Electric Vehicles And Their Effect On Society

With the depletion of the earth’s ozone layer and the shortage of our oil supply becoming an issue, we have had to look at alternative fueled vehicles that will not harm the environment, but will still provide us with a reliable source of transportation.
Compared to gasoline powered vehicles, electric vehicles are considered to be 97 percent cleaner, producing absolutely no tailpipe emissions that can place particulate matter into the air. Particulate matter can increase asthma conditions, as well as irritate respiratory systems. Because Electric Vehicles produce no emissions, there are no requirements for Electric Vehicle owners to ever take in their vehicle to an Emissions Testing Facility for an emissions inspection. Another factor that makes these vehicles so clean is that since they don’t use half of the parts that a gasoline powered vehicle does (including gasoline and oil), they are not at risk of shedding any worn out radiator hoses, fuel filters, etc, to be dumped in our over crowded landfills, and leaking contaminated oil into our water supply, killing plant and animal life. Exceptionally quiet, Electric Vehicles produce no noise pollution. In fact they are so quiet that manufacturers are thinking that Electric Vehicles may one day require some kind of noise device on them to alert pedestrians that they are within the area.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

In a gasoline powered vehicle, the then engine must be kept running even when the vehicle is idle. When an Electric Vehicle is idle, the electric motor is not running and the vehicle is not using any energy. On hot days, a few hundred gas-powered cars sitting on the freeway produce an unimaginable amount of pollution. Electric Vehicles can run during hot days, cold days, at night, and can accelerate or remain idle and not produce any pollution. Many people claim that Electric Vehicles merely relocate the source of pollution to the power plants. Even though Electric Vehicles produce no tailpipe emissions, they still need electricity to be recharged, which means they need power plants to produce the electricity. These people fail to realize, however, that many modern power plants (especially in states like California) are “clean”, meaning they produce no pollution. Examples of “clean” power plants include nuclear reactors, windmills, hydroelectric plants and solar panels. Also, it is much easier to deal with isolated pollution sources such as power plants than it is to deal with millions of automobiles, each a source of pollution. As more and more power plants become “clean” and as more people realize what Electric Vehicles can do for the environment, Electric Vehicle use will increase, and our environment will become much nicer.
Electric cars have been thought of as one answer to our dependence on fossil fuel burning vehicles. Their main appeal is that they produce no air pollution at the point of use so provide a way of shifting emissions to less polluted areas. Unfortunately also “out of sight” are the environmental consequences of manufacturing and recycling the lead- acid batteries electric vehicles require to run on. A recent drew attention to the problem of lead batteries in electric cars: “Smelting and recycling the lead for these batteries will result in substantial releases of lead to the environment”. The researchers compared the power, efficiency and environmental effects of electric cars with gas powered vehicles. Not only are electric cars comparatively slower and far more restricted in the distance they can travel but release more lead into the environment as well. The study showed that an electric car with batteries made from newly mined lead releases 60 times more lead than that of a car using leaded gas. Although the lead discharged in lead smelting and reprocessing is generally less available to humans in the U.S. than that dispersed by leaded gasoline cars driving where people are still using leaded gasoline. Even when precautions are taken there are still significant hazards. Lead processing facilities release lead into the air and waterways, and lead in solid waste leaches slowly into the environment. Clearly electric cars, despite their “good for the environment” image create far more of a problem than leaded gas cars and unleaded gas cars. In addition if a large number of electric cars are produced, the demand for lead for batteries will surge, requiring more lead to be mined. Manufacture needs to be halted until an alternative safer power source is found. These rules out current alternatives such as nickel-cadmium and nickel metal hydride batteries which are also highly toxic and far more expensive. Researchers speculate that lithium-polymer technologies may eventually be used.
Should cities with a population in excess on 5 million such as LA, New York or Mexico city, which suffer from the adverse effects of smog, implement an electric car society, or a car tax by 2009 or would these measures be too costly to execute and burdensome for the average citizen. The creation of an electric car city would be a grueling task indeed. For it follows that the car in many countries is ubiquitous. A cultural symbol that is deeply embedded in the world’s psyche from the day it was created. To some it seems as though it is an impossible task, that we replace so many cars or that we limit the number of cars in the populated areas Although many argue that it is the car that contributes to the blight on this earth, spewing it’s pollutants into the air, and that a society without them would be a better one. The nature of today’s world and in today’s modern cities demands that we have a form of fast transportation. We would not function at all without it and walking, while it would make us all healthier, would consume too much of our time. I feel that if carefully planned and thought out, we needn’t get rid of one without having to lose the benefit of the other.
It is felt by many that the cause of urban pollution is as a result of too many cars. The poor design of many cities with regard to transportation has caused urban congestion. Consider of course the fact that many cars right now in cities are running but not moving. For example, in New York City, trying to find a parking space is both a cause and symptom of poor urban design. Clearly when there is not enough space in the city to house all of our cars, when parking space is considered a rare commodity then we have a problem. But in other cases such as Mexico City or Los Angeles the problem of poor urban design is even worse. Clearly when these cities were built the planners did not foresee the large number of gasoline chugging vehicles that would clog them. In addition there are various health problems that are suffered by urban dwellers as a result of the pollution. Asthma is a prime example, as it is the fastest growing childhood disease in urban areas, and most likely the result of the billions of particulates spewed into the atmosphere.
Electric vehicles have more than technical hurdles to overcome: Some experts fear that the vehicles’ environmental impact is no lighter than that of gas-powered vehicles. And the biggest concerns center on the vehicles’ all-important batteries. Now researchers have published the first in-depth environmental analysis of electric cars using lithium-ion batteries, and have found that they beat their gas-fueled counterparts. When experts consider batteries’ environmental footprint, they worry about a range of issues, including the impacts of mining the necessary metals, the chemical manufacturing process, and whether the batteries end up in landfills or get recycled. According to the researchers’ analysis, about 15% of an electric vehicles’ total environmental burden comes from manufacturing, maintaining, and disposing of the lithium-ion battery. Most of those costs, about 50%, stem from mining and manufacturing the copper and aluminum used in the battery and its connecting cables. Extracting the necessary lithium produces only 2.3% of the battery’s total environmental footprint. Still, the largest contributor to electric vehicles’ total environmental burden comes from recharging the battery. These operational costs were three times greater than the battery alone, but they fluctuated when the researchers looked at other electricity sources besides the typical European power mixture that includes nuclear power, hydropower, and fossil fuels. When the vehicles charged up on electricity from coal-fired plants alone, their total environmental impact increased by 13%, but it dropped by 40% when the electricity came solely from hydropower. Overall, when the researchers compared battery-powered vehicles to their gas-fueled counterparts, they calculated that a car with an internal combustion engine would need a fuel economy of about 60 to 80 mpg to achieve a lower environmental impact than a battery-powered electric vehicle that recharged using Unites States power sources.
Overall, Electric Vehicles are stating to change the way people think about “Going Green”. With the advancement of battery technology and alternative fuels, these vehicles are producing fewer emissions and going further than ever before. We need to start relying on these technologies to start reducing our carbon footprint. As the years continue to pass, these vehicles are going to start changing the way we live, and operate in society.
Bagatelle-Black, Forbes. “EV WORLD: Electric Vehicles and the Environment.” 27 Nov. 2007. Web. 04 May 2011. .
“Electric Vehicle.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 04 May 2011. .
Gustafson, Sven. “How Would Electric Cars Affect Our Environment?” Michigan Local News. 14 Feb. 2008. Web. 04 May 2011. .
Zemanta. “The Negative Impact of Electric Cars on the Environment.” News and Reviews on Electric Cars, Hybrids, Plug-in Electric Vehicles… 9 Mar. 2010. Web. 04 May 2011. .

Arguments for the Use of Electronic Vehicles in Australia

There has been an increase in the concern surrounding the issue of high rates of carbon emissions leading to the problem of increasing greenhouse gases from traditional vehicles which use oil, petrol, diesel or compressed natural gas, etc. Due to limited non-renewable energy sources and the polluting effect of fuel emissions, electric vehicles are becoming popular in recent years. For the purpose of this essay, ‘electric vehicles’ can be defined as transportation driven by an electric motor or battery, electric vehicles such as hybrid electric vehicles which are powered by electricity and petrol, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and battery electric vehicles according to Ergon Energy. This essay will argue that the use of electric vehicles should be encouraged in Australia. The first reason is electric vehicles can reduce the amount of carbon emission such as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide and thus lower pollution levels. The second reason is Australian government is supporting and reducing costs in order to attract buyers. The last reason is the convenience of recharging as electric vehicles charging stations can be placed in many areas.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

Firstly, one reason why the use of electric vehicles should be encouraged in Australia is electric vehicles can reduce the amount of carbon emission such as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide and thus lower pollution levels. According to Union of Concerned Scientist, the battery in electric vehicles are recharged by using a dedicated charger as these vehicles do not run by oil, petrol or diesel. In addition, Union of Concerned Scientist states that these vehicles will not produce any tailpipe contaminants, compared with traditional vehicles which directly emitted carbon emissions through the pipe and forming pollutants outlined by Energy gov. As a result, it may contribute to the problem of global warming and serious climate change claims Broadbent, Metternicht and Drozdzewsk (2018) due to the carbon emissions, Ortar and Ryghaug (2019) believe that electric vehicles have the potential of reducing car emissions and greenhouse gas emissions. Mcduling (2018) argues that electric vehicles might produce larger amounts of pollution than traditional vehicles, as a result, eleven countries with high emissions such as South Africa may emit more carbon emission than traditional ones. However, replacing traditional vehicles with electric vehicles, could reduce the amount of nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide for 0.8% and 2.8% respectively (Ferrero, Alessandrini and Balanzino 2016). Gould and Golob (1998) described the batteries in electric vehicles could lead to an environmental issue such as poor water quality as these batteries contain lead acid and nickel cadmium which would release harmful pollutant when they are recycled, but it can also be argued that battery of electric vehicles could be reused in storage for other uses. According to Hall and Lutsey (2018), due to technological advances in industries area, lithium ion batteries might be totally recycled. Thus, one reason why electric vehicles should be encouraged in Australia is reducing the amount of carbon emission such as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide.

Secondly, the Australian government’s support and in reducing costs in order to attract buyers is another reason why electric vehicles should be encouraged in Australia. Froome (2016) pointed out that the Australian government is considering decreasing import taxes for electric vehicles. For example, Hong Kong government was promoting a scheme which cooperated with Tesla to sell a Tesla Model S 70D cars at a discount price according to Woodhouse (2015). In addition, Luo, Leng, Huang and Liang (2014) commented that the Spanish and Romanian governments have lowered the price by providing a discount price to buyers. Shao, Yang and Zhang (2017) showed that the incentive of purchase electric vehicles schemes carried out in the US and China by reducing the price level. Consequently, it has provided incentives to electric vehicles buyers under discount schemes, which are the best way to sell and promote electric vehicles to the public according to Luo et al (2014). Additionally, Shao et al claims government incentives might provide impetus on sales of electric vehicles, as government is the main feature of technical transfer believed by Ahman (2006). According to Brase (2019) a brand-new electric vehicle would cost more than buying a traditional gasoline one. Berman(2019) stated that batteries is the main factor causing high purchase price on electric vehicle,  however due to the reduced size of installed traditional engines may actually be lower than traditional vehicles (Lebeau, Lebeau, Macharis, and Van Mierlo, 2013).  Furthermore, Finkel (2018) commented that since the global motor demand with the redesign of the original electric vehicles, subsequent models are becoming less expensive, as a result, the cost is falling continuously. Therefore, Australian government support to make the price lower is the second reason why electric vehicles should be encouraged in Australia.

Finally, electric vehicles should be encouraged in Australia because of the convenience of recharging as electric charging stations can be placed in many areas. Electric charging station are divided into local charging and long-distance charging. Local charging refers to slow charging for long periods of parking such as at home or at work, while long-distance charging means a fast charging station which can recharge quickly in order to continue long-distance outing recorded by Bryden, Hilton, Cruden, and Holton (2018). Furthermore, Progressive Digital Media Transportation (2013) states Montreal in Canada has installed 80 charging stations in public areas and also a German transportation company has been introducing their first high power charging station for electric buses. However, Froome (2016) argues that Australia lacks recharging facilities. In the United States, more than 9000 charging station have been installed compared to 200 in Australia. It seems to be that Australia have fewer facilities for electric vehicles (Washington 2015). However, Froome (2016) also argues that the Australian government will build more facilities in the future. According to of Manufactures’ Monthly (2013) charging networks have been improving in Perth and Melbourne which installed more than 30 charging stations, and also Australia could learn design and experiences from the United States and European as suggested by Washington (2015). On the other hand, the charging station may affect the voltage stability according to Sanchari, Kari, Karuna and Pinakeshwar (2018). In addition, van Kooten Niekerk, van Den Akker and Hoogeveen, J (2017) claim that the price of electricity may dramatically change in a week or month. Yet Lam, Leung and Chu (2013) point out renewable energy can be transformed into electricity, electric vehicles are able to storing renewable energy (Ortar and Ryghaug 2019). Since Australia does not have enough oil but it has many other energy resources such as wind, solar and hydro power according to Froome (2016), hence, the third reason is the convenience of recharging.

In conclusion, this essay has argued why electric vehicles should or should not be encouraged in Australia. This essay has shown that electric vehicles should be encouraged. The reasons are electric vehicles do not produce numerous pollutants. They can also lower the price levels in order to provide incentives to the buyers. Finally, electric vehicles can be recharged at public charging stations as the Australian government plans to install more charging stations. In the face of climate change and technological advances, electric vehicles are important to protect the environment and in the future since electric vehicles do not produce large amounts of carbon emissions, they should be encouraged.

References list

1.          Ahman, Max (2006) Government policy and the development of electric vehicles in Japan Energy Policy, Mar 2006, Vol.34(4), pp.433-443 Retrieved from https://primoa.library.unsw.edu.au/permalink/f/11jha62/TN_proquest205319046

Berman, B (2019) The Biggest Challenge Facing Electric Cars Is Still Affordability Retrieved from January 22,2019 https://insideevs.com/news/342350/the-biggest-challenge-facing-electric-cars-is-still-affordability/

Brase, Gary L. (2019) What Would It Take to Get You into an Electric Car? Consumer Perceptions and Decision Making about ElectricVehicles The Journal of Psychology, 17 February 2019, Vol.153(2), p.214-236 Retrieved from https://primoa.library.unsw.edu.au/permalink/f/11jha62/TN_tayfranc10.1080/00223980.2018.1511515

Broadbent, G., Metternicht, G. and Drozdzewski, D. (2018). Primoa.library.unsw.edu.au. Retrieved from https://primoa.library.unsw.edu.au/permalink/f/11jha62/TN_trove_thesis230129677

Bryden, Ts ; Hilton, G ; Cruden, A ; Holton, T (2018) Electric vehicle fast charging station usage and power requirements Energy, Vol.152, pp.322-332 Retrieved from 2018 Jun 1 https://primoa.library.unsw.edu.au/permalink/f/11jha62/TN_wos000432760200029

Energy.gov. (n.d.). Reducing Pollution with Electric Vehicles. Retrieved from https://www.energy.gov/eere/electricvehicles/reducing-pollution-electric-vehicles

Ergon Energy. (n.d.). Types Of Electric Cars. Retrieved from https://www.ergon.com.au/network/smarter-energy/electric-vehicles/types-of-electric-vehicles

Ferrero, E. ; Alessandrini, S. ; Balanzino, A.(2016) Impact of the electric vehicles on the air pollution from a highway Applied Energy, 1 May 2016, Vol.169, pp.450-459 Retrieved from https://primoa.library.unsw.edu.au/permalink/f/11jha62/TN_scopus2-s2.0-84964614334

Finkel, A (2018) Time to see the light on electric cars. The Age; Melbourne, Vic. Retrieved from 10 Feb 2018 https://search.proquest.com/docview/1999567249?accountid=12763

Froome, C (2016) Tesla’s gamble on its ‘affordable’ electric car -Global Change Institute. South Melbourne Retrieved from Apr 2016 https://search.proquest.com/docview/1785550927?accountid=12763

Gould, J. ; Golob, T.F. (1998) Clean air forever? A longitudinal analysis of opinions about air pollution and electric vehicles Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, May 1998, Vol.3(3), pp.157-169 Retrieved from https://primoa.library.unsw.edu.au/primo-explore/fulldisplay?docid=TN_tayfranc10.1080%2F00223980.2018.1511515&context=PC&vid=UNSWS&lang=en_US&search_scope=SearchFirst&adaptor=primo_central_multiple_fe&tab=default_tab&query=any,contains,what%20would%20it%20take%20to%20get%20you%20into%20an%20electric%20car&offset=0

Hall, D. and Lutsey, N. (2018). Effects of battery manufacturing on electric vehicles life -cycle greenhouse gas emission Theicct.org. Retrieved from February 2018 https://theicct.org/sites/default/files/publications/EV-life-cycle-GHG_ICCT-Briefing_09022018_vF.pdf

Lam, Leung, Chu (2013) Electric vehicle charging station placement. 2013 IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm), pp.510-515. Retrieved from October 2013 https://primoa.library.unsw.edu.au/permalink/f/11jha62/TN_ieee_s6688009

Lebeau, K. Lebeau, P. Macharis, C. Van Mierlo, J (2013) How expensive are electric vehicles? A total cost of ownership analysis. World Electric Vehicle Journal, 2013, Vol.6(4), pp.996-1007 Retrieved from https://primoa.library.unsw.edu.au/permalink/f/11jha62/TN_scopus2-s2.0-85010060524

Luo, C. Leng, M. Huang, J. Liang, L (2014) Supply chain analysis under a price-discount incentive scheme for electric vehicles European Journal of Operational Research, May 16, 2014, Vol.235(1), p.329 Retrieved from https://primoa.library.unsw.edu.au/permalink/f/11jha62/TN_proquest1497037085

Manufacturers’ Monthly (2013)Setting the standard: Australia must choose an electric car charging norm. Manufacturers’ Monthly, Sep 2013  Retrieved fromhttps://primoa.library.unsw.edu.au/permalink/f/11jha62/TN_proquest1437682513

Mcduling, J (2018). Plenty of reason to move away from traditional cars. Retrieved from Jan 25, 2018 https://search.proquest.com/docview/1990443657?accountid=12763

Ortar, N. Ryghaug, M (2019) Should All Cars Be Electric by 2025? The Electric Car Debate in Europe. 22 February 2019; Accepted: 21 March 2019; Published: 28 March 2019  Retrieved from doi:10.3390/su11071868 www.mdpi.com/journal/sustainability

Progressive Digital Media Transportation (2013) September’s top stories: Australia’s $11.5bn project, Bombardier’s charging station Retrieved from News, Oct 1, 2013https://primoa.library.unsw.edu.au/permalink/f/11jha62/TN_proquest1547359421

Sanchari D. Kari T. Karuna K. Pinakeshwar M (2018) Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging Station Load on Distribution Network Energies, , Vol.11(1), p.178 Retrieved from 01 January 2018 https://primoa.library.unsw.edu.au/permalink/f/11jha62/TN_doaj_soai_doaj_org_article_8267fccd5600479da85ede451c3fcaa9

Shao, Ll. Yang, J. Zhang, M (2017) Subsidy scheme or price discount scheme? Mass adoption of electric vehicles under different market structures European Journal Of Operational Research, 2017 Nov 1, Vol.262(3), pp.1181-1195 Retrieved from https://primoa.library.unsw.edu.au/permalink/f/11jha62/TN_wos000403732700028

Union of Concerned Scientists. (2018). How Do Battery Electric Cars Work?. Retrieved from https://www.ucsusa.org/clean-vehicles/electric-vehicles/how-do-battery-electric-cars-work

van Kooten Niekerk, M. van Den Akker, J. Hoogeveen, J (2017) Scheduling electric vehicles  Public Transport, Vol.9(1-2), pp.155-176 Retrieved from Jul 2017 https://primoa.library.unsw.edu.au/permalink/f/11jha62/TN_proquest1912907493

Washington, Tim (2015) EV charging infrastructure: Charging forward in Australia. ReNew: Technology for a Sustainable Future, 2015, Issue, pp.52-54 Retrieved from https://primoa.library.unsw.edu.au/permalink/f/11jha62/TN_jstor_sus_journalsrenetechsustfutu.131.52

Woodhouse, A(2015) Electric car maker Tesla to offer guaranteed secondhand price to Hong Kong owners of some models. Retrieved from 30 April 2015 https://www.scmp.com/tech/social-gadgets/article/1781628/electric-car-maker-tesla-offer-guaranteed-secondhand-price-hong


lectric Vehicles and their Impact on CO2 Emission, Power Grid, and Battery Range

Today, more people are becoming conscious of climate change and turning to electric cars as a more eco-friendly option. These vehicles ushered a solution to the issue of greenhouse gas emissions and the reduction in the usage of fossil fuels, hence air pollution, and global warming.  Electric vehicles only require the recharging of their batteries for energy.  However, upstream, the process of recharging increases the demand on the power grid.  In the power grid, there are two types of power plants: those that produce more greenhouse gas and those that are zero-emission.  Electric vehicles’ dependency on the power grid is an ecological issue mostly when the power plant generates greenhouse gas which accentuates global warming.  This paper analyzes three key issues of electric vehicles: the increased CO2 emission and load on the power grid, and the battery range.

Electric Vehicles and CO2 Emission  

            Electric vehicles (EVs) shift energy dependency from gasoline to electricity.  In electric vehicles, the absence of an internal combustion engine fueled by fossil fuel makes them eco-friendly and zero-emission.  However, EVs still rely on an external power source to recharge their batteries and accumulators (Darabi & Ferdowsi 2012).  The reliance on external power source means EVs still indirectly increases CO2 emission when the upstream power plants emit greenhouse gases into the atmosphere in the process of power generation.  Power plants that use fossil fuels and other combustibles emit greenhouse gas, degrading the environment.  In contrast, power plants that generate electricity from renewable energy such as wind, solar and hydraulic sources emit little or no gas (Holmberg & Erdemir, 2019).  Hence, the amount of emission produced by the power plants depends on the energy source. If the energy is from a non-renewable source (i.e. combustibles such as coal, fossil, and nuclear fuels),  the CO2 emissions are significantly higher compared to using renewable/clean sources of energy ( i.e. non-combustible sources such as solar, wind and hydraulic sources).  Holmberg and Erdemir (2019) conducted a study to compare the CO2 emission from combustible and non-combustible sources to charge electric vehicles. They found that when charging the car from a source using coal, the emission is 180 g/km, from oil 151 g/km, from natural gas 84 g/km, compared to 8 g/km for solar photovoltaics and geothermal energy and  1–3 g/km, when the electricity source is biomass, nuclear, wind, hydro or concentrated solar power. Even though the amount of emission produced depends on the material used to generate the energy, coal still accounts for roughly 25% of the world energy supply and 40% of the carbon emissions (Nejat, Jomehzadeh, Taheri, Gohari, & Abd Majid, 2015).  As about two-thirds of the world’s total electric power is generated from fossil fuels, electric cars ultimately consume mostly fossil fuels (M. S., & Thomas, I. L. 2001).  

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

To mitigate the increased load on power plant and the resultant CO2 emission, the integration of renewable energy sources for power production and a Regenerative Braking System in EVs will go a long way to reduce the dependency on non-renewable energy sources. Regenerative braking is an efficient technology that improves the efficiency of electric vehicles. Substantial energy savings are in fact achievable, from 8% to as much as 25% of the total energy use of the vehicle, as demonstrated by Xu, Li, Xu, & Song (2011). The system utilizes an electric motor, providing negative torque to the driven wheels and converting kinetic energy to electrical energy when brakes are applied. The electrical energy produced in the process is then used to recharge the battery. 

 Electric Vehicles: Load on the Power Grid

The load on power grids increases as more people switch to EVs.  An increase in EVs means more recharging activities, which increases the power demand on the power grids, and potentially a need for additional power plants to bear the load.  A study conducted by Van Vliet and Faaij (2011), shows that at 30% switch to EVs, uncoordinated charging would increase the national peak load by 7% and household peak load by 54%, which may exceed the capacity of existing electricity distribution infrastructure. This could increase the operational cost of power plants which will then be transferred to the consumer.  However, this problem can be remediated if off-peak charging is successfully introduced. The notion of off-peak charging is one in which the charging of EVs is done during the period when the demand on the grid from other items such as offices and industries is low. The time of the day when off-peak charging is optimally efficient is typically at night.  By opting for off-peak charging, additional generation capacity will not be required from the grids for driving electric, even in case of 100% switch to electric vehicles.

Electric Vehicles and Battery Range

Most people assume that EVs can take them to about anywhere they want to be.  The reality is that the battery of the EV has to be charged almost every 150 miles, highlighting the relatively short battery range of electric EVs.  In addition, it takes a long time to recharge it, usually for several hours.  The long charging time and short range of the battery are major drawbacks.  For short distance driving, this is not a major issue, but for long-distance driving, it is a major one (Adler, Mirchandani, Xue, & Xia,2014).

To overcome the long charging time and short range of the batteries, EV industries have come up with a new concept of battery “swapping stations” (Mak, Rong, & Shen, 2013). At this swapping stations, the users are able to exchange their drained batteries for a fully recharged one during a long trip.  However, these swapping stations need to be strategically located to make this system more efficient.  For this purpose, they have to be located between the origin and destination of the traveler (i.e along the trip trajectory)  to avoid unnecessary and long detours when the users need to swap their batteries.


In conclusion, the perception of conventional electric cars as eco-friendly is demystified by their high dependency on power plants and the CO2 emission that results from the increased load on those power plants.  They also have a relatively short battery range, which implies their limitation when it comes to long trips.


Adler, J. D., Mirchandani, P. B., Xue, G., & Xia, M. (2014). The Electric Vehicle Shortest-Walk Problem With Battery Exchanges. Networks and Spatial Economics, 16(1), 155-173.doi:10.1007/s11067-013-9221-7

Darabi, Z., & Ferdowsi, M. (2012). Impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on electricity               demand profile. Smart Power Grids 2011, 319-349. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-21578-0_11

Mak, H., Rong, Y., & Shen, Z. M. (2013). Infrastructure Planning for Electric Vehicles with Battery Swapping. Management Science, 59(7), 1557-1575. doi:10.1287/mnsc.1120.1672

Nejat, P., Jomehzadeh, F., Taheri, M. M., Gohari, M., & Abd. Majid, M. Z. (2015). A global review of energy consumption, CO 2 emissions and policy in the residential sector (with an overview of the top ten CO 2 emitting countries). Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 43, 843-862. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2014.11.066

Van Vliet, O., Brouwer, A. S., Kuramochi, T., Van den Broek, M., & Faaij, A. (2011). Energy use, cost and CO2 emissions of electric cars. Journal of Power Sources, 196(4), 2298-2310. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.09.119

Holmberg, K., & Erdemir, A. (2019). The impact of tribology on energy use and CO2 emission globally and in combustion engine and electric cars. Tribology International, 135, 389-396. doi:10.1016/j.triboint.2019.03.024

Xu, G., Li, W., Xu, K., & Song, Z. (2011). An Intelligent Regenerative Braking Strategy for Electric Vehicles. Energies, 4(9), 1461-1477. doi:10.3390/en4091461


The Use of Supercapacitor in Electric Vehicles


Currently, about one quarter of world energy-related CO2 emissions caused by transport. With the increasing demand of mobility, that number will become even worse especially in developing countries. According to research, transport will release about 33% of global GHG emissions by 2050 (The World Bank, 2016). Because of the increasing amount of GHG emissions, the global temperature is very likely to keep increasing. Thus, it is time to do something to reduce the GHG emissions caused by transport. Driving electric cars could be a solution. Electric vehicles (EVs) may seem like something for future since people already get used to drive gasoline powered cars for so many years especially for my generation. However, it has been more than 100 years since the first known electric car being introduced. By looking at the history of electric vehicles, it is easy to conclude that the development of battery technology plays a major role in terms of the faith of electric vehicles. Currently, the most common battery used in electric vehicles is Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries. However, researchers at the University of Surrey indicated that they believed that the supercapacitor is a new alternative to battery power, which allows electric cars to travel similar distances as gasolines cars for a single charge with an extremely short recharge time. Therefore, in this project, I am going to mainly focus on how supercapacitor could be used in EVs (Njolinjo, 2018).

Project Goal

As mentioned above, this project focus on the use of supercapacitor in EVs. Thus, it is essential to understand these two concepts (supercapacitor & EVs). The main body will start with the historical context of EVs and the current technology being used. It is also crucial to compare the performance between current battery technology and supercapacitor to determine if supercapacitor is a batter choice for EVs. Moreover, the technical difficulties of replacing battery with supercapacitors should also be analyzed. Last but not least, a financial analysis of using supercapacitor in electric vehicles is also important because it directly impact if it is feasible to replace current battery technology with supercapacitor. Overall, the goal of this project is to understand supercapacitor and to see how it could be used in EVs and whether it is worthwhile to use. 

Research Approach

History of EVs

Before getting into the main part, just to be clear that only Battery EVs will be analyzed in this project. Hybrid EVs and Fuel Cells EVs are not included.

Instead of using gasoline motors, EVs are those use electric motors. EVs may seem like something for future since people already get used to driving gasoline-powered cars for so many years, especially for my generation. However, it has been more than 100 years since the first known electric car being introduced. Different resources claim differently in terms of the one who created the very first EV. However, it is sure that EVs came up in early 1800s (Matulka, n.d.). By 1900, about one third of all vehicles on the road are electric vehicles. The market share of electric continued to expand for the next decade. Electric cars quickly became popular in urban areas because they were quiet, easy to drive and more importantly did not pollute the air by emitting smelly gas. However, all electric cars disappeared by 1935 for several reasons. First of all, the electric starter was introduced in 1908, which eliminates the need for the hand crank for gasoline powered cars. In addition, gas became cheap and available when the Texas crude oil being discovered. Moreover, the high cost of an electric car was almost two times more expensive than a gasoline car. Electric cars stayed in the dark ages for more than three decades due to the lack of technology improvement (Chan, 2007). The incredibly high gasoline price in the 1970s drove electric cars back into customers’ attention.  However, electric vehicles had limited performance due to the limit range it can go. Fast forward to 1990s, people started to have an environmental concern of gasoline cars, and that gave electric cars a chance to regain the market share. People suggested that the introduction of the Toyota Prius in 1997 was the turning point because the Prius was the first electric car that being mass-produced. For the following 10 years, Prius was the best-selling hybrid in the world (Matulka, n.d.). With the development of battery technology, the luxury electric car can go up to 300 miles on a single charge.  High gasoline price and environmental concern give the electric vehicles more possibility for the future. Nowadays, EVs play an important role in the car sharing system. Even though users need to travel for longer distances, EV is a good choice because the user can change to another fully charged EV at the midway service station with the help of better infrastructure (Chan, 2007). After having a basic understanding of the history, it is reasonable to state that the development of Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs) and battery technology directly affect the rise and fall of EVs. 

Comparison Between ICEs and EVs

By analyzing the history of EVs, it is obvious that the public was making decisions between these two types of vehicles. The dark time for EVs was the heyday for gasoline powered cars. In other words, the fall of EVs was partially because of the development of ICEs. According to Table 1, the market shares of EVs were continuing to increase in the past five years for the majority of the countries listed below. However, even though the overall trend was exciting, the actual market shares were still very tiny except for Norway. The ICEs are still dominated the market. Therefore, it is necessary to figure out why ICEs could take charge of the market for such a long time.

Table 1. Electric Cars Market Shares by Country, 2005-2016. Source: International Energy Agency

Advantages of ICEs– High Energy of Gasoline

Table 2. Energy Per gram

Source: Physics and Technology for Future Presidents by Richard A. Muller


As Table 2 shows, it is surprisingly to notice the significantly amount of energy per gram that gasoline contains compared to other resources, and that is why gasoline is so valuable and useful as fuel. Compared to auto battery per gram, gasoline contains 340 times more energy. Thus, the high energy that gasoline has is the fundamental physics reason why gasoline is so popular. Even though only 20% of the energy of gasoline converted to wheel energy and comparing the efficiency of battery (85%), gasoline is still roughly 80 times better than auto battery in terms of energy used (Muller, 2012). In other words, batteries are only 80 times worse than gasoline when both energy and efficiency are considered. This number is small enough for electric cars to be feasible but still large enough for battery-powered cars to compete.

Advantages of ICEs – Infrastructure & Technology

Infrastructure is one of the biggest advantages that ICEs have because gas stations and repair shops are almost everywhere. Moreover, due to the increasing demand, more and more infrastructure will be built. The infrastructure makes it convenient to own a gas car. Whenever there is a need to refuel, drivers do not need to look far to find the gas station. Within a few minutes, the gas car is ready to travel another 300 miles or more. However, it takes hours for EVs to recharge, and not to mention that most EVs usually travel a shorter distance compared with ICEs before its next recharge. It is true that people can charge anywhere when they have electricity. However, it is not good to recharge before it needed because charge whenever the electricity is available will cause the battery die sooner. Moreover, the average repairing time for EVs could be longer than ICEs due to the lack of repairing stores. Comparing with EVs, the technology of ICEs is more mature and easier for the public to understand and accept.

Advantage of ICEs – Lower Cost and Longer Travel Distance

The cost will be taken into consideration for the majority of people when considering purchase a vehicle.  According to Kelly Blue Book, the average new car price was $36,113 in 2017. It is worth to mention that that number took EVs into consideration. Considering EVs only made up less than 2% of the market, there was not a big problem by treating the average selling price for all cars as the selling price of gasoline cars. Even though the price is continuing to increase, the initial cost of buying a gasoline-powered car is still lower than buying an EV when the average price for EVs was just about $50,000. Keep that initial purchasing cost in mind and take a look at how far both ICEs and EVs can go before they need a refuel or recharge. According to Yurday (2018), EVs can travel 180 miles on average on a single charge. However, that number goes up to 400 miles when we talk about gasoline cars. People may ask themselves why they would spend more money on an EV that can only go 180 miles before they consider the difference between EVs and ICEs on operating and maintenance costs. It is worth to mention that the average cost to drive an EV in the United States is $485 every year, but that number climbs to $1117 for ICEs based on the report by Michael Sivak and Brandon Schoettle from The University of Michigan Sustainable Worldwide Transportation in 2018. However, the replacement cost of a battery was not considered when they calculated that number. Car batteries cannot last forever. According to Zart, the average price of a car battery pack is $209/kWh in 2017, and that number needs to decrease to $100/kWh in order to be comparable with normal gasoline powered cars (2017).

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

By summarizing this section, the high energy that gasoline contains is the fundamental physic reason why ICEs dominated the market for such long time. Moreover, the developed infrastructure and mature technology is another important reason why ICEs make up almost 99% of the market. Last but not least, the lower cost of ICEs offers the customers the biggest reason to choose them instead of the EVs with higher cost and lower travel range. However, nothing can last forever. There is a possibility that EVs could become the leader of the industry for various reasons. For the next section, I would like to discuss the advantages of EVs.

Advantage of EVs – Decreasing Overall Cost

As mentioned above, one of the biggest reasons why ICEs dominated the market is gasoline powered cars cost much less at this point. However, it is undeniable that the cost for owing an EV is also decreasing with the development of the technology as shown in Figure 2. More importantly, based on the prediction, buying an electric vehicle is almost the same as purchasing a normal gasoline-powered car by mid-2020s.

Figure 2. Source: https://ilsr.org/report-electric-vehicles/

On the other hand, the price of gasoline is going up with the increasing demand and limited resources. When the gasoline is no longer cheap, the cost of operating a gas car will soar up. According to Figure 3, the overall trend of the gasoline price is increasing. Thus, it is not hard to predict that the cost of gasoline will keep increasing in the future. One day, the cost of driving a gasoline car and an EV would be almost the same. For those who are price sensitive, they may purchase an EV in the near future. Lastly, the compensation from the government is another advantage that the EV have in terms of cost.

Figure 3. Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 Source: https://www.energy.gov/eere/vehicles/fact-915-march-7-2016-average-historical-annual-gasoline-pump-price-1929-2015

Currently, gasoline-powered cars filled the market because of the advantages that I mentioned above. However, gasoline-powered cars may lose its competitive advantages and markets with the development of battery technology and the decreasing overall cost of having an EV. 

The Development of Car Battery Technology


The most important part of an EV is its battery. The development of car battery technology directly affects the rise and fall of electric vehicles. In the late 1800s, electric car batteries were made up by many non-rechargeable cells in the first place. But it soon was replaced by rechargeable lead-acid cells (A Short History of Electric Car Batteries, 2017). As mentioned before, electric cars became the most popular cars on the road for being quiet, easy to operate and environmental-friendly.  For the following half century, there was not a big improvement on car batteries, and that was the main reason why electric cars disappeared for such a long time. In the 1970s, with the development of higher-density batteries (Nickel-Cadmium cells), electric cars returned to the public’s sight. However, it did not last long because cadmium is toxic. Furthermore, Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH) batteries were being introduced because of the even higher energy-dense and toxic free. However, NiMH was not helped a lot because it was too heavy to carry. At this moment, Lithium-ion and Lithium-Iron-Phosphate cells are the highest –density batteries (300% to 400% more density than LA batteries) and the most common batteries used in electric cars (A Short History of Electric Car Batteries, 2017). Based on the timeline of car batteries that mentioned above, it is clear that the fate of electric vehicles is closely related to the development of car batteries. Whenever there is an improvement on car batteries, electric vehicles got a chance to return to the market. However, only significant battery technology improvement could help electric vehicles to continue to grow in the market. The past 20 years has been the most significant period for electric vehicles since it first boom in the 1900s. EVs would not be able to reborn without the development of batteries technology. Now, it is the time to focus on current batteries technology.

Even though some recent research indicates that Li-Fe phosphate (LiFePO4) has a better performance under real-world driving conditions, Lithium-ion Battery is still the most common one to use today due to its high energy density, charge retention, and low maintenance (Global Electric Vehicle (EV) Battery Market by Battery Type, Vehicle Technology, Vehicle Type and Region (2014-2025): CAGR to Grow at Over 19% During 2018-2025., 2019) . More importantly, the production technology of LiB cells and packs has achieved a significant improvement in the last five years (Kwade et al., 2018). Creating a safe battery with high performance and low cost is always the goal for experts and technologists.  However, it is not easy due to the complexity of LiB batteries. It is not only because designing batteries consists a large number of consecutive process steps, but also the material selection and transforming the process from lab scale to massive production scale (Kwade et al., 2018). Other than that, battery lifetime and temperature range also need to be taken into consideration. Currently, depends on different auto brands and models, the lifetime of LiB batteries can last about 8 to 15 years, and adapt the temperature difference from -40C to 60C or even 80C. Moreover, it is not a problem for some luxury electric vehicles travel more than 300 miles on a single charge, and number various depends on models and brands (Bettencourt, 2017).  Of course, the cost is also various based on different characteristics and performance. There is a no doubt that the advancement of battery technology is the fundamental reason for electrical vehicles to gain more market shares.

SWOT Analysis of Lithium-ion Batteries (to be continued)





–          High gravimetric energy

–          High power densities

–          High Coulomb efficiencies – close to 100%

–          High energy efficiency

–          High-capacity utilisation at high current rates

–          Necessity for very high quality in the production process

–          Relatively higher costs



﷐         Lithium sources are limited to few countries in South America

Source: Budde-Meiwes, H., Drillkens, J., Lunz, B., Muennix, J., Rothgang, S., Kowal, J., & Sauer, D. U. (2013). A review of current automotive battery technology and future prospects. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 227(5), 761–776. https://doi.org/10.1177/0954407013485567

SWOT Analysis of Supercapacitors (to be continued)





–          Deliver energy very quickly at high current rates

–          Very high power density

–          Long cycle lifetime (>500,000 full cycles)

–          No maintenance is required

–          Low energy density

–          High cost (15,000e/kWh)



–          Lower weight

–          Other technologies are more mature

–          Less cost-effective

Source: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=

More information: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eap.2018.08.003  

Results / Analysis

Advantages and disadvantages of supercapacitors compared with Lithium – ion battery

Parameters can be compared:

–          Cost

–          Cycle lifetime

–          Energy density

–          Power density

–          Energy efficiency

More information can be found at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3945924/


Financial Feasibility

Cost and ROI should be take into consideration when considering its feasibility of replacing battery with supercapacitor. More research needed

Interpretation and Conclusions

–          It should be clear at this point that if supercapacitor is a good alternative for EVs.

–          Environmental impacts should also be mentioned here


Budde-Meiwes, H., Drillkens, J., Lunz, B., Muennix, J., Rothgang, S., Kowal, J., & Sauer, D. U. (2013). A review of current automotive battery technology and future prospects. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 227(5), 761–776. https://doi.org/10.1177/0954407013485567

Chan, C. C. (2007). The state of the art of electric, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles. Proceedings of the IEEE, 95(4), 704-718. doi:10.1109/JPROC.2007.892489

Cole, S., Hertem, D. V., Meeus, L., & Bellman, R. (2005, December 18). SWOT analysis of utility-side energy storage technologies. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=

Global Electric Vehicle (EV) Battery Market by Battery Type, Vehicle Technology, Vehicle Type and Region (2014-2025): CAGR to Grow at Over 19% During 2018-2025. (2019, February 26). M2 Presswire. Retrieved from http://link.galegroup.com.arktos.nyit.edu/apps/doc/A575923476/ITOF?u=nysl_li_nyinstc&sid=ITOF&xid=c8951d96

Horn, M., MacLeod, J., Liu, M., Webb, J., & Motta, N. (2019). Supercapacitors: A new source of power for electric cars? Economic Analysis and Policy, 61, 93-103. doi:10.1016/j.eap.2018.08.003 

Kwade, A., Haselrieder, W., Leithoff, R., Modlinger, A., Dietrich, F., & Droeder, K. (2018). Current status and challenges for automotive battery production technologies. Nature Energy, 3(4), 290-300. doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0130-3

Leaders Call for Global Action to Reduce Transport’s Climate Footprint. (2016, May 6). Retrieved February 12, 2019, from http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2016/05/05/leaders-call-for-global-action-to-reduce-transports-climate-footprint

Matulka, R. (n.d.). The History of the Electric Car. Retrieved March 26, 2019, from https://www.energy.gov/articles/history-electric-car

Naoi, K., Naoi, W., Aoyagi, S., Miyamoto, J., & Kamino, T. (2013). New generation “nanohybrid supercapacitor”. Accounts of Chemical Research, 46(5), 1075.

Njolinjo, D. (2018, February 26). Alternative to traditional batteries moves a step closer to reality after exciting progress in supercapacitor technology. Retrieved February 12, 2019, from https://www.surrey.ac.uk/news/alternative-traditional-batteries-moves-step-closer-reality-after-exciting-progress

Vlad, A., Singh, N., Rolland, J., Melinte, S., Ajayan, P. M., & Gohy, J. F. (2014). Hybrid supercapacitor-battery materials for fast electrochemical charge storage. Scientific reports, 4, 4315. doi:10.1038/srep04315

Zhang, L. L., & Zhao, X. S. (2009). Carbon-based materials as supercapacitor electrodes. Chemical Society Reviews, 38(9), 2520. doi:10.1039/b813846j

Zuo, W., Li, R., Zhou, C., Li, Y., Xia, J., & Liu, J. (2017). Battery‐Supercapacitor hybrid devices: Recent progress and future prospects. Advanced Science, 4(7), 1600539-n/a. doi:10.1002/advs.201600539


Hybrid Vehicles and Alternative Fuels

Hybrid vehicles alternative fuels are a key part in reducing pollution. Many people do not realize what might happen if alternative methods of transportation are not developed in the near future. Development of hybrid vehicles is growing more important with each passing day. With no end in sight for lower prices of gasoline much of society is beginning to feel the economic squeeze. Hybrid vehicles could help reduce emissions, and reduce dependence on foreign oil thus taking society out of crude oil chokehold.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

Hybrid vehicles, when one thinks of them many things may come to mind, things such as small, ugly, not “cool,” but one needs to look beyond the exterior and what the benefits are. Hybrid vehicles could possibly be one of the most important elements to the future habitation of this planet. Resources are being depleted and used up. Resources that are everyday occurrences for society such as oil, coal, and many other resources that are being depleted, and need to be replaced with other viable solutions for energy. Energy sources such as wind fields, solar panels, and many other new option are growing more and more important each day.
However, nothing seems to be more daunting than the oil crisis that looms over most of the world. Oil prices continue to grow every day, causing an economic squeeze on many lower income families. “Over the next 30 years oil demand is expected to grow by 60%” (Dooly, Fitzpatrick, & Lewis, 2007, p.657). Also, not to mention the pollution problem that continues to grow daily, with pollution rates rising steadily and no end in sight society is swiftly approaching crisis mode. “With the introduction of modern passenger cars and vastly increased demand for power, the twentieth century saw rapid increases in the use of fossil fuels” (Dooly, Fitzpatrick, & Lewis, 2007, p.657). This may not surprise many people, as it is widely known that sport utility vehicles (SUV’s) have been the option to fulfill societies need for power. This increase in vehicles is promoting the growing pollution problem; the increased burning of fossil fuels has pollution rates growing higher with each passing day.
Nevertheless, as it is thought that the increase of use of fossil fuels has only been a problem for the past twenty years, this problem was getting a head start over 150 years ago. According to Dooly, Fitzpatrick, and Lewis (2007, p.657) “since the industrial revolution in the mid 1800s worldwide energy consumption has been growing steadily.” This is shocking to think that that long ago pollution was already beginning to grow.
With the growing talk of global warming and its effects on the earth, and its surroundings, the thought thereof is intimidating alone. Over the past several years scientists have done extensive research into global warming. Research has varied greatly from scientific group to group, one side saying that it is real and is happening, and the other saying that there is not enough supporting evidence to confirm the theory of global warming. Yet on the other hand, the majority of society does know one thing, that pollution, whether from factories, cars, or any other business establishment belching out smoke, cannot be a good thing.
In contrast to the gloom and doom of pollution and how it can affect the earth, and several aspects of life, now begins the adventurous quest to make the world a better place. Not only for the present, but also for the future inhabitants of this earth. Reversing pollution problems cannot and will not be done overnight, and it will most certainly not be done by just one person. To reverse this deepening rut that has been dug, it will take a combined effort of nations to make a difference. One might ask why the word adventurous is used to describe reversing this cycle of pollution. As of now there really is no catalyst to begin ending the cycle and begin with the newer greener lifestyle. There are still, however, many things that can make a great impact. To give an example on how far things have gone in the wrong direction in the mode of travel and vehicle use is best summed up by Briggs, Hoogh, Morris, and Gulliver (2008, p.12) “nationally the trips made on foot has declined by more than 20% since the early 1990s” this is a good example how the vehicle use has grown by a great margin in the past ten years.
When there is a decrease in trips made on foot, bicycle, or even subway or train, there has to be an increase somewhere in travel. This increase more often than not occurs in an increase made by a motor vehicle. The increase in travel has made a global impact on many things. The increase in demand of oil, and increased emissions affects many other elements of everyday life. Obviously asking to completely reduce trips made by vehicle is a lot to ask. It may be too much, especially with the fast paced lifestyle. It cannot go unnoticed by society; trips are being made more frequently, and for longer distances. It is expected that European transport is to grow greatly in transportation, in both road, and air transport (Van Mierlo, & Maggetto, 2006).
On the upside of all of this negative talk, rest assured that there is something being done. Over the past fifteen to twenty years many advances have been made to reduce emissions in vehicles. Many new fuels are being tried and developed in an effort to find viable solutions to gasoline (crude oil). This process is a slow moving operation amid much trial and error, and brick walls, nonetheless breakthroughs have been experienced. As of now there is not only one, but several fuels that have potential for being the next gasoline. Talk of methanol, ethanol, hydrogen, electric, and many other lower priority fuels that have essentially not been given the recognition that the others have. Not only would a new fuel such as ethanol. Help reduce dependence on foreign oil, but the other advantage would be lower emissions.
Romm stated: Alternative fuel vehicles (AFV’s) face two central problems. First, they typically suffer from several marketplace disadvantages compared to conventional vehicles running on conventional fuels. Hence, they probably require government incentives or mandates to succeed. Second, they typically do not provide cost-effective solutions to major energy and environmental problems, which undermines the policy case for having the government intervene in the marketplace to support them (2006, p. 2610).
These are important issues to the hybrid cause because it is an opposition, which will make it tougher to make hybrid vehicles and have them catch on. The road for hybrid vehicles and alternative fuels is not going to be an easy one.
Ethanol is probably one of the alternative fuels that is at the forefront of the race, and making the strongest bid to become the next solution to gasoline. Ethanol has done several good things since it has started. Ethanol is taken from corn. This alone most likely is going make the market for corn better than it has been in the past couple of years. Corn is also expected to reach peak prices in the near future. However, there are two sides to the story of ethanol. While none of it has been confirmed as of yet, it is claimed that cost of production of ethanol and transporting it that it actually ends up being more expensive to use. Farrell et al., (2006, p. 506) also said “whether manufacturing ethanol takes more nonrenewable energy than the resulting fuel provides. It has long been that the calculations of net energy are highly sensitive to assumptions.” Could this be a futile enterprise to produce this fuel? While much of this has not been given proper analysis by professionals in the field, it is still something one would need to keep in mind, should a time of consideration of buying an ethanol burning vehicle arise. Another downside to ethanol is that when it comes to fueling arrangements, stations that carry it are mostly in the Midwest, after that, fill ups are few and far between.
Biodiesel is an alternative fuel source that is being tested. Research continues to be conducted to improve it; it has already been tested and works. New ways to produce it are on the horizon. Producing it from soybeans is an option but not yet thoroughly researched and developed. “For the diesel engine seed-oil bio-fuels have been widely examined across the world, as a suitable alternative” (Crookes, 2006, p. 461). One of the neat things about biodiesel is that it can be made and refined at home. Used oil from deep fryers at restaurants can be used to make biodiesel. All of this sounds really great, but the bad thing with biodiesel is that it does not have the octane that comes with regular diesel. There are other disadvantages to biodiesel as well, For instance, in colder climates it does not function as well as regular diesel. The same can be said for towing with biodiesel it just does not have the power. While there are some cold hard facts about biodiesel, it is still a vital component to reducing dependence on foreign oil.
“The hydrogen economy has received increasing attention recently” (Waegel, Byrne, Tobin, & Haney, 2006, p. 288). This is for good reason too. Hydrogen is a fuel that if it is made to work will greatly reduce environmental impacts. Hydrogen has potential to be a great alternative fuel, if it pans out. “Whether the hydrogen is produced by steam reforming of natural gas, wind electrolysis, or coal gasification. Most benefits would result from eliminating current vehicle exhaust” (Jacobson, Colella, & Golden, 2005, p.1901). Development however for hydrogen is not at its best. On a good note if hydrogen becomes a viable fuel, it would be a zero emissions fuel. If there is a significant number of people using hydrogen fuel vehicles in the future, a great decrease in emissions would inevitably follow. Although all of this sounds wonderful and dandy, there is a darker side to hydrogen. It is not fully developed, and this writer does not believe it will be in the near future. Hydrogen is still extremely expensive. According to Waegel, Byrne, Tobin, and Haney, (2006, p. 289) “in terms of economics, hydrogen from natural gas is 50 % to 100% more than an equivalent amount of gasoline.” That is bad news for hydrogen, not to mention the price of transportation of hydrogen which also is expensive. Hydrogen most definitely has its work cut out for itself.
Electric vehicles are next on the list of possible solutions as an alternative fuel. Even though it is not necessarily a fuel, it is still an alternate mode of transportation. Electric vehicles have many good qualities they do not put out emissions, and they are quiet. Both of those qualities are good for city living. Some experts believe that electric vehicles are going to be an integral part in reducing pollution. With proper engineering, this is quite possible. The most likely hybrid car in the foreseeable future is the electric vehicle with less fuel consumption, and reduced emissions. Minimal change in vehicle styles means that the safety would not be compromised, and nothing resulting in job loss (Romm, 2006). Electric most definitely has a strong place in this market. In fact electric cars may be starting to be seen more often. Especially in cities where transportation does not require going a great distance to do everyday tasks such as getting groceries, going to school, and things of that nature. With the new advantages in electric technology, businesses that need outdoor transportation are more likely to turn to electric vehicles rather than the traditional four-wheeler, or other all-terrain-vehicle. It is extremely plausible that electric vehicles will be popping up all over the world. Electric will be a contributor as an alternative fuel.
Altogether there are various fuels that have a good chance of being the next gasoline. Ones such as electric do not have a chance to be a permanent option to gasoline. Electric will however be a large contributor. Keep in mind that these research efforts and new ideas for fuel are not intended to completely factor out gasoline. Gasoline will always be used for some application. What these new fuels are intended to do is reduce dependence on foreign oil, and help decrease gasoline prices while reducing pollution at the same time (Waegel, Byrne, Tobin, & Haney).
The next order of business is to get to the actual vehicles themselves. Contrary to what one might think, a hybrid car is not a new concept; in fact it is probably older than what most people think
Many people think that hybrid vehicles are a very recent development, but many would be surprised at how old the concept really is. The history of hybrid vehicles goes back to 1665. Between that year and 1825, Flemish Jesuit priest and astronomer Ferdinand Verbiest created plans for a steam “car” for Chinese Emperor Khang Hsi, Frenchman Nicholas Cugnot built a steam-powered motor carriage capable of six miles per hour, and British inventor Goldsworthy Gurney built a steam car that successfully completed an 85-mile journey in ten hours. In 1839, Robert Anderson of Aberdeen, Scotland, built the first electric vehicle (Griffin, & Shen, 2007, p.177).
General Motors (GM) has made its mark on hybrid history. “Most of the early work by General Motors was due to the concern for increasing price of gasoline at the time of the oil embargo.” (Rajashekara, 1993, p.447) GM also had the first electric fuel cell vehicle in the Electro van, and also had an electric truck for military application. (Rajashekara, 1993)
Contrary to what some people may think, research on hybrid vehicles started more than three-hundred years ago. Now evidently they began working with steam technology because they had no knowledge or the resources to create an internal combustion engine. When it is thought about for a short period of time, steam technology for the first steam boats had to have been tested on land before put to use on water. Therefore the first steam car advancements should not be thrown out as worthless for they did lay the groundwork for other future uses. Even when Rudolf Diesel invented the diesel engine, it was meant to run on peanut oil! This however did not turn out so that they ran peanut oil in it, because at the time diesel was cheaper to process. Now with the ever higher price of diesel, refining used restaurant oil to use in diesel engines is beginning to take on.
Now that the history of hybrid vehicles is taken care of, it is time to get to the flesh of the issue, hybrid vehicles. Hybrid vehicles will be the most essential component to reducing pollution, and end the vicious cycle that has been started. Hybrid vehicles have grown by leaps and bounds over the past ten years. New prototypes are being worked on researched, and developed daily. However they do not always get a good review. Hybrid vehicles tend to be somewhat smaller than conventional vehicles. This condition tends to make people think somewhat differently about them. “Hybrids pose no more danger in a collision than do conventional vehicles.” (Griffin, & Shen, 2007, p. 178) Also people who drive them are wrongfully stereotyped, stereotyped into being some sort of environmentalist democrat wanting to ban firearms, impose noise ordinances, and do anything they can to keep people from having any fun. Well this is just not true. It is negative images like this that can throw an effort to promote hybrid vehicles askew. Hybrids are important in every aspect of a green future. Fewer emissions, cleaner air, reduced dependence on foreign oil and better gas mileage, are all benefits that are at stake if hybrid vehicles never catch on.
Research was done to by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by conducting a survey in the years 2003, and 2005, to find out influenced them to buy their hybrid vehicles, the survey results are illustrated below.
Graph 1. Share of respondents
The results appear to be not much different from year to year. These are however the most common reasons why hybrid vehicles are purchased, and with no surprises, saving money on gas at the head of the pack. The above results are promising ones. They show hope for the future of hybrid vehicles.
Now what exactly makes a hybrid vehicle a hybrid vehicle? Hybrid vehicles are just that they are hybrids not only in a sense of how they are powered but also in other aspects in addition to having a power source other than that of gasoline or diesel. Many key elements and time consuming research go into developing a hybrid vehicle. For starters, weight reduction is a key component to making a hybrid vehicle. Even when using a conventional fuel, weight reduction should be given close attention. “The demand for weight reductions in automobiles has been increasing in recent years because of global environmental issues.” (Saito, Iwatsuki, Yasunaga, & Ando, 2000, p. 516) Toyota has done something extremely great by making the Prius. The Prius is a type of hybrid car that runs on both electric and internal combustion engines. The Prius when starting from a complete stop runs solely on battery power, and at low speeds from 5 to 20 miles per hour, it also runs on battery. When it reaches higher speeds the gasoline engine kicks in to assist. The Prius is said to get 40 to 50 miles per gallon. The battery will not run dead because when the gasoline engine turns on it runs the alternator and charges the battery. While companies like Ford, Chevrolet, and others have made their mark on the hybrid economy, Ford with the Escape, and Chevrolet with the new hybrid Yukon, none of them have had quite the impact that Toyota has.
When it comes down to it, it is hard to describe how very important hybrid vehicles will be to the future. Hybrid vehicles hold the key to a cleaner environment, and lessening dependence on foreign oil. As of now hybrids do not have the popularity in the world that is needed. If the world continues to pollute at the rate it is going at now, the implications will be serious. More effort is needed from everyone to make this world a better place, and while hybrid vehicles are going to be extremely important, that is not the only thing that can be done. If one is not in a position to be able to drive a hybrid vehicle, other opportunities are out there to help the environment. Recycling is something that always helps the environment, and doing things such as walking, riding a bike, or even taking the bus can have bigger impact than is thought. This writer concludes that hybrid vehicles are an integral part of making a greener environment. Without them, along with the increasing rate of pollution, many countries are headed on a crash course for disaster.
Briggs, B.J., Hoogh, K., Morris, C., & Gulliver, J. (2008). Effects of travel mode on exposures to particulate air pollution. Environmental International, 34, 12-22. Retrieved February 30, 2008, from Science Direct.
Crookes, R.J. (2006). Comparative bio-fuel performance in internal combustion engines. Biomass & Bioenergy,30, 461-468. Retrieved February 17, 2008, from Science Direct.
Dooly, G., Fitzpatrick, C., & Lewis, E. (2008). Optical sensing of hazardous exhaust emissions using a UV based extrinsic sensor. Energy, 33, 657-666. Retrieved May 30, 2008, from Science Direct.
Farrell, A.E., Plevin, R.J., Turner, B.T., Jones, A.D., O’Hare, M., & Kammen, D.M. (2006). Ethanol can contribute to energy and environmental goals. Science, 311, 506-508. Retrieved February 8, 2008, from www.sciencemag.org.
Griffin, M.D., & Shen, Q. (2007). Hybrid vehicles- are university students in North Alabama ready to buy them? Journal of Alabama Academy of Science, 78,175-178. Retrieved February 20, 2008 from IEEE
Jacobson, M.Z., Colella, W.G., & Golden, D.M. (2005). Cleaning the air and improving health with hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles. Science, 308, 1901-1905. Retrieved March 5, 2008, from www.sciencemag.org.
Rajashekara, K. (1993). History of electric vehicles in General Motors. 447-454. Retrieved February 15, 2008, from IEEE
Romm, J. (2006). The car and fuel of the future. Energy policy, 34, 2609-2614. Retrieved February 27, 2008, from Science Direct.
Saito, M., Iwatsuki, S., Yasunaga, K., & Andoh, K. (2000). Development of aluminum body for the most fuel efficient vehicle. JSAE review, 21, 511-516. Retrieved March 1, 2008, from Science Direct.
U.S. Department of Energy. (2006). Why purchase a hybrid vehicle? Retrieved April 15, 2008, from http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/2006_fact_fotw417.html
Van Mierlo, J., & Maggetto, G. (2007). Fuel cell or battery: Electric cars are the future. Fuel cells, 2, 165-173. Retrieved February 18, from Wiley interscience.
Waegel, A., Byrne, J., Tobin, D., & Haney, B. (2006). Hydrogen highways: Lessons on the energy technology-policy interface. Bulletin of science, technology & society 26, 288-298, from Science Direct.

Real Time Implementation of Embedded Devices as a Security System in Intelligent Vehicles

Real time implementation of Embedded devices as a security system in Intelligent vehicles connected via Vanets.


Article Info


Article history:

Received Jun 9, 2016

Revised Nov 20, 2016

Accepted Dec 11, 2016

The fast boom of technology has made our lives easier. The number of computer based functions embedded in cars have multiplied extensively over the past two decades. These days, many embedded sensors allowing localization and verbal exchange are being advanced to enhance reliability, protection and define new exploitation modes in intelligent guided transports. An in-car embedded electronic architecture is a complex setup machine, the improvement of that particular system is related to unique manufacturers and providers. There are several factors required in an efficient and secure system along with protection features, real time monitoring, reliability, robustness, and many other integrated features[1-2].

The appearance of modern era has also expanded the use of vehicles and its associated dangers. Dangers and the road accidents take place often which causes loss of lives and assets due to the bad emergency centres, lack of safety features and limitations within devices embedded within a vehicle. A rpm-speed calculating device can be used in a vehicle such that risku situations while driving can be detected. A system with Ultra sonic sensor can be used as a crash detector of the automobile in the course of the event and also after a crash. With indicators from the device, extreme coincidences also can be recognized. .As the amount of urban automobile grows automobile theft has become a shared difficulty for all citizens. As a solution an antitheft system can be implemented using PIR motion sensors where the system can be attached to the peripheral surface of the vehicle. When these sensors are interfaced with Arduino microcontroller an efficient and reliable security system can be developed[3].


Embedded systems

Vehicle security






The excessive demand of vehicles has elevated the user risks and road injuries. This design is a system which can discover obstacles in substantially less time and that can send the basic information to the driver within some seconds producing the noise signals as alerts. The primary goal of these activities is the growth of road protection and transportation efficiency, In addition to reducing the harmful effects of transportation on the external surroundings which can even be caused due to collisions. For instance, lowering the range of injuries can in turn lessen the number of visitor jams, which should reduce the level of damage on the Infrastructure. Due to the significance of those actions for both the individual and the system [4-6].

The Dramatic increase within the traffic waft raises call for on progressive technologies which can enhance protection and efficiency of transportation structures. Street safety may be substantially stronger with the aid of the deployment of speed calculating technologies for vehicular systems, which would allow the driver to control and regulate the speed of the vehicle and thus allow the driver to maintain the speed of the vehicle within the speed limit of any particular road. This can be of immense advantage for drivers particularly driving during the night time. As the population of urban vehicles grows unexpectedly with the improvement of the purchasing power of average citizens and improvement within the economy in a country, humans are becoming concerned about vehicle theft protection, which creates greater market opportunities for vehicle anti-theft systems. Numerous automobile anti theft devices have been designed with many advanced features, however the result remains disappointing due to the fact all these devices have its drawbacks. Domestic and distant places car anti-robbery products are primarily technologically classified into three categories which are mechanical lock devices, automobile alarm gadgets, and automobile tracking systems, chiefly aiming at stopping vehicles to be broken in and driven away.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

 The most generally used mechanical lock tool is a common wheel lock, which is extraordinarily reasonably-priced but inconvenient to use and at the same time can easily be disassembled by the professionals. These mechanical devices are often very bulky to handle and often very much inconvenient. A resolution to this problem would be to use Vehicle alarm gadgets which are very common these days. This is mostly because facts show that most of the public are conscious when they listen an alarm and also this makes the resident neighbours alerted as well. These vehicle alarm systems do have a massive range as well, some well designed can reach up to distances of up to 400 meters from the source of the alarm hence making it very hard for someone to steal a car with a motion detection alarm antitheft system[7], In cities as soon as the automobile is tried to access, the police will easily be notified by the antitheft alarm sounding from the device and the location of such a disturbance hence making it impossible for anyone to steal the vehicle. In addition to this having a car alarm can add additional benefits to the system which would include a fall in the insurance expenditure for the vehicle as security is one of the major constraint that authorities look into while providing insurance to any customer vehicle. Moreover, this will totally prevent the vehicle from the major risk of being stolen. Also it would improve the resale value of the vehicle.These days security alarm devices can be connected to smart phone applications and thus the user can easily monitor the activity of the vehicle from anywhere around making it easy and convenient.

The device that’s setup consists of a passive infra red(PIR) motion detection sensor which is attached to the system. The PIR motion detection sensor essentially calculates the Infra red light which is given out from things that are kept in its field of view. Within the PIR sensor system a pyro electric crystal is placed which would measure the heat that is given out from any object, and in case of humans the heat that’s given out from the human body. The heat energy is in fact emitted as radiations from any object. The hotter the object or a body the more the radiations or heat energy that’s dissipated from the body and these are transmitted in infra red wavelengths. Once these infra red waves enter the sensor it can essentially detect the presence of an object in its vicinity. A PIR sensor would record the movements from people around it. Once a person comes near the sensor there would be a kind of variation within the temperature that is sensed by the sensor as there would be difference between the body temperature and the room temperature. And once this difference is detected within the sensors field of range it can stimulate a change in voltage within its output which would result in producing alarm. A differential detection method is implemented by the PIR sensor. Usually the crystals and the sensors are covered by fresnel lenses which is transparent to IR waves and would prevent the chance of getting any false alarms that can be caused due to unwanted particles getting near the sensor. And also a fresnel lens can help to focus the IR waves to the sensor source. The variety of the accidents that’s occurring worldwide is increasing very rapidly but the amount of fatalities has reduced because of development of new generation devices developed by the automobile industry[8], Engineers had been chipping away on the surprising numbers of centres for a long term by designing air luggage and seat belts, more potent frame and special indoors designs to increase the protection of vehicles. However, the most effective way to secure a vehicle is to preserve vehicles from smashing into each other in the first place. To serve this purpose an obstacle detection gadget can be attached to the vehicle to prevent any kind of collision such that it can detect it way before the incident happens[9-10].

Obstacle detection gadget uses Ultra sonic sensor for distance calculation. Advanced driver assistance machine use radar because of its merits like longer detection range, angular position, variety and ensured safety. A vision primarily based sensor is implanted for detecting the obstacle and fending off collision. The two crucial parts, which is the navigation and the obstacle avoidance part are processed on the equal time growing the efficiency of the system. The important objective is to detect the obstacles present beforehand of the automobile. The device alarms the transferring car to prevent collision. In this system ultrasonic sensor is implanted for the detection purpose as they can stumble on the object from the shifting vehicle even as the distance among the automobile and obstacle is detected and the gap is also accurately measured. The obstacle detection system is interfaced with a system which would voice commands at the output such the user will be aware of the surroundings while driving and if any obstacle is found particular voice commands can help the driver to easily navigate the vehicle. This can be of immense help particularly while trying the park the vehicle in a secure location and also while driving through heavy traffic. This is achieved by connecting the microcontroller to an Arduino android shield which when connected to an Android device through Bluetooth can give out voice commands through the connected speaker [11-12].

To be able to avoid collision between the vehicles the sensor that is set up should measure the accurate distance from the obstacle and transmit the measured readings to the main component of the gadget. The ultrasonic sensor is hooked up in a manner in such that boundaries and obstacles which are present in the front side of the vehicle are being detected. The obstacles and objects which are present in the rear side is also detected by the ultrasonic sensors. One of the predominant part of this concept is to analyse any type of obstacle on the road. For instance, desk bound objects, human beings travelling that get in the passage of the vehicle can also be additionally taken into consideration as obstacles. Those objects are detected via the system and signals the car for secure and easy navigation. This brief process alerts the driver to respond very quickly. However there are a few drawbacks within the sensing technologies like failure in action in the presence of horrific weather conditions consisting of fog, snow and rain [13-14].



The Hardware requirements include :

Arduino Microcontroller



PIR motion sensor

Ultra sonic sensor

LCD Display module 16×2

Jumper cables

IR sensor

The Arduino shield

Bluetooth connected andriod mobile phone

1Sheeld Android shield for Arduino

Software requirement :

1Sheeld application for Android.

A PIR motion sensor is an electronic device that would compute the Infra red waves that are emitted from objects which are present in its field of view and thus would identify any kind of motion that happens in front of the sensor. It’s very commonly used in antitheft alarm systems which can sense the movement of people in front of the sensor. Here the PIR sensor that’s present within the main device would recognise the quantity of IR waves which are falling on the device. As a person approaches the device there would be a variation within the temperature readings between the person’s body and the surroundings and this in turn can stimulate a voltage within the device which would give out alarm as the output.

An Ultra sonic sensor or a distance sensor would calculate the distance from the source using the waves, In particular the ultra sonic waves. The sensor would release ultra sonic waves and then it would collect the reflected waves from the source. Here time is used as a constraint to measure the time between the processes of emission and reception.

An IR sensor is primarily used to sense the surrounding objects and conditions. It makes use of the Infra red waves. Infra waves would essentially record the amount of heat given out from a particular object. The hotter the body, the more the heat will be given out from it. At the same time the IR sensor can also detect the motion which would happen in its field of view. Here an Infra red LED would be the emitter and the detector would be an IR photo diode.

A buzzer is an audio signalling device and are commonly used in alarms and which would come with a particular confirmation. There can be many different types of buzzers which can be mechanical, electromechanical or piezoelectric.

An Arduino shield is a modular and compact circuit boards which would enhance and add new features to the existing arduino system. There exists certain libraries which are associated with certain arduino shields with separate functionalities.


 We make connections which include :


(I) For the RPM-speed calculation system


IR Sensor(dataPin) to Arduino(Pin 2)

IR Sensor(GND) to Arduino(GND)

IR Sensor(+Power) to Arduino (+5V)

LCD(Vss) to Arduino (GND)

LCD(Vcc) to Arduino (5V)

LCD(VEE) to Potentiometer

LCD(Rs) to Arduino (Pin 8)

LCD(Rw) to Arduino (Ground)

LCD(E) to Arduino (Pin 9)

LCD(DB4) to Arduino(Pin 4)

LCD(DB5) to Arduino(Pin 5)

LCD(DB6) to Arduino(Pin 6)

LCD(DB7) to Arduino(Pin 7)

LCD(LED+) to Arduino (+5V)

LCD(LED-) to Arduino (Ground)


(II) For the Anti theft motion detection system

PIR(GND) to Arduino (GND)

PIR(OUT) to Arduino (Pin 2)

PIR() to Arduino (+5V)

Buzzer red to Arduino (Pin 3)

Buzzer black to Arduino (GND)

LED (+ve) to Arduino (GND)

LED (-ve) to Arduino (Pin 3)


(III) For the Collision detection and avoidance system

Ultrasonic ECHO to Arduino Pin 3

Ultrasonic (GND) to Arduino Pin GND

Ultrasonic TRIG to Arduino Pin 8

Buzzer BLACK to Arduino Pin GND

Buzzer RED to Arduino Pin 6

Ultrasonic Vcc to Arduino Pin 5V



The Algorithm is given to be as following :


(I) The Operation of the rpm-speed calculation system

use pin 2,3,4,5,6,7 for lcd module

use pin 9 as sensorPin

use pin 11 as startPin

function delay(){

define int i,j

define count = 0

if (sensor > 0)

increment count

return count


function setup (){

set sensor as INPUT

set start as INPUT

set pin 2 to OUTPUT

lcd Print message (“Tachometer”)

delay 2000 microseconds


function loop(){

define int time, RPM,speed1 = 0 ;

write HIGH to LCD

write HIGH to sensor

clear lcd display

LCD Print message (“Reading RPM”)

clear lcd display

lcd Print message (“please wait”)

clear lcd display

time = delay()

RPM = (time*12/3)

speed = (RPM*0.013)

delay 2000 microseconds

clear lcd display

lcd Print speed in km/hr

delay 5000 microseconds

if (speed > 100km/hr){

lcd Print message “Warning, reduce speed”



(II) For the Anti theft motion detection system

set Pin2 as INPUT

set Pin3 as OUTPUT

if (Pin2 == HIGH){

set pin3 as HIGH

Send HIGH to Buzzer

Send HIGH to LED

delay 100 microseconds

Send LOW to Pin3

Send LOW to Buzzer

delay 100 microseconds




(III) For the collision detection and avoidance system


Ultrasonic ECHO to Arduino Pin 3

Ultrasonic (GND) to Arduino Pin GND

Ultrasonic TRIG to Arduino Pin 8

Buzzer BLACK to Arduino Pin GND

Buzzer RED to Arduino Pin 4

Ultrasonic Vcc to Arduino Pin 5V

use pin 3 as echoPin

use pin 8 as trigPin

use pin 4 as buzzer

function initiate


set echoPin as INPUT Pin

set trigPin as OUTPUT Pin

set buzzer as OUTPUT Pin


function initiate2{

declare totaltime, initialdistance ;

send LOW to trigPin

delay 20 microseconds

send HIGH to trigPin

delay 50 microseconds

send LOW to trigPin

totaltime = input pulse HIGH from echoPin

initialdistance = (totaltime/2)/30

if (initialdistance


send HIGH to buzzer




send LOW to buzzer


delay 1000 microseconds ;










Figure 2. Obstacle and collision avoidance system

The proposed system consists of three sub systems which are a Motion detection system, System for rpm and speed calculation and voice enabled obstacle and collision avoidance system. The figure below shows the overall system design.

Figure 3. The overall system design

A system for calculating the RPM which would later lead to the speed of the vehicle was computed using Arduino and IR Sensors. The value which was produced was later produced on a LCD screen which in fact can be displayed to the driver by installing it in the cockpit. To setup such a system sensors and associated components like potentiometers and LCD display segments are required. The IR sensors once interfaced with the Arduino will produce the values which can also be displayed on the serial monitor of the Arduino IDE. RPM is essentially the number of times the shaft of a motor in a minute would rotate. In the case of a vehicle it would be the crankshaft of the engine. The system is designed as such when the input from the IR sensor changes from low to high it would then compute the time difference. Once the time required for one revolution is calculated this can essentially produce the rpm of the vehicle and finally the speed is computed. In practical application the IR sensor can be setup near the wheel of the vehicle.

Find Out How UKEssays.com Can Help You!
Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs.
View our services

To ensure the safety of the vehicle additional sensors are also included within the setup.And such a setup can create an anti-theft device. This include the motion detection PIR or the passive infra red sensor which when interfaced with arduino and connected to a led bulb and a buzzer would produce alert noises and glows warning lights once a person comes near the proximity of the sensor. The system would become activated when it would sense any kind of movement. This can be effectively be activated when the vehicle is parked in an unknown location or during the night time. To setup such a system many of the components would include the PIR sensor module, Arduino, Connecting wires, LED, Buzzer, Breadboard and 330 ohm resistors. Within the sensor a pyro electric crystal is present which would read the heat given out from a particular living being. The effect of the sensor is amplified by using component like Fresnel lens which is mounted on the system. There are two different potentiometers which are present on the sensor which would help to regulate the sensitivity and the trigger of the sensor. The module can essentially work in two different modes which are the H and the I modes. The H mode is powered by a 3.3 V power supply and it would go high when a person is detected within the range and after a certain period of time the output would go low. While within the I mode the output would go high as long as the person is in the range and it would remain as such as long as the person is in the range of the sensor.

Figure 4. Blueprint of anti theft motion detection system

Figure 5. Blueprint of the rpm-speed calculation system

The Figures shown below shows the completely implemented circuit of the rpm-speedometer calculation system and anti-theft motion detection system

Figure 6. Completed circuit of rpm-speed computi ng system


Figure 7. Completed circuit of PIR motion anti-theft system

Figure 8. The overall system operation flowchart



The device was well assembled and all of the integrated sensors did respond ably to the regular tests that were carried out. The motion detection alarm system worked satisfactorily well and it was able to identify the obejcts accurately. Whenever a person approached near the sensor an alarm was triggered with warning LED lights in response to this event. The speedometer was exceptionallt functional in computing the rpm and the speed. The speed limit was set, the device was able to give out the warning signals and display it to the driver which was attached at the drivers cockpit. Once this was setup the driver was alereted about overspeeding and thus was able to fend off any kind of violations that might happen when tested in a freeway. In aditton to this to provide further safety to the vehicle, the distance sensor was able to detect the nearby obstacleswithin the range specified and then produce alarm signals using the buzzer alerting the driver about the event. This was repeatedly tested by keeping artificial objects nearby the vehicle. The results of the various tests that were carried out is shown in the figures and the tables below.


Figure 10. LCD displaying speed to the user

Figure 9. LCD displaying message reading RPM


Figure 12. Warning signal displayed by the   LCD

Figure 11. Reduce speed warning signal being displayed





Figure 14. The PIR motion anti theft motion detection system after activating, the LED is seen glowing giving out the warning signal

Figure 13. The PIR anti-theft motion detection system before activating

Table 1. The results for rpm-speedometer

Trial number

Speed limit (km/h)

Speed (km/h)

LED output













Warning singal

Table 2. The results for motion detection anti-theft system

Trial number

Object nearby

Sensor status

Alarm status


























The device that’s developed is optimal in the road in any instance, and this system consisting of many associated sensors and the microcontroller can serve as a reliable and secure safety system for any vehicle. It will be very conveneient for people living in the city as heavy traffic is quite common event in daily life. To avoid collisions of any sort, to protect the vehicle from theft, and to control the speed under the limit and to eventually experience a safe travel avoiding any collisions which might lead to accidents this would be best ideal alternative for any driver.


In future work, many more sensors can be added to this system such as accelerometer, drowsiness sensor, Tire pressure sensor, object detection camera, which can additionally upgrade the protection features making it a exemplary safety gadget.




 [1] T. Wollinger and M. Wolf, “State of the Art : Embedding Security in Vehicles,” vol. 2007, 2007.

 [2] Y. Elhillali, A. Rivenq, C. Tatkeu, J. M. Rouvaen, and J. P. Ghys, “Embedded Localization and Communication System Designed for Intelligent Embedded Localization and Communication System,” no. July 2014, 2007.

[3] S. Bouaziz, P. Lombardi, R. Reynaud, and G. S. Seetharaman, “Embedded Systems for Intelligent Vehicles,” vol. 2007, 2007.

 [4] J. Yu and B. M. Wilamowski, “Recent Advances in In-vehicle embedded systems,” pp. 4623–4625.

 [5] E. C. Guevarra, M. Ivan, R. Camama, and G. V. Cruzado, “Development of Guiding Cane with Voice Notification for Visually Impaired individuals,” vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 104–112, 2018.

[6]  F. Corno, T. Montanaro, C. Migliore, and P. Castrogiovanni, “SmartBike : an IoT Crowd Sensing Platform for   Monitoring City Air Pollution,” vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 3602–                3612, 2017.

[7] Y. Chen, Y. Tut, C. Chiul, and Y. Chen, “An Embedded System for Vehicle Surrounding Monitoring,” pp. 92–95, 2009.

 [8] X. Lin, R. Lu, C. Zhang, H. Zhu, and P. Ho, “Security in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks,” no. April, 2008.

[9] Z. Liu, “Vehicle Anti-theft Tracking System Based on Internet of Things,” pp. 48–52, 2013.

 [10] H. Nicanfar, P. Talebifard, and S. Hosseininezhad, “Security and Privacy of Electric Vehicles in the Smart Grid Context : Problem and Solution,” pp. 45–53.

 [11] J. Sun, C. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and Y. Fang, “An Identity-Based Security System for User Privacy in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks,” vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1227–1239, 2010.

[12] J. Wu, C. Kung, J. Rao, P. Wang, and C. Lin, “Design of an In-Vehicle Anti-Theft Component,” 2008.

[13] V. Goud and V. Padmaja, “Vehicle Accident Automatic Detection and Remote Alarm Device,” vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 49–54, 2012.

[14] P. E. An and C. J. Harris, “An Intelligent Driver Warning System for Vehicle Collision Avoidance,” vol. 26, no. 2, 1996.

Economic Assessment of the Case for Charging Diesel Vehicles to Enter Manchester

An economic assessment of the case for charging diesel vehicles to enter Manchester


The increase in road traffic that takes place especially since early 1990s has a great impact on congestion, delays and environment problems in both developed and developing countries. The private cars owners are a major factor playing in the severe congestion especially in the developed countries where the purchasing power in the middle-class incomes increased, the prices fell and the supply of the vehicles increased. (Alberto Bull,2003) This essay is going to resume negative effects of pollution and congestion on an economic level, ways to reduce the congestion and how charging diesel vehicles to enter Manchester will tackle the problem of busy traffic roads, reduces the pollution and has a positive effect on economy.

The problem


Greater Manchester has reported a higher number of deaths because of air pollution than London, according to a study by King’s College London for IPPR North. The study reveals that in 2011 the mortality burden in Greater Manchester was estimated to be approximately 1,459 attributable deaths at typical ages due to the PM2.5 emissions. Besides the significant number of deaths in the population, another negative factor of pollution is the economic costs of £1 billion per year. The benefits of air pollution reduction which is mainly caused by vehicles fuel that emits NO2 and PM2.5 with the same level of concentration in 2011, has been estimated to be up to £0.5 billion on average/year at 2014 prices.( https://www.ippr.org/files/2018-06/greatermanchester-hia-060618-final.pdf) The figure below shows different types of vehicles and their emissions on NOx (nitrogen oxides) and PM10(coarse particles), based on national-average fleet compositions for 2015. It is clear that the main pollutant are the emissions of diesel cars if compared to other types of fuel. In the case of NOx emissions, diesel cars contributes with 45.8% of the cause of pollution which is a significant percentage if compared, for example with petrol vehicles which is 5.8% or buses and coaches (14%). The percentage of diesel cars in emission of coarse particles has also the greater proportion among other vehicles fuels (29.2%), however it is not a dramatic difference from the petrol cars (23.9%).(Manchester air quality)

 Figure 4: Proportions of NOx and PM10 Emissions from Road Sources


Manchester was ranked the second most congested city in the UK in 2016, according to INRIX 2016 Traffic Scorecard. Traffic congestion statistics for Manchester based on TomTom’s historical database for 2016 shows that drivers spent 44 minutes more per day in peak time, which constitute 169 hours per year.( https://www.tomtom.com/en_gb/trafficindex/city/manchester). Manchester Evening News reports that according to the TomTom’s study the productivity in Manchester decreased by more than £11 million in 2016. The estimate costs of congestion in Greater Manchester’s economy is 1.3 billion a year. (https://www.tfgm.com/news/congestion-conversation-closes). Because of the severe congestion, people refuse jobs located in the city center. Tony Sloan, aged 60, who runs a legal recruitment firm based in Manchester, in a reportage for Manchester Evening News, declares that up to five clients per week refuse jobs paying £50,000 because of the commute to the city center.

Market failure of traffic congestion

The area under the demand curve is the total social benefits, while the area under the MPC curve is the social costs. The optimum point is at (p*, F*) and the triangle ABC represents the social cost of uncontrolled use of the road network. Thus, every driver will pay the marginal external cost of congestion and they are forced to pay the marginal price cost (MPC) which is produced by introducing a tax of congestion cost (MCC) to the ASC. This results in a price equilibrium and the number of vehicles will fall below MSC because of the higher cost of travelling caused by their benefit of road usage (MPB). (https://www.kent.ac.uk/economics/research/seminars/internal/KengEstimationofSD.pdf)


According to the Institute for Public Policy Research North, a congestion charge should be introduced to reduce the congestion and the air pollution. Charging diesel vehicles to enter Manchester will increase the general cost of travel, thus it is expected to reduce the road use. This additional cost will therefore shift the ASC and MSC lines upwards in Figure 2, so the intersection of the demand line with the average cost will result in reduced number of trips. If additional external costs occur (road damage or pollution), the true marginal social cost could be even higher than the marginal cost which will lead to an even lower traffic volume. In addition, introducing a road tax would raise revenue. (https://www.ifs.org.uk/bns/bn31.pdf)

Road pricing examples


The London Congestion scheme was introduced in February 2003 having as primary goals reduction of congestion, air quality and journey time reliability improvements and to create a long-term fund in order to improve the public transport. The initial investment was £161.7 million and the annual operating cost £130 million. The results of this movement were proven to be successful such that the congestion has been reduced, the air quality has been improved and the long-term funding source was creating. In the first 10 years in which the scheme was operating the gross revenue achieved about $2.6 billion up to the end of year 2013. About 46% of the net revenue has been invested in public transport, road and bridge improvement and schemes for walking and cycling from 2003 to 2013.( http://nyc.streetsblog.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/TSTC_A_Way_Forward_CPreport_1.4.18_medium.pdf)

Studies show that the London Congestion scheme has reduced the CO2 emissions by 16% and increased the region economy, producing surplus revenue of £122m in 2005-2006.( https://www.c40.org/case_studies/londons-congestion-charge-cuts-co2-emissions-by-16)

The congestion charge had impact on businesses because of the supply and demand side effects. The positive supply side effects are the increase in productivity and the cost saving due to less delays, whereas the negative ones are relating to the increase in the costs and charges from the suppliers and merchandise transport. The demand side effects presents the prevention of the cost by consumers and consumers expenditures away from the charging zone. Those effects combined can have positive impacts for firms in some sectors but also negative for others. (Mahendra, A 2010)


Singapore’s Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) was launched in 1998, having as primary goals to reduce the congestion and to increase the reliability of travel time. The initial investment was about US$110 million and the annual operating cost roughly US$18.5 million with a net annual revenue of us$100 million. ERP successfully reduced the inner city traffic by 24%. Moreover, the public transit improved which leaded to an increase of the public transport use by 15%. The emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions fell by 10-15% in the inner city and the revenue produced by the charge of congestion was used to improve the street safety and public transportation. For instance, Singapore developed the rail and bus system by building intermodal transportation centers.( http://nyc.streetsblog.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/TSTC_A_Way_Forward_CPreport_1.4.18_medium.pdf)


On this basis, we conclude that in order to tackle the congestion and air pollution problem, a diesel tax for the vehicles entering Manchester should be introduced. The present findings confirm that road pricing will reduce the traffic volume because of the higher cost of travel and will support not only the economic growth but also the improvements for the public transportation.


Using Machine Learning to Detect Anomalies in Embedded Networks in Heavy Vehicles

Consumer vehicles have been demonstrated to be insecure; the addition of electronics to monitor and control vehicle capacities has included complexity resulting in security basic vulnerabilities. Although academic research has shown vulnerabilities in consumer automobiles long back, the general public has only recently been made aware of such vulnerabilities. Modern Automobiles have more than 70 electronic control units (ECU’s).
This paper proposes to use machine learning to support domain-experts by avoiding them from contemplating irrelevant data and rather pointing them to the important parts within the recordings. The basic idea is to learn the typical behavior from the accessible timing Analysis and then to independently identify unexpected deviations and report them as anomalies. Our proposed model’s main motive is to try to find the better architecture model and Hyperparameters for the model. We used LSTM auto encoder technique to find sophisticated anomalies with varied hyper-parameters.
Keywords: Anomaly Detection. SAE-J1939. Heavy Vehicle Security
Vehicles are an integral part of our life and automobile technology has evolved over the past century to address our growing needs. Earlier, a driver had to manually control various functions in a vehicle, but now a lot of these tasks have been delegated to various micro-controllers and electronic chips attached to the vehicle [8]. Modern vehicles are a collection of various Electronic Control Units (ECU), Sensor and Actuators. These ECU’s get input from different sensors and perform various mechanical actions using actuators. CAN bus is a broadcast bus, where each connected ECU pushes broadcast messages on it. These broadcast CAN messages don’t have explicit information about which ECU generated the message and any message available on the network will considered as ‘trusted’ by default. As a result if any malicious message is introduced into the network, either by a malicious ECU or an attacker, will also be considered as valid and can result in abnormal behavior Apart from doing their own functions, ECU’s must communicate between each other so as to efficiently perform their functions [5].

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

The past studies analyzed multiple attack vectors in vehicles and showed that Electronic Control Units (ECUs) could be compromised. A compromised ECU can be used by an attacker to inject malicious messages into the in-vehicle network through a physical connection [9]. Heavy vehicles use a standardized protocol known as SAE J1939 implemented over a Controller Area Network (CAN) bus using which the ECUs communicate with each other. The use of standardized protocols makes heavy vehicles susceptible to attacks.
Two different countermeasures have been introduced against these attacks: proactive and reactive. Proactive mechanism focuses on improving protocols and they are not fool proof but can be remarkably effective. There have been techniques proposed to include message authentication on the protocol. Reactive mechanisms detect an attack or an impending attack and reduce its impact on the victim’s vehicle at the earliest and provide a response mechanism to either block or alert other systems [6].
The uses of SAE-J1939 makes it possible to convert raw transmitted messages on the CAN bus to specific parameters of the vehicle. Thus, we define a machine learning model based on low-level vehicular parameters. While each message contains information about the current state of the vehicle, it does not give any information about the previous state. To solve this limitation, we added the history of previous values to each parameter value to leverage the learning model. In addition, some statistical derivative features have been added to give even deeper clues to the model [8].
A vehicle’s parameters are categorized in particular groups in the SAE-J1939 based on, for example, frequency and sender. Thus, we created multiple models based on each group of parameter, referred to as Parameter Group Number (PGN) in the standard. The learning algorithms create a behavioral profile for each PGN that will be used later to compare with its current behavior to detect any deviation from the regular pattern. We used a wide range of learning algorithms to train models and studied their performance [8].
The proposed approach integrates four modules to detect anomalies. BusSniffer connects to the bus and sniffs the messages. Message Decoder gets messages from BusSniffer and converts them into raw messages that characterize the vehicle’s parameters. AttackDetector compares the current state with the appropriately trained model and triggers the AlarmGenerator if a threat exists. Based on these modules we can generate real time alarms and thereby providing security to the protocol [6].

Fig 1: Example SPN layout for the “Engine Temperature” PGN [7]
The rest of the paper is organized as follows:
Section 2 – Background which contains CAN and SAE J1939 protocols and the defense mechanisms.
Section 3 – Adversary Threat Model of modern attacks.
Section 4 – Features that we use.
Section 5 – Detection Mechanism Architecture.
Section 6 – Building of Machine Learning Model.
Section 7 – Conclusion and Future work.
In this Section, we discusses about CAN and SAE J1939 protocols and how they are introduces and evaluated. Also discusses about the defense mechanisms.
Controller Area Network (CAN) is a serial organized innovation that was initially outlined for the car industry, particularly for European cars, but has also become a prevalent bus in industrial automation as well as other applications. The CAN bus is basically utilized in embedded systems, and as its title suggests, is a network innovation that gives fast communication among microcontrollers up to real-time requirements. CAN 1.0 was introduced in the time that neither Internet nor any evidences of virus were seen and security is not at all a concern at that time. This indicated that CAN protocol cannot address security concerns [5].
SAE-J1939 Standard: SAE J1939 is the open standard for networking and communication in the commercial vehicle sector. There are a number of measures which are determined from SAE J1939. These guidelines utilize the fundamental portrayal of J1939 and regularly contrast as it were in their data definition and adaptations of the physical layer.SAE-J1939 characterizes five layers within the seven-layer OSI network model including the CAN ISO 11898 specification and employments as it were expanded outlines with a 29-bit identifier for the physical and data-link layers [8]. Each PDU in the SAE-J1939 protocol consists of seven fields: priority (P), extended data page, data page (DP), PDU format (PF), PDU specific (PS) (which can be a destination address, group extension, or proprietary), source address (SA), and data field. There is also a reserved field Reserved(R) with one bit length for further usage [2].

Fig 2: Architecture of CAN and SAE J1939 protocols.
Proactive mechanism: Proactive mechanism focuses on improving protocols but the CAN and SAE-J1939 protocols do not support any authentications which lead to wide attacks .However even with an authentication mechanism on the CAN bus the maximum payload length would be just 8 bytes so the space for MAC (Message Authentication Code) is so limited [6].
Reactive Mechanism: Reactive mechanisms distinguish an attack or an impending attack and diminish its effect on the victim’s vehicle at the earliest and provide a response mechanism to either block the attack or alert other frameworks [6].
The use of different machine learning algorithms came into existence in detecting anomalies through packets and packet sequences. Usage of Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) came to consideration that is used for the sequence of inputs for the datasets. One layer of LSTM has as many cells as the time steps. The objective of the Autoencoder network in is to reconstruct the input and classify the poorly reconstructed samples as a rare event.
Attackers can easily compromise ECU’s and thereby exploiting new vulnerabilities. There’s more motivating force for an enemy to attack the heavy vehicle industry due to the size of the vehicles and the assortment of goods they carry. Our adversary can be anybody who might stand to make a profit on controlling the vehicles, be it from hijacking their merchandise, adversely controlling a competition’s fleet, extorting fleet proprietors and drivers, or offering their tools and administrations on the black market. Another sort of adversary we consider is one who wishes to cause the most harm and harm as possible, such as a terrorists. We expect that our adversary has the ability to transmit selfassertive messages on the vehicle’s J1939 bus. This is often most promptly accomplished with physical access to the vehicle through the OBD port [5]. We assume that the adversary will receive messages on the CAN bus and can generate SAE J1939 compatible messages with the frequency including the data and priority [9]. Attackers will take control over the Message priority and can block the messages with lowest priorities on the bus. This affects the functions and integrity of the system in the exploitation.
On the other hand, a more sophisticated attacker could inject malware into other ECUs. These attacks will reflect on the CAN level and apply to both regular and heavy vehicles. The most common attack against the CAN network is a DoS attack [6]. In this attack, the adversary will send unauthorized messages with the most elevated priority and frequency to dominate the bus. Thus, sending or accepting messages will be deferred or indeed inconceivable. In a different attack, an adversary may monitor the CAN bus and target a specific activity of the vehicle. At whatever point the adversary sees a message related to that specific activity, it sends a counter message to make the past action ineffective. In this case, an attacker can either dominate the initial engine’s ECUs with a higher priority message or can send an incorrect value for a particular parameter after seeing it on the bus.
There’s not any attack data freely accessible to be utilized as a benchmark. So, we simulated modern attack messages and injected them into the logged file to check whether our detection component could find them [7]. During our proposed attack, we malevolently changed the vehicle’s parameters (such as current speed) multiple times.
In our proposed model, the performance relies on the choice of features and how to implement them. We define three features in our paper: SPN values, History values and Derivative features.
SPN Values: Features in SPN Values are obtained from deciphering messages on the CAN bus. We convert the raw messages to the SPN values [6].
History of values: The value of each SPN depends on both the current vehicle’s parameters and their past values. The classifier would need to use past samples to create a more exact choice [6]. Towards the conclusion, we include past SPN values of each vector to overcome this challenge. As such, each vector will presently have values of the current state and will moreover include the final detailed values for each SPN.
Derivative Features: To give more detailed insight, we add multiple derivative features to the vector. We also added average, standard deviation and slope to the last n values. We add history for these features as well. The new derivative features will help classifiers to get more precise predictions.

Fig 3: SPN and PGN Data bit fields
5. Detection Mechanism Architecture
The proposed architecture consists of four separate modules: BusSniffer, Message Decoder, AttackDetector, and AlarmGenerator.
BusSniffer interfaces to the CAN bus using an access point like the OBD-II port. This port connects specifically to the CAN bus and generates all transmitted messages on the CAN bus.
MessageDecoder utilizes the SAE-J1939 standard to convert the raw messages to the SPN values thereby creating an initial vector of the vehicle’s parameters. This module includes other meta-data fields including time-stamp, length of the data field, source address, destination address, and previously defined features such as derivative features and history of feature values.
AttackDetector consists of two phases: Training and Detecting. The training phase requires preparing a dataset of regular and abnormal messages for every PGN. Multiple classifiers can be trained on the dataset, and the classifier that performs the best will be used. The training phase may take a long time; the trained classifiers can be used countless times without the need to retrain them.
In the detection phase, whenever a new vector comes in, the AttackDetector fetches the PGN value from the vector and sends it to the designated classifier object. The classifier then tests whether it is a normal vector. If the classifier detects an abnormal message, it will produce the AlarmGenerator module. AlarmGenerator is responsible for preparing alarm messages using SAE-J1939 and transmits it over the CAN bus. The message will be generated in the form of a Broadcast message, and all connected nodes will be aware of this abnormal situation. This can also include turning on a warning light on the dashboard to notify the driver [6].

Fig 4: Architecture of proposed detection mechanism
6. Building Machine Learning Model
Building of our experiment takes place in five different phases to get the desired outcome. They are:

Gathering the Datasets
Data Pre-processing
Building the Machine Learning Model
Building the Architecture

6.1 Gathering the Datasets
We used several CAN bus log messages that were generated previously. We required a lot of data with many messages in the log and we also require PGNs. A Parameter Group Number (PGN) is a part of the 29-bit identifier sent with each log message. The PGN is a combination of the Reserved bit, the data page bit, the PDU Format (PF) and PDU Specific (PS). We also need SPNs in our project. A Suspect Parameter Number (SPN) is a number that has been assigned to a specific parameter within a parameter group [9]. SPNs that have similar characteristics will be grouped into PGNs. Since the log messages had more PGNs we used more instances for the training and testing phases. Developing profiles of PGNs by using machine learning techniques can be generated by ECUs.
6.2 Data Pre-processing
Data pre-processing takes place in three different phases. They are Training Datasets, Validation sets and Testing.
Training datasets: The sample of data that we use to fit into the model is the training dataset. We train the sample so as to pre-process the data that is required for our model.
Validation set: We use the validation set to fine tune the model hyper-parameters.
Testing datasets: The testing data set is the final data that we use to get the desired output in the model which considers both training set and validation set [1].

Fig 5: Training set, Validation set, Test set Process
6.3 Building the Machine Learning Model
In building our model we use LSTMs. Long Short term memory (LSTM) is an artificial RNN used in the field of deep learning which are capable of learning long-term dependencies. Unlike others LSTM has feedback connections. LSTMs are used in image, speech and video sequence data. Our proposed model is a sequential model so we chose LSTM. They can remember things for a long duration of time. The LSTM have the capacity to expel or include data to the cell state, carefully controlled by structures called gates [1].
Our Proposed Model has sequential data, so we used Encoder-Decoder LSTM architecture. e. Our method uses a multi layered Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) to phrase the input to a vector and then deep LSTM to decode the output from the vector. The core of our experiments involved training a large deep LSTM auto-encoder. The LSTM is capable of solving long term dependencies but it works efficiently when the source is reversed [1]. The LSTM auto encoder first compresses the input data and then uses repeat vector layer. The final output layer gets back the reconstructed input data. LSTMs trained on reversed source data did much superior on long sentences than LSTMs trained on the raw data. We found that LSTM models are easy to train with more effective results.
Our LSTM decides what information we’re going to put away from the cell state. This decision is made by a sigmoid layer called the “forget gate layer.” It looks at ht−1 and xt, and outputs a number between 0 and 1 for each number in the cell state Ct−1 [2] (htt).
6.4 Building the Architecture
In our architecture we use 3 LSTMs, one input layer and one output layer. We use sigmoid function in the LSTMs specifically because it is used as the gating function for the 3 gates (in, out, forget), since its outputs are always a value between 0 and 1, it can either let no flow through or complete the flow of information throughout the gates. The activation function we use is the ReLU activation function. ReLU stands for rectified linear unit.

Fig 6: LSTM Layers and their functions.
Mathematically, it is defined as y = max(0, x) [10]. We use this activation function because it allows our model to run or train easily.

Fig 7: Activation Function of ReLU
In the compilation, we use Loss function and optimizers. The loss function use used is Mean Square Error (mse). The groups of functions that are minimized are } called “loss functions”. A loss function is a degree of how great a prediction model does in terms of being able to foresee the anticipated outcome. It depends on a number of variables counting the presence of outliers, choice of machine learning algorithm, time effectiveness of gradient descent, ease of finding the derivatives and certainty of predictions. MSE is the sum of squared distances between our target variable and predicted values.

Fig 8: Loss function of MSE
The optimizer we used in the model is ‘Adam’. Adam is an adaptive learning rate method; it computes learning rates for different parameters. Adam uses estimations of first and second moments of gradient to adjust the learning rate for each weight of the neural network. Adam is an optimization algorithm that can be used to update network weights in training data. Using of Adam makes the model to present results in a quick an effective way.
6.5 Evaluations
In This phase, we start fitting the data we collected. The challenge here is we should not over fit the model so we use Hyper-parameter Tuning. Hyper-parameter tuning is nothing but setting a value to the absolute learning process evaluation module when it begins. Hyper-parameters are passed in as arguments to the constructor of the model classes. With this, the values of other parameters are learned. Hyperparameter Tuning finds a tuple of hyperparameters that yields an ideal model which minimizes a predefined loss function on given autonomous data. Too many epochs can lead to overfitting of the training dataset, so we used Early Stopping function.
The number of epochs and the batch size determines the accuracy and performance of the model. So we carefully adjusted the batch sizes and epochs accordingly. We used limited epochs and the with sophisticated batch sizes. In our Model, we considered min-delta because of the overfitting problem.
For each dataset that includes several PGNs, we trained multiple datasets for each PGN given in the model. With the help of LSTM auto-encoder, it is easy to remember the past data which saves a lot of time in evaluation and the accuracy is also increased. With the help of the data we considered in various aspects became easy to find minor anomalies and the security bleaches are covered properly. The rate of false positives is significantly very low in our model which benefits the accuracy and consistency. LSTM auto-encoder can tests many kinds of datasets and parameters that can contribute towards the present machine learning scenario.
In this work, we appeared that a large deep LSTM auto encoder with a limited datasets can beat a standard SMT-based framework whose results are much more diverse and approximate. The success of our simple LSTM-based approach on the sequential data provided confirmations that it can be used to get good outputs with other sequence learning problems, provided that they have enough data to train with.
The spotting of normal behavior of devices is an important step in finding anomalies in heavy vehicles. With the results we got there is still a lot diverse modifications that should be implemented to get much better results and this is possible by training and testing different kinds of datasets in all kinds of aspects. We should try with different possibilities and also with fine tuning of different hyper-parameters. Usage of LSTMs made our experiment succeed in a different level and there’s lot of work to be inherited in the usage to get many impossible tasks to come possible.
It is sensible to expect that with more time many adversaries could make an indeed more sophisticated attack. With Bluetooth, cellular, and Wi-Fi, advanced trucks are getting to be much more connected to the exterior world, which present new attack vectors. So, I suggest these ideas are to be implemented effectively in order to stop huge attacks on the heavy vehicles securities.
[1] Ilya Sutskever, O. V. (n.d.). Sequence to Sequence Learning with Neural Networks.
[2] Kyunghyun Cho, B. v. (n.d.). Learning Phrase Representations using RNN EncoderDecoder for Statistical Machine Translation., (p. 11).
[3] Macher, G. M. (n.d.). Integrated Safety and Security Development in the Automotive Domain.
[4] SAE J1939, Digital Annex, 201. (n.d.).
[5] Sandeep Nair Narayanan, S. M. (n.d.). OBD_SecureAlert: An Anomaly Detection System for Vehicles.
[6] Shirazi, H. (n.d.). Using Machine Learning to Detect Anomalies in Embedded Networks In Heavy Vehicles.
[7] Theissler, A. (2014). Anomaly detection in recordings from in-vehicle networks.
[8] Yelizaveta Burakova, B. H. (n.d.). Truck Hacking: An Experimental Analysis of the SAE J1939 Standard.
[9] Zhang, M. &. (2017). afeDrive: Online Driving Anomaly Detection From Large-Scale Vehicle Data.
[10] https://machinelearningmastery.com/rectifiedlinear-activation-function-for-deep-learning-neuralnetworks/