The Impact Of Bureaucracy On Innovation And Organizational Behavior

Does the current management bureaucracy method allow innovation behavior?

The studies by Naranjo-Valencia, Jiménez-Jiménez and Sanz-Valle (2016) and (Handy 2011) suggest that bureaucracy has brought a lot of changes in world of politics and business. However the content of this research examines bureaucracy in relation to the general characteristics behavior of the individual in a given organization. The bureaucracy has affected the general behavior of employees within various organization. According to the book by Wilson (1989) on bureaucracy, the type of the organization structure employed by an organization has effect on the behavior of the employees. When the access time to information within the organization is prolonged through procedure then the general change in behavior in terms of job performance and other tasks within the company may occur (Mehta 2009). The general performance of workers within an organization is affected by a number of things such as: the salary payments, promotions and the time or procedure that is taken to access the important tools or the information in an organization within that given period of time.

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In psychology, the Maslow’s theory states that in any given setup, a person is first gets satisfied through the basic human wants before the last stage of self-actualization. According this theory this human behavior always come step by step within the lifetime of any person. Thus  for any organization the workers would be pleased if all the steps of life are not characterized by long procedures before the actual realization of the human wants within that given organization. However, in some organizations, the procedure of access to the information may have a positive or negative impact on an individual’s (Handy 2011). The various researcher has conducted studies to identify the importance and effect of bureaucracy. For example, in large organizations, the bureaucracy is significant compared to the small organization since it is a means of reducing the congestion and time consumption for the service of the customers. A good organization should one that satisfies all its workers and the clients in all sectors of its operation. Other scholars have also researched on negative and positive impacts the bureaucracy regarding service delivery, the organizational growth, workers performance, and other stakeholders work development, the spirit of favorable competitions with other organizations among different topic or study themes.

However, there is a limited number of scholars who have given attention to the effect of the type of management and employees behavior.  The content of this research, therefore, looks at bureaucracy and organizational behavior such as innovativeness. Bureaucracy is the procedural process that is followed by a group or organization to achieve the intended objective of that given organization. It can either impart the negative or positive response to the stakeholders within that given organization depending on its strength and how it is perceived within the same setup. The research would require the personal experiences of the individuals within the given organization since this will contribute to the significant primary data and the findings of the study. The content of this paper organized to investigate the effect of bureaucracy on the organizational behavior and how developed behavior arising from bureaucracy.  I propose to use qualitative research where interviews will be conducted in various companies across all the departments.

How satisfied with current management strategy about decision making?

A lot of work has been put forward by multiple scholars explaining the aspect of bureaucracy about organizational behavior primarily in the United States.  The paper is therefore based on a research work assessing or evaluating the entire gamut of the regulatory processes and decision making criteria and the administrative control over the whole levels of these organizational settings. In this context, I forged my perspective based on these two strands: the systematic classification of corporate culture and the interface of development performance about bureaucracy.

The Typology or the Systematic Classification of Organizational Culture

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There is a tremendous belief in the world that, organizational culture influences various aspects of performance.  According to Weber an organization can either be political, economic, social or even religious,  whose contributions to human are several and notable. In this regard, (Elizabeth Kummerow and Neil Kirby, 2014), gives an evaluation on what is needed to develop and establish measures for an organizational culture that is feasible and also able to access the beliefs, values and the behavior of organization n at its thickest.  However, learning and it impacts it remains a commonsense, rather than a scientific aspect of any organizational set up (Handy 2011). The two scholars were trying to objectively show that the corporate culture, has a predictive relationship safety in decision-making processes and that, the very culture improves this safety in any organization and establishes a typology predictive of safety performance and decision making (Fernandez and Moldogaziev 2015).

In the past two decades, culture has made a better part of a study to comprehend or having the necessary insights about the organizational environment. In the United States, various contexts are examined and assessed for the view of understanding the both the historical and the sociological variables in the context of today’s organizations. According to other scholars, perhaps in their perspective, organizations are comprised of individuals whose ways of thinking, acting, and even feeling are very distinct or entirely not the same (Thompson 2017). It is apparent that the type of organization used is likely to encourage and encourage various behaviors in the organization, and this influences the overall operations of any organization. Including things like decision making and management of the organization. Studies by (Quinn and McGrath 2015.)

Charles handy (1978) in his research of the typology of the organizational culture, he proposed four varieties of the organizational culture: role culture, power culture, task culture, and person culture.  In his perspective, power culture is majorly found in small o0rganoizations where decisions are made politically rather than bureaucratically (Hogan 2017). These decisions are impacted the most by factors like the balance of influence rather than logical rationale. Because the making of these decisions is concentrated at the very peak (centralized), they are capable of reacting and adapting very fast, just because change is dependent on the will of the power holder (Vibert 2017). For him, power culture is dependent on the will of the individuals holding such powers. Administrative challenges dwell in entire dependence on the summit or central individual who must, regardless of his technical and political position, know how to initiate and successfully drive the processes of succession and management of other staff members (Shafritz, Ott, and Jang 2015). In my view this type if culture through very individualistic, it generally results oriented and gives a dispensation with teamwork and processes making the end to justify the means.

What is the impact of a bureaucratic organization structure on organization behavior?

This proposition was put forward by a scholar known as Prayag  Mehta in his study book, Bureaucracy, Organizational Behavior, and Development- 188 pages. The study evaluates the interconnection between development performance and bureaucracy, with the organizational and political behavior (Van der Voet 2014.). For instance, analysis of development performance shows Indian bureaucracy as typically being both goal-directed nor action-oriented regarding poverty alleviation and promotion of social equality and development to the citizens. In this work, he derives six crucial and developmental-behavioral orientations in organizations (Harper 2015). He gives a unifying model for thinking about processes or sequences of activities and duties that create an incorporated, sophisticated image of organizations and managerial behavior. Now, the process perspective enables the required integration, ensuring that all the reality of the organizational practices is connected explicitly to its overall functioning. Secondly, it provides new understandings into managerial behavior.

Most studies have been seen as giving direct descriptions of time allocations, activity streams and roles perhaps with little attempts to integrate these activities into a coherent one. previous studies by researchers show that greater emphasis has been put on the fragmented quality of the manger’s duties instead of their coherence (Rahim 2017). In contrary to this perspective, a process approach put a lot of focus on the links among activities, showing that unrelated tasks are often regarded as part of the individual unfolding process (Niskanen 2017). This is a vantage position for management since it makes it is far more logical and orderly.

Furthermore, the primary objective here is to present a framework or a model for appreciating or recognizing processes, their impacts and the implications for any organization. Beginning at an organizational level by reviewing various methods and propositions, thereby grouping them into specific categories leads naturally to a typology sequence and a simple framework of organizations as interlinked sets of processes.

Behavioral processes are usually the fundamental factors in understanding what makes an organization to be more or less effective in how it does things, one must have the full compression of the various processes, and how the organizational goals are set how the methods to be used in management are determined (Scott and Davis 2015). Consequently, the form of communication used among members, various processes of decision making and problem-solving and ultimately how the leaders lead is very fundamental in this regard.

Despite the fact that all the two research strands are based on the typology of the organizational culture and processes, none of the two has brought out the practical sense of how the organizational culture and bureaucratic procedures can be used to cope up with the eminent competitive contemporary organizational world.  Therefore, the empirical analysis on the dependent variables like power culture and the behavioral process can lead to the following hypothesis.

How does bureaucratic organizational structure affect innovative behavior within an organization?

H1   There is a tremendous and significant problem with how the typological organizational culture and the interconnection of the behavioral processes can match both the political, economic, social and even the religious aspects in the modern society.

H2:  Studying and reviewing various organizational levels, reviewing multiple processes, culture, and theories and grouping them accordingly within the organization can help in solving this critical problem.

Hypothesis one clearly states the gap that the study does not adequately address to cope up with the contemporary or modern organizational competitive challenges, while on the other hypothesis two gives a direct and full insight for what ought to be done to address the problems.

Qualitative techniques approach will be useful for this type of research since it requires the experience and the knowledge of the person. The study is expiratory, and further explanation is needed because the study deals mostly with the behavior and psychology of the individuals and the effect of the behavior within an organization (Daft 2015). The qualitative technique approach is considered to be subjective but not objective; this may lead to the in-depth discussion of the issues instead of looking at face value of the problem. There are methods of qualitative approach that will be useful in this research namely the use of a questionnaire and the interview (Yin 2017). A survey will be prepared by following all the rules after which it will be sent to the respective respondents; some of the respondents shall be interviewed through face to face to achieve further explanation of the problem or positive impacts of bureaucracy in a given organization.  

Study design

The respondents shall be recruited by the research team leader.All of them shall be made aware within the appropriate time. The consent of the respondents shall be obeyed and will also be governed by the given laws and ethical considerations within the organization (Yin 2017). The different questionnaire shall be prepared and all the study tools assembled. The questionnaire shall have the simple language regarding grammar, and the language used shall be friendly to the respondents. The study will use of semi-structured interviews which will be asked through the head of human resources of each company (Glaser, B.G. and Strauss 2017). The interview will be done within three selected companies where two employees will be interviewed in each sector of the company, and the head of human resources will also be interviewed thus three people will be interviewed per company.  

The study has several advantages and disadvantages.One of the fundamental weakness is that it relies mostly on and on the belief and experience of individuals. The use of questionnaires will require respondents to fill the form by themselves. However, some employees may have limited time to balance between work and time to fill the questionnaire forms.  Likewise, it will be challenging to identify individual care cases such as some employees who may want the questions translated.  Moreover, the questionnaires require simple language and collection of data in stages so as the enable accuracy (Glaser, B.G. and Strauss 2017). Nonetheless, the two survey questions will be used to measure the efficiency of the organizational behavior such as the rate of innovativeness, decision making, and service provision behavior.  These questions will be overall questions asked through the semi-structured interview as well as for the other group of employees who will be given questionnaire form to feel. The overall problems will include;

The Typology or the Systematic Classification of Organizational Culture

These two questions will measure the behavior of the organizations about the innovativeness and decision making. To achieve accuracy, the received responses from both questionnaires and the six interviews will be merged to and a single measurement to counter check the study accuracy.  

The dependent variable in this study will be behavior (innovative) which is developed within an organization depending on the type of the organization structure. The practice established within an organization comes as a result of the type of management or the management strategy employed by the administration which in this study the approach is bureaucracy (Prasad 2015).  On the other hand, the independent variable is the management strategy which is bureaucracy where one can ask whether bureaucracy as a business structure allows innovative behavior within an organization, whether the bureaucracy (organization structure) allows smooth and quick decision-making behavior. To affirm that the methods used was accurate and was well understood by the participants, the data received through the six semi-structured interviews with the questionnaire results. The comparison will be a test as to whether the relationship between organization behavior and the management strategy as linked to one another and can lead to success or organizational failure to improve positive organization behavior trough selection well organized bureaucratic management mechanism.

The data collected through both the structured interviews and the questionnaires will be re-analyzed through the means of thematic analysis. The text themes falling under bureaucracy and organizational behavior will be marked under categories named after the bureaucratic tendencies related to organizational behavior (Maxwell, Chmiel and Rogers 2015). The thematic analysis will be conducted on a manual by going through the transcripts of each company one at a time making that what the participants affect the management strategy employed and behavior. The result obtained will then be summarized in tables to form the discussion foundation.  

Conclusion

Application combined interviews and questionnaires are crucial for a qualitative study. It is apparent that through this combined strategy, it could be easy to conduct a thematic analysis of the study. However, future studies should exploit the use of a considerable number of participants.  To summarize the whole review, the content of this paper provides further evidence that organizational behavior is linked to the type of organizational structure used.  The study will look and deliver answers whether bureaucratic organizational structures encourage practices such as innovativeness.  The study will the come up with a recommendation based on the study findings.

References

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