it is perceived by the victim or any other person as being motivated by prejudice or hate” (Chakraborti, 2009, 122).
Nonetheless, it is still difficult to accurately gauge the scale of the problem. This is largely because “the police, together with other criminal justice agencies, tend to recognize and respond to incidents and not this ongoing social process” (Chakraborti, 2009, 123).
It is difficult to imagine how this situation could be meliorated, except to say that there is role to be played by the media and advocacy groups, who should bring the frequency and unacceptable nature of hate crimes into the public arena in a sustained and forthright way. Certainly, if anything can be gained by the tragic death of Sophie Lancaster, it is through the work of the community association set up by her family and friends that aims to promote awareness of her death and advocates for the right of all people to dare to be different. Sophie Lancaster’s mother, interviewed after her daughter’s death, noted that “I realised that prejudice and intolerance was the new racism” (Hodkinson, 2008) – but it appears that not everyone has adopted a similar approach to the issue.
Conclusion
Following the death of a Black British youth named Stephen Lawrence, an enquiry was launched under Sir William Macpherson, to examine the nature of the police response. He found that the British police force was institutionally racist and that this had contributed to the failure to adequately punish Lawrence’s killers. Subsequent reforms have meant that so-called ‘hate crimes’, and ways to prevent them, have become a high priority of British law enforcement. Their task is not an easy one.
The distinction between clear-cut and ordinary hate crime is not a simple one, and much of what is referred to as hate crime includes relatively ‘ordinary’ types of offence committed by relatively ‘ordinary’ types of people.
In some cases – usually, those that first come to mind when one searches for examples of such a crime – it is easy to establish that hate is a factor: genocide is a prominent example. Genocide, by definition, is the attempt to forcefully exterminate a group based of people based on their religion, race, ethnicity, or nationality. But in most cases, what are considered hate crimes are no different from ‘regular’ crimes, except for motive. Hate crimes can be murders, assaults, disputes, disturbances and so on; but the reverse is not necessarily true. Not every murder, for example, is a Hate Crime. In a sense, as genocide is to war crime, hate crime is to ‘regular’ crime.
When one thinks now of the camps in world war two Germany where Jews were put to their deaths, it is almost inconceivable to imagine that civilians living in close proximity to these areas could claim ignorance of what was going on. The sheer scale of the exercise is what is most frightening about it. The fact that they could deny this defies belief, but yet it happened. It happened, and millions of people died. What hope is there then, for the plight of individuals subjected to hate based crime in contemporary society?
Obviously there is a spectrum of ‘hate crimes’, which is what makes them so difficult to both define and prove.
While it is right to acknowledge the senseless death of people like Sophie Lancaster for being depraved acts, and necessary to take steps to prevent further instances of racially or other discriminatorily motivated crime, it is very difficult to determine what constitutes a hate crime and draft appropriate laws which criminalize them. And it is these ‘big’ crimes that garner media attention and stir up public outrage. It is the ‘lesser’ forms of the crime, perhaps where the observable consequences aren’t as obvious, that become very difficult to police against. This includes the name calling, and perhaps football match sledging. But the line is a thin one.
Perhaps all crimes contain an element of hate – but that being so, then the distinction is useless, and there is no way to draw useful lessons from the deaths of the innocent. The challenge for academics and policy makers is to maintain a useful distinction between hate crimes and other offences, so that one does not fade into the other.
 

Types, History and Famous Artists

Art which is followed by European countries are referred as Western Art, and also those art are accepted by those countries. When we see about the history of western art it takes us to the middle of the ancient middle east and ancient times of Egypt and also the civilization of ancient Aegean. It aates back to the 3rd millennium. On the same time line, when the western art is carried on there are also one or the other form existed among Europe. The influence of the western art lasted for the next two thousand years, that fell into the memory of the medival period. Even western art is divided into many style of periods and those periods are also subdivided.

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History
These are furthers of subdivided. Western art is art of European country. It developed in the 3rd millennium period. At the beginning art was started like just to fill up. The flat surface. Then it developed into representing optical illusions. On the other hand, western art is influenced by secularism. Since the classical times. Where for the past 200 years the art made was done without any ideology or without any reference with any religion. Whereas western art is often influenced by politics of one or the other of that period. This drive towards pictorial of the realism gone to the peak and they came to the invention of photography. There beginnings of the arts were they like the still lives. Here I am going to compare the contrast between Cubism and Surrealism.
Types of western art

Sumerian art
Persian art
Celtic art
Roman art
Romanesque art
Gothic art
Renaissance
Baroque art
Realism
Impressionism
Post impressionism
Fauvism
Expressionist
Decorative arts

Cubism
Surrealism

Pop art
Islamic art
Egyptian art
Ancient Greek art
Modern art

Cubism
Cubism is invented by Pablo Picasso in (1881-1973) another artist is Georges Braque in 1882 and consider the revolt movement of the art. He use the cubes style, triangles and the some normal shapes of paint anything because. This is the most famous painting Juan Gris.
Juan Gris Portrait of Picasso (1912)
Cubism is the most fundamental, ground-breaking, and influential ism of twentieth-period art. It is wholerejection of Traditional conception of loveliness.
Cubism was the joint creation of two men, Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque. Their success was made the base of Picasso’s initial work then advanced to a Synthetic Cubism. As the many stages of Cubism occurred from their workshops, it developed strong to the art world that rather of countless meaning was trendy. The essential inventions of the new grace muddled the public, but the avant-garde saying in them the upcoming of art and original test, Sizes, biological truth and endurance of life examples and substantial objects are wild. Painting resembles “a field of broken glass” as one spiteful opponent renowned. This geometrically logical method to form and colour, and crushing of article in effort into geometrical sharp-edged bony smithereens baptized the drive into ‘Cubism’. A near look exposes very logical obliteration or somewhat deconstruction into bony 3-dymensional cool surfaces, some of which are giving others convex. Cubism suspicions “whole” images apparent by the retina, reflects them artificial and conventional, based on the effect of historical art. It discards these images and knows that perspective interplanetary is an illusory, lucid invention or a sign system congenital from everything of art since the Renaissance.
History of Cubism (c.1908-12)
The first work of Picasso is still life with chair caning. There are many types of phases of Cubism. The Cubism paintings will look fantastic, like more broken pieces. But all the edges are connected to other pieces. They were the analysis of form and breaking down the paintings. The right-angled lines and straight lines
Were looking appear as sculptures. In the collage media works he used some painting on the media.
Development of modern art
It has been radical film impressionism and the post impressionism. The idea of the space was found in the new method of cubism. The geometrical shape is filling their complete plane.
Created by Pablo Picasso (1881 to 1973) and Georges Braque (1882 to 1963) and measured to be “the” radical program of modern art, Cubism was a more intelligent stylishness of painting that travelled the two-dimensional picture by present diverse views of the same object, classically agreed in a sequences of overlapping remains somewhat like a photographer might take some photos of an article from altered angles, before cutting them up with cutters and reorganizing them in hit-or-missfashion on a flat surface. This “analytical Cubism” (which created by Picasso’s “Les Demoiselles d’ Avignon”) rapidly provided way to “synthetic Cubism: when performers began to include “found” article in their paintings, such as collages made since newspaper cutting. Famous Cubists contain the artists Juan Gris (1887 to 1927), Fernand Leger (1881 to 1927), Robert Delaunay (1885 to 1941), Albert Gleizes (1881 to 1953), Roger de La Fresnaye (1885 to 1925) Jena Metzinger (1883 to 1956), and Francis Picabia (1879 to 1953), Marcel Duchamp (1887 to 1968) he is a avant-garde artist, and the sculptors Jacques Lipchitz (1891 to 1973) and Alexander Archipenko (1887 to 1964) short lived its highly influential, Cubism introduce new styles of collage (1912 onwards) Orphism (1912 to1916, Purism (1920s) Precisionism (1920s, 1930s) Futurism (1909 to 1914) Rayonism (c.1901 to1920) Suprematism (1913 to 1920) Constructivism (c.1917 to 1921) and Vorticism (c.1913 to 1915).
Famous artists

Fernand leger
Albert gleizes
Roger de la fresnaye
Jean metzinger
Francis picabia
Marcel Duchamp
Sculptor Jacques Lipchitz
Alexander archipenko

Surrealism
(Beginning in 1924)
The Elephant Celebes by Max Ernst(1921)
It was acreative movement that transported together artists, philosophers and investigators in search of sense of look of the unconscious. They were penetrating for the meaning of new artistic, new humankind and a new social order. Surrealists had their forerunners in Italian Metaphysical Artists (Giorgio de Chirico) in early 1910’s.
As the artistic movement, Surrealism came into existence after the French writer Andre Breton 1924 published the first Manifested du surrealism. In this book Breton optional that balanced supposed was oppressive to the controls of originality and fancy and thus hostile to artistic look. An admirer of Sigmund Freud and his idea of the subliminal, Breton felt that contact with this hidden part of the mind might produce lyricalfact.
Mostly entrenched in the anti-art civilizations of the Dada movement (1916 to 1924), in addition to the psychoanalytical thoughts of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung, Surrealism was the more influential art. Rendering to its chief philosopher, Ander Breton, it sought to syndicate the comatose with the aware, in instruction to make a new “super-reality” – a “surrealism” the movement crossed a huge range of styles, from concept to true-life realism, characteristically interrupted with “unreal” imagery. Significant Surrealists included Salvador Dali (1904 to 1989), Max Ernst (1891 to 1976), Rene Magritte (1898 to 1967), Ander Masson (1896 to 1987), Yves Tanguy (1900 to 1055), Joan Miro (1893 to 1983), Giorgio de Chirico (1888 to 1978), Jean Arp (1886 to 1966), and Man Ray (1890 to 76). The movement has a major impact of European during in (1930) period, it has major forerunner to Conceptualism, and lasts to fine supporters in fine art, works and photography.
The psychoanalytical idea of the sigmud Freud and the cral Jung. Surrealism was the influential of art style of the interwar year.
Famous artists

Max Ernst
Rene Magritte
Andre Masson
Yves Tanguy
Joan miro
Giorgio de Chirico
Jean arp
Man ray

 
R.Manimaran