Nevado Del Ruiz Volcano Eruption

Mustafa Ameen
Nevado Del Ruiz volcano
Introduction:
The volcano is a phenomena that occurs at several kilometers depth of the huge plates that form the Earth’s surface, causing a hole in the crust through which the expulsion of molten lava and ash, and gases. Volcanic activity usually produces a cone-shaped Obinna picturesque periodically erupts in a violent way, and some can be very explosive eruptions, such as the volcano Nevado del Ruiz. Nevado del Ruiz volcano has erupted 23 times during the past two million years.
Geologic Location:
Nevado Del Ruiz is located on the border between the provinces of Caldas and Tolima in Colombia, part of the Andes mountain range, overshadowed the town of Armero, part of Los Nevados National Park natural, 129 km west of the capital Bogota. Its Longitude is 4.9°N / -75.32°W. Nevado del Ruiz falsehoods within the Ring of Fire, in the region of active volcanoes that encircle the Pacific Ocean, as shown in Figure (2). It is the third in the far north region of Andean volcanic belt which contains 75 of the 204 Holocene age volcanoes in southern America. It is worth mentioning that the production of this volcanic belt is under the continental plate of South America by eastward subduction of the Nazca oceanic plate as shown in figure (1).

Figure (1) how tectonic plate movement and subduction has created this volcano

Figure (2) Nevado del Ruiz volcano location on the map
Type of Volcano:
Nevado Del Ruiz is a composite volcano, that also known as a stratovolcano or a composite cones, this volcano have gentle lower slopes, but get very sheer near the summit, which give this volcano the cone like shape. So that Composite cones are created by a mixture of explosive activity and lava flows.
Nevado Del Ruiz has an overall andesitic and dacitic structure that made of layers (strata) of hardened lava, volcanic ash and tephra. Nevado Del Ruiz also has a layered appearance with alternating pyroclastic, lava, mad and debris flows, and also this volcano is created by an oceanic to continental convergent boundary. The structure layer of this volcano is given in Figure (3).

Figure (3) The structure layers of Nevado del Ruiz
Eruption Style:
Nevado del Ruiz is a stratovolcano forms at convergent plate margins, and its steep slopes of the summit and a small hole is amazing. Is an explosive, and usually generates Plinian explosion and has been active for the two million years ago. It is well known as composite cones for the emergence of a cone shape and several layers of lava alternating with stiffness volcanic ash and other lava rocks. Stratovolcanoes form in convergent plate margins, and its steep slopes of the summit and classifications are surprisingly small. The eastward subduction of the oceanic Nazaca plate beneath the South America continental plat is produced the Andean volcanic belt. It results in the production of dacitic lava, as well as volcanic andesitic rocks. These lava flows and lava cancel everything in its path, and travel for miles. Output is a lot of debris and ash from the volcano also erupts when. Landslides are one of the most lethal consequences of this during the eruption.

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As hot lava flowing on the undersides of the volcanic crater it causes a quick melting of snow and ice, which generates a very large floods that sweeping nearby valleys. As a result of mixing these floods with waste and debris floods and soil, increasing the density and volume to form very hot lahars with a thickness of approximately 50 meters and is moving at 50 km per hour. When sweep populated areas lead to the downfall of thousands of deaths in addition to the mass destruction of these areas.

Figure (1) A photo of the volcano Nevado del Ruiz
Eruption history:
The first eruption of Nevado Del Ruiz was in 6660 BC and most recently in 1985 in the Arenas Crater. The first explosion historically documented in 1570 while its biggest eruption occurred in 1595. In 1845, the volcano erupted as a result of a large earthquake and caused a considerable mudflow which ran down the valley of the nearby river (Lagunillas River) for approximately 70 km. Its spilled out in the river channel and killing much of the local people again. The most famous and most recent eruption occurred in 1985 which regarded as the worst volcanic disaster in the 21st century in South America, where they have caused the following casualties:

Approximately 23,000 people were killed in Armero From the population of 28,700
Around 5,000 people were injured.
About 5,000 homes were destroyed.
The whole town was swamped with mud up to 40 meters thic.
The mad was traveling at speeds of 50km/h in which it swept the town away.
This eruption was the fourth largest single-eruption in death toll whole the history.

The volcano activity is very limited since 1985 deadly explosion. The latest eruption occurred at 22 Feb 2012 and stopped at 10 April 2013 without any casualties. Table (1) gives summary of the eruption dates of this volcano.
Table (1) Summary of eruption dates of Nevado del Ruiz [6].

No.

Start Date

Stop Date

Eruption Certainty

Evidence

Activity Area or Unit

1

2012 Feb 22

2013 Apr 10

Confirmed

Historical Observations

Arenas Crater

2

1994 Apr 23

1994 Apr 23

Uncertain

 
 

3

1985 Sep 11

1991 Jul 13

Confirmed

Historical Observations

Arenas Crater

4

1984 Dec 22

1985 Mar 19

Confirmed

Historical Observations

Arenas Crater

5

1916

Unknown

Confirmed

Historical Observations

 

6

1845 Feb 19

Unknown

Confirmed

Historical Observations

Arenas and La Olleta craters, R1 tephra

7

1833

Unknown

Uncertain

 
 

8

1831

Unknown

Confirmed

Historical Observations

 

9

1829 Jun 18

Unknown

Confirmed

Historical Observations

 

10

1828 Jun

Unknown

Confirmed

Historical Observations

 

11

1826

Unknown

Uncertain

 
 

12

1805 Mar 14

Unknown

Confirmed

Historical Observations

 

13

1623

Unknown

Confirmed

Historical Observations

Near Arenas Crater

14

1595 Mar 9

Unknown

Confirmed

Historical Observations

Arenas Crater, R2 tephra

15

1570

Unknown

Confirmed

Historical Observations

Arenas Crater?

16

1541

Unknown

Uncertain

 
 

17

1350

Unknown

Confirmed

Radiocarbon

Arenas Crater, R4 tephra

18

0675

Unknown

Confirmed

Radiocarbon

Arenas Crater, R5 tephra

19

0350

Unknown

Confirmed

Radiocarbon

West flank, La Olleta, R-6 tephra

20

0200 BCE

Unknown

Confirmed

Radiocarbon

Arenas Crater, R7 tephra

21

0850 BCE

Unknown

Confirmed

Tephrochronology

Arenas Crater, R8 tephra

22

1245 BCE

Unknown

Confirmed

Radiocarbon

ENE flank

23

6660 BCE

Unknown

Confirmed

Tephrochronology

Arenas Crater, R9 tephra

Was it inevitable that so many people died/were injured? Could more have been done to save the people/ property?
The eruption signs can be predicted for some time before the outbreak of the volcano. Weeks later scientists were monitored the volcano using seismographs. Several maps were provided over a month before the eruption to illustrate the danger zones of the volcano, which showed that Armero area is clearly at high risk. But unfortunately, some unusual facts recognized, which are:
1 – People weren’t taken these maps very seriously and weren’t circulated thoroughly accurately.
2 – Many of the people in the city are unaware of these maps.
3 – Many citizens in Armero were unable to read.
Committed many quiet starts when a major eruption, because of reassuring messages that were sent by each of:
1 – The mayor on the radio.
2 – The local priest of the Church by addressing the audience.
However, it is the Red Cross to evacuate the city. But after a brief period of time evacuation, ash stopped falling.
Storm occurred and blocked the top of the volcano that made citizens unaware of what happens from the outbreak of lava. Authorities have warned that the eruption will be moderate with great danger for Armero with a very high probability of the mudflows. Unfortunately, government officials have refused this report and have declared their unwillingness to evacuate the population while making sure of its necessity. If government officials have taken the report warning seriously for the town could have been evacuated, then far fewer people would have been injured.
How we can prevent such damage and death if this volcano erupts again?
There are a lot of methods to protect towns and cities from lahars. In which these include: tunnels, alternate channels, and concrete structures. In which some have been succeed and others have not. The experiment provided that the best preventative measure is to build and establish a highly sensitive warning system. These warning systems include seismometers, which pick up the signal from the lahar as it moves to the bottom of the valley and rain gauges that accumulate water and warning when the formation of avalanches is possible. As it has been shown through the Nevado del Ruiz volcano warning systems are not sufficient. Also lines of communication and evacuation plans must also be established because the damage may not be avoidable but earlier warning thanks to better communications would empower people to be evacuated to higher ground.
Conclusion
Nevado del Ruiz is one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world. It is affected by several factors, namely, the composition of the magma core, the temperature, and the amount of dissolved gases it contains. It is believed that the atmosphere and the ocean evolved gases emitted by volcanic eruptions. Its eruptive period was begun 150 thousand years ago. These facts are enough reasons for igneous activity to warrant our attention. The government must take some procedure to protect its citizen for the next volcano eruption.
References:

http://nevadodelruiz.blogspot.se/
http://thewatchers.adorraeli.com/2011/09/13/unrest-at-nevado-del-ruiz-volcano-in-colombia/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nevado_del_Ruiz
http://www.geo.mtu.edu/volcanoes/hazards/primer/lahar.html
http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=1784&page=65
http://volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=351020#bgvn_3707

1
 

Soufriere Hills Volcano and its Hazards

Abstract
The 1995 to current thawing of Soufrière Hills Volcano has created over a cubic kilometers of andesitic lava, building a sequence of magma domes that were sequentially shattered, with large quantity deposited in the ocean. Basically, five phases of magma extrusion to create the above magma domes:  1995–1998; 1999–2003; 2005–2007; 2008–2009; and 2009–2010. It one of the most extensively researched eruptions in the globe at this period, and therefore are a lot of observational and instrumental datasets.

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Introduction
Volcanoes are short-lived occurrence happening up to few minutes. Volcanic events at Soufriere Hills Volcano (SHV) from1995 encompass five phases of magma eruption. Also, 1km3 thick rock equal of andesite magma has thawed 15 years down the line. The volcano has created more than 100 significant volcanic eruptions. The eruptions have happened in cyclinical sets as from 1997, in collaboration with domes shattering in the 2003 and at the onset and end of extrusive stages in 2008 and 2009.  Generally, the above eruptions have made tephra plumes to go to altitude higher than 5 kilometers above the sea level and mostly consisted of spout destruction of tephra jet creating a pyroclastic compactness current in many valleys in the eruptions vicinity (Baxter, Searl, Cowie, Jarvis & Horwell, 2014).
From the above data, there have come up a significant novel insights regarding: the lava cyclicity conveyance; low-frequency traumas linked with the transport magma movement; vulcanian eruptions and lateral blasts dynamics; the function that basalt-andesite lava interacting in the middle of layer has in causing the volcano; classification utilizing seismic tomography of the upper lava basin at the deepness of 5.5 and less than 7.5 kilometers.  Parallel to the study exertions, there has been a steady program of quantitative peril evaluation from 1997 that has both initiated novel techniques and offered a   firm proof base for the civil aviation to utilize in averting the perils to the Montserrat populace (Alexander et al., 2010).
The volcanic explosivity index (VEI) measures the eruptions strengths with scale ranging from zero to eight.  It is mainly utilized by the Global Volcanism program in evaluating the effects of prehistoric and historic magma movements. It functions in a manner resembling to the Richter scale meant for measuring the earthquakes, in that every interval in value is a representative of a tenfold upsurge in magnitude. Many of the volcanic extrusion are of VEIs between 0-2 (Baptie, 2010).
The topography has modified markedly for the past 15 years of magma eruption. The magma dome height has changed by greater than 400 meters. Previous huge dome destruction occurrence at Soufrière Hills Volcano has merely happened when the magma dome summit is huge that 950m above sea level. The present volcanic emission dome summit has been 1083 meters asl ever since the finale of stage five in 2010. Thus, there is large likelihood of huge collapse if lave extrusion resumes once more. Therefore, the above may front a peril to human being existence if PDCs created by the shattering are aimed at towards the northwest which are occupied areas at the base of the Belham river valley (Burgisser & Bergantz, 2011). 
Magma was established to be erupting at the southern point on October 2009. Eruptions were mostly concentrated on the southwest of the arena summit.  PDCs reached the waters to the south through white stream and entered Gingoes Ghaut for the first point in the extrusion as the white river drainage was occupied with deposits. The central areas and great heights of the escape doomed that at times the PDCs were capable to descent many valleys at the similar period.  By the 10th of November, 2009, development went to the west and PDCs joined the Gages valley (Burgisser et al., 2010).
Following a reduction in eruptions on 19th of November 2009, a fusion sequence and earthquake were experienced and shifted the position of extrusion to the north east. Though there were much of stage five, sub-daily sets of seismicity and exterior action existed.  At the height of the above sequence, plumes and ash emit with PDCs were usual. This activity was the same witnessed at the cyclicity of 1997, however with less volatile.  At the onset of the December 2009, the eruptions moved to the northwest and the Tyers Ghaut was occupied with the small PDCs deposits. This sequence of valley filling by ash and block deposits revolving round the eruptions was well recorded by the satellite radar (Trofimovs et al., 2012).
A huge vulcanian eruption on the 8th January moved the spiral to approximately 8 kilometers in altitudes and created fountain-shattering PDCs in many vales.  By size, this eruption was the largest recorded up to now; however, it was comparatively pumice-poor. Two more explosions on 10th and 11th January were noted, one of which produced fine-grained pumice lapilli fallout. The above eruptions were more intended for the west and PDCs reached the waters at Kinsale through the Spring Ghaut for the initial time. Sub-daily sets were feeble in January of 2010. Also, another vulcanian eruptions happened on 5th February, once more sending PDCs to the Spring Ghaut and out to waters (Thomas & Neuberg, 2012).
On the 11th February, 2010, the phase five of volcano ended by a huge dome shattering, the largest eruptions to have been noted on the northern elevation of the volcano. This generated a horseshoe-designed amphitheatre pointing to the north and comprised approximately 40×106–50×106 m3 of ring and talus. The base altitude for this fall down was above 100 metres high, at approximately 800 m asl, the altitude of the English’s Crater walls on the north face. The action occurred to roughly two hours, with the first dome fall down PDCS going to the northeast plains. The crumple had high-energy upsurges and highly vigorous which destroyed many of previously vacated areas of the Streatham and Harris. The deposit enclosed the majority of the NE slope to depths of 2–10 meters and prolonged shore up to 650 meters. Two, terminal, Vulcanian explosion made tephra plumes to reach 15 kilometers in height. The above plumes detached gradually over the SE Caribbean, and deposited dust on Dominica, Guadeloupe and St Lucia, harming crops and causing airplane disturbances (Trofimovs et al., 2013). 
Before to the cave in, the dome had achieved its highest altitude, 1150 meters asl and was minimized to approximately 1080 meters asl after the occurrence. Additionally, there was proof of three multi-week round (9 October–20 November 2009; 20 November 2009–8 January 2010; 8 January–11 February 2010).  The stage five was similar to a longer account of the phase 4 which occurred on the better part of December and January.  After the phase five eruption finale, the surface action was subdued, with dust escape on the 25th June and 2nd July of 2010.  Hot magnetic vapor upheld semi-permanent incandescent fumaroles from 2010 to 2012, specifically on the northern headwall of the 11th of February 2010 (Stinton, Cole, Stewart, Odbert & Smith, 2014).
Hazards
With the rising international populace and strain on the natural possessions, eruptions endanger more existence on daily basis. Explosive eruptions can have devastating communal effects in nearby individuals, encompassing whole nations in ash, killing animals, ruining vegetations and causing a massive loss of human being existence. The above explosion can also have universal impacts, with the likelihood to influence the air quality, biogeochemical sequences, air traffic and international temperatures. On the other hand, doming-effusion or magma movements are typically less toxic, with the effects concentrated in the location immediately around the eruptions, though the volcano of colossal lava movement can distort assets and may have acute impacts on local air quality (Alexander et al., 2010).
Thus, the volcanism form determines the kinds of perils posed by eruptions. A crucial concern is that any volcano can either thaw effusively or explosively.  Out of the 106 volcanoes equal or greater than VEI 3 ever since 2000, 61% of them consisted of both explosive and effusive action (Burgisser et al., 2010).  Moreover, the current comprehension of the geodetic, geophysical and geochemical signs noted by eruptions observations does not offer either an effective concept to predict the primary volcano dimension and style, or the sequential development of eruptive action. This complication confines the governing body capability to plan for and avert the eruptions hazard. It is therefore essential to comprehend the elements that regulate whether an explosion thaw explosively or effusively, and to incorporate this data into replica that offer realistic volcano situations. This objective is reflected to be one of the three splendid concerns in eruption discipline (Burgisser et al., 2010).
Conclusion
Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, is a volcanic emission dome intricate that has been exploding occasionally as from 18 July 1995. Subsequent to a 10 months pause in action, three days of cinders expelling commenced on 5th of October 2009. volcanic emission then started on the 9 October and took place in three incidents throughout the subsequent 4 months. Sub-daily and about 6 week occurrences of action were a distinguished feature of stage 5. Sub-daily series were marked by increased rock fall and PDC generation. At the point of writing, in spite of magma extrusion shortage ever since 11 February 2010, it is not apparent that the volcano series has finished due to elevated SO2 instability. The explosion so far has been discussed by five extrusive stages taking up to three years alienated by months to years of stillness. Action is characterized by volcanic emission development and crumple, with Vulcanian explosion.
References

Alexander, J., Barclay, J., Sušnik, J., Loughlin, S. C., Herd, R. A., Darnell, A., & Crosweller, S. (2010). Sediment-charged flash floods on Montserrat: the influence of synchronous tephra fall and varying extent of vegetation damage. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 194(4), 127-138.
Baptie, B. J. (2010). Lava dome collapse detected using passive seismic interferometry. Geophysical Research Letters, 37(19).
Baxter, P. J., Searl, A. S., Cowie, H. A., Jarvis, D., & Horwell, C. J. (2014). Evaluating the respiratory health risks of volcanic ash at the eruption of the Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat, 1995 to 2010. Geological Society, London, Memoirs, 39(1), 407-425.
Burgisser, A., & Bergantz, G. W. (2011). A rapid mechanism to remobilize and homogenize highly crystalline magma bodies. Nature, 471(7337), 212.
Burgisser, A., Poussineau, S., Arbaret, L., Druitt, T. H., Giachetti, T., & Bourdier, J. L. (2010). Pre-explosive conduit conditions of the 1997 Vulcanian explosions at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat: I. Pressure and vesicularity distributions. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 194(1-3), 27-41.
Stinton, A. J., Cole, P. D., Stewart, R. C., Odbert, H. M., & Smith, P. (2014). The 11 February 2010 partial dome collapse at Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat. Geological Society, London, Memoirs, 39(1), 133-152.
Thomas, M. E., & Neuberg, J. (2012). What makes a volcano tick—A first explanation of deep multiple seismic sources in ascending magma. Geology, 40(4), 351-354.
Trofimovs, J., Foster, C., Sparks, R. S. J., Loughlin, S., Le Friant, A., Deplus, C., … & Palmer, M. R. (2012). Submarine pyroclastic deposits formed during the 20th May 2006 dome collapse of the Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat. Bulletin of Volcanology, 74(2), 391-405.
Trofimovs, J., Talling, P. J., Fisher, J. K., Sparks, R. S. J., Watt, S. F. L., Hart, M. B., … & Leng, M. J. (2013). Timing, origin and emplacement dynamics of mass flows offshore of SE Montserrat in the last 110 ka: Implications for landslide and tsunami hazards, eruption history, and volcanic island evolution. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 14(2), 385-406.