Effect of Blow Moulding on Bottle Weight and Dimensions

Abstract
Blow moulding, which is also called blow forming, is a manufacturing process for production of hollow-form plastic products. The present report is intended to deal with the effect on bottle weight, bottle dimensions and machine output of the various process factors. By reference to Rheological properties of plastics, the correlation between the share rate and screw speed, melt temperature, die swell, bottle thickness were discussed. Also, the influences of elongational viscosity were suggested.
1. Introduction
Blow moulding, also known as blow forming, is a process used to produce hollow productions by “blowing” thermoplastic molten tube into the shape of a mould cavity.
Generally, blow moulding can be divided into three main types including stretch blow moulding, injection blow moulding, and extrusion blow moulding. In this experiment, extrusion blow moulding was studied to examine the effects of process variables on bottle weight, bottle dimensions and machine output.
In extrusion blow moulding, plastic particles are melted into fluid with heat applied. Then the melt plastic is extruded through a die, forming a hollow tube, which is usually called a parison. After that, the parison is captured by closing it around a mould. Next, air is pumped in to the parison when the ends of the parison keeps sealed at the mould parting line during forming. The parison deforms, forming a shape very closed to the mould. The mould is opened after the component is well cooled. Finally the component is ejected and the procedures are repeated. More and more products are made.
In this experiment the plastic particles are High-density Polyethylene, the density of which ranges from 0.941 to 0.967 g/cm3. The High-density Polyethylene is preferred for production by blow moulding as it is more rigid and usually has a matt finish compared with Low-density Polyethylene.
2. Experimental
Equipment
Hayssen extrusion blow moulding machine
Materials
High density polyethylene (HDPE), Blow moulding grade, BS2581, Borealis.
Procedures
Firstly, HDPE particles were pumped into the hopper though a pipe. After that, the parameters of process variables and the temperatures of different zones were set according to Table 1& 2, respectively. Then the machine was set in automatic mode and continuous cycle. Each group needs 10 samples, marking 1 to 10. Before the Process Variables were changed, the weight of parison extruded per unit minute was measured. Finally weight of each bottle, was measured along with thickness distribution along the length circumference.
3. Results And Discussions
Experimental Results
The original records including weight of bottle, bottle thickness distribution, output rate and crew speed are shown in Appendix I. In addition, the calculation of share rate and modified prison length are shown Appendix II and the general results are summarized.
Experimental Discussions
Influences Of Machine Variables On Bottle Weight And Dimensions
Generally the bottle weight and dimensions is influenced by screw speed, melting temperature, and vent time.
Screw speed. By comparing group A and group C, it is clear shown that output rate increasing with the increasing screw speed due to low viscosity and high die head pressure. By referring to the rheological properties of plastic, thickness and weight of group A should be higher than that of group C, because the higher sagging brings decreasing of weight and thickness. However, the records of the experiment do not accord with the theoretical analysis. The reason is that the machine is too old.
Melting temperature. By comparing Group C and Group D, it is found that the bottles of group D are lighter and thinner than those of group C. The higher the melt temperature is, the lower the viscosity of polymer is. Lower viscosity reduces bottle weight and dimensions.
Vent time. By comparing Group A and Group B, the result is that the bottles of group B are lighter and thinner than those of group A. If the vent time is too short, it will cause insufficient cooling and less sagging.
Share Behaviours
According to the equation γ= (6Q)/ (WH²), the results of apparent share rate are given in Table 4 (all steps in calculation is shown in Appendix II).

Experiments runs

A

B

C

D

Shear Rate (s⁻¹)

234.94

232.86

398.41

458.62

Table 4: Apparent shear rate
Generally shear rate is related to screw speed, melt temperature, die swell and bottle thickness.
Screw speed. The output rate is proportional to the screw speed. According to the equation γ= (6Q)/ (WH ²), as the mean circumference (W) and die gap (H) are constant in this equation, the shear rate (γ) increases as output rate (Q) increases, in other words, screw speed increases.
Melt temperature. The viscosity of polymer becomes lower at higher melt temperature. Lower viscosity results in high output rate (Q), which brings out a higher shear rate (γ).
Die swell. “An increase in die swell results in a lower linear output rate. Since extrusion is usually continuous, further adjustments to the process dynamics are sometimes inevitable. Parison length sensors are available, to ease the effects of the problem”. In consequence, larger die swell results in larger output rate, which brings out larger shear rate. In one word, shear rate is proportional to die swell.
Bottle thickness. Bottle thickness is related to the viscosity of polymer. Higher viscosity results in lower shear rate. So, shear rate increase as bottle thickness decrease..
Elongational Behaviours
According to the equation ΔL= (ρgtL²)/ (2λ), the results of Modified Parison Length are (all steps in calculation is shown in Appendix II).

Experiments runs

A

B

ΔL(mm)

0.566

0.944

Modified Parison Length (mm)

17.566

17.944

According to Table 5, it can be found that the longer the cycle time is, the longer the parison becomes. The result can be explained in this way: the parison will be elongated if more time is given under the gravity force.
The elongational viscosity is influenced by molecular weight and temperature. High molecular weight and high temperature cause a decreasing of the elongational viscosity.
4. Conclusions
Blow moulding is a manufacturing process for production of hollow-form plastic products. Process variables have the effects on bottle weight, bottle dimensions and machine output. Specifically, high screw speed, low melt temperature, and short vent time results in the increasing of bottle weight and thickness. High screw speed, high melt temperature, large die swell and thin bottle thickness lead to high shear rate. Longer cycle time results in larger parison length. High molecule weight and high temperature cause a decreasing of the elongational viscosity
References
[1] A. W. Birley, B. Haworth and J. Batchelor, Physics of plastic, Hanser, 1991
[2] Edwin G. Fisher, Blow moulding of plastics, The Plastics Institute, 1971
 

Factors Affecting The Weight a Column Can Withstand

Matthew Keeley 
Physics EEI
This extended experimental investigation explores the weight a paper column can withstand before it buckles and how changing the diameter, length and thickness of a column affects its critical load. Multiple columns with varying diameters, lengths and thicknesses were constructed and each one had masses added to it until it buckled. The hypotheses “If the diameter of a paper column is increased, then the weight the paper column can withstand before buckling will also increase exponentially” and “If the length of a paper column is decreased, then the weight the paper column can withstand before buckling will increase exponentially” were not supported while the hypothesis “If the thickness of a paper column is increased, then the weight the paper column can withstand will also increase proportionally” was supported.

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Columns are used in architecture and structural engineering, in the walls of houses and buildings, to transmit weight through compression from the structure above the column to the structural elements beneath (Merriam-webster.com, 2017). Objects are only referred to as columns when the force is applied axially; they are referred to as beams otherwise (Waddell, 1925). Column buckling is likely the only area of structural mechanics where failure is not due to the strength of the material, but the stiffness of the material and the shape of the column instead (McGinty, 2017). Buckling occurs in a column when its critical load is reached and this value can be determined by the Euler column formula, which is as follows:

Where is the critical load (), is the modulus of elasticity (), is the area moment of inertia (, is the length of the column () and is the column effective length factor (Engineeringtoolbox.com, 2017). Engineers commonly use mm instead of regular SI unit, examples of the formula being used use mm (Critical Buckling Load (Example 1) – Mechanics of Materials, 2013).
This formula is used mainly to calculate the buckling load of steel and wooden columns so its application in the buckling of paper columns is questionable although it is the only method available.
There are some unknown values in the equation without researching them using other sources, the value, the value and the value.
The value, the modulus of elasticity (also known as young’s modulus, the elastic modulus or the tensile modulus) is a constant that is a measure of the stiffness of a material (Askeland et al., 1996). It is the slope of the stress-strain curve in the elastic region given by:

A relationship known as Hooke’s Law, Hooke’s law states that the strain in a solid is proportional to the applied stress within the elastic limit of that solid (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2017). For example, if an object with a high modulus of elasticity had the same force applied to it as an object with a low modulus of elasticity there would be a greater change in dimension in the object with the smaller modulus of elasticity.
The modulus of elasticity is represented in pascals () but the value is usually very large so it is found in gigapascals instead (. When calculating theoretical data to keep the units the same the modulus of elasticity was represented in as. The modulus of elasticity for paper is 2 (www-materials.eng.cam.ac.uk, 2017).
The value represents area moment of inertia (also known as second moment of area). It is a geometrical property of an area representing how its points are distributed regarding an axis within the object (Beer and Johnston, 1990). It is calculated using multiple integral over the columns cross-section, but it’s easier to utilise an already existing formula for the second moment of area of the column in question. Since the column that will be used in the experiment is rolled up paper it will have a hollow cylindrical cross-section which will appear as:
The formula for second moment of area for a hollow cylindrical cross-section is as follows:

Where is the radius of the outside circle and is the radius of the inside circle (Efunda.com, 2017).
The second moment of area also determines the way a column is most likely to buckle (towards the plane or the plane). Usually there would be multiple formulae for the second moment of area, one for buckling towards the plane and one for buckling toward the plane, but since the cross section in question is hollow cylindrical and the axis (where the weight will be applied) is in the centre of the cross-section the formulae are identical. If the cross section was a filled rectangular area, for instance, and appeared as:
Then the formulae for second moment of area are as follows:

One would have to solve for both and and find out on which plane the column is most likely to buckle along and use that value as the second moment of area in the Euler column formula (What is second moment of area?, 2015). The units for second moment of area are metres to the fourth power (, but since the units need to be kept the same and the radius will be represented in millimetres when doing theoretical data, it will be in millimetres to the fourth power () instead.
The last unknown value is which is the column effective length factor (Wai-Fah and Duan, 1999). It is determined by the boundary conditions. The value changes depending on if the column is fixed on both ends, hinged on both ends, fixed on one end free on another, etc. The columns used in the experiment are free on both ends so the theoretical value is 1, but the actual value derived from various other experiments is 1.2, so that value will be used in theoretical data (Efunda.com, 2017).
For this experiment to be a success many variables must be remain the same that were quite difficult to control. To attempt to control these variables some precautions were taken. For example, to keep the distribution of weight the same a transparent board was used so the weight could be placed in the centre of the column and distributed evenly. Also, the paper columns need to be made carefully so that there are no weaknesses in the column because weaknesses in the column aren’t factored into Euler’s column formula. The dimensions for paper are 29.7mm x 21mm x 0.1mm (for 80gsm A4 paper).
Theoretical Data

Calculating second moment of area ().

Substituting into Euler’s column formula and solving to find critical load.

Calculating the mass the column could withstand using .

This value is very large and a paper column of the dimension used in the calculations would certainly crumble under this amount of force in real life applications, but this may be due to all the other variables that are difficult to control at play, such as weaknesses in the column geometrically and weight distribution rather than the formula being incorrect.
Theoretical data results tables and graphs
Changing Column’s diameter

Column’s diameter (mm)

Mass before column buckles (kg)

95

1063.45

90

904.06

85

761.45

80

634.69

75

522.84

70

424.96

65

340.14

60

267.42

55

205.89

50

154.60

Changing Column Length

Column thickness (mm)

Mass before column buckles (kg)

0.1

934.57

0.2

1862.98

0.3

2785.27

0.4

3701.46

0.5

4611.57

0.6

5515.63

0.7

6413.67

0.8

7305.72

0.9

8191.81

1.0

9071.95

Changing Column’s Thickness

Column’s Length (mm)

Mass before column buckles (kg)

210

934.56

200

1030.36

190

1141.68

180

1272.05

170

1426.11

160

1609.94

150

1831.76

140

2102.78

130

2438.73

120

2862.12

The following hypotheses that were prompted due to the background research are as follows:
Changing Column’s Diameter
If the diameter of a paper column is increased, then the weight the paper column can withstand before buckling will also increase exponentially.
Changing Column’s Length
If the length of a paper column is decreased, then the weight the paper column can withstand before buckling will increase exponentially.
Changing Column’s Thickness
If the thickness of a paper column is increased, then the weight the paper column can withstand will also increase proportionally.

Changing Column’s Diameter
Various paper columns were constructed carefully (as to reduce weak points in the column) with different diameters, starting at 9.5cm diameters reducing the diameter by 0.5cm for every column until 10 columns had been made, so that there was enough variation in the data to develop more accurate results. The column with the smallest diameter had a diameter of 5cm. The experiment was then set up like the diagram on the previous (without the weights). The board on the bottom of the column was set up to protect the bench from damage from the falling weights and a small transparent board was placed on top of the column so that the weights could be accurately placed in the centre of the column to keep the distribution of weight even.  50g masses were then added to the column until it buckled and the mass that is buckled at was graphed for later analysis. This process was completed for all the columns made beforehand and the experiment was repeated until 3 trials had been completed so the data discovered was more accurate.
Changing Column’s Length
Paper columns with various lengths were constructed carefully, starting at a length of 21cm and reducing by 1cm until 10 columns had been made, so there was enough variation in the data to provide more accurate results. The column with the smallest length had a length of 12cm. The experiment was then set up like the diagram (without the weights). The board on the bottom of the column was set up to protect the bench from damage from the falling weights and a small transparent board was placed on top of the column so that the weights could be accurately placed in the centre of the column to keep the distribution of weight even.  50g masses were then added to the column until it buckled and the mass that is buckled at was graphed for later analysis. This process was completed for all the columns made beforehand and the experiment was repeated until 3 trials had been completed so the data discovered was more accurate.
Changing Column’s Thickness
Paper columns with varying thicknesses were constructed by taping pieces of paper together (1 piece of paper has a thickness of 0.1mm, 2 taped together 0.2mm, etc.) until 10 columns had been made, so there was enough variation in the data to provide more accurate results. The experiment was then set up like the diagram (without the weights). The board on the bottom of the column was set up to protect the bench from damage from the falling weights and a small transparent board was placed on top of the column so that the weights could be accurately placed in the centre of the column to keep the distribution of weight even.  50g masses were then added to the column until it buckled and the mass that is buckled at was graphed for later analysis. This process was completed for all the columns made beforehand and the experiment was repeated until 3 trials had been completed so the data was more accurate.
Variables
Dependent Variable
The independent variable is the mass the column can withstand before it buckles, as this is what the experiment is testing and what changes when the independent variables are manipulated.
Independent Variables
The independent variables in this experiment are the ones that get changed, the diameter, the length and the thickness. Changing these will affect the dependent variable.
Controlled Variables
The controlled variables are everything that was kept the same during the experiment, although these may have changed regardless of efforts to keep them the same during the experiment. They include: the temperature and pressure, brand of paper, consistency of columns, distribution of weight, wind conditions, material of column, weights that were used, elevation and the material experiment was performed on.
Safety
When the column buckles, the weights will fall off the column and potentially an injury could occur. To deal with this the falling weights must be avoided and people entering the area of the experiment should be careful walking through. A mechanism to catch the board so the weights don’t fall could also be constructed.
Scissors could potentially be used to cut someone. To deal with this the scissors were treated with caution and used appropriately. Wearing goggles will also protect the eyes.
Changing Column’s Diameter

Diameter (mm)

Mass before column buckled (kg)

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Average

95

2.0

1.4

1.7

1.7

90

1.7

1.6

2.0

1.8

85

1.7

1.1

1.5

1.4

80

1.2

1.8

2.0

1.7

75

1.3

2.4

1.5

1.7

70

1.5

1.4

2.0

1.6

65

1.5

1.5

1.6

1.5

60

1.2

1.6

1.7

1.5

55

0.9

1.3

1.0

1.1

50

0.8

1.0

0.6

0.8

Changing Column’s Length

Length (mm)

Mass before column buckled (kg)

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Average

210

2.0

1.4

1.7

1.7

200

1.2

1.5

1.6

1.4

190

1.1

1.0

1.2

1.1

180

1.5

0.9

1.0

1.1

170

1.0

2.0

1.7

1.6

160

1.6

2.0

2.1

1.9

150

1.6

2.0

1.9

1.8

140

1.0

1.8

2.3

1.7

130

1.4

1.5

1.7

1.5

120

1.7

2.1

1.8

1.9

Changing Column’s Thickness

Thickness (mm)

Mass before column buckled (kg)

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Average

0.1

2.0

1.4

1.7

1.7

0.2

2.1

1.8

2.3

2.1

0.3

2.8

3.0

1.7

2.5

0.4

3.3

4.2

2.6

3.4

0.5

4.2

3.4

4.8

4.1

0.6

5.1

5.4

4.5

5.0

0.7

5.9

6.3

5.7

6.0

0.8

7.6

6.6

7.8

7.3

0.9

8.0

8.5

9.0

8.5

1.0

10.0

9.0

8.9

9.3

The results for changing column diameter seem to have a pattern to them, the weight that the column can support increases with diameter, but while the mass the column could withstand changed with diameter the increments in which the value changed reduced every time the diameter increased (logarithmic relationship). The results for changing the length of the column provided results that were expected, the weight the column could withstand decreased as the length of the column was decreased though a proper relationship between the points was underivable. The results for the thickness of the column were as expected, the mass the column could withstand increased proportionally with the thickness of column.
As evident by the graphs above the theoretical data differs greatly to the empirical data. The theoretical data shows an exponential relationship between the mass withstood and the diameter of the paper column while the empirical data shows a more logarithmic relationship (if the experiment was continued further the mass withstood would have continued to increase with diameter). The mass the column can withstand is also much larger in the theoretical data than the empirical data. This is because the theoretical calculations don’t factor in the weaknesses in the column geometrically and its extremely unlikely that the distribution of mass was perfect, even if the mass was placed a millimetre off the axis the mass the column could withstand would decrease drastically. Therefore, it would be difficult to get empirical results the same as the theoretical data due to many variables that are nearly impossible to control when dealing with paper columns.

As shown in the graphs above the mass the column can withstand does decrease as length increases in the empirical data but is hard to decipher a relationship when looking at the empirical data due to anomalies. These anomalies would yet again be caused by variables that are too difficult to control within the experiment and for the same reasons the mass the column can withstand in the theoretical data is much greater than the mass the column could withstand in reality.
The relationship between these two sets of data is identical (both increasing proportionally) although the mass the column could withstand theoretically is much greater than the mass it could withstand empirically. A possible reason that the relationship was evident in the empirical data for changing the thickness of the column and not for changing the diameter and length could be that changing the thickness affects the mass the column can withstand much more than changing either the length of the column or its diameter (reducing anomalies), this is evident when comparing the theoretical data for the three variables.
Due to the varying relationships found in the empirical data and the complexity of the formula used it is difficult to relate Euler’s column formula to existing mathematical models when looking at changing the column’s diameter or length because the relationship is either exponential () or logarithmic (). Euler’s column formula can be related to the linear function that is found when changing the column’s thickness though.

because a column with 0 length, diameter or thickness
 

Merlin Helicopter Force Weight and Moment

Merlin Helicopter Force Weight and Moment

 

Table of Contents

Abstract

Introduction

Literature Review

The structure of teaching event.

Development of Teaching and Learning Activities.

Reflection on teaching/training event(s) – A discussion on teaching delivery.

Evaluation

Conclusion

Works Cited

Appendices

Merlin Helicopter Force Weight and Moment Lesson Feedback

Merlin Helicopter Force – Weight and Moment Analysis Questionnaire

Merlin Helicopter Force –  Weight and Moment Brief – (Analysis for learning event)

Merlin Helicopter Force Weight and Moment L-Spec

Weight and Moment (W&M) calculations within Merlin Helicopter Force (MHF) are inherently difficult and with the release of the Haddon-Cave QC report (QC, 2009) errors in W&M are deemed intolerable. Literature reviews linking learning theories and activities within the teaching environment, structure of the event, reflection on teaching and evaluation make the body of this report and detail the requirement for a training event.

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Termly within Royal Navy Air Station (RNAS) Culdrose, the Quality Assurance (QA) department and Continuous Airworthy Maintenance Organisation (CAMO) hold a Continuous Airworthiness Management Meeting (CAMM) (MHF, 2014) to discuss airworthiness issues across MHF. At a recent meeting the topic of Merlin W&M (MHF, 2018) management was raised; both at Airworthiness Review (AR) and by Internal Quality Audits (IQA), instances have been identified where W&M calculation errors have occurred.

Understanding needs analysis, training solutions and activities, this report and artefact covers the process of how W&M training has been introduced into the service. The Defence approach on training needs analysis (TNA) adopts a structured and methodical attitude to the analysis of the training requirement (MOD, 2018) ensuring it is Defence Systems Approach to Training (DSAT) compliant (Figure 1 – The DSAT Process) (MOD, 2018), with an aim to produce a lesson that can be delivered to juniors and seniors throughout the Fleet Air Arm (FAA), so they understand how to record and carry out W&M calculations correctly.

Figure 1 – The four-element DSAT Process (MOD, 2018)

Having reviewed several articles, Fleming & Mills’ set a precedent with the application of VARK learning styles (Shah, 2007). Since then with the development of increased understanding of learning Howard Gardner elevated this to seven styles (Collins, 2001). Regardless of how many learning styles are being used there is one common factor, of the diverse way in which the lesson is being delivered (Rahman, 2015).

It is fundamental that the teacher completely understands the topic or subject. Teachers delivery style differs, therefore the learning outcome for individuals could significantly vary between teachers despite the subject being the same. Consequently, it is recognized that teachers should have an awareness of the learners learning styles, capacity, need, and potential to have an effective classroom (University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy, 2009).  

Pedagogy/Andragogy focuses a teacher’s need to understand their audience and get the best possible outcome. Pedagogy, the art and science of children learning is inherently different and opposing to Andragogy which is the method and principles of adult learning. Christopher Pappas highlights five main differences between pedagogy vs andragogy (Pappas, 2015) and concludes, ‘adult learners are more motivated, and more goal orientated then younger learners’ (Figure 2 – Andragogy vs Pedagogy) (Pappas, 2015).

Figure 2 – Andragogy vs Pedagogy (Pappas, 2015)

This topic is extensive and warrants further debate, however using an extensive approach, it could be argued that there is a closer relationship between young and adult learners than previous reports state (Abington-Cooper, 2000). Although previous experience and knowledge are drivers, the delivery method, learning style and teaching environment are even more essential to ensuring the learning outcomes are achieved regardless of age (Figure 3 – Engaging Learners with New Strategies and Tools) (Boese, 2012).    

Figure 3 – Engaging Learners with New Strategies and Tools

(Boese, 2012) 

Complexities in W&M processes coupled with a deficiency in aircraft specific training led to the introduction of a 30-day QA check (RNAS Culdrose, 2018) and a training requirement. Detailed in the artefact is a breakdown of requirements, analysis, training solutions and lesson to ensure it targeted the correct audience at the correct pitch in the correct format. 

Training policy, requirements, throughput and good practice were evaluated, comparing training against cost-effectiveness and risk to find the most pragmatic solution (MOD, 2012). Using the analysis gained from the training solution v1, detailed in the artefact, identified that the most pragmatic and cost-effective solution would be a media-based lesson, instructor lead.

The training event is made up from three key learning points (KLP’s):

Introduction

Recoding processes

Aircraft specific particulars

with an overall objective to record and carry out aircraft W&M changes correctly.

To achieve the main objective would require six enabling objectives (EO’s) of:

Need

Equipment required

Authorisations

Training

Weight

Centre of Gravity.

Utilising the EO’s and learning activities effectively to emphasize the application and integration of knowledge gained during the training event, should allow the student to apply the knowledge gained resulting in the following learning outcomes:

Understand the need for correct W&M calculations (airworthiness implications, increased risk to life and fatigue life)

Adopt correct recording methods of W&M

Identify errors within W&M calculations

Know the different types of aircraft weight

How to calculate the correct moment

Provide assurance to the CAM that W&M calculations are being carried out correctly.

Detailed in the artefact under training solution v1: introduces the learning theories of cognitivism and constructivism (Dr. BADA, 2015). The cognitivism aspect of this training event will be learned from instructor led theory-based lesson, so the student can absorb information given, process it and come up with a conclusion from their understanding of the lesson. The constructivism theory would be developed from their previous experiences and fitting the new information gathered with what they already know (Figure 4 – Four perspectives on learning based upon theoretical principles) (Donachy, 2014).

Figure 4 – Four perspectives on learning based upon theoretical principles (Donachy, 2014)

Employing strategic learning activities to achieve the aim of the lesson is definitive for the teacher however, due to time restraints and cost, learning activities were limited resulting on additional pressures for the teacher due to operational requirements.

Using Blended Learning (MOD, 2018) to guided training and active learning resulted with a classroom, based lesson, instructor led lasting for one hour. The audience would consist of senior engineers and aircrew of various ranks and rates. The media of delivery would be presented in a theory-based lesson using flash player, text and pictures. The method would be instructor led using various teaching techniques based upon the Present, Apply and Review (PAR) Model (Figure 5 – PAR Model) (Pinto, 2012).

Figure 5 – PAR Model (Pinto, 2012)

Considering the learning theory outcomes, the learning activities needed to be intentional, useful and meaningful. Combining critical thinking and content focused learning activities to understand what they have learnt from engaging with the activity to use it in the context of how it is required. On reflection due to the complex content and varied audience, it was virtually impossible for me to stay within the allocated time frames and maintain the student’s engagement.

On completion of the event, direct verbal feedback was provided highlighting both positive and negatives. All students confirmed that they understood the need for correct W&M calculations, the types of aircraft weight and could employ the knowledge gained to carry out W&M calculations correctly.

Through internal validation (InVal) (RNAS Culdrose, 2018) and verbal feedback it was clear that the training solution v1 for elements of the lesson were faltering due to the complexities of the lesson content. As a result, junior officers and NCO’s may struggle to grasp the understanding of how to carry out changes in W&M resulting in an ineffective classroom by failing to achieve learning outcomes.

The learning styles of visual and verbal, used within this lesson were not totally effective due to the practical elements associated with W&M calculations. Exploiting additional learning styles such as physical and logical would be much more effective in developing the individuals less dominant styles whilst being able to develop further already enhanced ones.

Evaluating the training event from feedback gained through; the delivery of lesson-based media, questionnaires (MOD, 2018), departmental briefs, roadshows and InVal (RNAS Culdrose, 2018) identified underperformances in several areas of the training event.

Principally the confusion derived from the how calculations were being recorded and logged from an engineering point of view and how aircrew entered the results into the aircraft resulting in a paradox in learning theories.

To improve the situation, an overhaul of the training event was carried out to ensure;

Learning activities were effective.

Training activity is being delivered correctly and meets its requirement.

Learning outcomes are achievable.

Assurance can be provided on ensuring the training event is fit for purpose.  

With the event reviewed and additional funds being made available, training solution v2 was produced, introducing several different media and methods of delivery opening the door for wider learning theories. Comprehensive and diverse learning environments were designed for specific platforms allowing numerous learning styles and theories to be used with the mind set of achieving positive learning outcomes.  

In this report I have identified the need for W&M training, the process of its introduction and what I aimed to achieve. Linking literature reviews of pedagogy/andragogy to modern day learning styles, prompted me to consider the structure of the event, teaching environment, learning outcomes and how they are related to learning theories. Reflecting on the training event and evaluating it through feedback, ensured it was effective, delivered correctly to meet requirements and was fit for purpose. 

The outcome of this within MHF has been measurable, resulting in training being delivered to multiple platforms across the service and the lesson has been inserted into targeted employment module (TEM) 431 merlin managers course. Subsequently evidence has shown that by improving the training given to personnel making the calculations and those conducting QA has led to a dramatic decrease in errors benefitting the service for the better. 

Table of Figures

Figure 1 – The four-element DSAT Process (Ministry of Defence, 2018)

Figure 2 – Andragogy vs Pedagogy (Pappas, 2015)

Figure 3 – Engaging Learners with New Strategies and Tools

Figure 4 – Four perspectives on learning based upon theoretical principles (Donachy, 2014)

Figure 5 – PAR Model (Pinto, 2012)

Abington-Cooper, G. H. a. M., 2000. Pedagogy vs. Andragogy: A False Dichotomy?, Denver: Regis College.

Boese, M., 2012. Principles of Distance Education, None: Marc Boese.

Collins, J., 2001. Seven Kinds Of Smart. [Online] Available at: http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,140234,00.html[Accessed 29 January 2018].

Dethlefsen, A., None. The PAR (Present, Apply, Review) Model and Lesson Structure. [Online] Available at: http://www.teacherstoolbox.co.uk/PAR.htm[Accessed 22 Nov 2018].

Donachy, J., 2014. Four learning theories: BEHAVIORISM, COGNITIVISM, CONSTRUCTIVISM AND CONNECTIVISM. [Online] Available at: https://pypinub.wordpress.com/2014/11/09/four-learning-theories-behaviorism-cognitivism-constructivism-and-connectivism/[Accessed 05 December 2018].

Dr. BADA, S. O., 2015. Constructivism Learning Theory: A Paradigm for Teaching and Learning. [Online] Available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/1c75/083a05630a663371136310a30060a2afe4b1.pdf[Accessed 22 November 2018].

GOV.UK, 2018. Manual of maintenance and airworthiness processes supplement: MOD form 700 series of forms (MAP-02). [Online] Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/manual-of-maintenance-and-airworthiness-process-02-map-02/chapter-13-catalogue-of-forms-700-719-series[Accessed 22 Nov 2018].

Merlin Helicopter Force, 2018. RNAS Culdrose Air Engineering Routine Orders (AERO) 2018. [Online] Available at: https://modgovuk.sharepoint.com/teams/8236/QA/SitePages/AERO%202018.aspx[Accessed 22 11 2018].

MHF, 2014. Merlin Continuous Airworthiness Management Meeting. [Online] Available at: https://modgovuk.sharepoint.com/teams/cui4-228/MHF/Merlin%20CAMO%20Meetings/default.aspx[Accessed 14 November 2018].

MHF, 2018. Merlin Continuous Airworthiness Management Meeting. [Online] Available at: https://modgovuk.sharepoint.com/teams/cui4-228/MHF/Merlin%20CAMO%20Meetings/Lists/Meeting%20Prepararations/AllItems.aspx[Accessed 29 November 2018].

Miro Technologies Inc, 2018. GOLDesp, s.l.: s.n.

MOD, 2012. JSP 822 Part 5: Chapter 5 Defence Learning Technologies Handbook. V3.1 Jul 18 ed. s.l.:MOD.

MOD, 2018. Defence direction and guidance for training and education (JSP 822). V3.0 Apr 17 ed. s.l.:Joint Service Publication (JSP).

MOD, 2018. Merlin Weigh and Moment Analysis Questionnaire, Helston: Engineering Training School.

Pappas, C., 2015. Pedagogy Vs Andragogy In eLearning: Can You Tell The Difference?. [Online] Available at: https://elearningindustry.com/pedagogy-vs-andragogy-in-elearning-can-you-tell-the-difference[Accessed 03 December 2018].

Pinto, L. E. (., 2012. Pedagogies in Context. In: H. Perigo, ed. 95 Strategies for Remodeling Instruction. California: SAGE, pp. 1 – 11.

QC, C. H.-C., 2009. THE NIMROD REVIEW, London: The Stationery Office.

Rahman, A. H. S. &. M. N. A., 2015. Understanding Learning Styles, Attitudes and Intentions in Using. [Online] Available at: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1158550.pdf[Accessed 29 November 2018].

RNAS Culdrose, 2018. Air Engineering Routine Orders (AERO) 2018. [Online] Available at: redacted Sy Reasons[Accessed 14 December 2018].

RNAS Culdrose, 2018. ETS Internal Validation Action Grid (INVALAG), s.l.: CU – Engineering Training School.

Shah, T. F. H. A. J., 2007. Using Learning Style Instruments to Enhance Student Learning. [Online] Available at: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1540-4609.2007.00125.x[Accessed 29 November 2018].

University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy, 2009. Learning Styles: A Review of Theory, Application, and Best Practices. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 73(1)(09), pp. 1 – 5.

Annex A 

To MHF W&M Report 

W&M Lesson Feedback 

 Dated Dec 18

 

Merlin Helicopter Force Weight and Moment Lesson Feedback

Course Name

Course No

Start Date

 

 

 

How Are We Doing?

At ETS we are committed to providing you with the best training possible and we welcome your comments and feedback. This feedback is pinpointed for the MHF W&M lesson only.  Thank you. 

1) The induction brief/BM brief was adequate.

(Strongly Disagree)                                               (Strongly Agree)

 

2) The ETS failure policy was explained sufficiently.

(Strongly Disagree)                                               (Strongly Agree)

 

3) The classroom layout was conducive to a good learning environment.

(Strongly Disagree)                                               (Strongly Agree)

 

4) The instructor covered the Aim and learning objectives.

(Strongly Disagree)                                               (Strongly Agree)

 

5) The pace of instruction was appropriate.

(Strongly Disagree)                                               (Strongly Agree)

 

6) The course length is adequate.

(Strongly Disagree)                                               (Strongly Agree)

 

7) The trainer could teach to your learning needs.

 (Strongly Disagree)                                               (Strongly Agree)

 

 

8) Training media and methods used encouraged student learning.   

(Strongly Disagree)                                               (Strongly Agree)

 

9) Visual/training aids were useful.

(Strongly Disagree)                                               (Strongly Agree)

 

10) Did you feel you achieved the learning outcomes?

(Strongly Disagree)                                               (Strongly Agree)

 

11) Assessments were conducted fairly. 

(Strongly Disagree)                                               (Strongly Agree)

 

12) Training has provided me with a sufficient grounding to enable my future employment.

(Strongly Disagree)                                               (Strongly Agree)

 

Any additional feedback/comments?

 

 

Annex B 

To MHF W&M Questionnaire W&M Lesson Feedback

 Dated Dec 18

 

Merlin Helicopter Force – Weight and Moment Analysis Questionnaire

 

 

 

 

 

Annex C 

To MHF W&M Questionnaire Brief – Analysis

 Dated Dec 18

 

Merlin Helicopter Force –  Weight and Moment Brief – (Analysis for learning event)

 

Slide 1:

 

Slide 2:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Slide 3:

 

Slide 4:

 

Slide 5:

 

 

Slide 6:

 

Slide 7:

 

Slide 8:

 

 

Slide 9:

 

Slide 10:

 

Slide 11:

Annex D 

To MHF W&M Questionnaire W&M Lesson L-Spec

 Dated Dec 18

 

Merlin Helicopter Force Weight and Moment L-Spec

 

PowerSlide

Lesson Specification

 

 

 

WtandMom

Version: 2 19-Nov-2018

Weight and Moment

 

 

This lesson comprises:

 Aim

        To record and carry out aircraft weight and moment changes correctly.

Key Learning Points:

        Introduction

        Recoding processes

        Aircraft specific particulars

Objectives:

        Need

        Equipment required

        Authorisations

        Training

        Weight

        Centre of Gravity.

—:—

 

Slide 1: (Title Slide) – NOTE: Full L-Spec can be provided.

WeightandMoment

 

Slide 63: (Any Questions)

Instructor Notes:

Ask for, and answer, any questions.

Diet Nutrition Weight

HEALING AMERICA’S POPULATION THROUGH KNOWLEDGE OF DISEASE AND NUTRITION: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH
Introduction
Though the United States is one of the most powerful nations on earth, as far as developing new fields of science and technology, the one area in which America does not dominate nor excel is health. Specifically, America is dying from illness that is related to a diet poor in nutrition. This issue is due in part to society’s ignorance which stems from a lack of unified and reliable scientific information. The different disciplines that study these nutrition related diseases all have a different perspective on how to fix this endemic. This conflict of view causes the people to be mislead on how they should indeed live their dietary lives. If the people of America are to follow the nutritional trends they have set, the future will be doomed by disease and chronic illness. The American people have not been given the appropriate knowledge about the causes of disease and nutritional ways to prevent them. The human body is a miraculous system that once understood, can be the vehicle to gain a better quality of life for the individual and for the nation as a whole.

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Almost a third of young children are obese and many more over weight (Oz, 2003). The number one killer in this country is heart disease and as we will see later heart disease and other chronic illnesses stem from poor nutrition. The majority of adults are overweight and undernourished. Though this country has the resources to provide high quality, nutrition-rich foods, Americans are drawn to unhealthy, refined and processed foods. Across the whole country there is no major difference in the people’s level of health between cities or states. In other , the level of health in America is
Nutrition 2
distributed evenly from city to city. This goes to show that no matter what background or financial class, the American people are eating the same foods that are causing such
drastic effects on their health. This poor nutrition can also cause less productivity at work or school, and hyperactivity and mood swings among children and youth. Poor nutrition can in time push the typical American adult to depression, diabetes and hypertension and increase the risks of death in all ages and ethnic groups whether man or woman (Oz, 2003). “ The U.S. Surgeon General has reported that 300,000 deaths annually are caused by or related to obesity. The incidence of diabetes alone has risen by a third since 1990, and treatment costs one hundred billion a year” (Oz, 2003, 2). This problem affects everyone because of the drastic social and economic tolls it takes on the American people. With a strong dedication towards a movement involving the abolishment of nutritional ignorance through health and science education, the American people can be freed from the war on nutrition-related illness and stop the high number of casualties.
According to Allen Repko (2005), there is a definite need for an interdisciplinary approach to this issue because of its inability to be comprehensively resolved through the use of only one discipline, its complexity, and the large amount of relevance it displays throughout every home in America.
There are many disciplines needed in order to show the necessity for good nutrition and the significance of educating the American people about healthy living.
The disciplines most pertinent to this issue are Biology, Chemistry, and Human Nutrition. Biology is needed because of its perspective on the causes of disease, how
Nutrition 3
they function, and how they affect the body. There are many sub-disciplines within the field of Biology that will be needed to help the reader understand the drastic affects of chronic illness. These sub-groups include Pathology and Physiology. Chemistry is a very useful discipline because it will show the reader the different chemical properties of the elements contributing to good and bad nutrition. Also, upon explaining disease, there is a necessity to understand the natural chemicals the human body uses to perform its functions, and the toxic chemicals synthesized to treat illness. The last discipline, Health Education, is very important in understanding the problem because of its view on illness and its approach to healing America through preventative practices.
There will be diligent studies of literature done on the mechanisms dealing with chronic illness and metabolism. Most research done in the fields of Biology, Chemistry and Human Nutrition will come from methods such as laboratory experiments, data collection, surveys, and personal interviews. There will also be reports on statistical analysis to help strengthen main ideas.
The purpose of this paper is to show the reader how dangerous and destructive the American diet is and how there could be a possibility of changing it. This involves finding the source for misleading the American people. The disciplines will delve into the science of diseases and how they take over the body and introduce all the vital chemicals that the body needs for normal function. Also, the perspectives of how to cure the illness and the actual measures that have been taken will be discussed. Once the perspectives of all the disciplines have been understood, the conflict can be found.
Nutrition 4
Upon realizing the conflict, there can then be an attempt to find areas of common ground and integrate them into a unified and plausible solution.
Background
Before explaining the insights of each discipline on the problem at hand, it is important to understand the severity of the nation’s health risks and the characteristics of the diet that has brought them to this point. The current state of America’s health is not due to a spontaneous sequence of events. In other , due mainly to societal changes in dietary behavior, there has been an influx of weight related illnesses in the U.S. The American diet however, has not always been so detrimental to health. There have been many societal changes that have led to the demand for this diet. Just in the past fifty years the average American family has changed its lifestyle from gathering around the table for home cooked meals to a high-paced lifestyle of grab-and-go eating (personal communication, February 24, 2008). This change in lifestyle, along with others, has contributed to the majority of food industries responding to the new demands by increasing the production of processed, preserved and refined foods. In 1978, only 18 percent of the calories consumed in the average American diet took place away from home and now the amount has reached 36 percent (Oz, 2003). In 2000, Americans ate 110 billion dollars in fast food meals as opposed to the 6 billion dollars worth eaten in 1970 (Robbins, 2003). Not only have people become accustomed to
Nutrition 5
eating this high-calorie and nutrient-deficient food, but many of the store bought foods have also become overly processed and refined to the point of nutrient depletion. Natural sugar for example, is being consumed less due to the increase in High Fructose Corn Syrup production (Forristal, 2001). Sugar used to be extracted naturally from sugar cane but is now replaced by a different type that comes from corn. There is no need to go into each individual food for the majority of foods eaten by the average American have the same nutritional properties. The affects of eating these foods will be discussed in detail later. Forty percent of the calorie intake in the American diet comes from refined sugars and refined grains which have been proven to contribute to poor health (Fuhrman, 2005). These refined substances include high fructose corn syrup, honey, lactose (milk), and fruit juice concentrates. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration makes a relatively close estimate that the average American consumes an unbelievable 32 teaspoons of added sugar a day (Kantor, 1999). Another major factor contributing to the high prevalence of weight related disease is the adoption of a sedentary lifestyle (Berenson, Srinivasan, Nicklas, 1998). The adoption of a sedentary lifestyle has affected almost everyone in the United States (Fuhrman, 2003). This can be attributed to an increase in entertainment that forces the individual to be less physically active (Oz, 2003). These forms of entertainment include video and computer games, movies, television and internet surfing. The internet has provided a whole new way to have access to the world without leaving the comfort of the individuals couch
Nutrition 6
(Fuhrman, 2003). For example, people no longer have to leave their house to do their shopping. Though the main issue is about disease, it is also important to note the other affects of the American diet. Poor nutrition has resulted in less productivity at school or work, increased feelings of anxiety, stress and insecurity, and many more issues concerning quality-of-life. These concerns, though important, are miniscule compared to the paramount dilemma of obesity and its related diseases. Thirty four percent of all Americans are obese and many more over weight (Fuhrman, 2003). Twenty five percent of schoolchildren today are obese (Gauthier, Hicker, Noel, 2000). Obesity not only has been proven to cause many illnesses such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and depression, but also to increase death rates in all ages and in almost every gender and ethnic group (Alterwein, 2003). The U.S. Surgeon General has reported that 300,000 deaths per year are caused by or associated with obesity (Bouchard, 1996). The number of people diagnosed with diabetes has risen by a third since 1990, and the cost for treatment has exceeded 100 billion dollars a year (Oz, 2003). Though there are many more statistics regarding the state of America’s health, enough has already been stated to validate the point that the people of America are in dire need for help.
For the purposes of this paper, there are a few topics and related issues that will be excluded in order to narrow down the focus to the particular issues regarding the main problem. People excluded from the focus are the Americans who have adopted a
Nutrition 7
vegan or vegetarian diet, athletes and other individuals who have been educated in fields of nutrition that take action towards a healthier lifestyle. Genetic factors will not be discussed due to the relatively little amount of information able to prove dietary and nutritional setbacks. Economic and cost related information will not be discussed for the topic at hand is about finding a solution to illness under any means necessary; even if that involves the high cost of healthier foods. When discussing illnesses, only the main weight related diseases will be discussed. These include Type II diabetes, heart attack, hypertension, and colon cancer. The main ideas to be included are directly related to diet and weight. These parameters have been set strictly due to the fact that what Americans are putting into their bodies has a direct correlation with what is causing these catastrophic illnesses.
Now that the truths about our overweight society have been identified, there can be a dissection of the problem by the most relevant disciplines. In order for the reader to understand the issue thoroughly, it is important that the disciplines are introduced in an appropriate sequence. Biology will be the first discipline whose insights will be discussed. It is important to discuss these insights first because they introduce the reader to the main weight related illnesses America faces, and shows how they are caused. Before one can show the treatments and the mechanisms involved on a molecular level, one must understand what is happening on the larger cellular level. Therefore, after illness and its consequences have been discussed from a Biological standpoint, Chemistry’s perspectives will be discussed to show an alternative view. Human Nutrition comes last because its perspective deals mainly with finding certain
Nutrition 8
foods that contain certain helpful or harmful chemicals or elements that will be understood best after reading the Chemistry section. In other , before finding out what foods are high in fiber or low in cholesterol, it is important to see first what those compounds are and how they affect the body.
The main goal of the paper is to discuss illness, perspectives on treatment and insights on dietary nutrition in order to provide a solution to the problem of a malnourished and nutritionally uneducated society that is looking for answers which, until now, have not been effectively provided. This lack of answers is due to these disciplines becoming too focused and too specialized in their particular field. When this narrowed view is encompassed by such a wide array of disciplines, it is almost impossible and definitely improbable that a practical and generic solution can be created to ensure a healing process for a physically unhealthy society. In other , this paper will use an interdisciplinary approach in order to educate the reader on the contrasting insights of the disciplines, and to integrate these insights into a practical, comprehensive, and unified solution (Repko, 2005).
References
Oz, Mehmet C. (2003). [Forward]. In Eat to Live (pp. ix-xi). New York, NY: Little, Brown and Company.
Repko, A. (2005). Interdisciplinary practice: A student guide to research and writing. Boston: Pearson Custom Publishing.
Fuhrman, J. (2003). Eat to Live. New York, NY: Little, Brown and Company.
Robbins, J. (2003). [Introduction]. In Eat to Live. New York, NY: Little, Brown and Company.
Forristal, L. (Fall 2001). The Murky World of High-Fructose Corn Syrup. The Weston A. Price Foundation. Retrieved February 14, 2008, from http://www.westonaprice.org/motherlinda/cornsyrup.html.
Alterwein, R. (2003). [Introduction]. In Eat to Live. New York, NY: Little, Brown and Company.
Kantor, L.S. (1999). A dietary assessment of the U.S. food supply. Nutrition Week 29 (3): 4-5.
Berenson G.S., Srinivasan S.R., Nicklas T.A. (1998). Atheriosclerosis: a nutritional disease of childhood. American Journal of Cardiology. 82 (10B): 22-29T
Gauthier, B.M., Hicker, J.M., Noel, M.N. (2000). High prevelance of overweight children in Michigan primary care practices. J. Family Practice 49 (1): 73-76.
Bouchard, C. (1996). The causes of obesity: advances in molecular biology but stagnation on the genetic front. Biabetologia 39 (12): 1532-33.
 

Portion Control for Weight Management

 
Lifestyle, social status and frame of mind all depend on your health thus everybody wants a perfect physical appearance, which may vary based on gender and age, and the way people see it is by attaining an ideal weight. But every challenge comes with obstacles e.g. lack of knowledge, resources and many other factors, due to that fact obesity and weight management have become enormous problem amongst individuals of all ages. To a certain extent minor weight loss can alter ones path of life. Whether it’s living life to the fullest or being overweight holding you down. And everyone that is overweight or obese is always looking for the “easy way out” to lose weight by not doing any exercise and eating anything they please. So can weight reduction really occur without any medications, surgery, or even extensive exercise?

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To begin with, people who are obese tend to be uneducated about effects of obesity, nutrition, and portion control. Now knowing about the major risk that obesity brings is a major issue such as 29% of all deaths in Canada are because of obesity, where females are at a higher risk of dying than males, and learning about these risks can be an eye opener for some and life changer for others. Obesity causes or is closely linked with a large number of health conditions like heart disease, stroke, diabetes are just to name a few and as many as
11 types of cancer, including leukemia, colon, breast cancer [WHO. 2014]. Not just that but obesity also comes with social and emotional effects including discrimination, lower wages, lower Quality of life and people being effected by obesity are more likely susceptible to depression. The type of diet you eat can have a major impact on your weight i.e. eating a high energy/calorie dense meal (coffee and a doughnut) can cause overeating whereas eating multiple low energy/calorie meals (juice, a piece of toast, and scrambled eggs) can provide an provide array of healthy choices by incorporating more food consumption but less calorie intake and also it can help with optimum weight management. For instance [Rolls. 2014] compiled three systematic studies on various individuals and this is what was conducted.
The first trial involved overweight men and overweight women, they were given isocaloric portions of either high or low dense food to be eaten daily into a reduced energy diet for two months and one year later the group that was given low energy dense soup saw a 50% more reduction then the other control group.
The second trial only obese women were tested and they were split into two groups. One grope was counseled to portion control and eat more water rich foods (fruits, vegetables) and the other group was asked to eat limited portions (fats and everything else). After a year the group that was told to eat more water rich foods lost 23% more weight, had a reduction in hunger and felt greater gratification.
In the final trial, participants from trial one and trial two were monitored for six months. It was found that individuals who eat a low energy diet lost more than 50% of weight and eat
300grams more than the high energy diet group. From these trial it can be concluded that for weight management to occur simply saying “eat less” is not the best approach to reducing the amount of intake. Therefore large portions of low energy dense foods can be used strategically to encourage their lower consumption and caloric intake. If people lowered the density of energy in their diet, they can eat pleasurable portions while managing as well as maintaining their body weight [Rolls. 2014]. Also through these trials it can be said that a variety of portion control methods can be applied, eating less high energy meals or eating more low energy foods, for exemplary portion management leading to a lower chance of weight gain.
Obesity has become a significant problem, it causes more deaths the being underweight, across many regions of multiple countries. Obesity has become such a high risk factor that even minimal weight loss of 5 to 10% seems to be enough to provide a clinically significant health benefit and reduce the risk of death, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and many other [Lagerros. 2013]. But there are limitations to weight loss i.e. physical disabilities, the quality of produce at a supermarket, cultural acceptance (being fat or over weight considered good, shows how healthy you are), neighborhood accessibility (neighborhood around the world tend not to have any sidewalks thus making it difficult for individuals of all ages to be healthy) as well as neighborhood safety (Places where criminal activity is high, People are less likely to leave their residence) and other resources. All these aspects play a tremendous role in weight reduction and or weight management.
A study done by [Amanda Reichards et al. 2014] about adults with physical disabilities with a BMI of >25%. So these individuals were randomized into two weight management approaches. One of these was My plate diet (consists of a meal with fruits, vegetables, protein and dairy all in one plate) and the other was Stoplight diet (foods are based on the light consisted in traffic lights such as vegetables/fruits are green, potatoes/ cheese are yellow and fat foods are red) supplemented with portion controlled meals for 6 months. There were 126 enrollees and of those 70% of them completed initial 6 months and 60% of the 70% completed a follow up phase. The Stoplight diet group reduced weight during initial 6 month and lost more weight during the follow up phase whereas the My plate diet group only lost weight during the initial 6 months from the studies done by Amanda Reichards and her colleagues it can be stated that by using portion control, barriers can be overcome for individuals that are overweight and have physical mobility impairments.
Consumers are uncovered to many pieces of data such as the media, commercials and promotions. The comparison between two merchandises that are similar in prices or completely buying a product for the first time, “58% of the consumers said that they used product labels” [Wills et al2009].Furthermore, Canadians believe that labels are the most important way to get nutritional data. “This source is then shadowed by various forms of media, friends and family, electronic media channels and lastly family physicians or other professionals “[Willset al.2009]. It is notable that family physicians/medical professionals seem to play such a minimal role in general information.
In the past, significant findings have been conducted by researchers to help modern scientist. Lexis, L (2004) conducted multiple studies where 38% of the people’s portions were controlled and the others weren’t. The research shows that 5% of the 38% examined saw a weight reduction from their baseline weight whereas the other control group saw a 5% weight gain from their base line. She also did a study on Elevated waist/hip on men and women this a body mass index (BMI) greater the 27. Being overweight comes at a cost and its “$656 higher annual medical care costs, and the IV results indicate that obesity raises annual medical costs by $2741 in 2005 dollars.” [Cawley J. 2012]. “More than 2 in 3 adults are considered to be overweight or obese. More than 0.33% adults are considered to be obese. More than 0.05 adults in North America are considered to have extreme obesity. About 0.33%of children and adolescents from ages 6 to 19 are considered to be overweight or obese. More than 16% of children and adolescents from the ages of 6 to 19 are considered to be obese” National Health and Nutrition (2010). “Obesity can occur one pound at a time. Just like obesity so does prevention. ” [National Institutes of Health. 2013] these are just some facts about obesity that can be prevented by portion control.
Solutions. Are there any? With so many problem and hardly any solutions. Here are a couple of solutions that can help with implicating portion control, first would be liquid meal replacement (shakes) can be a very useful technique there were small experiments designed to makes many of the studies on the effectiveness of meal replacements were tough to interpret as few were intended to regulate whether meal replacements are closely linked with greater weight reduction than a self-selected consumption of regular foods. They also found that there is a relationship between the intakes of meal replacements in exchange of regular meals in the framework of energy controlled diets and decline in body weight. The second method would be tax increasing and front back trafficking. Increasing the tax on unhealthy food could be a substantial answer to many problems, the Danish government has put a 25% tax on unhealthy foods (sweet based) such as ice cream chocolate and many others and beverages. They also banned the use of Trans-fatty acid (increases coronary heart cancer) leading companies to use a different method of production and provide a better fat quality product. There is also Front – of – Pack traffic light nutrition labeling (this is when the nutritional label is put in the front and the product is labelled as a colour that indicated the type of product which is stated earlier in this paper). There was a randomized-controlled study was conducted to determine different food label formats on consumers’ product choices, the study established that traffic light labels had the most influential on consumers, compared to other methods. Even with time constraint consumers the traffic light labels and logos were more effective and efficient rather than the ordinary label furthermore the likelihood of healthy choices had increased moreover with unlabeled food it is more difficult to classify as whether it’s healthy or unhealthy [Borgmeier and Westenhoefer, 2009]. By making such a major impact, neighboring countries are putting an emphasis on disease deduction methods as well. The third method is Pre-portioned foods it is an alternative approach to liquid meal plan it is a pre-packaged single meal /snack which is bound to reduce weight also temporary studies have found that solid meal substitutes (bars) caused the tendency to feel more full than isocaloric liquid meal substitutes (shakes) [ Tieken et al. 2007].
In an 18-month study conducted by [Wing et al. 1996] where contributors were allocated to one of the four groups: a usual behavioral treatment was given, a behavioral treatment accompanied with financial encouragement for weight reduction, food source, or a combination of food establishment and motivations. The food that was provided to the individuals consisted of pre-portioned conventional foods suitable for five breakfasts and five suppers each week for 18 months. The quantity of weight reduction in the two groups, provided with sufficient food, was significantly superior to the other groups at 6, 12 and 18 months [Wing et al. 1996].
Also in another study, patients were given either a prepackaged, nutritionally complete, organised meal, plan that provided almost all of their diet and the other group was given a macronutrient equivalent usual-care diet. The prepackaged meal was designed to sustain long-term weight loss. This was proven at 1 year when the first group lost 5.8 kilograms while the other group only lost 1.7 kilograms loss [Metz et al. 2000].
A certain study, sought to separate the properties of the portion-controlled diets from other mechanisms of the weight reduction intervention by keeping the additional variables similar across the two study groups. The pre-portioned food group was provided with three starters and one snack daily, which they could substitute with conventional foods by the rules of their program. After 6 months, the pre-portioned food group lost 7.3kg whereas the control group only lost [Foster et al. 2013]. The take away message from these studies is that Portioned food can cause a substantial difference between casual meals in terms of weight reduction thus allowing a greater consumption of food and loss in weight. Another solution is by regulating the advertisements that are shown to adolescents. This will cause children to be less attracted to food which can lead them to gain weight. In Sweden, Norway and Quebec the government has restricted television advertisements for children. More specifically, the Swedish Radio and Television act does not grant commercial television advertisement that is intended to attract or gain the attention of children who are under the age of 12. However, most countries tend not to revise advertisements, to make sure they are meant for children. A comparison of food advertising in 13 countries in different parts of the world, found that children who were watching more than 2 hours would be exposed to between 28 and 84 food advertisements per day [Lagerros. 2013].
Weight management/reduction has been a major problem for decades now. Obesity is something that is increasingly on the rise today and will continue to rise unless we do something about it, food is being pushed on television all the time. Corrupting minds to eat calorie dense food but there is a way to fix that by informing people of how bad it really is and encouraging people to live a health-enhancing lifestyle. The solution is as simple as eating a portioned diet and making it a lifelong diet. Some fat is essential for the body. It uses it for various implications such as heat, padding, insulation, and stored energy. Eating healthy and keeping active is all a part of a lifelong daily routine No diet should be promoted as being a temporary eating plan, but rather a permanent plan for healthy eating and living.
References

Borgmeier I., Westenhoefer J. (2009)Impact of different food label formats on healthiness evaluation and food choice of consumers: a randomized-controlled study.BMC Public Health9: 184.
Cawley, J., & Meyerhoefer, C. (2012). The medical care costs of obesity: An instrumental variables approach. J Health Econ.
Ello-Martin, J., H Ledikwe, J., & Rolls, B. (2005). The Influence of Food Portion Size and Energy Density on Energy Intake: Implications for Weight Management.
Foster GD, Wadden TA, Lagrotte CA, Vander Veur SS, Hesson LA, Homko CJ, et al.(2013) A randomized comparison of a commercially available portion-controlled weight-loss intervention with a diabetes self-management education program,Nutr Diabetes, 3:e63.
Lagerros, Y., & Rössner, S. (2013). Obesity management: What brings success? Therap Adv Gastroenterol, 6(1), 77–88.
Rolls, B. (2012). Dietary strategies for weight management. Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop (2012), 73, 37-48.
Rolls, B. (2014). What is the role of portion control in weight management? International Journal of Obesity (2005).
Metz JA, Stern JS, Kris-Etherton P, Reusser ME, Morris CD, Hatton DC, et al.(2000) A randomized trial of improved weight loss with a prepared meal plan in overweight and obese patients: impact on cardiovascular risk reduction, Arch Intern Med, 160:2150–2158
National Institues of Health. (2012). Overweight and Obesity Statistics. Weight-control Information Network.
Reichard, A., D. Saunders, M., R. Saunders, R., & Ptomey, L. (2014). A comparison of two weight management programs for adults with mobility impairments, Disability and Health Journal.
Tieken SM, Leidy HJ, Stull AJ, Mattes RD, Schuster RA, Campbell WW. (2007). Effects of solid versus liquid meal-replacement products of similar energy content on hunger, satiety, and appetite-regulating hormones in older adults,Horm Metab Res, 39:389–394
Wing RR, Jeffery RW, Burton LR, Thorson C, Nissinoff KS, Baxter JE. (1996). Food provision vs structured meal plans in the behavioral treatment of obesity.Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord.;20:56–62
Wills J., Schmidt D., Pillo-Blocka F., Cairns G. (2009)Exploring global consumer attitudes toward nutrition information on food labels.Nutr Rev67(Suppl. 1): S102–S106Frenk, D. (2012, May 1). Obesity Consequences. Retrieved October 22, 2014, from http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/obesity-prevention-source/obesity-consequences/
Obesity and overweight. (2014, August 1). Retrieved October 22, 2014, from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/
Statistics – Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada. (n.d.). Retrieved November 24, 2014, from http://www.heartandstroke.com/site/c.ikIQLcMWJtE/b.3483991/k.34A8/Statistics.htm

 

Effect of Added Weight on Ground Reaction Force and Joint Angles of the Knee

The Effect of Added Weight on Ground Reaction Force and Joint Angles of the Knee during Drop Jump Landing
Introduction
For a good successful drop landing, athletes will require, good muscle strength, stability and further capabilities of the major joints, these are all vital factors which will impact the defense against injury to the joint facets15, 16). Furthermore, jumping and landing, which happens at multiple different times and scenarios in sports/activity, can be soft or rigid, this is dependent on the loss of biomechanical energy 17, 18), this ultimately can be a factor which causes injury along with instability19, 20). Force of impact of ground reaction force (GRF) is at a higher level during rigid landings as opposed to soft landings. From this we can potentially see causes of decreases in major joints and muscles of the lower extremity 21). Numerous injuries (e.g. ACL Tears and ankle sprains) are seen to be attributed to the task of landing from a jump (Beynnon et al., 2005; Ferretti, 1986; Ferretti et al., 1990, 1992; Frank & Jackson, 1997; Griffin et al., 2000; Miyasaka et al., 1991).

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Previously, researchers have observed lower extremity kinematics during drop landing, for example, degrees of flexion in the knee, hip and ankle (Blackburn et al., 2009; Cortes et al., 2007). Investigations have also been made into kinetic variables during landing such as peak vertical ground reaction force (Ricard et al., 1994). Frobell et al (2008) stated that amount of ground reaction force creates a high risk on the lower extremity during landing from jumps. It has been suggested by multiple researchers that from a larger height there will be a higher peak in ground reaction force and flexion.
Jump landings require the body to exploit several movement patterns to absorb the body’s energy when conducting a landing. There are 2 popular strategies that are normally used when landing from a jump. These are, Toe landing first and Heel landing first. Athletes will normally have their own landing techniques which are often unique to them, these techniques will normally be based on their own preference and/or activity/sporting demands. Any of these strategies will have a particular kinematic pattern which can affect the lower extremity angular kinematic intersegmental values. Different techniques can make you prone to different injuries, Butler et al. (2003) reported that knee stiffness can be closely related to landing on the toes first. Instability of the knee joints leads to restricted movement within the range of motion (ROM), which can then further result in a ongoing cycle of repeated instability in joints3, 4).
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of an added weight on drop jump landing, while looking at ground reaction force and kinematic differences. It is hypothesized that when weight is added there will be a significant difference in the peaks of ground reaction force, flexion and abduction.
Methods
Participants
This study was conducted with 6 participant’s whom study Sport and Exercise Science at Aberystwyth University. This was made up by 3 Males and 3 Females with a mean age of 21 ± 2. None of the participant’s had previous experience with drop jumps other than what they would have gained from general exercise/activity. Participants were all free of injury and had no problems which may affect performance. All participant’s gave consent before testing and the study was ethically approved by the Aberystwyth University Ethics Committee.
Protocol
Before the study was started participants needed to have reflective markers placed on their body. Markers were placed on the Thigh, Shank, Foot, Ankle, Heel, Medial Epicondyle of Ankle and Knee, Knee, Sacral Back, ASIS left and Right, Iliac Spine. The markers were placed using the Helen Hayes marker set. Once the participant’s had the markers placed onto them they were to complete 5 drop jumps from a 50cm high chair with both feet landing on a force plate (Force plate (9287BA, Kistler Instrumente AG Winterthur, Poland) with no weight. Then after that they were to pick a suitable/comfortable weight and complete 5 more drop jumps. While conducting the trials with the weight, participant’s were to hold the weight across their chest while stepping off. The best trial of each participant was taken to be analysed and processed and only data from the right side of the body was analysed. The study was randomly counterbalanced. Data of the joint movements were captured by an 8 Camera 3D motion analysis system (Eagle Digital Real Time Camera System, Motion Analysis, Santa Rosa, USA), this system was calibrated before testing was started.
Statistical Analysis
Data from the trials were collected into Cortex at a sampling rate of 1000Hz. The data in cortex was analysed and processed. Ensuring there were no gaps in the data and that all data was filtered and smoothed. Gap Filling and Marker ID was carried out in Cortex. The data was filtered using the Butterworth filter a 15Hz. Full flexion is 180 full extension is 0. Once data was completely processed in Cortex it was then exported into Excel (Microsoft, Redmond WA) where the maximum values of Ground Reaction Force and Peak Flexion and Peak Abduction were calculated. This data was then exported into SPSS (IBM, Sommers, NY) where a Paired Samples T-Test was performed.
Results
Table 1 displays the means and standard deviation of Vertical Ground Reaction Force (VGRF) of both trials. The results found that there was no significant difference between the trial with added weight (M=2648.33, SD=281.14) and the trial with no weight (M=2493.14, SD=372.40), t(5) = 0.71, p = 0.507. These results indicate that there was no effect on VGRF with the added weight to the participant.
Table 2 displays the means and standard deviation of Peak Flexion of the Knee Joint of both trials. The results found no significant difference between the trial with added weight (M=89.76, SD=14.72) and the trial with no weight (M=81.86, SD=16.98); t(5) = 2.17, p = 0.082. These results show that there was no effect on Peak Flexion at the Knee when weight was added to the participant.
Table 3 displays the means and standard deviation of the Peak Adduction of the Knee Joint for both trials. Among these results there was no significant difference found once again between the trial with added weight (M=10.36, SD=4.08) and the trial with no weight (M=9.59, SD=4.62); t(5) = 0.78, p = 0.471. These results imply that the knee joint showed no greater peak adduction with weight against no weight.
Table 1 – Means and Standard Deviation for the Peak VGRF in both trials.

Trial

Mean

Standard Deviation

Weight

2648.33

281.14

No Weight

2493.14

372.40

Table 2 – Means and Standard Deviation for the Peak Values of Flexion in the Knee Joint for both trials.

Trial

Mean

Standard Deviation

Weight

89.76

14.72

No Weight

81.86

16.98

Table 3 – Mean and Standard Deviation for the Peak Abduction at the Knee Joint for both trials.

Trial

Mean

Standard Deviation

Weight

10.36

4.08

No Weight

9.59

4.62

Discussion
The results found that there was no significant difference between the two separate trials in any of Vertical ground reaction force, peak flexion or peak abduction. This shows there was no significant difference when weight was added during drop jump landing. There are very limited studies which look at the effect of added weight on drop jump landing, so it is hard to compare the results of this study directly to findings. The technique of drop jump landings is seen to be the biggest factor among papers when looking at ground reaction forces, peak flexion and peak abduction.

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High impact loads could be reduced if athletes are taught and trained suitably in their technique when landing, this can help minimise risks of injuries arising from repetitive high vertical impact forces on the lower extremity.20 this has been seen to be especially important in gymnastics. It has been implied that individuals can drop GRF values by performing landings which use toe-heel contact patterns20,25 or also controlled landings deprived of heel contact by increasing joint flexion,18 . It has been found in research that greater ground reaction forces are found more often within rigid or upright landing postures.11,16
Research on various biomechanical factors that could be connected with a heightened risk of lower extremity injury (e.g. ACL tears and damage) can be found in previous literature (Cowling & Steele, 2001; Fagenbaum & Darling, 2003; Hewett et al., 2005). As mentioned previously Incorrect landing technique has been closely related to ACL injury during vigorous activities (Cowling & Steele, 2001; Hewett et al., 2005). It has been suggested in studies that the risk of collapse on the lower extremity can be reduced if the most appropriate and correct landing technique is used to help minimise the forces created (Hewett et al., 2005). 70% of ACL injuries occur with non-contact situations (Griffin, 2000), these situations are normally in turning motions or landing. Therefore, it is important to assess the techniques of landing so injury risk is reduced.
There were several potential limitations to this study which may have had an effect on some results. These were things such as, participants wearing loose clothing, the participants picking different weights, only picking the ‘best trial’ of each participant. If participants wore loose clothing to the test day, it could affect the marker placement and create untrue marker position results for joints. Ensuring participants wear tight fitted clothing will ensure that all markers placed stay true to their original placement and mirror the joints as precisely as possible. When using the weight, participants were to select a comfortable weight for themselves, but also for it to be heavy enough (weight was picked using the RPE Scale, around 14 on the scale). If all participants used the same weight, then results could potentially differ. The last limitation found was that only the ‘best trial’ was picked for each participant. Although this was decided for this study, when evaluating the results, it could have been better to average the results from all 5 trials and get a mean of all 5 for each participant.
In conclusion to this study, there was no significant difference between the two trials and the factors analysed. Future research could look at certain populations (e.g. Gender or Sporting level) and analyse specific landing techniques. Looking at the different techniques and the effects of these techniques on VGRF could show interesting results.
References

Chang JS, Kwon YH, Choi JH, et al. : Gender differences in lower extremity kinematics and kinetics of the vertical ground reaction force peak in drop-landing by flatfooted subjects. J Phys Ther Sci, 2012, 24: 267–270. 

Cowling, E.J., & Steele, J.R. (2001). Is lower limb muscle synchrony during landing affected by gender? Implications for variations in ACL injury rates. Journal of Electromy- ography and Kinesiology, 11, 263-268.

Beynnon, B.D., Vacek, P.M., Murphy, D., Alosa, D., & Paller, D. (2005). First-time inversion ankle ligament trauma: The effects of sex, level of competition, and sport on the incidence of injury. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 33, 1485-1491.

Brown CN, Mynark R: Balance deficits in recreational athletes with chronic ankle instability. J Athl Train, 2007, 42: 367–373.

Butler, R.J., Crowell, H.P., III, & Davis, I.M. (2003). Lower extremity stiffness: Implications of performance and injury. Clinical Biomechanics, 18, 511-517.

Fagenbaum, R., & Darling, W.G. (2003). Jump landing strategies in male and female college athletes and the implications of such strategies for anterior cruciate ligament injury. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 31, 233-240.

Ferretti, A. (1986). Epidemiology of jumper’s knee. Sports Medicine, 3, 289-295.

Ferretti, A., Papandrea, P., & Conteduca, F. (1990). Knee inju- ries in volleyball. Sports Medicine, 10, 132-138.

Ferretti, A., Papandrea, P., Conteduca, F., & Mariani, P.P. (1992). Knee ligament injuries in volleyball players. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 20, 203-207.

Frank, C.B., & Jackson, D.W. (1997). Current concepts review: The science of reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, American Volume, 79, 1556-1576.

Griffin, L.Y., Agel, J., Albohm, M.J., Arendt, E.A., Dick, R.W., Garrett, W.E., et al. (2000). Noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries: Risk factors and prevention strategies. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 8, 141-150.

Hewett, T.E., Myer, G., Gregory, D., Ford, K.R., Heidt, R.S., Colosimo, A.J., et al. (2005). Biomechanical measures of neuromuscular control and valgus loading of the knee predict anterior cruciate ligament injury risk in female athletes: A prospective study. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 33, 492-501.

Hoch MC, McKeon PO: Joint mobilization improves spatiotemporal postural control and range of motion in those with chronic ankle instability. J Orthop Res, 2011, 29: 326–332. 

Kaneko M, Sakuraba K: Association between femoral anteversion and lower extremity posture upon single-leg landing: implications for anterior cruciate ligament injury. J Phys Ther Sci, 2013, 25: 1213–1217. 

McKeon PO, Ingersoll CD, Kerrigan DC, et al. : Balance training improves function and postural control in those with chronic ankle instability. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2008, 40: 1810–1819.  

Miyasaka, K.C., Daniel, D.M., Stone, M.L., Hirshman, P. (1991). The incidence of knee ligament injuries in the general population. American Journal of Knee Surgery, 4, 3-8.

Ross SE, Guskiewicz KM, Yu B: Single-leg jump-landing stabilization times in subjects with functionally unstable ankles. J Athl Train, 2005, 40: 298–304.

Wikstrom EA, Naik S, Lodha N, et al. : Balance capabilities after lateral ankle trauma and intervention: a meta-analysis. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2009, 41: 1287–1295.
 

 

 

 

Affect of Molecular Weight and Lipid-Water Partition Coefficient on Understanding Hemolysis with Rabbit Red Blood Cells

The Affect of Molecular Weight and Lipid-Water Partition Coefficient on Understanding Hemolysis with Rabbit Red Blood Cells

Abstract

 The concentration of the solute and size dictates the direction osmotic effect will occur. The experimental objective is to observe rabbit red blood cells in various solution of different tonicity, isotonic, hypotonic and hypertonic, and if hemolysis can occur or not. Eight organic solvents were used to observe hemolysis, Ethanol, Ethylene glycol, Urea, Thiourea, Glucose, Arabinose, Xylose, Sucrose, Glycerol, Monoacetin, Triacetin, and Diacetin. The time it took for hemolysis to occur for each solvent were plotted on two graphs, one molecular weight vs. time and the other lipid-water partition coefficient vs. time. The result of these findings suggest that smaller molecules hemolysis faster as compared to larger molecules and the stronger the lipid-water partition coefficient the fast hemolysis can occur regardless of the size of the molecule.

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Introduction

 The plasma membrane is a biological membrane that allows separation of the exterior environment from the interior environment of a cell (Cooper GM, 2000). The plasma membrane comprises of a lipid bilayer which has embedded proteins that allow regulated movement of small molecules and atoms across the membrane for selective permeability (Cooper GM, 2000). This movement can either be classified as passive or active (requires energy) (Cooper GM, 2000). Passive transport can be done by osmosis and diffusion which exists in organic and inorganic systems (Cooper GM, 2000). Diffusion is instigated by the movement of molecules and atoms from high concentration to low concentration (Cooper GM, 2000). Diffusion continues until a uniform dispersal of the molecules is present in the solution (Odom, 1995). In liquid solutions there is constant random motion even though it is slow compared to gas diffusion which is fairly rapid (Cooper GM, 2000). The rate of diffusion is influenced by the temperature, increase in temperature increase the collision of the molecules, and the concentration gradient which also has proportional effect (Odom, 1995). For passive diffusion the molecules travel across the phospholipid bilayer without the need for any membrane proteins but instead it is controlled by the concentration of the outside and the inside of the cell (Cooper GM, 2000). Only small hydrophobic molecules can diffuse across the phospholipid bilayer, such as O₂ and CO₂ (Cooper GM, 2000). Larger molecules are unable to passively diffuse across the plasma membrane but instead can through the use of facilitated diffusion, active transport and channel proteins (Cooper GM, 2000). This allows amino acids, carbohydrates, polar/charged molecules, ions and nucleosides to travel across the cell membrane (Cooper GM, 2000). This form of diffusion is done by the concentration gradient to allow the molecules to travel across the member but the unlike passive diffusion, that allows the molecules to dissolve in the phospholipid bilayer, this is accomplish by proteins (Cooper GM, 2000). There are two kinds of proteins that allow facilitated diffusion to occur, channel and carrier proteins (Cooper GM, 2000). Channel proteins allow diffusion through pores in the membrane for specific charge and size of a molecule that open and close (Cooper GM, 2000). Carrier proteins require a confirmation change through the binding of a substrate that allows a molecule to travel across the membrane from one side to the other (Cooper GM, 2000). Sugars, nucleosides and amino acids primarily cross the membrane through carrier proteins (Cooper GM, 2000). Another form of movement by molecules and atoms is through osmosis (Borg, 2003). Osmosis is the phenomenon where a solute of low concentration can travel across the semi-permeable membrane to an area of higher concentration (Borg, 2003). This allows us to understand the attraction of water, the most permeable, to other solutes in terms of osmosis (Borg, 2003). This is simply due to the theory of hydration, where the molecules of the solute are surrounded by water because of the attraction present between them (Borg, 2003). This phenomenon allows the water to move from one side of the cell to the other through a semi-permeable when there is not enough water on one side to allow for the solute-water attraction (Borg, 2003). The factors that govern this are: solute concentration, dissociation of the solute, plasma membrane permeability as well as the temperature of the solution (Borg, 2003). However, this is mainly governed by the plasma membrane permeability and it only last until an equilibrium is achieved between the concentrations of the environment outside and inside of the cell (Borg, 2003).  The red blood cells are used to understand the functions of the plasma membrane in terms of diffusion and osmosis, as it relates to hemolysis (Animal Physiology I, 2018). Hemolysis is the rapture of red blood cells (erythrocyte) that causes hemoglobin to be released from the red blood cells into its surrounding aqueous solution (Animal Physiology I, 2018). This rapid hemolysis can be attributed to the membrane holes that appear after osmotic hemolysis has started (Seeman et al., 1973). Another reason hemolysis can occur is if the red blood cells are exposed to hypotonic or hypertonic solutions, which is the objective of this experiment (Sowemimo-Coker, 2002).  The objective is to understand three known phenomena of solutions – isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic – in eight different organic solutions (Animal Physiology I, 2018). Isotonic is when the solution maintains same volume inside and outside the cell having the same osmotic pression that is across the cell membrane (Animal Physiology I, 2018). When the volume inside the cell increases then a hypotonic (swelling of the cell) solution is expected while if the volume inside the cell decreases a hypertonic (shrinkage of the cell) solution is observed (Animal Physiology I, 2018). The eight different organic solutions are split into three different groups (Animal Physiology I, 2018). Group A consists of Ethanol, Ethylene glycol, Urea, and Thiourea (Animal Physiology I, 2018). Group B consists of Glucose, Arabinose, Xylose, and Sucrose (Animal Physiology I, 2018). Group C consists of Glycerol, Monoacetin, Diacetin, and Triacetin (Animal Physiology I, 2018). It is hypothesized the larger molecules will have a slower time to hemolysis compared to smaller molecules.

Methods and Materials

The experiment was conducted as per the lab protocol for Lab 1, Animal Physiology 1 SC/BIOL 3060. See lab protocol for Lab 1 (Animal Physiology I, 2018).

Results

Table 1: All the organic solutions used with their corresponding hemolysis time, lipid-water partition coefficient and molecular weight.

Organic Solution

Time to Hemolysis (min)

Lipid-Water Partition Coefficient

Molecular Weight

Ethanol

0.03

0.04

46

Ethylene glycol

0.25

0.0007

62

Urea

0.17

0.0002

60

Thiourea

0.5

0.002

76

Glucose

0

0.00003

180

Arabinose

0

0.00003

150

Xylose

0

0.00003

150

Sucrose

0

0.00003

342

Gylcerol

0.58

0.00007

92

Monoacetin

0.012

0.01

134

Diacetin

2.5

0.09

176

Triacetin

0.03

0.9

218

Figure 1: The time taken for each organic solution to undergo hemolysis compared to their lipid-water partition coefficient for their respectively. The lipid-water partition coefficient: Group A consists of Ethanol (0.04), Ethylene Glycol (0.0007), Urea (0.0002), Thiourea (0.002), Group B consists of Glucose (0.00003), Arabinose (0.00003), Xylose (0.00003), Sucrose (0.00003), and Group C consists of Glycerol (0.00007), Monoacetin (0.01), Diacetin (0.09), Triacetin (0.9)

Figure 2: The time taken for each organic solution to undergo hemolysis compared to their molecular weight respectively. The molecular weight: Group A consists of Ethanol (46), Ethylene Glycol (62), Urea (60), Thiourea (76), Group B consists of Glucose (180), Arabinose (150), Xylose (150), Sucrose (342), and Group C consists of Glycerol (92), Monoacetin (134), Diacetin (176), Triacetin (218)

The factors investigated are: lipid-water partition coefficient and molecular weight, both plotted against the time it takes for the organic solutions to undergo hemolysis (Figure 1 and 2 respectively). The lipid-water partition coefficient and time for hemolysis (in minutes) correspondingly are: Group A consists of Ethanol (0.04 and 0.03), Ethylene Glycol (0.0007 and 0.25), Urea (0.0002 and 0.17), Thiourea (0.002 and 0.5), Group B consists of Glucose (0.00003 and 0), Arabinose (0.00003 and 0), Xylose (0.00003 and 0), Sucrose (0.00003 and 0), and Group C consists of Glycerol (0.00007 and 0.58), Monoacetin (0.01 and 0.012), Diacetin (0.09 and 2.5), Triacetin (0.9 and 0.03). The molecular weight and time for hemolysis (in minutes) correspondingly are: Group A consists of Ethanol (46 and 0.03), Ethylene 3Glycol (62 and 0.25), Urea (60 and 0.17), Thiourea (76 and 0.5), Group B consists of Glucose (180 and 0), Arabinose (150 and 0), Xylose (150 and 0), Sucrose (342 and 0), and Group C consists of Glycerol (92 and 0.58), Monoacetin (134 and 0.012), Diacetin (176 and 2.5), Triacetin (218 and 0.03). For the first figure the equation of the line and R² is: Group A the equation of the line y = -6.7979x + 0.3104, R² = 0.4533 and Group C the equation of the line is y=-0.93x + 1.013, R² = 0.1184. For the second figure the equation of the line and R² are: Group A the equation of the line y = 0.0158x – 0.7247, R² = 0.964 and Group C the equation of the line y = 0.002x + 0.4712, R² = 0.0085.

Discussion and Conclusion

 The R² is used to correlate the relationship between two variables plotted on a graph. For Figure 1 the R² for Group A is 0.4533 and Group C it is 0.1184. This indicates that the lipid-water partition coefficient for Group A has a relatively strong correlation with the time it takes to hemolyze, Group C does not have a strong correlation since the R² value is small. For Group A the relative strong correlation is due to the polar compounds that are in that group which allows them to diffusion into the red blood cells to cause hemolysis (Burgen, 1962). For Group B there is no relationship between the two as the time to hemolyze is zero for all of the organic solutions in that group. The reason for this is all of the organic solutions are sugars. Sugars require facilitated diffusion and do not readily diffuse into a cell unless the need occurs (Cooper GM, 2000). They are also known to decrease the osmotic pressure inside the cell since sugar molecules to do not readily diffuse through the membrane and thus the hemolysis rate is non-existent or is significantly lower as compared to the other groups (Grosicki and Husas, 1954). Group C molecules have a higher lipid-water partition coefficient than the other groups which indicated they are more willingly to diffusion through the membrane of the red blood cells. The reason behind this is because organic molecules are known to have an attraction towards solvents where predominately a non-polar hydrocarbon structure exists (Jacobs, 1950). Therefore, greater the partition coefficient is between the organic solvent and water, the more easily the organic solvent is able to enter the cell (Jacobs, 1950). Although for polar solvents it is the opposite effect in terms of permeability into the cell (Jacobs, 1950). So, there is an increase in the rate of diffusion into the red blood cell as the lipid solubility increases even though the molecular weight is higher (Jacobs, 1950). For Figure 2 R² for Group A is 0.964 and Group C it is 0.0085. There is no R² value for Group B since the organic solvents in that group did not undergo hemolysis. This shows that the molecular weight of the organic solvent has an impact on the time it takes to undergo hemolysis after the blood suspension was added, the smaller the molecule the faster the hemolysis occurs (as shown in Figure 2). This is due to the simple fact the plasma membrane is generally more permeable to smaller molecules as compared to larger one as they enter the cell effortlessly (Jacobs, 1950). So, the hemolysis rate is dependent on the size of the molecules (Shalel et al., 2002). Although the permeability of red blood cells varies from species to species for small molecules (Jacobs, 1950). For Group B in both figures no hemolysis had occurred (see Table 1). This can be attributed to the chance that the concentration of the cell and the solution is the same which would create an isosmotic solution, preventing hemolysis from occurring since there is no diffusion taking place. This can be prevented by changing the concentrations of the sugars to either higher or lower than the stated concentration to see if there is a possibility of hemolysis to occur or not.

 In conclusion, the larger the lipid-water partition coefficient the organic molecule has the more readily it can diffusion into the red blood cell and cause hemolysis, regardless of the size of the molecule. For the molecular weight of an organic molecule it is found the larger the molecule the harder it would be to diffuse through the cell membrane of the red blood cell as compared to a molecule with a smaller molecule weight the time to hemolysis is smaller.

References

–          Animal Physiology I. Laboratory 1: Properties of Membranes. SC/BIOL 3060, 2018. York University.

–          Borg, F.G., 2003. What is osmosis? Explanation and understanding of a physical phenomenon. arXiv preprint physics/0305011.

–          Burgen, A.S.V., 1962. The structure and function of cell membranes. Canadian journal of biochemistry and physiology, 40(9), pp.1253-1260.

–          Cooper GM, 2000. The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 2nd edition. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; Transport of Small Molecules. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK9847/

–          Grosicki, T.S. and Husas, W.J., 1954. Isotonic solutions. III. Amino acids and sugars. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 43(10), pp.632-635.

–          Jacobs, M.H., 1950. Surface properties of the erythrocyte. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 50(8), pp.824-834.

–          Odom, A.L., 1995. Secondary & college biology students’ misconceptions about diffusion & osmosis. The American Biology Teacher, pp.409-415.

–          Seeman, P., Cheng, D. and Iles, G.H., 1973. Structure of membrane holes in osmotic and saponin hemolysis. The Journal of cell biology, 56(2), pp.519-527.

–          Shalel, S., Streichman, S. and Marmur, A., 2002. The mechanism of hemolysis by surfactants: effect of solution composition. Journal of colloid and interface science, 252(1), pp.66-76.

–          Sowemimo-Coker, S.O., 2002. Red blood cell hemolysis during processing. Transfusion medicine reviews, 16(1), pp.46-60.
 

Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training for Weight Loss

High-intensity interval training as a method for weight loss and improving aerobic fitness

 

Introduction and definitions

This investigation will aim to consider how high-intensity interval training can be used as a method for weight loss and the improvement of aerobic fitness. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) also known as high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) is a training method alternating short periods of intense exercise followed by a period of less intense active recovery with the duration depending on the participant’s fitness level.

Approach taken

The approach taken to present the findings of this investigation is to use four different subheadings (Principles of HIIT, HIIT program development, HIIT for fat loss and adaptations to aerobic endurance with the information being reported under the appropriate heading. The four subheadings represent the purpose of the investigation, how to achieve efficient results and what happens to the body. This investigation is predominately covered by Haff and Triplett (2015); however, it is realised that the information from this source may need to be combined with others. For example, Haff and Triplett (2015) reports on the program development for aerobic endurance, but doesn’t specifically cover weight loss. Haff and Triplett (2015) contains information from other researchers (Swank and Sharp. 2015; Reuters and Dawes. 2015). The main sources that used varied from sporting and health organisations as well as books and journals. It is worth noting that there is a wide range of knowledge reported in books, websites, journals and review articles, which can all be considered as suitable sources.

As this investigation is the review of current knowledge on high-intensity interval training as a training method it will be difficult to evaluate all the scientific information especially when considering how HIIT can be interpret ate differently for different participants 

Trustworthiness of sources

A wide range of books, journals and websites have been used as sources and the assumption can be made that these sources are credible and reliable. However, one of the journal articles about the ‘Impact of exercise intensity on body fatness and skeletal muscle metabolism’ is relatively outdated (Tremblay et al, 1994). Therefore, its credibility can be questioned, although many pieces of literature refer to this article so it is possible its credibility can be proven. It is also worth noting the websites used are organisations so their views could be seen as bias.

Main findings from the literature

 

Principles of High-intensity interval training

There is little knowledge and scientific evidence on the principles on HIIT. However, there is a lot attention given to the breakdown of this method of training. HIIT has been established as a growing trend that can be used by athletes and non-athletes. The focus of HIIT can be split into two stages (High-intensity training and interval training). Firstly, High-intensity training, will concentrate on performance efficiency and attain maximum outcomes and secondly, interval training targets time efficiency and when bought together it makes HIIT (High-intensity interval training). HIIT has been established by sporting professionals and literature as an effective method for fat loss due to due to it’s ability to simultaneously reduce fat and burn calories in a short period of time, which suggests why it has become a popular training method. Moreover, it can also be a beneficial training method to improve a person’s fitness level as well as cardiovascular health. Studies have shown that a more effective way to improve metabolic functions and respiratory and cardiovascular health may be to exercise at the body’s maximal limit with a less intense active recovery interval as it is believed to be more efficient than exercise at moderate intensity without rest intervals. There is not one specific method of conducting HIIT due to the fact participants respond in different ways and have different fitness levels. A few things that should be considered when developing a training program are: Exercise duration, Intensity, Recovery and Frequency, which will be discussed later on (Farms. 2018).

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Studies into examining the effectiveness of high-intensity interval training have found that this method of training allows for the improvement to ‘sub-maximal and maximal exercise capacities, mitochondrial biogenesis, enzymatic markers associated with glycolysis, aerobic metabolism and b- oxidation and anthropometry’ (Earnest. 2008). It has also been suggested that these improvements occur with less caloric expenditure and within shorter periods of time than ‘traditional’ aerobic exercise (Tremblay. 1994).

To summarise, HIIT is an efficient method to achieve positive results by doing less, which we be beneficial for many due to the short duration period as time for exercise nowadays is scarce. By switching from short and intense periods of exercise to moderate intensity exercise periods, you’ll get more positive results than exercising for a longer period of time (Farms. 2018).

Weight loss

There is evidence suggesting that HIIT is an efficient method for weight loss. The reasoning for this is due to the intensity of the training as it doesn’t allow for the body to adapt to the intensity of the workout. When the the body starts to adapt at being at maximum levels, the intensity drops and once it starts to adapt to the lower intensity, it starts to increase. The constant changing of intensity has an increasing affect on a bodies resting metabolic rate (RMR) for approximately 24 hours after the workout has ended. Meaning that the body continues to burn more fat even when the participants stop exercising (Stones. 2017). As well as assisting individuals to loss weight quicker than normal or also maintains muscle mass and can even enhance the participants muscle mass with an appropriate training plan, which sets it apart from ‘traditional’ aerobic exercises as they are not known for maintaining muscle mass. Therefore, as HIIT can help develop lean muscle mass it can lead to better metabolism resulting in fat being burnt faster (Farms. 2018).

There is evidence associating aerobic endurance training with the changing of body composition, with the assumption that nutritional consumption is correct. Aerobic training tends to decrease body fat percentage with prolonged training programs having a greater affect on body fat percentage (Swank and Sharp. 2015).

Literature has also shown that HIIT is a more efficient training method when compared to steady training methods for participants with the goal of losing weight. Although, whilst it is believed that the ‘fat burning zone’ is achieved during moderate-intensity steady state aerobic exercise and with it resulting in increased percentage of fat being burned during exercise, total caloric expenditure and the breakdown of fat are greater in an HIIT plan, resulting in significant fat loss. This was evident in the study conducted by Tremblay et al (1994), who compared 2 groups of participants with one taking part in an endurance training plan and the other taking part in a HIIT protocol. It was found that even though that there were lower energy costs at the end of exercise plan (120.4 versus 57.9 MJ), the participants showed a 9-fold reduction in skin-fold (Schoenfeld and Dawes. 2009).

Majority of developed exercise protocols that are designed for weight loss have focused on steady state exercise at moderate intensity. However, the results for these kinds of protocols have be insignificant. Gathered evidence mentions that high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) may be a more efficient way of exercising with the goal to lose weight (Boutcher. 2011). Studies such as Trapp et al (2008) and Dunn (2009) both supported this. Both studies adopted similar methods with Trap et al (2008) conducted a 15 weeks and 20 minutes long HIIE program and Dunn (2009) conducting a 12-week program with a fish oil supplement and Mediterranean diet being incorporated. Trapp et al (2008) reported that a significant lose in subcutaneous fat (2.5kg) in the group taking part in the HIIE program than the group in the steady state exercise. Dunn (2009) reported similar results with a lose of 2.6kg subcutaneous fat. Regarding abdominal fat both studies reported significant reductions. These studies used women who had already low fat levels so suggested that it may be possible that the reduction in fat levels can greater in men with high levels of fat.   

There is a common theme amongst the literature supporting one another in the that HIIT is an efficient method of exercise, such as Schoenfeld and Dawes (2009) who reported the benefits of HIIT. The authors mention that HIIT can potentially increase the body’s ability to use lipids as an energy substrate, with the increase of enzymes that allow for beta-oxidation (Schoenfeld and Dawes. 2009). Moreover, other literature has observed HIIT as a more effective way to lose excessive body weight than continuous training at moderate-intensity (Sijie et al. 2012). High-intensity interval training is a method of training that has been suggested to be more time-efficient when being used to improve a participant’s body composition as well as disease (Gerosa-Neto et al. 2016).

Adaptations to aerobic endurance

Over time a participant can expect adaptations to their aerobic system to occur. Taking part in regular training will have effects on the cardiorespiratory functions and skeletal system. As training progresses the cardiovascular system becomes more efficient as the participants resting heart rate decreases and stroke volume increases. Moreover, the cardiac muscle is also affected as it increases in size, which allows for increased blood flow and supply (Bradley. 2018). During the adaptations, lung functions also improves. The muscles associated with the respiratory become stronger allowing for increased tidal volume and breathing frequency, resulting in more air being exhaled and inhaled. The strength of the diaphragm muscle also increases, allowing the participant to maintain regular breathing patterns, which is important due to the pressure being placed on the muscles caused by the forceful breathing that comes with exercise. Aerobic exercise also increases a participant’s maximum oxygen uptake, resulting in the bodies ability to utilise the oxygen increasing, which is vital during exercise, because as the intensity increases so does the bodies demand of oxygen (Bradley. 2018)

There is a wide range of research on the adaptations caused by aerobic endurance training. Aerobic metabolism is an important component in exercise. Aerobic metabolism produces ATP as energy using fats, proteins and carbohydrates. Athletes require appropriate training and conditioning for the aerobic metabolism as many sports require a constant demand of aerobic fitness. Training the aerobic system increases an athlete’s ability to sustain performance as well as their recovery rate. Aerobic training can cause reductions in body fat, increased VO2 max, running economy and cardiorespiratory functions. It can also lower blood lactate, increase density of capillaries and improve enzyme activity (Swank and Sharp. 2015). Training the aerobic system can cause a ‘5% to 30%’ increase in an athlete’s aerobic power. However, this increase is dependent on the current level of fitness when that start of the exercise has commenced (Astrand et al. 2003). The training intensity is an important part of exercise. As studies have shown that prolonged exercise with a high number of rest periods, the result on the aerobic system will be insignificant. Moreover, exercise with high intensity and short recovery periods have been proven to improve aerobic endurance (Swank and Sharp. 2015).  Aerobic fitness has an important part in determining performances in sport and everyday, it also has an impact on health. Relating to performance, the aims of aerobic fitness training is to increase an individuals maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) as well as lactate/ventilatory threshold (Baquet et al. 2003).

Every person requires a basic level of cardiorespiratory fitness, which needs to be trained with many researchers agreeing with that HIIT being an efficient training method (Swank and Sharp. 2015). There is a growing interest into HIIT with a wide range of literature supporting the efficiency of HIIT for promoting positive health-related changes in an adult population. However, there isn’t much research on the effect of HIIT on a younger population. A systematic and meta-analysis study by Costigan et al (2015) set out to evaluate the effects of HIIT on adolescent’s health. It was find that there was a significant improvement in the participant’s cardiorespiratory fitness and a reduction in their body fat percentage.

Aerobic endurance program development

Developing an exercise program is an important matter as it can have significant impacts on the results of the exercise. Exercise programs may have to be altered for each individual as people respond differently. However, it is reported that an individuals gender isn’t a cause for altering exercise programs (Reuter and Dawes. 2015). In the case of clinical populations as there may be health issues that a coach needs be aware of to reduce the risk of aggravation (Dalleck. 2019).

As mentioned before there are a number of variables that need to be considered such as; ‘exercise mode, training frequency, training intensity, exercise duration and exercise progression’. Exercise mode is the specific activity completed by an athlete. Therefore, the program should try and copy this to promote positive adaptations. Regarding non-athletes, it may be useful to ask for preferences. The frequency refers to the number of sessions a week and relates to current fitness levels and for athletes the stage of the current season.  The current fitness levels may influence the training frequency as more recovery days may be required for the individuals with the low fitness levels. Choosing the relevant training frequency is a vital part of developing part of developing a program as too much cause overtraining or possible injury. Recovery is believed to reduce the risk factors. Lack of recovery can result in an athlete’s inability to train at the set intensity of the exercise session. Furthermore, recovery allows for the reduction of fatigue, which is necessary for achieving optimal performance levels (Barnett. 2006). It is also believed that recovery develops the benefits already gained (Reuter and Dawes. 2015).

The level of training intensity correlates to the adaptations associated with aerobic exercise. For example, the higher the intensity the more significant the adaptations will be. As we know high-intensity exercise increases cardiorespiratory functions, which allows for more oxygen to be delivered to muscles (Reuter and Dawes. 2015). Exercise duration is often dependent on intensity as higher the intensity tends to mean shorter durations and vice-versa (Reuter and Dawes. 2015). Exercise progression is dependent on the individual goals as this can affect in the increase of frequency, intensity and duration and the reduction of recovery times. It is reported that there should be approximately a 10% increase of these variables (Hagerman. 2012). However, as important progression is the coach needs to be cautious of overtraining, which may be caused by the increase of intensity and duration mid-session (Dalleck. 2019).

According to the literature we now know that HIIT is an efficient training method for weight loss and the improvement of aerobic fitness.  An example of a HIIT program is set out in table 1.

Table 1: Example of HIIT programs for sedentary and recreationally trained individuals (Ross et al. 2016

Main recommendations for coaching/instructional practice

This study has investigated has reviewed a wide range of evidence from credible literature, of the benefits of HIIT and how to achieve the most effective results. The recommendations below focus on the protocols of HIIT and how they can be manipulated to increase efficiency. However, it is important to note that these are the main personal recommendations of this study after being reread and refined with a focus in the development of a HIIT protocol.

Recommendation 1

As we know from the evidence that HIIT is an effective method of training to increase a person’s fitness level and for weight loss. It is recommended that a coach incorporates different training loads by manipulating times (recovery and duration) and the choice of exercises. They also suggest that a coach use exertion scale (ranging between 9-10) so they are able to track intensity.

 

Recommendation 2

The literature of this investigation provides evidence that evaluates the best methods of instructing HIIT. Throughout the investigation these factors keep appearing regardless of goals, such as adequate recovery, finding the correct intensity, duration and frequency. Therefore, a coach will need to adapt each protocol to each participant as their fitness level and physical ability may differ from one another.

Recommendation 3

A coach also has a duty of care towards the participants so they will need to make it safe, which also applies to the participants who self coaching. It is suggested that the coach conducts pre-screening to assess if the participants suffer from any health problems. Moreover, the coach needs to be sure the participants are prepared correctly and recover, which is done by insuring they are properly hydrated with sufficient nutrition, appropriate clothing and take part in a warm-up. Post exercise the coach will need to make sure take part in a cool-down and rehydrate. A coach will also need to set an appropriate intensity and make sure the participants adhere to that intensity as the smallest extension of intensity can be the difference between high-intensity and overloading. well as educating the participant on when to rest, for example chest pain, muscle/skeletal pain or fatigue.

 

References

Baquet, G., Van Praagh, E., Berthoin, S. (2003) ‘Endurance training and aerobic fitness in young people’, Sports medicine, vol. 33, no. 15, pp.1127-1143

Barnett, A. (2006) ‘Using recovery modalities between training sessions in elite athletes’ Sports medicine, vol. 36, no. 9, pp.781-796

Boutcher, S.H. (2010) ‘High-intensity intermittent exercise and fat loss’ Journal of obesity, vol. 2011, pp. 1

Bradley, D. (2018) Aerobic Exercise Adaptation | Livestrong.com [online] LIVESTRONG.COM. Available at: https://www.livestrong.com/article/365034-adaptation-to-aerobic-exercise/ [Accessed 6 May 2019]

Costigan, S.A., Eather, N., Plotnikoff, R.C., Taaffe, D.R., Lubans, D.R. (2015) ‘High-intensity interval training for improving health-related fitness in adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis’, Br J Sports Med, vol. 49, no. 19, pp.1253-1261

Dalleck, L. (2019) HIIT Program: High Intensity Interval Training for Clinical Populations [online] ACE Fitness. Available at: https://www.acefitness.org/certifiednewsarticle/2589/high-intensity-interval-training-for-clinical/ [Accessed 28 May 2019]

Dunn, S.L. (2009) Effects of exercise and dietary intervention on metabolic syndrome markers of inactive premenopausal women, Sydney: University of New South Wales

Earnest, C.P. (2008) ‘Exercise interval training: an improved stimulus for improving the physiology of pre-diabetes’, Medical hypotheses, vol. 71, no. 5, pp.752-761

Farms, A. (2018) HIIT Training Basic Principles – Antler Farms [online] Antlerfarms.com. Available at: https://antlerfarms.com/blog/hiit-training-basic-principles/ [Accessed 2 May 2019]

Gerosa-Neto, J., Antunes, B.M., Campos, E.Z., Rodrigues, J., Ferrari, G.D., Neto, J.C.R., Bueno, C.R. (2016) ‘Impact of long-term high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training on subclinical inflammation in overweight/obese adults’, Journal of exercise rehabilitation, vol. 12, no, 6, p.575

Haff, G.G., Triplett, N.T. eds. (2015) Essentials of strength training and conditioning 4th edition, Human kinetics

Reuter, B. H., Dawes, J. J. (2015) ‘Programme Design and Technique for Aerobic Endurance Training’ in Haff, G.G. and Triplett, N.T. (eds) ISDN: Essentials of strength training and conditioning 4th edition, Human kinetics, pp. 559-571

Ross, L.M., Porter, R.R., Durstine, J.L. (2016) ‘High-intensity interval training (HIIT) for patients with chronic diseases’ Journal of sport and health science, vol. 5, no. 2, pp.139-144

Schoenfeld, B., Dawes, J. (2009) ‘High-intensity interval training: Applications for general fitness training’, Strength & Conditioning Journal, vol. 31, no. 6, pp.44-46

Sijie, T., Hainai, Y., Fengying, Y., Jianxiong, W. (2012) ‘High intensity interval exercise training in overweight young women’, The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness, vol. 52, no. 3, pp.255-262

Stones, R. (2017) HIIT – Is it worth it? [online] Brianmac.co.uk. Available at: https://www.brianmac.co.uk/articles/article277.htm [Accessed 2/5/2019]

Swank, A., Sharp, C. (2015) ‘Adaptations to Aerobic Endurance Training programs’ in Haff, G.G. and Triplett, N.T. (eds) ISDN: Essentials of strength training and conditioning 4th edition, Human kinetics, pp. 115-124

Trapp, E.G., Chisholm, D.J., Freund, J., Boutcher, S.H. (2008) ‘The effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise training on fat loss and fasting insulin levels of young women’, International journal of obesity, vol. 32, no. 4, p.684.

Tremblay A, Simoneau J.A, Bouchard C (1994) ‘Impact of exercise intensity on body fatness and skeletal muscle metabolism’, Metabolism, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 814–818

 

Comparison of Weight Loss Companies

 

REPORT

Comparison of Weight Loss Companies (Weight Watchers vs Slimming World)

An assessment on the most suitable diet plan for Fitness Mania’s health and fitness programme

CONTENTS

Terms of Reference   page 3

Procedures    page 3-9

Findings     page 10

Conclusion    page 11

Recommendations   page 11

Index     page 12

Bibliography    page 13-14

Appendices    page 15-16

Comparison of Weight Loss Companies (Weight Watchers vs Slimming World)

Terms of Reference

Sally White, fitness guru at Fitness Mania requested a report on which weight loss company, Weight Watchers or Slimming World was most effective, so that she could implement the diet into her clients health and fitness programme. Sally is looking to find out which company is most cost effective, easy to follow, what benefits and support they offer and ultimately the results and people’s experiences.

Procedures

An interview was carried out with Cathy Russell on the 6 December 2018. Cathy has been a member of both Weight Watchers and Slimming World. Cathy shared her experience:

 

“Weight Watchers and Slimming World both have great support groups. Personally, I find Slimming World easier to follow. Slimming World has a ‘free food’ list which includes a range of vegetables, fruit, meat, poultry, fish, some carbs, dairy and drinks. You can have as many free foods as you like, any food/drink that is not on the list you can have but you must stay within your daily allowance of syns, which is between 5 and 15. Whereas the Weight Watchers diet plan you need to count/weigh everything you eat with their points system, I find this not so easy to use and follow. Portion sizes are a lot smaller. Another thing I like about Slimming World is that once you reach your target weight you don’t have to pay, as long as you stay within 3 pounds of your target weight (over or under).”

Cathy shared the following books that she received when she started Slimming World:

Love food love food optimising – Information on foods and syns, including recipes

Love life love body magic – Information on body magic and having an active life

Love friendship love your Slimming World group – success stories and advice

See image of books in Appendix A

Trustpilot Reviews

Image sourced from: https://uk.trustpilot.com/review/weightwatchers.com/uk

Image sourced from:

https://uk.trustpilot.com/review/www.slimmingworld.co.uk

Weight Watchers UK have received a lot more reviews (207) than Slimming World (18). The above diagrams show that Weight Watchers have received a lot more excellent (42% more) and great (13% more) reviews than Slimming World. However, due to the huge difference in the amount of reviews I decided to look back at the last 10 reviews for each company so that the results were more accurate and fair.

The last 10 review ratings for each company are shown below:

Weight Watchers

Slimming World

Excellent

1

1

Great

1

Average

2

Poor

4

4

Bad

4

3

See Appendix B for the chart on the above table

The last 10 reviews show that Weight Watchers and Slimming World have recently received roughly the same ratings. Both companies are showing more poor/bad results than excellent/great results!

Slimming World’s negative reviews were around the online membership and unhelpful consultants.

Weight Watchers negative reviews were about signing up and then not being able to cancel the membership for a year.

 

How easy is the diet plan to follow?

Both companies have support groups, websites and apps where you can access various helpful information which makes the diet plans easy to follow.

Slimming World review on how easy the diet plan is to follow:

Image sourced from: https://www.netmums.com/coffeehouse/diets-1061/losing-weight-619/585707-slimming-world-extra-easy.html

Weight Watchers comment on how easy the diet plan is to follow:

Image sourced from: https://www.womansday.com/health-fitness/nutrition/a58249/i-spent-a-month-on-weight-watchers/

Weight Watchers and Slimming World Websites

How each weight loss programme works?

Weight Watchers

Weight Watchers works by a ‘SmartPoints’ counting system. Each food has its own SmartPoints value which depends on calories, saturated fat, sugar, and protein. When a member joins Weight Watchers they are given a personalised SmartPoints budget which is worked out by the persons current weight, height, gender, and age. It will be made up of a daily allowance and a weekly allowance for extras, such as going out. You can become a member and follow the plan digitally and studio where you can follow the plan online and attend the support groups. You can also just attend the support groups.

Image sourced from: https://www.google.co.uk

Slimming World

Slimming World works by ‘Syns’ and a ‘free foods’ plan. You are allowed to eat as many ‘free foods’ as you like on the Slimming World’s diet plan. Any food that is not ‘free foods’ are counted by syns, each food has a different amount of syns allocated to it. You are allowed between 5 and 20 syns per day. Slimming World focuses on a diet for the long haul, something you can stick to and won’t want to give up on within a week. You can either be a member that attends meetings with other members, or you can follow the plan online.

  

Image sourced from: https://www.google.co.uk

Weight Watchers and Slimming World both have a huge amount of success stories that you can read online.

Slimming World:

Image sourced from: https://www.slimmingworld.co.uk/our-members/success-search.aspx?

Weight Watchers:

Image sourced from: https://www.weightwatchers.com/uk/success-stories

 

Weight Watchers

Slimming World

Online (Digital) and Studio £12.95 a month plus £10 joining fee

Online Membership £20.00 a month

Group Membership £6.25 per week

Group Membership £4.95 per week

Weight Watchers

WW (Weight Watchers) Workouts are available on their US website

Articles and exercise guides available on their UK website

Slimming World

Programme called ‘body magic’. The programme allows each member to build their exercise plan up gradually.

Weight Watchers

Slimming World

Weight Watchers App

Slimming World App

Over 1000 recipes

Access to over 1000 recipes

24/7 support with an online coach

Menu and ideas

Social community support

Group sessions, including taster sessions, support from Slimming World consultant

Programme with over 200 zero point foods

Unlimited ‘free food’

Weight Watchers magazine

Slimming World magazine

Online shop

Once you have reached target weight, you do not have to pay if you stay within 3 pounds

Online blogs and fitness articles

Online articles and success stories

Weight Watchers

Recipe books (see image below)

Online recipes

Free 7-day menu (online)

Recipe of the week (online)

Find a recipe (online)

Recipe videos (online)

Image sourced from: https://www.weightwatchersshop.co.uk/cookbooks-guides-magazines-1?cat=224

Slimming World

Recipe books (see image below)

Seasonal recipes (online)

Breakfast recipes (online)

Lunch recipes (online)

Dinner recipes (online)

Starters recipes (online)

Dessert recipes (online)

Cathy Russell shared a book (Love food love food optimising) that you receive when you become a member, which includes recipes. See Appendix A for image

Image sourced from: https://www.theworks.co.uk/p/healthy-eating-books/slimming-worlds-best-ever-recipes/9780091928223?CAWELAID=720011340002618644&CATARGETID=720011340002497956&cadevice=c&gclid=EAIaIQobChMIn53pydah3wIVyeR3Ch1EgQsUEAQYASABEgLFkPD_BwE&q=slimming%20world

Findings

Weight Watchers is cheaper (£7.05 a month less) than Slimming World when you pay monthly, but more expensive (1.30 per week more) than Slimming World if you would like to pay weekly

The last 10 Trustpilot reviews for each company equalled to a similar amount of reviews for each star rating. See Appendix B for the graph.

Both companies have comments/reviews that they are easy to follow

Both diet plans work in a similar way in that you have to count points (SmartPoints/Syns) on food. However, Slimming World has ‘free foods’ so you do not need to count your food as much as you would on Weight Watchers diet plan

Weight Watchers have exercise guides available. Slimming World have an exercise programme

The benefits that each diet plan offers are very similar

Both companies offer a lot of recipes. Slimming World offer more online

Conclusion

To conclude, I think Weight Watchers prefer their members to pay monthly, which is why their monthly membership cost is significantly cheaper than the weekly cost. According to the negative reviews on Trustpilot, I think Weight Watchers offer great deals for membership when you sign up monthly for a few months, although when you go to cancel members are finding out that they can’t cancel until after a year. I think members are finding this very frustrating. Whereas, Slimming World cost much the same for weekly group membership and monthly online membership, which allows the customer to not feel pressurised into signing up monthly. Overall, I think Slimming World is the most cost effective.

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Both companies have received positive reviews that they are easy to follow. They also have apps and websites full of useful information, as well as support groups. From Cathy Russell’s experience, I think Slimming World is showing to be slightly easier to follow. I think the main reason is because you do not need to count absolutely everything you eat and your portion sizes are not restricted.

I think Weight Watchers and Slimming both have fantastic benefits, which many are the same for each. However, I think Slimming World have the following extra benefits:

Body magic programme

Not having to pay when you reach your target weight and stay within 3 pounds of it

Unlimited ‘free food’

Offer more online recipes

Both companies have received some negative reviews recently which they need to work on. Overall, I think members are happy, the success stories prove that both diet plans can get you the result you want.

Recommendations

The following is suggested:

Sally White trials the Slimming World diet plan with her clients for three months. The client is able to choose either the weekly or monthly membership. After the three months, Sally is to review the diet plan by checking her clients results and asking her clients for feedback via a questionnaire

See Appendix C for the suggested questionnaire

Index

A

articles, 8

B

benefits, 3, 10, 11

Benefits, 8, 13

books, 3, 9, 14

C

Cathy, 3, 9, 11

cost effective, 3, 11

D

diet plan, 1, 3, 5, 6, 10, 11, 13, 16

E

easy to follow, 3, 5, 10, 11, 16

exercise, 8, 10, 13

Exercise, 8, 13

experiences, 3

F

free food, 3, 8, 11

H

health and fitness programme, 1, 3, 16

I

interview, 3

M

magazine, 8

Membership, 8, 13

R

recipes, 3, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14

results, 3, 4, 11

reviews, 4, 10, 11

Reviews, 3, 13

S

Slimming World, 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 16

SmartPoints, 6, 10

success stories, 3, 7, 8, 11

support, 3, 5, 6, 8, 11, 16

support groups, 3, 5, 6, 11, 16

syns, 3, 6

T

target weight, 3, 8, 11

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Effects of the Addition of Weight on the Force Produced by Muscles Undergoing Isometric and Isotonic Contraction

Investigating the Effects of the Addition of Weight on the Force Produced by Muscles Undergoing Isometric and Isotonic Contraction. 

Abstract:

The forces produced by isometric contractions within the human biceps and triceps muscles as well as isotonic contractions within the cane toad Sartorius muscle may be altered through the addition of weight. This investigation provides an insight into the production of the force of contraction by differing muscles via the contractile process, influenced by calcium, acetylcholine and ATP in response to the stress of the weight placed upon the muscle. The results demonstrate that force produced by the biceps and triceps through muscle contraction increased as the weight was shifted further from the biceps insertion point. Electrical activity in the biceps increased from 0.15mV when the weight was 54 cm from the insertion point, to 0.81mV when the weight was placed 104 cm away, whereas the triceps increased from 0.07 to 0.24 respectively. The maximum lifting velocity of the cane toad Sartorius muscle drastically decreased as increasing weight was applied to the muscle, beginning at 0.193 mm/ms at 5g, and falling to 0.047 mm/ms when 50g was applied. Therefore, the results gathered indicate that the force generated by muscles may be altered in order to accommodate different stresses, which may further influence such things as its maximum velocity of lift.

Introduction:

Isotonic and Isometric muscle contractions occur due to the interaction of thick myosin and thin actin filaments within myofibrils, known as a cross-bridge interaction (Speranza, 2019). The sliding filament mechanism initiates the cross-bridge interaction between these thick and thin filaments, causing the filaments to overlap, shortening the sarcomeres as the Z lines are drawn towards each other (Speranza, 2019). At the neuromuscular junction, acetylcholine is released, which binds to sarcoplasmic reticulum and thus opens ion channels that allow for calcium ions to flow out (Speranza, 2019) (Johnstone, 2019). Ca2+ works as an initiator for this interaction as it binds to troponin molecules within the thin actin filaments, releasing tropomyosin, and thus allowing for the heads of myosin molecules to attach to the actin binding site. ATP binds to the myosin head during this interaction and as myosin utilises this ATP for energy, it pulls the thin filament towards the M line, allowing the myosin head to detach from the initial actin and onto the next actin, and thus the process repeats. This creates contraction within the muscle (Rice et al., 2008) (Edman and Grieve, 1964) (Speranza, 2019). The contraction of skeletal muscles is dependent on the length-tension relationship and is thus able to be altered through changes in the force produced through contraction as well as the number of motor units recruited (Speranza, 2019).

Figure 1: Overlap of thin actin and thick myosin filaments as a result of the change of length of the sarcomere. Adapted from Reconditi, M., Brunello, E., Fusi, L., Linari, M., Martinez, M., Lombardi, V., Irving, M. and Piazzesi, G. (2014). Sarcomere-length dependence of myosin filament structure in skeletal muscle fibres of the frog. The Journal of Physiology, 592(5), pp.1119-1137.

Experiment A was conducted in order to determine the effects of the addition of various weights to the force generated by isometric contractions in the human biceps muscle. Additionally, experiment B was done in order to analyse the effects of the addition of weights to the maximum velocity of lift and the force produced by isotonic contractions in cane toad Sartorius muscles. As a result of this, the molecular processes that alter the contraction of the muscle and the force it is able to produce may be analysed. The hypothesis tested stated that as the distance of the weight was increased from the bicep insertion point, the electrical activity of the muscle would increase within the human bicep and triceps muscles as more motor units are recruited (Experiment A). The null hypothesis produced for this experiment stated that there would be no increase in the electrical activity of these two muscles upon increasing the distance of the weight, as no more motor units would be recruited. The other hypothesis that was tested stated that the maximum velocity of lift of the cane toad Sartorius muscle (Experiment B) would decrease upon the addition of weight to the muscle. The null hypothesis formulated for this experiment thus stated that there would be no change in the maximum velocity of lift as weight was added to the muscle.

Methods:

The experimental methods used were gathered from the MEDS2001/PHSI2x07 University of Sydney kuracloud website (syd1.kuracloud.com, 2019)

During experiment A, the subject sat at the table and rested their arm along the edge of the table at a 90-degree angle. The distance of the bicep insertion point to the end of the hand was then recorded. The subject was handed a stick with cable ties placed at 10cm intervals along the stick and was instructed to hold it at the area just before the initial cable tie. A 1kg weight was then moved 10cm along the stick every few seconds whilst the subject attempted to hold the stick stably. The RMS values of the biceps and triceps was then gathered by the EMG and was tabulated.

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Experiment B utilised an isolated cane toad Sartorius muscle, whose distal end was connected to a lever so that weights may be applied, and pelvic end connected to a Perspex chamber that was held in place by a palmer stand. The lever was then connected to a fulcrum transducer. 2mm mechanical stops were put in place to avoid overstretching. The weights were then added to the distal end of the muscle in increasing intervals whilst the muscle was stimulated with electrodes. The initial length of the muscle was kept the same for all tests. The fulcrum transducer then measured the lift done by the muscle against the time taken for the lift to occur. The maximum velocity was then calculated and tabulated.

Results:

Analysis of the results gathered from experiments A and B allowed for the investigation of the effects of the addition of weights to the electrical activity, and thus force produced by isometric contraction within the bicep and triceps muscles as well as the maximum velocity of lift produced by the cane toad Sartorius muscle through isometric contraction. As can be viewed in Table 1, both the electrical activity of the bicep and triceps muscles increased as the 1kg weight was moved further from the bicep insertion point. The bicep muscle electrical activity rose drastically more so than that of the triceps muscles, beginning at 0.15mV at 54 cm from the bicep insertion point, and rising to 0.81mV at 124cm from the bicep insertion point, whereas the triceps respectively rose from 0.07mV to 0.24mV. This relationship can be observed through Figure 2. Experiment B however, demonstrated that as the weight placed on the muscle was increased, the maximum velocity of lift produced by the muscle decreased and the muscle was unable to lift the weight as it grew heavier. This can be observed through Table 2, whereby the maximum velocity of lift fell from 0.193 mm/ms at 5 g, to 0.047 mm/ms at 50g.

Table 1: The force generated by the Biceps and Triceps when weight is applied at certain distances from the bicep insertion point.

Distance of Weight from biceps insertion point (cm)

RMS value for biceps (mV)

RMS value for triceps (mV)

54

0.15

0.07

64

0.29

0.09

74

0.42

0.13

84

0.52

0.14

94

0.68

0.18

104

0.81

0.24

Figure 2: A comparison of the force generated by the biceps and triceps when weight is applied at increasing length intervals from the elbow joint. A) The electrical activity of the bicep muscle increased dramatically as the weight was moved further from the bicep insertion point. B) The electrical activity of the triceps muscle increased less dramatically than the biceps muscle.

Table 2: The decrease in maximum lift velocity produced by isotonic contraction of cane toad Sartorius muscles when varying levels of weight are applied.

Weight Applied to the Muscle (g)

Maximum Velocity of Lift Produced Through Isotonic Contraction (mm/ms)

5

0.193

10

0.167

15

0.153

20

0.143

25

0.124

30

0.108

40

0.078

50

0.047

Figure 3: The maximum velocity of lift produced by the force of the isotonic contraction within the cane toad Sartorius muscle when subjected to various different weights. A) The muscle was provided with an electrical stimulus in order to ensure the contraction of every muscle fibre and thus allowing for cross-bridge cycling to occur. As the weight was increased, the maximum velocity of lift decreased from 0.193mm/ms at 5g of weight to 0.047mm/ms at 50g of weight.

Discussion:

Through analysis of the data gathered from experiments A, it can be observed that the electrical activity of both the biceps and triceps muscles increased as a result of the weight being moved further from the bicep insertion point. This occurred as a result of the need to recruit more motor units to oppose the torque created by the placement of the weight away from the biceps insertion point. The isometric contraction, whereby no muscle lengthening is occurring, that is transpiring within the muscle is caused by the process of excitation-contraction coupling (Speranza, 2019). This process utilises motor neurons to innervate muscle fibres within the body. This causes the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, where it binds with the sarcoplasmic reticulum, opening ion channels that allow for the movement of calcium and sodium ions within the muscle. (Speranza, 2019) (Edman and Grieve, 1964). The amount of motor neurons innervating smaller muscle fibres within the body may be increased as a result of the need to increase force produced by the muscle. Sarcomeres within the muscle shorten as a result of this process, whilst the muscle itself doesn’t contract, increasing tension within the muscle and allowing it to produce enough force to counter the load being placed on it (Reconditi et al, 2014) (Speranza, 2019). Thus, electrical activity in the muscle is increased. This result is consistent with the alternative hypothesis that was generated for Experiment A.

The isotonic contraction that occurs within the cane toad Sartorius muscle however involved the lengthening and shortening of the muscle (eccentric and concentric contractions) to create the force needed to lift the weight that was applied. The maximum velocity of lift of the muscle decreased substantially as the weight applied to the muscle was increased (syd1.kuracloud.com, 2019). The isotonic contraction occurred through electrical signalling, similar to Experiment A. The release of acetylcholine was triggered through constant stimulation to ensure all muscle fibres were producing force. The binding of acetylcholine to the sarcoplasmic reticulum allowed for calcium and sodium to move through the ion channels that were opened (Edman and Grieve, 1964). The calcium allowed for the creation of cross-bridge cycling through its interaction with troponin in the thin actin filaments, removing tropomyosin as a result (Edman and Grieve, 1964). The heads of myosin molecules were thus able to bind to the actin at the actin binding site, utilising ATP hydrolysis as a fuel source at the myosin ATPase site (Reconditi et al, 2011). This creates a power stroke, causing the sarcomeres within the muscle fibres to shorten, thus producing contraction (Speranza, 2019). As the initial length of the muscle was kept the same before each weight was added, the force produced by the muscle through stimulation was the same throughout. However, the increasing weight that was added produced an increase in downward force, up to a point that exceeded the force generated by the muscle (syd1.kuracloud.com, 2019). The release of optimal amounts calcium within the muscle also decreased as the weights were added, increasing the latency period that occurs before contraction, and thus resulting in a decrease in the maximum velocity of lift (Edman and Grieve, 1964). The results gathered from this experiment supported the alternative hypothesis that was generated.

As a result of the experiments being performed one time per individual group, the results gathered may not be valid. This prevented the use of statistical tests to determine the significance of the results that were gathered. In future experiments, larger sample sizes should be used, in conjunction with a minimum of 100 repetitions to provide sufficient data for statistical analysis. This will allow for increased validity and reliability as the significance of the results gathered may be determined and contrasted against the results produced by other studies. As a result of all of this, further research may be undertaken towards this subject to increasing our understanding and to develop new methods and applications of these processes.

The physiological mechanisms involved in the process of muscle contraction may influence the force produced by the muscle as well as the velocity at which the muscle may lift a certain object through the introduction of weights that counteract the force created. The results gathered from this study indicate that as weight is added to a muscle, the force produced by the muscle will increase to counteract the weight, eventually decreasing the velocity of its lift as the weight begins to exceed the force produced by the muscle.

References:

Dimitriou, M. (2014). Human Muscle Spindle Sensitivity Reflects the Balance of Activity between Antagonistic Muscles. The Journal of Neuroscience, 34(41), pp.13644-13655.

Edman, K. and Grieve, D. (1964). On the role of calcium in the excitation-contraction process of frog sartorius muscle. The Journal of Physiology, 170(1), pp.138-152.

Johnstone, D, 2019, Lecture 8: Nerves and Electrical Signalling, Lecture Notes, Key Concepts in Physiology PHSI2007, The University of Sydney, Delivered 13 March 2019.

Johnstone, D, 2019, Lecture 9: Synaptic Transmission, Lecture Notes, Key Concepts in Physiology PHSI2007, The University of Sydney, Delivered 15 March 2019.

Linari, M., Brunello, E., Reconditi, M., Fusi, L., Caremani, M., Narayanan, T., Piazzesi, G., Lombardi, V. and Irving, M. (2015). Force generation by skeletal muscle is controlled by mechanosensing in myosin filaments. Nature, 528(7581), pp.276-279.

Reconditi, M., Brunello, E., Fusi, L., Linari, M., Martinez, M., Lombardi, V., Irving, M. and Piazzesi, G. (2014). Sarcomere-length dependence of myosin filament structure in skeletal muscle fibres of the frog. The Journal of Physiology, 592(5), pp.1119-1137.

Reconditi, M., Brunello, E., Linari, M., Bianco, P., Narayanan, T., Panine, P., Piazzesi, G., Lombardi, V. and Irving, M. (2011). Motion of myosin head domains during activation and force development in skeletal muscle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(17), pp.7236-7240.

Rice, J., Wang, F., Bers, D. and de Tombe, P. (2008). Approximate Model of Cooperative Activation and Crossbridge Cycling in Cardiac Muscle Using Ordinary Differential Equations. Biophysical Journal, 95(5), pp.2368-2390.

Syd1.kuracloud.com. (2019). Skeletal Muscle: Practical. [online] Available at: https://syd1.kuracloud.com/i/7c51d22c/student/courses/188/runs/103622/preview/page/1 [Accessed 2 May 2019].

Speranza, T, 2019, Lecture 7: Skeletal Muscle: Mechanisms of Contraction, Lecture Notes, Key Concepts in Physiology PHSI2007, The University of Sydney, Delivered 11 March 2019.