Control and Feminism in The Yellow Wallpaper

The message in “The Yellow Wallpaper” demonstrates how Gilman is treated by her husband. Being able to have Gilman shed her life “experience with mental illness” (248) helps generate an idea of what it was like in the 1900s as a woman who needed help, assurance, attention, and interaction. Nothing could have overpowered this short story because it is such a strengthening experience for another woman. For example, this story is “Widely read and taught as a feminist allegory, the story has been seen as a protest against the rest cure and a critique of patriarchal medicine” (Bittel). This means some people do not accept the fact women are being treated like children and not being given the appropriate treatment to get well. Men like the narrators’ husband John should not be able to hold the authority to what happens to a woman through sickness and health. Because of the husband’s patriarchy obsession over Jane, she experiences the isolation effectiveness, Jane shows us her self-expression, and Charlotte Perkins Gilman portrays the world of feminism.

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Throughout the story “The Yellow Wallpaper” reported by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, it shows how the narrator is driven into insanity. The narrator also named Jane who happens to suffer from postpartum depression and is put on bed rest to be isolated from the world. Because of this, she is set up in an attic covered in a yellow wallpaper. She has never been caged in for so long, so she starts to hallucinate over the yellow wallpaper because “The front pattern does move – and no wonder! The woman behind shakes it!” (258). Jane feels trapped and later will realize what the isolation is doing to her because she becomes the woman behind the yellow wallpaper due to her saying “I’ve got out at last,” (260).  Her isolation leads to trauma which “is defined as a type of psychic damage which occurs as a result of a traumatic event or process” (Aksehir). The connection others could make to this story was baffling because Charlotte Gilman’s short story happened to be relatable. She was able to share her story of how she was kept from the world and treated unimportantly by her husband who was also her physician.

The Yellow Wallpaper: is also a self-expression perspective because Charlotte Perkins Gilman expressed how women were treated in that period by a male authority in the household and or society. The narrator enjoyed her alone time because she needed to find herself again to feel appreciated, “I wasn’t alone a bit!” (260). That certain main character is not allowed to be her creative self because it possibly will affect her illness when it could help her. Jane is not allowed to write, leave the room, talk to anyone, etc. because it involves human interaction with others. She wants to be herself but how can she when her husband is constantly on her mind about what he will say even though he is sometimes not physically present, for example, “And I know John would think it absurd” (254). The narrator’s, self-expression is noticed when she cannot fulfill her duties as a mom and wife as expected from society because of her sickness due to not getting the correct medical treatment she needs meaning “Even though we are not told about a specific event that has traumatized the young woman, it is apparent that even her everyday experiences with her husband or within the established set of social norms are traumatizing enough” (Aksehir). This ends up also driving her insane because there is no room for her to be herself and to improve, especially with her husbands need for control. Self-expression is important to Gilman and the narrator because they both wanted to have a voice.

For the story “The Yellow Wallpaper” by Charlotte Perkins Gilman “More recently feminists have argued that the novel is an example of early feminist literature” (Mukhtar). In this story, feminism is a big issue because it portrays how women like Gilman’s situation are walked over. It happens to also shows how woman struggle with the overwhelming male figure in their household. For example, obviously the narrator knows what is best for her because, “Personally, I believe that congenial work, with excitement and change, would do me good” (249) meaning this would be beneficial to help improve her health. So, of course her husband will have to say otherwise, and she will listen to him because during that time period women are to obey their husbands because they know what is right. Women and men will never be equals because these two genders have always had different opportunities and rules then one another. In the story, “The Yellow Wallpaper” has portrayed the hardships a woman will endure due to the male authority figure. A feminist is Charlotte Perkins Gilman and she is the lady in the short story because of her experience with a patriarchy husband and her mental illness.

When the narrator is finally set free, she realized she had been the lady behind the yellow wallpaper and realized it was time to be set free. As the story came to an end, we saw how she moved past her suffering, gained her freedom by standing up for herself, and us audience gained a new perspective on feminism. Because of her newly found self, she was able to overcome the obstacles she was living under even though she is still ill.

Works Cited

Aksehir, Mahinur. “Reading ‘The Yellow Wallpaper’ as Post-Traumatic writing/‘The Yellow Wallpaper’ Adh Oykunun Travma-Sonrasi Anlati Olarak okunmasi.(Report).” Interactions 17.2 (2008): n. pag. Print.

Bittel, Carla. “Helen Lefkowitz Horowitz . Wild Unrest: Charlotte Perkins Gilman and the Making of ‘The Yellow Wall‐Paper.’ New York: Oxford University Press. 2010. Pp. Ix, 251. $24.95.” The American Historical Review 117.1 (2012): 208–209. Web.

Mukhtar, Omar. “The Yellow Wallpaper.” BMJ 342.jan26 1 (2011): d428–d428. Web.

 

Themes in Crispin’s Model and The Yellow Wallpaper

What is it that makes a story great? Is it the characters and what they are like, the setting, the problems that happen throughout the story to the characters? In eighteen ninety-two, Charlotte Perkins Gillman’s The Yellow Wallpaper was published. The story surrounds an unnamed woman more or less locked up by her husband. She is cut off from as much stimulus that is possible, and this lack of stimulus starts to drive her mad as time goes on and the story progresses further (Gilman, “The Yellow Wallpaper”). Going farther into detail in “why I wrote The Yellow Wallpaper, Gilman talks a little about the state of medical care for women in the time she lived. After years of nervous breakdowns, Gilman went to one of the best known specialists in the country. Gilman followed his instructions and said “I went home and followed those instructions for some three months, and came so near the borderline of utter mental ruin that I could see over”” (“why I wrote”). In the story Crispin’s Model by Max Gladstone, main character Deliah Dane is a model for Arthur Dufresne Crispin, an artist who paints does not paint normal things, in his own words “I do not converse with my models. Your form interests me. Personal connection distorts perspective… I paint the noumenal—that which lies beneath appearance” (Gladstone, “Crispin’s Model”).

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 In both stories, the main characters are both in situations where they feel trapped. In “the yellow wallpaper” that is quite literal, as she is locked up in what they call “rest cure” by her husband who is a physician. Rest cure is designed to cure the subject but ends up doing more damage than it does good. In Escaping the Sentence: Diagnosis and Discourse in “The Yellow Wallpaper”. Paula A. Treichler says that “the diagnosis of hysteria or depression, conventional ‘women diseases’ of the nineteenth century, set in motion a therapeutic regimen which involves language in several ways” (Treichler, Escaping the Sentence: Diagnosis and Discourse in “The Yellow Wallpaper”, 61).  In Crispin’s Model, Deliah is not locked up or tied to something she is trapped by a few things that change throughout the story.in the beginning of the story Deliah is free to leave at any time, she stays because she is being paid by Crispin to stay and sit as he paints her. As the first session goes on she sense that something is different with Crispin, no music is played so the entire studio seems still and uneasy. As crispin paints, when he looks at Deliah she thinks “. His whole body leaned into me through the points of his eyes. I didn’t feel seen. I felt peered through, like the near lens of a telescope” (Gladstone). Later on in the story as Crispin is painting Deliah for a second time, she is trapped more out of fear, for what Crispin is painting than anything else. As time goes on what seems to be the weather gets worse, branches that are not there scrape against the windows. Eventually Deliah gets up to see what it is that Crispin is painting, that seems to be causing the problems outside. After breaking Crispin’s nose Deliah saw the painting. Deliah describes the painting as

“Beautiful and hideous… I saw through it-through the eyes , through the cracked skin and the wet red muscle, through the flayed flesh and the bare skull, saw the thing he’d summoned, this creature his mad beholding had chiseled from raw space, cancer and mother and blood, swollen, breaking open, shaking ropes of flesh, hair a coil of serpents, panes of body and breasts and thighs venting vapors that were fingers reaching through.”(Gladstone).

 Where a story takes place are just as important as to who is in that story. The place that the story take place helps with setting the tone such as in the yellow wallpaper where the narrator is put in a  small room that only has a single barred window, a bed that does not move and yellow wallpaper that the narrator describes as “ the color is repellent, almost revolting; a smoldering unclean yellow, strangely faded by the slow-turning sunlight”( Gilman, The Yellow Wallpaper, 381).  In Crispin’s model most of the story happens in Crispin’s studio while he is painting Deliah. As opposed to the little stimulus that is given in The Yellow Wallpaper, Crispin’s Model gives much to what can be seen and heard. In the beginning of the story what is talked about seem to make one curious, but at the same times gives the horror that comes up more nearing the end of the story. As Deliah is sitting as Crispin Paints her, she gives a detailed description of what she sees while staring at face for the first afternoon, “That first afternoon I saw his skin bubble off the bone, his forehead bulge and birth curving horns, his jaw distend like a snake’s about to devour the world. And then he looked up, and his face was a face again” (Gladstone). Near the end of the story she describes the horror and terror of what Crispin has been painting, “I heard the waves of an unlit sea wash a dead city’s shore. The screams outside the windows swelled, the clattering things clawed harder at the glass” (Gladstone).

 When a story takes place is also important to what happens in the story. The time period that a story takes place dictates the possibilities of what can happen and what someone can do in the story. In The Yellow Wallpaper the story is set in the mid to late Eighteen-hundreds, around this time “rest cure” is common place. The patient is put in a room where there is little to nothing to stimulate her, and this is supposed to cure them. The narrator does not have much in the way to occupy herself in the room apart from writing in the journal that she keeps hidden. The journal the she keeps helps keep her sane for the first couple of weeks in the room that she hates, “I am sitting by the window now, up in this atrocious nursery, and there is nothing to hinder my writing as much as I please, save lack of strength”(Gilman, 381). In Crispin’s model it is set in modern day with all the modern amenities that we have. But much of that is used has for the most part been used by painters for centuries if not millennia; a brush, paint, canvas on an easel, and a person to pose in a way that the painter desires.

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 Conflict gives the story suspense up to when it is resolved, in The Yellow Wallpaper the narrator is trapped in a small room in a colonial mansion. Her husband, john is a practicing physician who seems to mean well when he puts her on “rest cure” the narrator put it this way, “If a physician of high standing, and one’s own husband, assures friends and family that there is really nothing the matter with one but temporary nervous depression-a slight hysterical tendency-what is one to do?” (Gilman, 380). Is the conflict resolved in The Yellow Wallpaper? That depends on how someone reads the story. After the narrator has ripped off as much of the yellow wallpaper as she can, she speak to john saying, “I’ve got out at last, in spite of you and Jane. And I’ve pulled off most of the paper, so you can’t put me back” (Gilman, 391). This can be seen many ways one of which can slightly be seen as being resolved. Earlier in the story the narrator talks about how she is “securely fastened now by my well-hidden rope” (Gilman, 390). With the rope and her creeping around the room, coupled with her husband fainting after he opens the door. It can taken that she hung herself with the rope she has, but this is just one of many ways to interpret the ending. On the other hand, the conflict that goes on in Crispin’s Model is more horror based, between Deliah and Crispin and his paintings. As time goes on Deliah notices that what Crispin paints is not normal and is in fact dangerous. The first time we find something is wrong with the painting is at Morrison’s apartment, after he bought them, he intended to show them in full lighting. When deliah arrives at his apartment Morrison is gone and her agent is unconscious. One of the paintings seems as though something had come bursting out of it, later we find the same thing as Crispin is painting Deliah. After smearing paint across the canvas to try and keep the monster in the painting Deliah thinks “She strained against the paint, to burst into our world from Crispin’s mad fantasies. My smear would not seal her” (Gladstone) the conflict is solved when Deliah convinces Crispin to paint her “Don’t paint her, paint me. As I am. Not as you see” (Gladstone)

Works Cited

Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. “The Yellow Wallpaper”. Compact Literature: Reading, Reacting, Writing. 9th ed. Laurie G. Kinzer & Stephen R. Mandell, Cengage Learning, 2017. Pp. 379-391

Gilman, Why I Wrote The Yellow Wallpaper. 11 Feb. 2019 .

Gladstone, Max. “Crispin’s Model.” Tor.com. 03 Oct. 2017. 11 Feb. 2019.

Treichler, Paula A. “Escaping the Sentence: Diagnosis and Discourse in ‘The Yellow Wallpaper.’” Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature, vol. 3, no. 1/2, 1984, pp. 61–77. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/463825.

Mental Health in The Yellow Wallpaper and The Invisible Man

Character Essay

According to the website Wiseoldsaying “There is nothing invisible in this universe! There is only our lack of eyesight!”- Mehmet Murat ildan. So many of us in society feel invisible at one point or another whether that is being part of a community, family or even within our minds. It just takes time to open our eye some time to know that we are truly not alone in this world. In the stories “The Yellow Wallpaper” and “The Invisible Man,” you will find examples of physiological distress of modern society and the pressures of one environment and the effect it had on one’s mental state. Novels like The Invisible Man by HG Wells and The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman are both novels of the main character feeling as if they are invisible. These novels simonize signs of mental health on multiple levels. In this paper, readers will be learning about the social struggles of mental health and the feeling of isolation within one’s mental being.

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While Griffin the main character in The Invisible Man by H.G. Wells exhibits drastic amounts of intelligence, he also exhibits a lack of confidence. Griffin’s lack of confidence is portrayed through living in a constant state of anxiety about his future. According to Majken Hirche characters similar to Griffin’s mental health could be compared to Frankenstein’s. While in The Invisible Man, Griffin the University College student discovers a way to make himself invisible. This becomes a dangerous story of power in modern science. Griffin grows progressively more self-absorbed as he becomes more invisible to the world around him. According to Paul A Cantor the author of The Invisible Man and the Invisible Hand: H.G. Wells’s Critique of Capitalism

“This type of portrayals of mad scientists stretches back to Mary Shelley’s Victor Frankenstein, the prototype of the man who isolates himself from his fellows to pursue an ambitious project and in the process loses his humanity, unleashing forces he can neither truly understand nor control.” Griffin and Frankenstein could be considered one of the most pathological narcissists being characterized as characters that would destroy their being and the people around them.

By being in a state of compulsive and crazed hunt for divine power exposes characters like Griffin as a philological narcissist that suffer from not only depression but a possible personality disorder. Griffin’s insensible capability of being insignificant and substandard is the center of Griffin’s mental state throughout this novel. By being invisible Griffin believes in the unparalleled success and seeing himself as a shining star to unlimited commendations. Griffin sees himself as a Godlike power and mastermind of intelligence. This can be compared to The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman on how the husband isolating his wife and mother of his child from the world. The narrator from this novel also believes she is invisible to the world as she suffers from a post-partum depression along with hysteria. A vital part to note about the story “The Yellow Wallpaper,” was that the main character never officially illustrated that she died, but only that she escaped for the enclosure of the world around her and the seemingly unattainable mental state of freedom. “The Yellow Wallpaper” wholly illustrates how a woman felt the pressure to do what she felt was the acceptable thing to do by acting within these principles. Her mental breakdown began when her husband prescribed her to a bed rest also know as rest cure which enforced his wife to incarceration without any work or mental exercise such as writing outside of the domestic confinement of her room. From this imprisonment, she begins to feel as if she is trapped, alone and unable to express her struggles with her inner self. These struggles make her feel as if she is powerless and inability to communicate with the outside world beside her husband. Therefore between an anxious mother, over possessive husband and a big damp room enclosed with stale wallpaper play vital role in driving her insane. The overwhelming husband attentiveness combined with the lonely atmosphere exhorts an uneasy personality of the wife, causing her to sink into a state of psychosis to the point that she sees herself in the wallpaper. Ultimately feeling corned by her surrounding but as well as from her husband’s control. The more she struggles to face of these mounting obstacles, the more her mental health and self-esteem disappear into the darkness of depression ultimately feeling as if she is invisible.

The power of one mental state and how it can affect someone’s daily life and the way it may make someone feel as if that person were limitless or superior to another can be the underlying issue of one’s fear of being removed. These types of behaviors exhibit a state of the repercussion of the aftermath of no consequences that takes away the notion of Griffin’s goodwill. Griffin’s nature promotes his madness when he begins to steal and starts his binge of breaking into houses. Ultimately the invisibility that Griffin sees as power is more of a cruise. The invisible man finds himself ignored, and no longer able to enjoy the everyday custom like enjoying a meal. While the community around him are capable of enjoying the simplest things such as lunch this type of action make Griffin feel defeated which angers his madness and mania. This madness comes from the core of fear that he might expose himself and the rejection and abuse of his brotherhood from his University. Through the outraged from his frustrations and the accomplishment to survive he retreats from society to conceal his work but appoint his power by expressing his inner fears and instead shows that he holds himself in higher regards to social values. This features the dramatic public unveiling of his true form exclaiming:

“You don’t understand … who I am or what I am. I’ll show you. By Heaven! I’ll show you.’… It was worse than anything. Mrs. Hall, standing openmouthed and horror-struck, shrieked at what she saw, and made for the door of the house. Everyone began to move. They were prepared for scars, disfigurements, tangible horrors, but nothing! … The man who stood there shouting some incoherent explanation was a solid gesticulating figure up to the coat-collar of him, and then—nothingness, no visible thing at all!” H.G. Wells, The Invisible Man p 37

This type of variability brings a character like The Narrator and Griffin to a state of unstable emotions due to the lack of control around them. People with Borderline Personality Disorder are people that may be in between psychosis and anxiety/depression, better known as Neurosis. For these two characters, these type of variability exposes some sort of emotion outside of the “norm” of what people are used to, making people around feel uncomfortable.

In comparing the two Characters’ and their mental state in both of these novels, you can see patterns of both mental health disorders from depression to personality disorders. The author’s point of analyzing mental health in these novels could be considered one to bring awareness to mental health but bring awareness to the world around us. “There is nothing invisible in this universe! There is only our lack of eyesight!”- Mehmet Murat ildan.

Work Cited

Handcock, Tarryn. Revelation and the Unseen in H. G. Wells’s The Invisible Man.

Muratildan, Mehmet Murat ildan. “Invisible Sayings and Invisible Quotes | Wise Old Sayings.” Invisible Sayings and Invisible Quotes | Wise Old Sayings, www.wiseoldsayings.com/invisible-quotes/.

BC Division, Canadian Mental Health Association. “Borderline Personality Disorder.” Borderline Personality Disorder | Here to Help, 2014, www.heretohelp.bc.ca/factsheet/borderline-personality-disorder.

cantor, Paul A. “The Invisible Man and the Invisible Hand: H.G. Wells’s Critique of Capitalism | Paul A. Cantor.” Mises Institute, 31 Aug. 2010, mises.org/library/invisible-man-and-invisible-hand-hg-wellss-critique-capitalism.

Hirche, majken. “Indadvendt.dk.” Indadvendtdk RSS, 8 Mar. 2012, 10:55am, www.indadvendt.dk/2012/03/a-psychological-analysis-of-frankenstein/.

H.G. Wells, The Invisible Man, ed. 2005 (London: Penguin Classics, 1897), 37

Newman, Heather, and Charlotte Perkins Gilman. The Yellow Wallpaper. Rain City Projects, 2003.

Steven McLean, ―Science behind the Blinds: Scientist and Society in The Invisible Man‖, in The Early Fiction of H.G. Wells: Fantasies of Science (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009), 69, 71–72.

Tess. “The Yellow Wallpaper.” Full Text – The Yellow Wallpaper – Owl Eyes, www.owleyes.org/text/yellow-wallpaper/read/yellow-wallpaper#root-422327-46.

 

Psychoanalytic Criticism Theory in “The Yellow Wallpaper”

 Psychoanalytic Criticism is the theory that relates the author to the text. Embedded in the texts are the author’s own feelings, desires, and thoughts. Psychoanalytic Criticism was derived from Sigmund Freud’s theories of psychology. Freud believed that the unconscious mind affected an individual’s behaviour and these were brought on by childhood events. In Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s case, it was in her early thirties when she started facing issues. Through “The Yellow Wallpaper”, Gilman uses her own experience to enlighten other women from being driven crazy from the rest treatment.

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In “The Yellow Wallpaper”, the author Charlotte Perkins Gilman, depicts herself through Jane. Jane has what is known as postpartum depression and Charlotte Gilman Perkins suffered from “a severe and a continuous nervous breakdown.” (Atlas 2015). Both Perkins and Jane were given the “rest” treatment and were restricted from expressing themselves through writing. Perkins attempted the rest treatment for three months with no benefit to her depression. “I went home and obeyed those directions for some three months, and came so near the borderline of utter mental ruin that I could see over.” Perkins did not see illusions like Jane did, but she felt as though she was on the brink of insanity. She felt as if she was being restricted from anything creative. Jane is also displayed as such in “The Yellow Wallpaper”. “Resting” for long periods of time can drive anyone crazy. Many individuals seek some sort of action or attention to help distract themselves from any problems. When you’re left with your own thoughts you’re mind can wander to possibly negative ideas.

Women know themselves best.“John says if I don’t pick up faster he shall send me to Weir Mitchell in the fall.”(Gilman 476). Weir Mitchell is the real life doctor that treated Charlotte Gilbert Perkins for postpartum depression. In Jane’s case she is being treated by her husband John. Even though Charlotte Gilman Perkins uses a reference to the real life specialist that treated her, the message she tries to convey through Jane is that all men are similar when it comes to restricting the creative impulse of women. “I had a friend who was in his hands once, and she says he is just like John and my brother, only more so!”(Gilman 476). “Then, using the remnants of intelligence that remained, and helped by a wise friend, I cast the noted specialist’s advice to the winds and went to work again–work, the normal life of every human being; work, in which is joy and growth and service, without which one is a pauper and a parasite — ultimately recovering some measure of power.”(Atlas 2015). Perkins abandons the advice of the patriarchal figure, much like Jane does later when she is found ripping the yellow wallpaper. Perkins learns how to tackle postpartum depression and decides to write what is now “The Yellow Wallpaper.”

Once published, “The Yellow Wallpaper” had it’s criticism but also spread the truth.“The little book is valued by alienists and as a good specimen of one kind of literature. It has, to my knowledge, saved one woman from a similar fate–so terrifying her family that they let her out into normal activity and she recovered.”(Atlas 2015). Gilman’s book debunked the rest treatment. Others caught wind of the awareness of resting. Women decided to listen to a women’s advocate and it helped one woman seek relief. Even the specialist made a change to treatment for a diagnosis. “But the best result is this. Many years later I was told that the great specialist had admitted to friends of his that he had altered his treatment of neurasthenia since reading The Yellow Wallpaper. It was not intended to drive people crazy, but to save people from being driven crazy, and it worked.” Charlotte Perkins Gilman message passed through for the better. Not only did she save one woman, many others were possibly saved from the specialist changing his diagnosis procedure.

Psychoanalytic Criticism Theory in “The Yellow Wallpaper” gives the reader an understanding of how Charlotte Gilman Perkins felt with her own depression.

Works Cited

Atlas, Nava. “‘Why I Wrote The Yellow Wallpaper’ by Charlotte Perkins Gilman.” Literary Ladies Guide, 2015, www.literaryladiesguide.com/literary-musings/charlotte-perkins-gilman-wrote-yellow-wallpaper/.

Delahoyde, Michael. “Psychoanalytic Criticism.” Psychoanalytic Criticism. 26 June 2019 https://public.wsu.edu/~delahoyd/psycho.crit.html>.

Purdue Writing Lab. “Psychoanalytic Criticism // Purdue Writing Lab.” Purdue Writing Lab. 26 June 2019 https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/subject_specific_writing/writing_in_literature/literary_theory_and_schools_of_criticism/psychoanalytic_criticism.html>.

Gilman, Charlotte. “The Yellow Wallpaper.” Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing, edited by  X. J. Kennedy, Dana Gioia, Longman, 2012, pp. 472-483.

 

Themes and Symbols in ‘The Yellow Wallpaper’

The Yellow Wallpaper is a feminist short story by Charlotte Perkins- Gilman. The significance of the story is astounding as it explores into the basic issues of a woman’s place in society, public perception of mental illness, and feminism in the 19th century. Charlotte Perkins-Gilman’s theme behind the story was a feminist approach, due to the protagonists’ struggles against “the male-centric thinking” and society “norms”. The story tells of the close mindedness of how post-partum depression was treated and dealt with by physicians and society. It tells of a woman who is the protagonist and narrator, whom is going through post-partum depression. John her husband, who is a physician, tries to cure his wife’s “nervous condition”, in which this eventually leads to her complete breakdown; John tries to prescribe the “rest cure” treatment for the protagonist. She is advised to abstain from all physical activity and creative stimulation. She is not allowed to read, write, or to see her new baby, the only thing she can do is sleep and breath in the fresh air of the country estate. John manages to keep the protagonist in a subordinate role and make her think she did not have the ability to make her own decisions. Perkins-Gilman’s protagonist struggles against depression and male dominance, which was common in the 19th century. The protagonist is being held captive by John, locked away from the outside world because he believes this is one of his remedies to make her well. The protagonist describes the room as having been, “a nursery first and then playroom and gymnasium.” (Perkins P.688). She is constantly watched and controlled by John that this behavior of his, leads to her breakdown also. “He is very careful and loving, and hardly lets me stir without special direction.”(Perkins P.688) The protagonist becomes increasingly fixated on the yellow wallpaper found in the room where she spends majority of the story. “It is dull enough to confuse the eye in following, pronounced enough to constantly irritate and provoke study, and when you follow the lame uncertain curves for a little distance they suddenly commit suicide-plunge off at outrageous angles, destroy themselves in unheard-of contradictions.”(Perkins P.688). The protagonist’s house for the summer is a countryside estate. “A colonial mansion, a hereditary estate, I would say a haunted house and reach the height of romantic felicity-but that would be asking too much of fate!”(Perkins P.686) The estate is isolated and secluded away from the main road. There are gates, locks, other small houses surrounding it, and large walls. Despite the protagonist’s progression into insanity, the wallpaper and the room become her source of strength, giving her the courage and confidence to leave her husband John.

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Throughout the story, the protagonist remains nameless and Perkins-Gilman never releases her name in the end. John, who is a highly respected physician diagnosis’ the protagonist, which his remedy is to keep her inside away from the world trapped behind the walls. The protagonist does not completely agree with her husband John’s remedies, but does not say a word to speak against him. “John is a physician, and perhaps-(I would not say it to a living soul, of course, but this is dead paper and a great relief to my mind–) perhaps that is one reason I do not get well faster.” (Gilman P.87) She cannot make any decisions on her own without John or voice any concerns regarding her health because it may come out wrong. Instead, she writes her emotions and feelings on paper, which must be kept secretive from John and anyone else. Confined to this room day after day, the protagonist begins to study the wallpaper. The Protagonist creates an image of a woman behind the yellow wallpaper in the room, where she is being held captive. The room is where she and John sleep and where she remains throughout the day captive. The protagonist is fascinated with this illusion of a woman being held captive behind the wallpaper. She (the protagonist) almost becomes obsessed with this illusion. She continues to watch this woman behind the yellow wallpaper day in and day out. “Through watching so much at night, when it changes so, I have finally found out. The front pattern does move-and no wonder! The woman behind it shakes it! Sometimes I think there are a great many women behind, and sometimes only one, and she crawls around fast, and her crawling shakes it all over.” (Perkins P. 695). In the end, the protagonist tries to free herself and the woman trapped by tearing down the yellow wallpaper.
In the beginning of the story, it is apparent that the protagonist allows herself to be inferior to John. “John is practical in the extreme. He has no patience with faith, an intense horror of superstition, and he scoffs openly at any talk of things not to be felt and seen and put down in figures.” (Perkins P. 687). John dictates orders as a physician, for her to stay in bed, not to delve into her creativity, and discontinue her writings. “So I take phosphates and phosphites- whichever it is, and tonics, and journeys, and air, and exercise, and am absolutely forbidden to ‘work’ until I am well again. Personally, I believe that congenial work, with excitement and change, would do me good” (Perkins P.687). “But what is one to do?” (Gilman P.27). At that point, she is being inferior to John and having a low self esteem and confidence in herself. John knows his wife on a superficial layer only and he sees the outer part, but misses the woman trapped screaming to be set free. John’s ignorance blinds him from fully understanding his wife. Their relationship is not equal in a marriage sense. According to the 19th century, women were expected to fulfill their duties as wives and mothers. The protagonist is unable or willing to adhere to the ideal model of domesticity by the 19th century society and John is at loss as to what to do. With this in mind, John was a reflection of society. The ignorance and shortcomings of society led the protagonist in a direction that could have been prevented if they would of just stepped out of the box. John’s solution was to use Weir Mitchell’s rest regimen to cure his wife, not knowing he was going to push her over the edge of insanity. At times, John referred to the protagonist in third person “Bless her little heart!” (Perkins P.692) “She shall be as sick as she pleases!” (Perkins P.692). John eroded the protagonist’s personality. She is treated as a child relying on guidance and help from John. She relies on John, as a child would depend on a parent regarding any move or thought she makes.
The protagonist is modeled after Charlotte Perkins Gilman who is suffering from depression and anxiety. She is quiet and subservient to John. She desperately would like to please her husband and assume her role as a wife and mother. She is struggling with abiding to her husband’s needs and her inner most desires of creativity. “You see, he does not believe I am sick! And what can one do? If a physician of high standing, and one’s own husband, assures friends and relatives that there is really nothing the matter with one but temporary nervous depression-a slight hysterical tendency-what is one to do?”(Perkins P.687). She hides in her writings that must be kept hidden from John. “John does not know how much I really suffer. He knows there is no reason to suffer, and that satisfies him.”(Perkins P. 688) “It is hard to talk with John about my case, because he is so wise, and because he loves me so.”(Perkins P.692). Isolation and boredom forces the protagonist to use the room as a playroom where her mind begins to wonder and she begins to find comfort in the yellow wallpaper. She gradually begins to see the patterns in the wallpaper, which is “a woman stooping down and creeping around behind that pattern.” (Perkins P.692) The protagonist becomes obsessed with the women in the wallpaper that she forgets that she wants to be the perfect wife and mother. The interesting thing is “At night in any kind of light, in twilight, candlelight, lamplight, and worst of all by moonlight, it becomes bars! The outside pattern, I mean, and the woman behind is as plain as can be.”(Perkins P.693) “I didn’t realize for a long time what the thing was that showed behind, that dim sub pattern, but I am quite sure it is a woman.”(Perkins 693) The woman stooping down and creeping around behind the pattern that symbolizes submission to man in the 19th century era. The protagonist begins to focus only on the pattern during the nighttime and sleeping in the day. During the nighttime hours the protagonist believes the woman becomes alive and tries to free herself from captivity. “I see her in that long shaded lane, creeping up and down. I see her in those dark grape arbors, creeping all around the garden. I see her on that long road under the trees, creeping along, and when a carriage comes she hides under the blackberry vines.”(Perkins P.695). In spite of her fixation on the yellow wallpaper, the protagonist begins to grow in strength and self-esteem. She begins to not listen to John anymore, not look for his approval in decision-making, and begins the growing process of her self-confidence. In the end, the protagonist has an awakening or rebirth of herself in regards to John. “Why there’s John at the door!”(Perkins P. 697). “It is no use, young man, you can’t open it!”(Perkins P.687). “John dear!” said the protagonist in the gentlest voice.”(Perkins P.697). These are examples of the protagonist has had a role reversal with John; she is the authoritative person now, instead of John. Also she could be described as the elder and John as the minor. The protagonist has taken ownership of her and could stand on her two feet without being inferior to John. The protagonist realizes I am a person that can make decisions on my own without waiting for permission from John. The protagonist is beginning to find her true identity in the story. “As soon as it was moonlight and that poor thing began to crawl and shake the pattern, I got up and ran to help her.” (Perkins P.696). The protagonist has locked the room, while John is away and begins to peel off the layers of the wallpaper. Also the protagonist begins creeping around the room as the wallpaper-trapped woman does when she comes out at nighttime. John finally opens the door and sees what the protagonist has done and faints. “I’ve got out at last, said the protagonist, “in spite of you and Jane. And I’ve pulled most of the paper, so you can’t put me back!” (Gilman P.32). As John faints, the protagonist proceeds to creep over him to continue with her work. The creeping over him symbolizes that the protagonist has obtained control of her own life.
One of the pertinent symbols in Perkins-Gilman’s story was the yellow wallpaper. The protagonist believes she must decode the yellow wallpaper. It’s like the yellow wallpaper is the protagonist’s mind as if she was the yellow wallpaper. The color yellow is associated with illness or being weak. Sometimes yellow is associated also with a woman’s oppression by man. “The color is repellant, almost revolting; a smouldering unclean yellow, strangely faded by the slow-turning sunlight. It is a dull yet lurid orange in some places, a sickly sulphur tint in others.”(Perkins P.688). The wallpaper becomes the protagonist’s enemy and best friend. The protagonist remains obsessed with the yellow wallpaper until the end when she sets it free. The wallpaper reflects the protagonist’s feelings and emotions, but most of all the suffering she is enduring. The stained yellow clothes belong to the protagonist from creeping during the night. The protagonist sets the imaginary woman free by tearing down the wallpaper and she would like her wall with John torn down that he has built for her. The wallpaper represents family, medicine, and tradition in the protagonist’s life, which she finds herself trapped. By tearing down the wallpaper, the protagonist forms her own identity; an identity of herself without John her controller. The wallpaper has different patterns, some are round, angled, and others have uneven curves, this is a significance of how society looked at women in the 19th century. The house is separated and kept away from society, just as the protagonist is in the story is held captive and kept away from society. “I would say a haunted house”(Perkins P.686) “Still I will proudly declare that there is something queer about it.”(Perkins P.687) “Else, why should it be let so cheaply? And why have stood so long untenanted?”(Perkins P.687) The protagonist believes there is something strange or different about the house. She suspects there is more than what John is telling her. In the house, the windows are barred as in the wallpaper the woman in the wallpaper is behind bars. Also, in the protagonist’s heart she believes she is behind bars too. The house and its grounds have fallen into a state of disrepair. The protagonist becomes fixated on the nursery and its yellow wallpaper. There are bars on the windows of the nursery and the bed is secured to the floor. The house and its confinement symbolize the protagonist mental illness. When comparing sunlight and moonlight, the sun is a symbol of masculinity and the moon is a symbol of femininity. Sunlight is associated with John, who as a physician likes control, order, and a schedule. “I have a schedule prescription for each hour in the day;”(Golden P.68). “He said we came here solely on my account, that I was to have perfect rest and all the air I could get. Your exercise depends on your strength, my dear.”(Perkins P.688). At nighttime, John is asleep and unable to control the protagonist behavior; so she begins to creep. Her subconscious roams free at night in so many ways. It is in the moonlight, when the protagonist begins to understand more fully the figure in the wallpaper. In the sunlight, the woman freezes with the fear of being caught. When there is sunlight, the protagonist cannot see the trapped woman in the wallpaper because of the glare of John’s oppression. The barred windows in the house signified the imprisonment women felt in the 19th century. The room or nursery where John and the protagonist sleep is actually a prison mental asylum setting, but the protagonist sees it as a baby nursery. The protagonist imagines the room as a nursery because she just gave birth and she is longing for her child. She compares everything in the room to a child’s nursery such as the bite marks on the bed; wallpaper ripping, and the bars on the windows. Most importantly, the gated stairway, the protagonist imagines that there is a gate so the children won’t get out. Her imagination kept her from seeing the realization of the room. The room was a prison, but she was blinded by her insecurity and helplessness. At the end of the story, when the protagonist states, “The key is down by the front steps, under a plantain leaf!”(Perkins P.697). This leads the reader to believe her mental illness has progressed for the worst.
Finally the woman enjoys looking and playing with the wallpaper that she doesn’t care what anyone thinks, even John. She in a sense lets go and lets her emotions run wild. “Then I peeled off all the paper I could reach standing on the floor. It sticks horribly and the pattern just enjoys it.” In the end, Perkins-Gilman’s protagonist character has triumphed against her male oppressor and realizes her opportunities for her own personal choice and growth. During her experience in the room, she has had a transformation in her life. She begins in the nursery, where John treats her as a child, then she proceeds to the playroom where she is growing up, after that she is in the stage where she has internal strength and confidence in the gymnasium. Finally when she locks John out of the room making him go find the keys, she proclaims her independence. Furthermore, she makes a choice without John of tearing down the wallpaper; this gives her the sense of freedom. The wallpaper started off as a simple distasteful covering on a wall that leads to the protagonists’ outcome of strength. The house gave her confidence to believe in herself, without being inferior to John. The room gave her courage to stand up for what she believed in. The protagonist had a transformation of her inner self. She began as a helpless child to a grown mature adult without restrictions. The protagonist had lived in a bubble surrounded by ‘norms’ of society and by men that had pushed her in there. Now, she along with many other women of the 19th century are able to step out of that bubble and breathe. I think of the analogy of a fish gasping for air that is how I envision the protagonist growing up in the 19th century. Sometimes I feel society had blinders on their eyes and it takes a medical break through to take those blinders off so they can see what is right in front of them. After giving up the treatment of “rest cure”, Perkins-Gilman wrote The Yellow Wallpaper. She eventually sent a copy to her physician, but he never responded to her. I believe Perkins-Gilman’s reason to write this short story was not only to advise women of a healthcare issue, but also to assist them mentally with the correct medical diagnosis. In other wards, Perkins-Gilman was trying to save them from the torment she endured. In the yellow wallpaper, Perkins-Gilman showed what happens when a woman is not allowed to express her creativity, have no mental stimulus, and have no access to the things that fulfill her as a woman. Many years later Perkins-Gilman, discovered her physician had stopped prescribing the “rest cure” as a treatment for women. Perkins-Gilman story was a step or advancement in the medical field in regards to mental illnesses. She opened the door to different trial of testing, medications, and alternative procedures regarding the medical field. Despite her progression into insanity, I believe the protagonist did conquer John, herself, and men in regards to the ‘norm’ in the 19th century. She gained her respect for herself back. Charlotte Perkins-Gilman paved the way for women regarding women’s rights and women’s health issues. Whether it was on a feminist note or a psychological stand- point, Perkins-Gilman helped construct the start of feminism in our country. May we all learn from her dedication and commitment to this misconstrued mental illness that still confuses so many physicians and may we unite as women to support out fight with mental illness.
 

Affordable Wallpaper In The Industry Design Essay

My aim for my final project is to have a professionally finished wallpaper design. Along with this idea I would like my wallpaper to be displayed in a house, perhaps in a show home, so people can see my work and see what it looks like in a room. This is because many aspects can affect the appearance of the wallpaper, for example, the lighting. If the light is very harsh and bright it can cause the colours to appear different and not look as effective. However if there is a soft glow it can appear warm and inviting. Within a show home everything is new and the home is developed to a high standard in order that it will appeal to prospective buyers, therefore presenting wallpaper within this environment would be and excellent promotion medium.

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I am also going to look into interior architecture and aim to master new skills within this subject so I can transfer them into my project. Once I have my wallpaper design and found a space in which to display it, I then plan to create the space using interior architectural programmes such as Auto CAD in order to create a virtual room. I will also introduce furniture, fabrics and colour alongside my wallpaper design. This virtual room will provide a prototype of how the finished room should look.
In order to create a wallpaper design I need to look into the history of wallpaper; Where do they come from? How are they made? Do people still buy wallpaper? What are the consumer demands? Current styles and trends, are they cost effective? Is the economic climate affecting the wallpaper industry? I also need to find companies that will print out my design and at what cost?
What is Wallpaper & the History behind it?
When looked up in the Oxford Dictionary the term wallpaper, means “paper for covering the interior walls of rooms”.
Wallpaper is a kind of material used to cover and decorate the interior walls of either homes, offices or other buildings. It is not essential, however it has become a very popular method in which to style, create a mood or inject colour into a room.
Wallpaper can be used for either residential or businesses purposes. These differ from each other for instance; they differ in weight, serviceability and quality standards. Residential wallpapers are commonly made from various materials and can be bought either pasted or pre-pasted. However when it comes to the commercial grade wallpapers they are divided into categories based on weight, backing composition and laminate thickness. All commercial wallpapers must have a vinyl surface and successfully undergo rigorous physical and visual tests as mandated by the Chemical Fabrics and Film Association. According to the ‘Made How’ website, “there are four popular methods used to print wallpapers and designers have chosen the printing technique based on the cost and aesthetics”. This suggests that cost is a major issue when it comes to making wallpaper.
The progression of wallpaper can be found going as far back into 200BC, in China where paper was originally invented. However the earliest wallpapers used within Europe was as early as the 13th century. Designs involved painted images of popular religious icons and were commonly used within the homes of those which were religious however they were also used to liven up the bleak, dull homes of the poor. Religious prints only remained popular with the poor over the following centuries.
By the 16th century more expensive wall coverings such as depicting tapestries began to hang in the homes of the elite. Tapestries included repeated images which were block printed in various colours spread over multiple sheets of fabric. They added colour to the room as well as providing an insulating layer. Tapestries however were very expensive therefore implying only the rich could afford them. Due to the cost of these the less well off members of society turned to wallpaper in order to lighten up their homes.
Wallpaper designs featured scenes which were similar to those in the tapestries, however printed onto large sheets of paper; these were either hung loose on the walls, or pasted instead of being framed.
By the mid 18th century Britain was the leading wallpaper manufacturer in Europe, exporting large quantities to Europe but also selling within the middle class market, subsequently this trade was greatly interrupted due to the seven year war. Yet, slightly previously before the war, in 1748 the English Ambassador to Paris decorated his office with blue flock wallpaper, this in turn then became greatly fashionable. Within the 1760’s designers began to work with silk and tapestry to produce subtle, luxurious wallpapers. Near the end of the century the fashion for scenic wallpaper revived in Britain once again and led to vast panoramic views of antique architecture, exotic landscapes and pastoral subjects as well as repeating patterns of stylized flowers, people and animals.
During this period of time two problems arose, one problem was producing long sheets of paper for printing, the other was printing attractive wallpaper inexpensively. Until the mid 1700’s their techniques included making rag-based paper which was individually printed in sheets, these were then applied to the walls. However in 1785, Christophe-Philippe Oberkampf invented a machine for printing coloured tints on sheets of wallpaper. Then in 1799 Louis-Nicolas Robert created a machine to produce long and continuous lengths of paper. This ability to produce long lengths of paper therefore allowed the wallpaper industry to flourish.
By the 19th century printing costs had finally been reduced, this occurred by discarding manual block printing and replaced with cylinder printing. Wood block printing was a technique which involved applying a colour to each separate block by hand, then pressed down onto the paper, tapped in order to ensure the quality imprint, the block was then lifted up and re-inked and the process would be repeated, this was a very expensive and time consuming process.
However with the cylinder printing the, technique involved the paper being mechanically fed between cylinders until the paper had been fully printed, therefore no hand printing being involved. This therefore led to the successful reduction of cost, consequently resulting in it being cheaper to wallpaper a house than it was to paint it.
The development of the steam powered printing presses also had a great impact on the wallpaper industry as this allowed manufacturers to mass produce wallpaper, again cutting the costs and making it affordable to the working class. Wallpaper benefited from a high boom in popularity in 19th century and it had established itself as one of the most popular household items across the western world.
Today’s Styles & Trends
Wallpaper has changed greatly since it was first developed, in today’s industry it comes in multiple patterns, designs and textures. Wallpaper manufacturers like Cole & Son have realised the consumer’s needs for bold attractive wallpapers. As hubpages.com has pointed out, “today’s homeowner’s today want their walls to be more than simply covered they want them to make a statement”. Arguably a wall covering is a piece of art and an expression of one’s personality.
By just browsing through the internet for ‘popular wallpaper designs’ there are numerous different styles and textures available. However hubpages.com provides some of the industries offerings:
Hubpages.com suggests that metallic wallpaper is one of the popular modern styles today. It is produced in a variety of colours and patterns. Due to its rich visual texture it instantly creates a focal point for a room therefore grabbing attention. Although this style of wallpaper is a modern technique, the patterns which are used are quite traditional, often with a floral repeat print. The colours used within today’s market are bright and bold which have a modern feel to them. This therefore suggests to me that the current market trends are a mixture of traditional designs with modern bright colours. However it can be argued that in the 1970s bright orange was injected into the world of interiors. As Lesley Hoskins (1994 p.226) points out, “The first few years of the 1970s were bright in every respect”, Also according to “hubpages.com”, “The most popular colour palettes in the seventies were based in nature – dark woods, mossy greens, bright pumpkin orange, daffodil yellow and the ubiquitous harvest gold dominated the interiors of suburban seventies homes”. Therefore questionably are bright colours a modern trend? Or have they just remained popular since the 1970s?
Metallic wallpaper varies in price depending where you purchase it from it can range between £10 a role in stores such as Focus and up to £50 a role from Cole & Son. Therefore showing that this type of wallpaper is affordable for everyone and it is also a popular style due to the wide range of stores selling it.
Flock is a traditional style of wallpaper and has been around for countless years, it became very popular in the mid 17th century. It has a slightly raised textural pattern that has a soft velvety feel to it. This can be supported by hubpages.com as they state, “it is rich in both visual and tactile texture”. This style is elegant and luxurious. In the 1760’s it was greatly respected within the industry as noted by Charles C. Oman and Jean Hamilton (1982 p.21) “The flock papers of this period on the other hand, are, almost without exception, the work of very capable designers”. “Their decorative qualities were such that their suppression by other types of wallpaper later in the century was clearly due to a change in taste, rather than to the growth of greater artistic appreciation”. Although Flock is a traditional wall covering it has remained to this day a fashionable choice of wallpaper, as it is sold by manufactures such as B&Q, Cole & Son, Osborne & little and Zoffanny.
Flock wallpaper is very expensive compared to other wall coverings. My research has identified that prices start from £44.98 in lower end stores such as B&Q and can range up to £150 by Cole & Son, increasing in price to £253.95 by designers such as Antonina Vella. This style is very highly priced and therefore suggests only the greater cliental would be able to afford it. However it can be argued that a fashionable trend within the industry today is the ‘feature wall’, being the decoration of one wall only. This would subsequently cut costs and allow more homeowners to buy luxurious styles of wallpaper. As in a article published by the Guardian, Review of the Decade, Humi Qureshi makes the point that, “with some designers saying feature walls offer “recession-proof” style (buying one roll of wallpaper or one pot of paint, to cover a single wall is more affordable than decorating a whole room)”, therefore supporting the feature wall current trend.
An interesting design of wallpaper I have researched is glass bead wallpaper, after looking into this I have discovered that it is a moderately new product, it is very rich in texture as it is built up of thousands of miniature glass beads stuck onto the paper backing. The three dimensional surface makes this wallpaper strikingly unique. A positive to this wallpaper is that it can be developed in a variety of colours however when it comes to cost this product is very expensive compared to the others as it can be up to three times the price of regular wallpaper. This again makes me think this style of design would be more suited for the more affluent buyer.
I love this technique I think its very eye catching and unusual, it would look great in a grand, luxurious bathroom. I can also see this design being used within upper class hotels and perhaps restaurants. However, although this is a very luxurious wallpaper, if too much was introduced into a room it would become tacky and unattractive therefore I would keep it to a minimum and use small amounts to add accents and create a unique look to the room. By adding only small sections of the beaded paper it would reduce costs therefore making it affordable to more people.
Today’s Economic Market
According to keynote.co.uk in 2009 outgoings on wallpapers amounted to £315 million. However total market value has dropped by 6.4% from the previous year. Is this due to the economic climate? Or is the consumer spending elsewhere? Keynote.co.uk states that “wall coverings and ceramic tiles account for 10.3% of total expenditure on materials for maintenance and repair of dwellings in the UK, trailing other home décor and improvement products such as paint”, this statement shows home owners are opting to use other methods for decorating instead of buying wallpaper. Arguably the cost cuts for the wallpaper industry may be due to the ‘feature wall trend’ implying that the consumer is still buying wallpaper albeit not in large quantities as they did before, thus explaining the cost cuts.
Although the market value has dropped keynote.co.uk also points out “it remains popular with the C1 and E socio-demographic groups, as well as consumers based in particular regions such as the West Midlands, the North, the North West, Yorkshire and Humberside”. This statement is interesting as to quote from “Wikipedia”, Socio groups C1 and E are; “lower middle class” and “Those at lowest level of substance”, suggesting, home owners of all classes are able to afford wallpaper and signifies, wallpaper is not just for the affluent buyer.
According to keynote.co.uk “Recovery within the UK retail market for wall coverings is not expected to start until 2011” “By 2014 market value is expected to have risen by 7.3%” Thus implying there is still going to be a demand for wallpaper in the UK for the fore coming years. “marketresearch.com” points out “A key market influences”, “construction sector- historical trends and current performance of housing and commercial construction markets, house moving” this statement shows the possibilities for wallpaper and its future.
Through my own primary research, using surveys and asking a variety of consumers, their opinions based around wallpapers about their profession, thoughts on cost, design, colours and techniques, along with their outlook on the feature wall trend. Has allowed me to find out the current consumer demands; along with assisting me to answer the questions: do people still buy wallpaper in today’s economic climate? Are they cost effective? What are the consumer demands/what do they look for in wallpaper? What styles do they like?
 

Symmetry and Group Theory in Relation to Wallpaper Groups

Mark Anderson
1.1 Group Theory
Group Theory was derived from three other areas of mathematics, number theory, the theory of algebraic equations and geometry. The first prominent mathematicians credited with studying group theory were A-L.Cauchy, E.Galois and J-L.Lagrange. Although Lagrange’s work with groups is probably the earliest research into groups, in the 18th century, his work was rather isolated and the mid-19th century works of Cauchy and Galois are often considered to be the origin of the study of group theory.
In his 1770 paper, Lagrange was the first mathematician to study permutations. His objective for the study was to discover why cubic and quartic equations could be solved using the theory of algebra. During his work, while evident permutation group theory is being used in his work, the permutations are never composed and he never discusses groups themselves.
Cauchy published his first paper on the topic of permutations in 1815, however, it was not until his work in 1844 that permutations were considered a subject in its own right by introducing many of the key aspects of permutation groups including the notation of positive and negative powers of groups, identifying the power 0 being the identity, the cycle and permutation notation of a group and the order of a permutation. He also proved the conjugacy of permutations if the permutations have the same cycle structure and Cauchy’s theorem “If a prime divides the order of a group, that group has a subgroup of order “.
Galois’ had papers published posthumously in 1846 by Liouville after Liouville saw a connection between Galois work and the permutation work of Cauchy from 1844. This work showed that Galois understood the relationship between the structure of a group of permutations related to the equation and the algebraic solution of an equation. To fully show this he created the notion of a normal subgroup. This was the first time the term “group” had been used in a technical sense.

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1.2 Wallpaper Groups
The origins of the study of wallpaper groups began as the study of crystallography which was to determine the structure of crystalline solids at the atomic level. It was from this study that many of the proofs for symmetry were discovered and set the foundations for more advanced symmetry groups such as space group which led to the proof of wallpaper groups.      
In 1830, J.F.C Hessel discovered the maximum unique combinations of reflections and rotations of a crystal around a fixed point such that the image created is symmetrical to be 32. He proves this using the law of indices which states “that the intercepts, OP, OQ, OR, of the natural faces of a crystal form with the unit-cell axes a, b, c are inversely proportional to prime integers, h, k, l.” (IUCR, 2016). This is illustrated in the image below.

All 32 combinations with crystallographic symmetry were then found geometrically in 1835 by M.L Frankenheim.
Using the theory of crystal classes discovered by Hessel, A. Bravais systemized the theory and classified the 14 spacial lattices, which we now know as Bravais Lattices. These lattices are defined as infinite arrays of discrete points in a 3-Dimensional plane created by a set of operations described by
Using both Hessel’s and Bravais’ work E. Fedorov and A.M Schönflies proved the existence of the 230 space groups in 1891. These space groups are Bravais lattices that have been reflected or rotated in any of the 32 unique point groups discovered by Hessel. These space groups within a 2-dimensional plane are the 17 wallpaper groups, which although known for centuries was only proved after the proof of space groups was already completed.
A group is defined as a non-empty set under a binary operation, i.e. addition, multiplication etc. In order to be classified as a group, it must maintain four conditions: closure, associativity, identity and inverse.
Let be a group with a binary operation
Closure: For every element belonging to the group , the result of every two elements under the binary operation on the group is equal to another element of the group. i.e. then .
Associativity: If three elements belong to the group then the order the operation is performed on the three elements will not affect the outcome. i.e. If the .
Identity: There exists an element in the group such that when the binary operation is applied to it and any other element in the group, the outcome is equal to the other element. i.e. such that .
Inverse: For every element in the group there is another element in such that when the two elements are under the operation the outcome is equal to the identity. i.e. such that
A simple example of a group is the group of integers under the operation of addition (. This can be proved by showing the group satisfies the four axioms as stated above. Any integer added to any other is another integer, so the group is closed. Addition is associative, the identity of the group is 0 as any , and the inverse of any integer is as .
A basic symmetry group to understand how symmetry is related to group theory is the symmetries of the rectangle. This group contains the linear transformations that leave the rectangles origin in place i.e. rotations and reflections. This shows there are 4 symmetries of the rectangle as shown in Figure 2.

This can be displayed in multiple ways including Cayley tables, matrices and as permutations
 
References
International Union of Crystallography, 2016. Law of Rational Indices. [Online] Available at: http://reference.iucr.org/dictionary/Law_of_rational_indices[Accessed 26 February 2017].
Kleiner, I., 2004. The Evolution of Group Theory: A Brief Survey. [Online] Available at: https://www.math.lsu.edu/~adkins/m7200/GroupHistory.pdf[Accessed 24 February 2017].
O’Connor, J. J. & Robertson, E. F., 1996. The Development of Group Theory. [Online] Available at: http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/HistTopics/Development_group_theory.html[Accessed 24 February 2017].

Analysis of The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman

The events of the storyteller in Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s “The Yellow Wallpaper” as she gradually plunges into a condition of madness and loss of character because of the choices brought on by the men in her life, uncovers the stunning condition that a majority of marriages were in during that age, as well as the manner in which women were being treated by their male relatives and husbands. It is intriguing to consider that although this popular narrative is in reference to the authors’ encounter with depression. The way the narrator’s life ends, whose name is found to be Jane, contrasts from the writer’s life decisions, however the two circumstances are fundamentally the same. Along these lines, Gilman gives the audience a “Consider the possibility that?” situation dependent on her choices. The narrator of the story is viewed by the audience as a victim of a set of circumstances and miscommunications.

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“The Yellow Wallpaper” takes place during the nineteenth century, where women were oppressed and regarded as lower individuals of society. The short story is based around the life of the wife of a youthful and outstanding physician, her foreseen recovery, fight with post-partum depression that was concluded as an anxiety disorder by her physician, and her following expulsion to a place of residence in the wide open so she could get”… air, and practice and exercise and [she is]… absolutely forbidden to “‘work”’ until [she was] … well again” (Gilman).
Initially, the storyteller, Jane is dividing between a significant number of feelings, and sentiments: stress, anxiety, fear of not making the best choices for her new child. Be that as it may, she appears as though she was previously a firmly obstinate woman, a small amount that can be observered when she does not agree with her husband, and specialist regarding their conclusion of her status, and proceeds to privately write. Regardless of the fright she is experiencing, Jane shows up to the house hopeful about her recuperation despite the fact that it was, “…quite alone, standing well back from the road, quite three miles from the village” (Gilman). In any case, this hopefulness blurred when Jane discovered the room the area she would share with her husband, John, and the wallpaper that in the long run contributed to her losing her sanity. Like a marriage during the that era, Jane’s husband does not counsel her regarding the state of her mental health, but disregards her, thinking her mental illness was trivial since he most likely felt she was excessively “frail” to recognize what was beneficial herself. Generally, during this time, women were seen as more fragile, and when women got married, their privileges, legacy, and property, and even their way of life as an individual nearly stopped to prevail. She was ceased to be an individual able of practical conviction, but is viewed as a mere sidekick, and augmentation of John, who had legal authority enact decisions for Jane as he sees relevant. Married women were believed to only be valid for the kitchen, the children, and to be submissive to the men surrounding their being.
Greg Johnson, a literary analyst in a section of his book “Gilman’s Gothic Allegory: Rage and Redemption in “The Yellow Wallpaper” ponders societal link between Emily Dickinson’s mother and Jane in “The Yellow Wallpaper” and discovers a similarity: “Both include such Gothic staples as the distraught heroine, the forbidding mansion, and the powerfully repressive male antagonist. ” (Johnson 522) The mother of Emily Dickinson, before she had to her child, approached her significant other for another wallpaper, yet her mother’s “stern-tempered” husband “…Apparently dismayed by this outburst of feminine whimsy…refused, prompting Mrs. Dickinson to her only recorded act of wifely defiance.” (Johnson 521) You can compare this instance to how the inquiries that Jane asked her husband in The Yellow were disregarded over and over. For instance, her suggestion that they move to another area in the house, or get an alternative wallpaper was likewise observed as womanly absurdity. It is a complexity in any case, that in spite of the fact that the storyteller continues rehashing all through the starting pages of the story that her significant other cherishes her so much, he continually causes her to cower and disregard her emotions by saying they are “…a false, and foolish fancy” (Gilman). This makes the audience speculate that instead of actually caring for her, John only wanted to keep Jane shackled. This hypothesis is upheld by the author John S. Bak, in his passage “Escaping the jaundiced eye: Foucauldian Panopticism in Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s The Yellow Wallpaper,”. Through confining Jane to this room, her husband takes after the corrective officials of the eighteenth-century mental wards or prisons, whose philosophy Foucault portrays: “project the subtle segmentations of discipline onto the confused space of internment, combine it with the methods of analytical distribution proper to power, [and] individualize the excluded . . .” (199)
Jane attempts to battle her mental disorder, however the standards and customs of that time and her problematic marriage, both contributed to her difficulty dealing with her mental crisis. Maybe, if her husband and specialist had set aside some effort to really hear her out rather than making presumptions, she may have had a chance to combat the insanity that at long last overpowered her.
Works Cited

Bak, John S. “Escaping the Jaundiced Eye: Foucauldian Panopticism in Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s `The Yellow Wallpaper” Studies in Short Fiction 31.1 (1994): 39. MasterFILE Elite. Web. 10 Sept. 2019.
Johnson, Greg. “Gilman’s Gothic Allegory: Rage and Redemption in “The Yellow Wallpaper.” Studies in Short Fiction 26.4 (1989): 521-530. MasterFILE Elite. Web. 10 Sept. 2019.
Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. “The Yellow Wallpaper.” The Norton Introduction to Literature.11th ed. Ed. Kelly J. Mays. New York: Norton, 2013. 655-66. Print.

 

How to Remove Bubbles from Wallpaper

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