Reading Questions for Week 5 Chapters 24-26 (c. 1750-1900)1) What was H. Walpole’s contribution to architecture?2) What architectural features did T. Jefferson include in Monticello?3) What was the Neo-Classical style?4) What did the art academies of the period offer?5) What was significant about their exhibitions?6) Do you like JS Copley’s history painting? Why/why not?7) What do you think about F Goya’s work?8) What is unusual about W Blake’s works? Do you like them?9) How did landscape painting change during this period?10) Which of JMW Turner’s painting do you like most? Why?11) What was J Constable’s impact on landscape painting?Turner and Constable were key figures in the development of landscape painting. Turner’s major works are so abstract they seem modern, and Constable’s “plein air” technique had a major influence on future out-of-doors artists. While avoiding the French military draft by visiting England, several of the Impressionists-to-be studied the Turner and Constable collections.12) How did architecture change during this period?13) Why did Barry select the style he did for the Palace of Westminster (Parliament)?The Elizabeth Tower at Westminster holds the giant bell nicknamed “Big Ben,” and the Victoria Tower has original copies of almost every proclamation and law passed by Parliament since the 1300s! I shudder at what could have been lost if the Nazis had hit that tower instead of the empty chamber of the House of Commons.14) What was the divide between the way patrons and artists saw themselves and each other in the nineteenth century?15) How did JAD Ingres (pronounced: Ang) influence art?16) What about E Delacroix? How did Millet’s depiction of peasants differ from Brueghel’s?Gleaners are people who pick up scraps of leftover grain after it’s been harvested. Usually they are poor and collect it for their own consumption–like Ruth in the Bible.17) What was G Corbert’s “realism”?18) What was the objective of the Pre-Raphaelites?Although many people today see their art as artificial and sanguine—lots of knights and ladies and Round Table stuff—it’s still very popular. Just check out the calendars or wall posters at Hobby Lobby/Michael’s.19) What is the major significant of the 1863 “Salon of the Rejected?”The young woman in the front of E Manet’s The Balcony is fellow Impressionist, Berthe Morisot.20) What does “plein air” mean?21) Why did so many people hate the work of the Impressionists?22) How did that group get its name?23) What contributions to art did C Monet make?”Bedlam” is slang for Bethlehem hospital, an old insane asylum outside of London.24) What were A Renoir’s objectives?25) What were C Pissarro’s objectives?26) What does Gombrich say the critics of the Impressionists should have done?Probably the major reason so many works of the Impressionists are in American museums is because the newly wealthy industrialists of the period wanted to buy European art to decorate their mansions. However, the museums that housed the Renaissance and Baroque works of the Great Masters politely declined to sell them off their walls, no matter how much money these “Barons of Industry” offered. So what many of these men did instead was buy the readily available works of the Impressionists. They were fresh, modern, colorful and cheap. Since the Impressionists’ works are, hands down, Americans’ favorite paintings, we should thank all those uncooperative museum curators!27) How did the development of photography affect painting?28) How did Japanese painting influence European painting?Japanese exhibitions were enormously popular in the mid-to-late1800’s and toured Europe to great success.29) What was E Degas objective in painting?30) How did Rodin influence sculpture?31) Which of the two JM Whistler’s painting in the text do you like better? Why?32) Why do you think prints became so popular at the turn of the century?33) How did P Cezanne’s ideas of painting differ from the Impressionists?34) How did Cezanne see landscapes?35) Which of this works in the text do you like best? Why?36) What was Seurat trying to do with all those tiny dots?37) Who was V Van Gogh (pronounced sort of like: van-gaw) and how did he combine various popular styles into his own?38) What about his technique of painting is so recognizable?The painting of his room in Arles is sort of sad. Notice how everything is in pairs–how there are two of almost everything? Vincent was always a lonely person, and wanted to be among friends. When Gauguin came to live with him, he was so excited he painted sunflowers all over the walls to make the house more inviting. However, Gauguin couldn’t take their arrangement very long and moved out. Local children made fun of Vincent’s odd dress and behavior, no one bought any of his paintings, and he eventually ended up in an Arles mental hospital.39) Do you like P Gauguin’s Tahitian painting? What was he trying to show?