Prefeasibility Study of Upper Khudi -A Hydropower Project

CE1.1.1 This project entitled “Prefeasibility Study of Upper Khudi -A hydropower project” is one prepared by group of five students in partial fulfilment of requirement for the bachelor’s degree in civil engineering. This project was carried out at Kantipur Engineering College, Dhapakhel, Lalitpur, affiliated to Tribhuwan University. Our team comprised of five members and the project itself was supervised by Er. Baburam Bharadwaj (Project Manager of Khudi hydropower limited)

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CE1.1.2 Being the final year project of our engineering program, the timespan for this project was 1 year. We worked on it from June 2010 to November 2010. During this period, we presented the proposal, conducted the feasibility analysis, project analysis, project design, project defence, final presentation and final report. I was the team lead for my project and was a dedicated member from start to finish
CE.1.2 Background
CE1.2.1 As the name suggests, “Prefeasibility Study of Upper Khudi -A hydropower project”, is prefeasibility study aimed to use the theoretical knowledge we had from out text books to better understand the feasibility and optimization of the design of small scale hydropower project centered on Upper Khudi River in Lamjung district of Western Nepal. Majority of Nepalese households rely upon hydropower for their energy needs. So, developing small scale hydropower energy plants can be very efficient energy solutions as the rivers in Nepal are mostly mountain rivers with enough water throughout the year.
CE1.2.2 Khudi River has an average slope of 1 in 30 with gravels and boulders forming the river bed. It has a high sediment transport capacity. Upper Khudi Hydropower Project is a run of the river type hydropower scheme designed to produce power using the discharge of the Khudi River. It begins from the confluence of two Rivers, Sundar Khola and Khudi Khola. The catchments area of the River is 133 km2 at the Department of Hydrology & Metrology (DHM) station located at Khudi Bazar, which when transformed to our catchments is 25 km2, running from north to south.
CE1.2.3 The learning exercise included optimizing schemes per project capacity, sizes of hydraulic structures, penstock and electromechanical equipment and check the sensitivity analysis for the financial parameters which comprised of a significant result of in this feasibility analysis report. The study shows the feasibility of project with sufficient alternatives. We made sure we followed all the organizational rules and regulations of the University as well as the Hydropower Project.
CE1.2.4 The project was divided into five parts namely Data collection, Design and modelling, Cost estimation, Project planning and scheduling, Economic and financial analysis. Each member of the team was given one sector each as a main area of study and was responsible for the literature review of that part. I was given the Project planning and scheduling and the Design and Modelling part.
CE1.2.5 Organisational Chart

CE1.2.6 Project Objective
The objective of this study is to find the best project alternative and carry out the pre-feasibility study of the same. The main objectives are highlighted below:

To be acquainted with the various aspects of hydropower planning and development.
To find out the feasibility of project
To know about the major components of the hydropower project.
To select the best project alternative.
To carry out the engineering design of hydropower components.
To calculate the power and energy generated from the project.
To carry out the quantity estimation and their cost.
To prepare implementation schedule of the project.
To carry out optimization of project capacity and components.
To carry out financial analysis and sensitivity analysis of the project

CE1.3 Personal Engineering Activities
CE1.3.1 I have always been passionate about renewable energy and it is the main reason I took engineering as my career. In the context of Nepal, hydropower energy has a lot of scope. Most of the country in the upper hilly and mountainous parts are deprived of energy which is not a hard goal to achieve if small-scale hydropower projects implemented. I consulted my friends to form a group of five. We prepared the proposal to study for a hydropower project that could be used for a real project in the future. Then we prepared the proposal and submitted to the Dept. Of Civil Engineering with a detailed timeline graphed in a Gantt Chart. We consulted with the head engineer designated for this project and proposed that we would submit a study that could somehow facilitate the funded government project. He agreed to help us in every possible way and agreed to become our supervisor.

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CE1.3.2 Before we started, we decided that we visit a similar small scale hydropower project. We drove to a similar hydropower project that powered a small city called Banepa east of Kathmandu. We talked to the authorities and they allowed us to walk through the entire project and see the dam, the turbines control room, and allowed us to take the specifications of the turbine so that we could have a rough idea of what equipment we had to choose to prepare the analysis of the hydropower project we had to do the project for. I also conducted weekly progress meetings with the team and supervisor to tackle any hurdles that we faced. We consulted with senior professors about my problems and ideas.
CE1.3.3 The entire work of this study is done by desk Study and field visit and survey by minor instrument such as Tape, and Abney level etc. All the data and information available from different sources were carefully analyzed to perform the preliminary study of all the necessary components. For the hydrological study of the project, mean monthly discharge of 13 years’ records of Khudi Khola at Khudi Bazar station (439.3) are obtained from DHM and analyzed using catchment area correlation method to find necessary hydrological parameters. Topographic maps (1:50000) of proposed site was studied for the allocation and design of civil as well as electro-mechanical components of the project.
The methodology employed to undertake the study were desk study and map study, field survey and social interaction, literature review, hydrological analysis, screening and selection of the best alternative, hydraulic design of the components of the chosen alternative, cost analysis and preparation of bill of quantities and finally report preparation and presentation.
CE1.3.4 The topography of the site is steep and rocky and thus we proceeded deciding that tunneling is the best possible alternative for waterway. As I was given the responsibility of design and modelling, I am explaining what the engineering design from the headwork to the penstock is comprised of in brief.
CE1.3.5 The headwork was located at 1290 m elevation. The trench weir was provided for diversion of flow to the intake and passage of high flood water. For design of the weir with length 10m, the design flood is taken as 40.073 m3/s for hundred years-return periods. The trench size has been calculated considering 50% of the trash rack is clogged and the design discharge will be conveyed. The intake was designed to allow abstraction of water from the source with as little sediment as possible, thereby minimizing maintenance and operational costs and providing some measure of protection against damage too (e.g. blocking of the conduit by incoming sediment and debris).
A.) Design Aspects of Gravel Trap and Settling Basin: The main design principle of the gravel rap was that the velocity through it should be less than that required to move the smallest size of gravel to be removed. Since the water abstracted from sediment loaded river not only reduces the capacity of the conveyancesystem but also damages the hydro turbines, thereby causing operation and maintenance problems. To cope with economy of energy generation from this, I wanted to design and construct a settling basin before water enters the plant, which helps to limit the entry of sediment into the plant by trapping the particle size greater than 0.2 mm.
B.) Headrace Tunnel: The shape as well as the dimensions of the tunnel should be selected such that it should be readily accessible from every direction for control, maintenance and repair. In pressure tunnels operating under high heads, the provisions of lining of concrete (PCC or RCC) and even steel lining including steel pipes may be embedded. To reduce construction costs, relatively high flow velocities should be permitted in tunnels, higher ones than those of open canals. In addition to this I also calculated Friction losses Darcy Weisbach formula. The resulting dimension of the tunnel after all analysis was Inverted D shape 2m in diameter and 1500 m in length.
C.) Surge tank: A surge tank is generally constructed immediately prior to penstock or pressure shaft so as to damp out the oscillation in water level as soon as possible and to store water during load rejection until the new velocity has been established. Final design composed of a circular surge with diameter 2 m and height of 13.5 having upsurge and down surge of 6.256m and 4.704 m respectively.
D.) Penstock: Penstock is usually the pipeline in between surge tank and turbine inlet. Penstock may be low pressure or high-pressure penstock. Usually it is high pressure. The materials used are usually of steel, reinforced concrete. The pipe diameter and the thickness are such that the stress in steel computed from hoop stress criteria is well within the allowable limit. The hoop stress developed is given by the thin cylinder theory. I design we used inclined underground shaft made of mild steel.
E.) Turbine: To maintain the supply even in peak load conditions, two units of Pelton turbines with horizontal Shaft are in housed in the Powerhouse. Two units of generator are used to generate electrical energy. Turbine was selected on the analysis based on available head and design discharge. Two units are provided for continuation of supply on maintenance of one unit also.
Also, a tailrace was set to convey the water leaving the power plant back to the river. The tailrace should be designed to maintain the water surface at the elevation specified by the turbine manufacturer and to protect the power plant against flooding by the expected design flood level in the river.
E.) Power generation: A 66 KV transmission line has been proposed for the safe and economic transmission of the generated power, along a length of 30 Km for the interconnection of the supply to the national grid at Udaypur.
CE1.3.6 The subjects that I was enrolled in the undergraduate like fluid mechanics, hydraulics, water supply, engineering hydrology, survey, engineering drawing etc. helped me a lot to complete and prepare my project. I tried to utilise all my knowledge in utmost way to realise a hydropower project. While doing this project, I not only experienced the applied part of civil and hydropower engineering but also learned a lot of practical skills like communication skills, time management, project presentation and team work. During this project interval, being a group leader I had to solve not only my own but I have to help my group members in technical and other calculation part as well.
CE1.3.7 Me along with my team members worked together very hard and could complete the project in the defined time. We could study the pre-feasibility of Upper Khudi and prepare the final report in the designated time. After the completion of this project, I felt a big rise in my confidence level as an engineer and I felt I could easily tackle the obstacles by studying about it, applying the solutions in real life problems. We used various software like MS-Word, MS-Excel, MS-PowerPoint to document the report, prepare presentations and analyze available data. I feel like my reporting skills, drafting skills and drawing skills also utilised professionally over the course of this project.
CE1.4 Summary
Undertaking this project helped me to use my theoretical knowledge on practical and real life work scenarios relating design and construction of a hydro power plant. We were very happy that the project met all the initial objectives. The project has a conventional B/C ratio of 2.1 and modified of 2.13 and IRR of 23.4%. The total cost of the project is NRs 605,089,628.69 and cost per kilowatt is within the range of prevailing Cost per KW for the projects recently built in Nepal. Hence, the project was financially, technically, socially and environmentally viable, and can be forwarded for further study. In a nutshell, I was efficiently and successfully able to undertake, manage and complete the project ensuring that it met all its objectives within a designated time frame.

Causes of the Upper Big Branch Mine Blast

1)

The Upper Big Branch mine was a bituminous coal mine based in Raleigh County, West Virginia. It was owned by Massey Energy, who were the 6th largest coal suppliers in 2009 (EIA, 2009, p. 25). The geology of the mine was mainly composed of sandstone and some shale (McAteer, 2011, p. 69). The mine had previously been described as a gassy mine as methane enters from the fractures in the mine floor (Berkes, H, 2011).

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The site operated on a shift system, with a day shift, night shift and a handover period at approximately 5:30am. On Monday, April 5th, 2010, the day shift started as usual and coal was being produced at the longwall with no time lost. Production stopped at 10am due a fault with the longwall shearer, it was reported by the crew that the hinge pin on the ranging arm was missing (Page, N. et al, 2011, p.17). Production did not resume until 1:30pm. Production continued with no lost time until 2:30pm. At 2:30pm, there was an update from the fire boss that the shearer was cutting towards the tailgate and was currently at shield 115, he also reported a methane % of 0.0 and an oxygen % of 20.8. At 2:58pm, the longwall shearer is still operating towards the tailgate. At 3:00pm, the longwall shearer is cut off remotely and all high voltage power and water is manually disconnected. At approximately 3:02pm, a massive explosion occurred inside the of the upper big branch mine, cutting all underground power and telecommunications. The ventilation systems began to indicate failures as dust and debris started to bellow out of the surface portals.

The explosion was caused by a methane gas leak being ignited and then manifested itself into a coal dust explosion. 29 out of the 31 men underground were killed making it the worst mining accident in the United States since 1970. The MSHA were not informed until 25 minutes after the event. Evacuation did not begin until at least 30 minutes after the explosion. The emergency services were not notified until 4:22pm (Page, N. et al, 2011, p.22).

2)

It is apparent from the systematic failures that led to this disaster that the blame falls at the feet of the Massey Energy management. Massey Energy management failed to safeguard their employees and neglected even the most basic of health and safety guidelines as is highlighted in the final accident report published by the MHSA. (Page, N. et al, 2011).

Firstly, Massey Energy had no enforced procedure to detect methane concentrations throughout the mine, measurements were taken but not to industry standards. The methane detector at the Bleeder system in UBB had not been switched on since March 18th, 2010, which allowed almost a month for methane to accumulate undetected. This, in combination with Massey Energy’s failure to comply to the approved ventilation plan led to a completely unnecessary increase in risk associated with methane accumulation. The ventilation implemented at UBB led to erratic air currents and was inadequate to dilute and remove methane from the mine floor (Page, N. et al, 2011, p.65). Another glaring example of Massey Energy neglecting basic health and safety standards is their inability to sufficiently deal with significant amounts of coal dust and loose coal in the mine. Methane ignitions are not uncommon in operating coal mines, but with an excess of coal dust in the air and around the mine the situation becomes more severe. Coal dust can fuel a methane ignition into an explosion, which is what happened at UBB. The situation could have easily been remediated and that fact that it wasn’t leads into another significant failure from Massey Energy. There is no evidence that the mine was sufficiently rock-dusted which was have worked to make the residual coal dust inert and prevent it from igniting (Page, N. et al, 2011, p.3).

Lax enforcement of basic health and safety procedures were not the only failures that led to this disaster. Technical faults with the longwall shearer also contributed heavily to the explosion. The cutting bits on the tail drum (that remove the coal) created sparks and heat on both the floor and the roof of the shaft while cutting through a sandstone layer in the coal (Berkes, H. 2011). This is usually dealt with by a series of water ‘sprays’ attached to the longwall shearer. On the model used at UBB, the shearer had at least four different types of sprays on the shearer, that generated 3 different spray patterns. (Page, N. et al, 2011, p. 120) These sprays dispensed water from the local river as it operated, supressing the sparks and heat as they were created. This was meant to minimise the risk of a methane ignition. However, at UBB, the sprayers on the longwall shearer were shown to have severe wear and were not fully operational. On top of that, seven of the individual sprays on the tail drum had been removed prior to the explosion. This is significant as this meant that the sprayers could not maintain the required water pressure so did not comply with the approved ventilation plan (Page, N. et al, 2011, p. 115).

Alongside the health and safety and technical failures at UBB, there were also a series of contributing factors that were based on Massey Energy ignoring mine legislation. Massey Energy was shown to have broken the federal mine safety and health act of 1977 (MSHA, 2011). Massey Energy were shown to intimidate their workers into not making safety complaints. The MSHA had not received a single complaint from UBB since June 8th, 2006. (Page, N. et al, 2011, p. 58) They had also not received any complaint related to any potential hazards before the explosion. This was due to workers at this mine fearing for their jobs if they complained. This comes down to a toxic work culture which Massey Energy failed to address.

Other breaches of the 1977 Mine act including a failure to comply with the training plan. The plan indicated that miners were to be subject to annual refresher courses and task training. The MSHA final report indicates that 21 of the miners did not receive their annual refresher training between April 5th, 2008 and April 5th, 2010. These deficiencies were flagged by Massey Energy’s parent company in a 2009 audit but were not addressed. Between 2008 and 2009, UBB had 500 violations of which 50 were unwarrantable failures (Zendrian, A, 2010).

3)

Despite all the latent failures in the system that led to the eventual disaster at UBB, human error also played a pivotal role. Investigations and reports indicated that there was an air of negligence from some members of staff at UBB. For example, the week of the accident, the on shift and weekly safety checks were not taken out. These checks were in place to determine whether the mine was fit for purpose before a shift started, the individual who was to undertake this duty was to check that there were no new hazards in the mine, to examine the air courses and to energise the gas detectors. There was a lack of professionalism in taking of air quality measurements too. On the day of the disaster, there was air quality measurements recorded that couldn’t have been taken because the detectors were de-energized, the most likely explanation is that these were false measurements (Page, N. et al, 2011, p. 158). Even the most basic of tests were not untaken at UBB. There were no documented respirable checks on both the dust and the methane from within the mine. All the detection equipment was there to be used but wasn’t on the day of the disaster.

4)

This disaster was completely avoidable and should not have happened under any circumstances. Contributory factors could have been eliminated by following simple protocol and the legislation that is there for this exact reason. Massey Energy should have followed the mine, ventilation and roof control plans to the approved standard. This would have prevented the methane from accumulating and manifesting itself into the explosion.

The management could have also enforced a series of health and safety procedures that must be followed with no exceptions. These should have included stringent rules on keeping the detectors energised and keeping the coal dust inert with the use of rock dust. All pre shift examinations and weekly checks must also be taken out with no exceptions. This means that all air quality checks, methane checks, coal dust checks and equipment checks must be taken out and enforced. This would lead to a safer working environment and reduce risk.

There should have also been an emphasis on both miners and managements being trained into how to recognize hazards and how to report them efficiently and correctly. The MSHA has a freephone program in the US where workers can call in unsafe working conditions and have an MSHA inspector come out to the mine. This should be encouraged as it would help to keep the mine fit for purpose and in a safe working order.

There could also be an opportunity to add danger signs to raise awareness of potential hazards within the mine. In areas that specifically accumulate a lot of methane (in the case of UBB, behind the shields) there could be signs to indicate that this is a high-risk area for methane accumulation which may prompt workers to be inclined to report any faults that could result in methane ignition and coal dust explosions.

References;

Berkes, H. (2011). Feds Illustrate Likely Cause of Upper Big Branch Mine Blast. Available: https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2011/01/19/133055616/feds-illustrate-likely-cause-of-mine-blast. Last accessed 27/10/2019.

McAteer, D. et al. (2011). Upper Big Branch the April 5, 2010, explosion: a failure of basic coal mine safety practices. Available: https://media.npr.org/documents/2011/may/giip-massey-report.pdf. Last accessed 27/10/2019.

MSHA. (2011). Mine Act 1977. Available: https://www.msha.gov/REGS/ACT/ACTTC.HTM). . Last accessed 27/10/2019.

Page, N. et al. (2011). Fatal Underground Mine Explosion April 5, 2010. Available: https://www.msha.gov/sites/default/files/Data_Reports/Fatals/Coal/Upper%20Big%20Branch/FTL10c0331noappx_0.pdf. Last accessed 27/10/2019.

U.S. Energy Information Administration. (2009). Annual Coal Report. Available: https://www.eia.gov/coal/annual/archive/05842009.pdf. Last accessed 27/10/2019.

Zendrian, A. (2010). The Cold Calculations of Coal Mining. Available: https://www.forbes.com/2010/04/09/coal-upper-big-branch-intelligent-investing-massey.html#2fa13b37dc3a. Last accessed 27/10/2019.

 

Upper Body Tests Of Muscular Strength

Muscular strength and endurance are one of the health-related physical fitness components (ACSM, 2003). McManis, Baumgartner, & Wuest(2000)mentioned that the level of muscular strength and endurance affects an individual’s ability to perform daily functions and various physical activities throughout the life span. Upper-body strength and endurance are also considered important for performing functional and daily activities as well as preventing injury and osteoporosis.

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Because of the importance of upper-body strength and endurance, Engelman & Morrow (1991) pointed out that test developers make continuous efforts to develop different upper-body fitness test and include them in test batteries. So that the physical educators can use muscular fitness test scores to document health related physical fitness. There are many test batteries developed by different associations and available for the physical educators. Most of the include test items designed to measure upper body muscular strength and/or muscular endurance (AAHPERD, 1988; Chrysler Fund-Amateur Athletic Union[CE-AAU], 1987; Institute for Aerobics Research[IAR], 1987; PCPFS, 1987). In most of the test batteries, there will be one upper body muscular fitness test included, but some of them may provide several options for the practitioner, such as, the FITNESSGRAM® health-related physical test battery, which was developed by the CIAR(1999) and is currently endorsed by the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance[AAHPERD], provides the following field tests for the practitioners: (a) the traditional pull-up (PU), (b) the modified pull-up (MPU), (c)the 90o push up (PSU), and (d) the flexed-arm hang (FAH). Although the practitioner may choose to use either of the tests, the PSU is recommended.
According to AAHPERD (1988); CF-AAU (1987); PCPFS (1987), PU and FAH are the most commonly used field tests as measurements of upper-body strength and endurance. But, Ross, Pate, Delpy, Gold, and Svilar (1987) argued that MPU and PU are more acceptable field tests for upper-body strength and endurance, because they can provide a better range of scores. Baumgartner, Oh, Chung, Hales (2002); Clemons, Duncan, Blanchard, Gatch, Hollander, Doucet(2004) also pointed out that modified push up test (MPSU) is commonly used to measures upper-body strength and endurance.
Statement of Problem
Many test batteries include one upper-body strength and endurance tests among the 5 tests mentioned before, or provide several options for the practitioners without any explanation.
Zhu (1998) pointed out that if test are used interchangeably, tests must be equivalent. Different tests may involve different muscle groups. According to Pat Manocchia’s Anatomy of exercise: [a trainer’s guide to your workout], PU involves biceps brachii,brachioradialis, latissimus dorsi, posterior deltoid, rhomboid, teres major and trapezius. For PSU, it involves deltoideus, coracobrachialis pectoralis major, pectoralis minor and triceps brachii. So a subject may get a high score in PSU but a low score in PU, because he/she has a very strong pectoralis major.
Sherman & Barfield (2006) pointed out that if tests are not consistent in classification, problems can occur when using test sores to classify whether the subject are in a health fitness zone.
Purpose of Study
The purpose of the study was to examine the interchangeability as well as the consistency of classification between the upper-body strength and endurance tests, including PU, MPU, FAH, PSU and MPSU by assessing the correlation between the test results among them.
Significance of Study
Mahar and Rowe (2008) pointed out that for researches, the aims of fitness test are to (a) determine the association between fitness and other health outcomes, (b) evaluate the effectiveness of training programs designed to increase fitness, and (c) determine the prevalence of adequate levels of fitness in defined population groups. In school settings, fitness tests are used to (a)provide individualized feedback to students about their fitness levels, (b) make recommendations for increasing or maintaining current fitness levels, (c) educate students about physical activity and fitness , and provide information to help determine the effectiveness of physical education programs.
Among the test manuals available for selection, there are five commonly used upper-body strength and endurance tests, which are PU, MPU, FAH, PSU, MPSU. Test manuals usually include one of these tests in their test battery without explanation on the selection. Also the test manuals usually don’t have any detailed information of the test, such as which muscle group will be assessed. FITNESSGRAM®, a test manual currently endorsed by AAPERD, allows the practitioner the option of administering any of the four upper-body strength and endurance tests, without stating their differences.
As fitness test is important for assessing subject’s fitness, hence, a subject should receive the same criterion classification regardless of what test is administered. If the tests can be used interchangeably, they must be equivalent. Misclassification of a subject may lead to an overestimation of appropriate physical activity or a discouragement in participation. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the consistency of classification, and interchangeability of the five commonly used upper-body strength and endurance tests.
Chapter 2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
In most of the physical fitness test batteries, they include upper-body strength and endurance test, which implied the importance of upper-body strength and endurance in physical fitness (AAHPERD, 1988; Chrysler Fund-Amateur Athletic Union [CE-AAU], 1987; Institute for Aerobics Research [IAR], 1987; PCPFS, 1987).
Upper-body strength and endurance are important for performing daily functions and various physical activities. A fitness test can assess subject’s physical fitness level and help developing a suitable fitness program for the subject. But if the fitness test can not evaluate or classify the subject’s physical fitness level accurately, it may lead to over or underestimation of the ability of the subject. The present study was to determine the consistency of classification, and interchangeability of the five commonly used upper-body strength and endurance tests.
The review of literature for the present study focused on the following aspects: (a) validity and reliable of the five upper-body strength and endurance tests, (b) equivalence reliability of the tests, (c) summary of literature review.
Validity and reliable of the five upper-body strength and endurance tests
Pate, Burgess, Woods, Ross , Baumgartner (1993) studied the concurrent and construct validity of three common field tests of upper-body muscular strength and endurance including pull-up, flexed arm hang, push-up, Vermont modified pull-up and New York modified pull-up in children aged 9-10 years. The major findings are that the test performances were significantly associated with measures of weight-relative muscular strength, except push-up test, which was correlated significantly with the criterion measure of absolute strength, r(92)= .32, pMcManis, Baumgartner and Wuest (2000) studied the objectivity and stability reliability of the 90o push-up test for elementary, high school and college-age students. They gave out some recommendations on improving the objectivity and stability reliability of the test, (a) the cadence should not be too slow, (b) elementary students and low-strength college women would be more successful in performing push-ups on their knees, (c) subjects should be required to wear tight, short-sleeved shirt for better judgment on angle of elbows. Baumgartner, Oh, Chung and Hales (2002) also suggested that women and very young individuals should execute push ups on the hands and knees. Besides the clothing, they pointed out that hand placement must be specified in the push-up test protocol.
Romain and Mahar (2001) determined the test-retest reliability and equivalence reliability of the push-up and the modified pull-up tests from both norm-referenced and criterion-referenced frameworks. Sixty-two students aged between 10.5 and 12.3 years were administered the push-up and modified pull-up tests. The criterion-referenced test-retest reliability estimates were high for both tests, but the equivalence reliability estimates were considerably lower between them. Also the criterion-referenced equivalence reliability findings were not acceptable.
Clemons, Duncan, Blanchard, Gatch, Hollander and Doucet (2004) determined the relationships between flexed-arm hang and select measures of muscular fitness, which are absolute strength (1RM lat pull down), relative strength (1Rm/mass) and muscle endurance (repetitions to failure at 70% of the 1RM). Sixty college-age women were studied and the results showed that FAH is a test of weight-relative muscular strength and appears unrelated to absolute strength or muscle endurance.
Equivalence reliability of the tests
Pate, Burgess, Woods, Ross, and Baumgartner (1993) found that the performance on the five field tests(pull-up, flexed arm hang, push-up, VMPU and NYMPU tests) were only moderately intercorrelated. The highest interest correlation was between flexed arm hang and VMPU tests, r(92)=.71, PRomain and Hahar (2001) were the pionners to study the criterion-referenced equivalence reliability estimate between push-up and modified pull-up tests among young children. They found that the classification agreement between push-up and modified pull-up tests was low. Also they pointed out that because the FITNESSGRAM® allowed the physical activity directors to choose among four tests to measure upper-body strength and endurance, the criterion-referenced equivalence reliability of these tests should be examined.
Sherman and Barfield (2006) studied the equivalence reliability among the four upper-body strength and endurance tests(Push-up, pull-up, modified pull-up and flexed arm hang) in FITNESSGRAM®. 383 children in Grades 3 to 6 were tested over a week. The result showed that the equivalence reliability between PSU and MPU was acceptable for boy, but unacceptable for girls. The classifications for boys aged 10 and 11 regarding the push-up and pull-up tests were not consistent, but they were consistent for girls, except age 11.
Summary of literature review
Upper-body strength and endurance are important for daily functional activities. A valid upper-body strength and endurance can accurately assess and classify subject’s muscular fitness level. This information can help physical educator the develop suitable fitness program for the subject.
The above studies shown that the five field test are valid for measuring weight related strength rather than absolute strength and endurance. Also, for the equivalence reliability among the tests, there is lack of study on college student.
Definition of Terms
The following terms were defined operationally:
Health-related physical fitness
According to American College of Sport Medicine (2003), health-related physical fitness actually has four components: aerobic fitness, muscular fitness, flexibility and body composition. Muscular fitness is the strength and endurance of individual’s muscles.
Muscular Strength
Docherty (1996) stated that the International System of Units (SI) defined strength as the maximal force or torque developed by a muscle, or muscle group, during one maximal voluntary action of unlimited duration at a specified velocity of movement.
Muscular Endurance
Docherty (1996) defined that muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle, or muscle group, to generate force repeatedly or for an extended period of time.
Pull up
According to AAHPED (1988), Pull up was defined as a person using overhand grip, body completely extended, raise until chin clears bar, then lower to full hang as in starting position.
Flexed arm hang
AAHPED (1988) defined Flexed arm hang as a person using overhand grip and in a position with chin clearing bar, elbows flexed, chest close to bar and hold this position as long as possible.
Push up
Chrysler Fund-Amateur Athletic Union (1987) defined push up as a person in prone position, elbows bent, hands flat on floor, thumbs pointing inward and next to chest, then pushes body up until elbows are straightened, while heels, hips, shoulders, and head remain in the same straight line.
Modified pull up
Pate, Ross, Baumgartner (1987)defined it as a person in supine position, the bar adjusted just out of reach of fully extended arms. That person grasps bar with overhand grip, maintaining arms and legs straight, feet together. Then pull up the body with arms so chin clears the bar.
Fatigue
According to Rod et al. (2006), fatigue is defined as the decreased capacity to do work and the reduced efficiency of performance that normally follows a period of activity.
Research Hypothesis
According to the above literatures reviewed, it was hypothesized that:
1. There would be no significant correlation between the
five upper-body strength and endurance test results. And the classification is not consistent.
Chapter 3
METHOD
The purpose of the study was to examine the interchangeability as well as the consistent in classification of the upper-body strength and endurance tests, including PU, MPU, FAH, PSU and MPSU by assessing the correlation between the test results among them. This chapter was divided into the following parts: (a) subjects; (b) procedures; (c) method of analysis; and (d) statistical hypothesis.
Subjects
This study was targeted to male college students, who were studying in Hong Kong Baptist University and aged between 19 to 25 years old. Subjects will be selected by convenient sampling. Before the study, subjects was asked to sign on the consent forms after knowing the purpose, benefits and risks of the study.
Procedures
In this study, subjects were invited to perform the five upper-strength and endurance tests in a specific sequence, which is pull-ups, push-ups, modified pull-ups, modified push-ups and flexed arm hang. Test and retest were held on two separate days with in a week. All tests will be conducted in the fitness room of Hong Kong Baptist University or the fitness room of LCSD.
The subjects were strongly advised not to have a heavy meal 2 hours before the sit-up tests. The subjects were invited to do warm up exercises. Warm up exercises included 5 minutes jogging or cycling and then 5 minutes related stretching exercises. After the warm up exercises, subjects were invited to perform the tests.
The description of the pull-ups, push-ups, modified pull-ups and flexed arm hang tests were described by the FITNESSGRAM® (2007):
Pull-ups
The subject should start will hanging position an the bar with an overhand grasp. The subject uses the arms to pull the body up until the chin is above the bar and then lowers the body again into the full hanging position. The exercise is repeated as many times as possible. There is no time limit.
Push-ups
The subject should begin with a prone position with hand place under or slightly wider than the shoulder, fingers stretched out, legs straight and slightly apart, and toes tucked under. Then pushes up of the mat with the arms until arms are straight, keeping the kegs and back straight. The subject then lowers the body using the arms until the elbows bend at a 90o angle and the upper arms are parallel to floor. This movement is repeated as many times as possible.
Modified pull-ups
The student grasps the bar with an overhand grip. The pull up begins in this “down” position with arms and legs straight, buttocks off the floor, and only heels touching the floor. The student then pulls up until the chin is above the bar. The subject then lowers the body to the down position. Movement continues in a rhythmic manner.
Flexed Arm Hang
The subject grasps the bar with an overhand grip. With the assistance of one or more spotters, the student raises the body off the floor to a position in which the chin is above the bar, elbows are flexed, and the chest is close to the bar. The position is held as long as possible.
Modified Push-up
The subject should begin with a prone position with hand place under or slightly wider than the shoulder, fingers stretched out, legs straight and slightly apart, and knees tucked under. Then pushes up of the mat with the arms until arms are straight, keeping the legs and back straight. The subject then lowers the body using the arms until the elbows bend at a 90o angle and the upper arms are parallel to floor. This movement is repeated as many times as possible.
There will be three minutes rest between each test.
Delimitations
The following delimitations were included in this study:
The subjects of the study were delimited to the male students who were studying in Hong Kong Baptist University and aged between 19 to 25 years old.
All the tests were carried at the fitness room of Hong Kong Baptist University or the fitness room of LCSD.
The test and retest were held in separate days within a week.
Data Analysis
Statistical hypothesis
The following null hypothesis was examined:
1. There would be significant correlation between the five upper-body strength and endurance test results. And the classification is consistent.
Statistical Analysis
Data were reported as mean and standard deviation. Minimum and maximum values of variables were analyzed by the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Pearson Production Moment Coefficient of Correlation (r) was used to examine the correlation between the 1-min sit-up result with that having fixed frequency and no time limit. An alpha level of pLimitations
The following limitations were included in this study:
1. The subjects are restricted to the students who can use the fitness room of Hong Kong Baptist University or LCSD.
2. The motivation of the subjects in performing the tests, as all the tests are with no time limit, was uncontrollable. It might affect the results of the study.
3. The performance of the subjects might be affected because of their physical lifestyle and the physical activity level.
4. The performance of the subjects might affected due to their different physical characteristics.
Study findings are applicable only to the subjects included in this study.
 

Overview of the Middle and Upper Paleolithic Periods

In the Paleolithic period, specifically the middle and upper Paleolithic periods, humans were beginning to advance and culturally develop at an unprecedented rate. The production of food and the creation and implementation of different tools defined these periods as quintessential to growth and the progress of technology. A substantial part of these periods are the traditions and lifestyle habits that developed.

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Starting of with the middle paleolithic period, humans had begun to develop a cultural sense of awareness, such as burying their dead with flowers. This is before more modern humans adopted a similar tradition in the Upper Paleolithic period of time (anthropology, 2017). We can assume that basic traditions like this would start in the earlier (middle) time period. The Upper Paleolithic period saw the beginning of traditions like spiritual awareness and beliefs, artistic expression, and trade between neighboring groups (anthropology, 2017). Groups in the Middle and Upper Paleolithic periods started to expand and eventually grow larger. These bigger groups were found to have built semi year-round settlements. Staying in certain environments for extended periods of time enabled these people to focus on improving their homesteads (more homesteads are found in the upper period than the middle period).
This segues into how the different tools of these time periods were manufactured to carve, build and hunt. Middle era tools included points, which could be tied on to shafts to make spears. (Smithsonian, 2018) Smaller points made from stone were also crafted and made into weaponry like darts and arrows. These darts and arrows enabled humans of this time to refine their hunting skills and self-defense.  Shaved flecks of stone were transformed into scrapers that were useful in preparing animal hides for clothing. This and sections of wood were typical tools in the middle paleolithic age. (Smithsonian, 2018). Upper paleolithic tools are further along in design because of the cultural diversity that allowed more advancement. Different materials were introduced: Ivory, bone and antler as well as more stone. These different materials allowed more craftsmanship. The new materials also were more malleable than stone, which led to the tools being sharper and thus more effective. Each group developed their own cultural footprint and sought their own identity. Humans in both middle and upper periods discovered different ways of making things. (Smithsonian, 2018)
With the expansion of the human population, eventually the density of human groups increased to greater numbers. This led to competition and conflict over the best resources and land. (Kahn Academy, 2017). Due to the limited natural resources of the landscape, middle and upper paleolithic communities were smaller in size. They were however large enough to develop a degree of hierarchical organization: groups of labor, leadership and security. They also had exogamous patterns of reproduction, which is marring and producing outside of the standard group. (Kahn Academy, 2017)
Anthropologists have been able to draw these conclusions about Paleolithic humans by extrapolating different data from recent hunter-gatherer communities, like the Khoisan from the African Kalahari Desert. The theories and ideas based on the life and experiences of more modern societies help researches form an idea of what middle and upper paleolithic communities did. (Kahn Academy, 2017)
The increased numbers of people living in groups also highlights the hunting and gathering methods that were used. Hunting strategies that targeted large numbers of animals in herds that migrated seasonally became predominant (Johnston, Strayer 2020). Anthropologists know this from the cave art that occurs in different regions. Different art in different territories suggests a more defined sense of social organization. Burials started to become common which points to social differentiation (Johnston, Strayer 2020).
These two periods of time additionally saw the progression of cultural pursuits. The basic techniques of drawing, building sculpture, and painting, as well as the early inclusion of dancing, ceremonies and music are also seen (specifically more in the upper paleolithic) periods. (Adams, Pittioni, 2019). Humans of both periods also started to develop linguistic behaviors and symbolic thinking. Groups began to create and settle into villages, which led the way to more dynamic interactions and interpersonal relationships (Johnston, Strayer 2020) This had an important effect on daily human life. More communication let to more advances in almost every sociological/physical category.
In conclusion, both the middle and upper Paleolithic periods saw numerous areas of cultural and physical/social progress and growth. There were advancements in weaponry and agricultural cultivation, as well as art forms and language. The development of social practices and hierarchy are also very present, which is why the middle and upper periods changed the way humans operated which led the way to modern practices.
Sources:

“Middle and Upper Paleolithic.” ISS 220: Time, Space, & Change in Human Society, August 11, 2017. http://anthropology.msu.edu/iss220-us17-ss2/2017/08/11/middle-and-upper-paleolithic/.
“Middle Stone Age Tools.” The Smithsonian Institution’s Human Origins Program, September 14, 2018. http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/behavior/stone-tools/middle-stone-age-tools.
“Paleolithic Societies (Article).” Khan Academy. Khan Academy. Accessed March 3, 2020. https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/world-history/world-history-beginnings/origin-humans-early-societies/a/what-were-paleolithic-societies-like.
Adams, Robert McCormick, and Richard Pittioni. “Middle Paleolithic.” Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc., December 18, 2019. https://www.britannica.com/event/Stone-Age/Middle-Paleolithic.
Johnston, William A, and David L. Strayer. “Upper Paleolithic.” Upper Paleolithic – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics. Accessed March 3, 2020. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/social-sciences/upper-paleolithic.