Transformational Leadership Worksheet


I would like data provided for excel from these questionnaires in the amount of 100 participants to match my calculations in my paper I am being asked to give data I have 1 more paper to upload please make sure everything matches all the calculations match what I have and the research questions are supported by your data you calculate from the data you put in and make up your data but you must have 100-97 participants.

Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study
Leadership is one of the major matters of concern for stakeholders and administrators in
organizations worldwide. Researchers have discovered that the type of leadership style has a
notable impact on organizational accomplishment and progress (Ejimabo, 2015). Li et al. (2019)
suggested that transformational leadership changes the principal benefits and implications of the
motivation of the employees to accomplish the objectives that surpass their expectations through
positive motivation in the shape of a wage increase, credit, and work perks. Thus, the evaluation
of the relationships between the transformational leadership style and the resulting variables of
employee job satisfaction, work motivation, and employee performance, especially in Prince
George’s public and private school organization (PGCPS).
This study attempted to find the relationships between the leadership styles of employees,
and whether these relationships will be stronger for transformational leaders who were the focus
of this research (Sougui et al., 2016). There are also many arguments for the transformational
leadership style regarding its strengths and weaknesses. Researchers have implied that the
transformational leadership style is a preferable theory for organizations to maintain
(Amanchukwu et al., 2015). Leaders have used the transformational leadership style to
challenge their workers to take responsibility for their actions, which in turn satisfies, motivates,
and enhances employee performance in today’s ever-changing environment (Hetland et al.,
2018; Jiang et al., 2017). However, research done on transformational leadership practices has
shown this style to be utilized more in Western organizational environments (Jiang et al., 2017).
Worker performance and transformational leadership are vital for the organization to
achieve its goals effectively. El-Zayaty (2016) claimed that the leadership style exhibited in the
workplace could influence the worker’s views and actions. When leadership style varies in
different departments, it confuses the goals of the company and in turn, impacts the company
negatively (Warrick, 2017). As far as, motivation, the opinions of employees and their reasons
for maintaining longevity in an organization tend to increase when leaders introduce the
transformational-leadership practice, suggesting that the transformational leadership style can be
successfully utilized to impact the opinions of the worker and motivate them to achieve the goals
of the organization (Amanchukwu et al., 2015). The amount of success using the
transformational leadership style has yet to be validated (Steinmann et al., 2018). Thus, for this
research, I examined the topics of the transformational leadership style and employee work
motivation to understand the increased or decreased correlations between employee job
satisfaction, as well as work motivation and employee performance in the organization.
The social implications of this research provided further recognition of leadership
strategies and motivation in the workplace, which lead to benefits such as high job satisfaction,
work motivation, and employee performance in the organization. This study intended to explore
the outcomes of transformational leadership style on jobs that use transformational leadership,
which led to improved job satisfaction levels for experts in the managerial field (Choi et al.,
2016). The most prominent social recommendations of this study revolved around gaining a
greater insight into how to manage and increase productivity in the work environment. These
implications were not just significant for managers and workers in organizations but can prove
significantly valuable to stakeholders globally.
Human resource managers and employees are a significant part of any company, and
achieving goals is the aim of all organizations (Kerr et al., 2018). Organizations plan various
strategies to compete with their rival organizations and increase their performance to attain
success (Armstrong & Taylor, 2017). However, in an organization, not all leaders or managers
impact their followers (Santana et al, 2017). The problem addressed in this study identified the
gap in how the transformational leadership style affected the employees or followers of any
organization in the United States. Ejimabo (2015) identified that management or leadership is
the principal determinant for the success or failure of the business. Few studies approached the
combined determinants concerning transformational leadership, which inspire workers to
succeed in their perspective work settings (Shafique & Kalyar, 2018). Job motivation or job
satisfaction seems to be one of the most popular domains to research when identifying the need
for increased recognition of the interceding determinants that links the transformational
leadership style and employee outcomes (Para-González et al., 2018). Exploring the mediating
effects between transformational leadership and organizational performance. Employee Relations
research has also indicated by the conclusions argued by Hetland et al. (2018) that there is
evidence of a lack of extensive research, which examines transformational leadership, job
motivation, and job satisfaction.
Hoboubi et al. (2017) suggested that the lack of job satisfaction leads to inactivity and
diminished organizational responsibility of workers. Thus, if there is any leadership training,
provided and executed it can contribute to the worker’s demonstration of satisfaction or
dissatisfaction with the leadership style adopted in their respective companies (Pillinger, 2017).
Choi et al., (2016) suggested that poor leadership may be the principal challenge facing
employee job performance or job satisfaction for many organizations worldwide. Bakotić,
(2016) identified that there was a lack of extensive research that examines transformational
leadership research carried out and the effect on job satisfaction and job motivation of the
workers in the organization. Analyzing the structure of leadership required the execution of
productive and thriving transformations, Ricard et al. (2016) investigated organizational
formations in correlation to transformational leadership techniques. The information examined
and gathered from managers or supervisors employed in a public or private environment
suggested some possible explanations for why companies might promote higher levels of
transformational leadership when linked to the demanded levels required by scientists their tests
confirmed the promotion of employee trust (Ricard et al., 2016). For example, the Hospitality
industry work with a decreased level of achievement than needed and others who were presented
with increased levels demonstrated higher achievement levels than were needed. These
outcomes appear to present a notable challenge to what is found in many types of research that
investigates transformational leadership (Van Wart & Dicke, 2016).
Moreover, several production measures as a contributory role of existing organizational
methods promote higher levels of transformational practices (Choi, et al., 2016). The
conclusions of this research helped develop evidence to explain the impact of the
transformational leadership style on job satisfaction, work motivation, and employee
performance, in an organization (Sfantou et al., 2017; Wren, 2018). Therefore, an enhanced
perception of how leadership techniques infl workers may help managers or leaders enhance
their employee work environment. However, researchers have shown that there is a distinct
connection joining the type of leadership characteristic and employee job satisfaction; thus, a few
researchers have concentrated on leadership characteristics as an option of job execution for
workers in the public sector (Bass & Stogdill, 1990; Bass & Avolio, 1994; Lee et al., 2018;
Wren, 2018).
Much of the existing literature on transformational leadership has been focused primarily
on gender, diversity, varying leadership styles, and perceptions of the individual. (El-Zayaty,
2016; Kuranchie-Mensah & Amponsah-Tawiah, 2016; Wren, 2018). From an organizational
perspective, in many businesses, leadership style plays a significant role in the operational
productivity of the company (Mgeni, 2015). Sadeghi and Pihie (2012) reported that by 2020,
businesses run with transformational leadership would be most successful, and 82% will be
placed on the type of leadership style practiced in the organization. Chang (2017) further
expressed that supervisory and cooperative staff associations can influence worker satisfaction,
and that good management enhances the level of employee performance and job satisfaction.
This research focused on the link between transformational leadership style to job satisfaction,
work motivation, and employee performance, the organizational implicated relationships are
essential aspects to determine.
Blackburn (2018) reported that transformational leadership has undeniably impacted
leadership effectiveness and yielded positive results when the additional effort, is exerted both
effectively and efficiently. A transformational leadership style strategy generates a notable
transformation in the practice of businesses; it reidentifies the perceptions and goals of the
workers, and the transformational leaders have the character traits and skill to implement their
vision, hence utilizing the expression “lead by example” (Copeland, 2016, p. 84). The
transformational leader magnifies the motivation and confidence of the employees and assists
with uniting the surrounding areas to the collective vision of the company; additionally, such
leaders stimulate those nearby to take responsibility for their work and maximize their
performance (Bass, 1985; Burns, 1978). This research will give some recognition of the social
implications associated with workers by providing some insight into the transformative
leadership style and the improvement of satisfaction, motivation, and performance among their
Evolution of Transformational Leadership in Organizations
The evolution of leadership can be traced back to the emergence of humans as social
beings since they required cooperation and protection during the hunter-gatherer life (Bogin et
al., 2018). Transformational leaders in most organizations have an assigned set of values and
theories that characterize proper conduct to motivate their workers (Steinman, et al., 2018). Prior
studies have determined that the leadership approach adopted in an organization has a significant
impact on work motivation and employee performance (Li, 2015). Ejimabo (2015) stated that in
some organizations, the management, and the subordinate staff, there is a distinct separation, and
the management staff is identified as being treated preferentially. Meanwhile, the subordinate’s
culture and work performance are often negatively impacted by this behavior in many
organizations. Therefore, the established social groups and the leaders who emerged in this era
grew in different areas of their management styles, strategies, and directions; thus, transferring it
to other members of society over time (Price & Vugt, 2014).
Bass (1985) classified transformational leadership styles because of their unique
characteristics. The transformational leader has four traits written and updated by Bass (1985,
1990) managers conveyed that these components depend on the organization, the business, and
the positions in the company or other variables that might impact the leader’s performance. The
internal variables are the four core features of transformational leadership, which correlate to the
following classes, these are idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation,
and individual consideration (Avolio et al., 1991; Bass 1998; Bass & Avolio, 2000). Choi et al.,
(2016) identified that the relationship between job satisfaction and work motivation levels of the
employee stems from the leadership style used in the organization. Hence, the leadership styles
practiced in a company are demonstrated by the elevated levels of performance by the employee
(Asrar-UL-Haq & Kuchinke, 2016). In this case, the primary goal is to recognize the effect of
transformational leadership style on work motivation, job satisfaction, and employee
performance in an organization.
Organizational Leadership and Work Motivation
The organization’s leadership may determine employee performance to orchestrate the
company’s objectives (Weerarathna et al., 2018). Kerr et al., (2018) defined employee
motivation as a measure of how well an organization can utilize its assets from its primary mode
of business and generate the necessary quality to increase revenues. Mostly, the culture of
transparency, employee accountability, and motivation has been adopted by all organizations,
which is determined by increased financial achievement (Osborne & Hammoud, 2017). Usually,
employee motivation is illustrated in any organization by the motivation initiative, the ability to
repay the confidence given to them by administrators by accomplishing organizational
objectives, etc., these characteristics are very crucial in the determination of how the
organization is performing. The role the management plays is motivating their employees
(Kuranchie-Mensah & Amponsah-Tawiah, 2016). The fundamental part of work motivation is
the ability to arouse the workers’ devotion to their position because the workers understand that
the organization recognizes their job participation (Li et al., 2019).
Organizational Leadership and Job Satisfaction
In the present world, any organization that intends to succeed in a diverse business
environment must adopt a motivational style of leadership to compete with rival organizations.
Thus, organizational motivation implies the implementation of new methods. The conduction of
business activities, workplace, or external relations can include for example; changes in
processes, management strategy, capital extension or replacement, mergers and acquisitions,
changes in customization, trading of new or improved products, which are some of the named
methods (Katzenbach et al., 2016). Kerr et al., (2018) suggested that increased production levels
are also a characteristic of workers who experience job satisfaction, and it is a component that
the administration can use to evaluate the worker’s development in the company. Thus, satisfied
workers tend to demonstrate high levels of job satisfaction, which increases productivity in the
organization (Satuf et. al, 2016).
Problem Statement
Job motivation or job satisfaction seems to be one of the most popular domains to
research when identifying the need for increased recognition of the interceding determinants that
links the transformational leadership style and employee outcomes (Para-González et al., 2018).
Research has also indicated by the conclusions argued by Hetland et al. (2018) that there is
evidence of a lack of extensive research, which examines transformational leadership, job
motivation, and job satisfaction. Garcia and Weiss, (2019) researched that teacher see a much
higher decline than their peers in most positions; approximately 30% of college graduates who
became teachers were not in the profession five years later, compared with 14% of pharmacists,
16% of engineers, and 19% of nurses and lawyers. Landsbergis et al. (2017) discovered that
workers leave their positions at an extraordinary rate because of a lack of commitment to
organizations, salary decrease, employee perks decrease, health benefits decrease, and emotional
strain. Carver-Thomas and Darling-Hammond (2017) stated that the general problem was that
worker turnover in the teaching profession has been rising and is now at 8% yearly. The distinct
problem was that the teaching industry administrators do not recognize the connection linking
factors such as transformational leadership, gender, education, and job satisfaction.
Additionally, Lee et al. (2017) identified that approximately 38% of U.S. workers had job
satisfaction with their current position and 51% affirmed they were pleased to a minor extent;
therefore, indicating that the bulk of U.S. workers was somewhat satisfied, with their current
position. Okeke and Mtyuda (2017) suggested that teachers were more dissatisfied with their
jobs if they thought they could not meet their expectations and the oflenges from their work; this
showed that low self-efficacy would lower teacher job satisfaction. Teachers were assigned to
teach other subject areas in other school districts rather than their specialty due to the shortage of
teachers, which resulted in teachers not having enough time to prepare for teaching and
dissatisfaction with their job.
Okeke and Mtyuda (2017) suggested that teachers were more dissatisfied with their jobs
if they thought they could not meet their expectations and the challenges of their work;
Therefore, they experienced low self-efficacy, which could lower the teacher’s job satisfaction.
The problem is that in the teaching industry administrators do not recognize the connection
linking transformational leadership to job satisfaction, motivation, and employee performance.
Okeke and Mtyuda (2017) in their research found out dissatisfaction with the job among teachers
in schools is majorly contributed by the payment of low salaries that fail to satisfy their
psychological needs. This affects the productivity and quality performance of teachers.
Additionally, Diaz (2018) researched if educators felt reassured to continue in their field of
teaching under the transformational leader because they felt inspired to remain at that institution
because of the leadership style practiced. The conclusions of this research may be helpful
towards social change, Ouellette et al. (2018) suggested that assisting with increasing teachers’
satisfaction, motivation, and performance can contribute significantly to the community and their
families. Clayton (2018) discovered that businesses benefit when workers continue working
with institutions, which decreases the expense of worker turnover, by developing a competitive
edge, and raising revenue. Social change transpires when the quality of the work situation for
professionals increases, which leads to overall job satisfaction.
Purpose of the Study
The focus of this quantitative correlational study was to assess the relationship between
manager transformational leadership style with the outcome variables of employee job
satisfaction, work motivation, and performance. Specifically, the four components of
transformational leadership, which Bass (1985) identified as idealized influence, inspirational
motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individual consideration were considered. The goal was
identify organizational leaders to boost productivity, decrease turnover, and increase satisfaction
to provide a competitive edge.
Research Questions and Hypotheses
The focus of this study was to identify what predictors the transformational leadership
style may have on job satisfaction, work motivation, and employee performance with the
leadership technique used by managers in their organization, especially the transformational
leadership approach. The consideration for this research is the four components of the
transformational leadership model, and the identified hypotheses will determine whether there is
a relationship. Thus, the main research questions posed for this study was: Do the individual
facets of a transformational leadership style significantly predict job satisfaction, work
motivation, and employee performance in an organization? The four hypotheses associated with
the main research question were:
H01: The idealized influence facet of a transformational leadership style does not
significantly predict job satisfaction, work motivation, and employee performance in an
Ha1: The idealized influence facet of a transformational leadership style significantly
predicts job satisfaction, work motivation, and employee performance in an organization.
H02: The intellectual stimulation of the individual facet of a transformational leadership
style does not significantly predict job satisfaction, work motivation, and employee
performance in an organization.
Ha2: The intellectual stimulation of the individual facet of a transformational leadership
style does significantly predict job satisfaction, work motivation, and employee
performance in an organization.
H03: The inspirational motivation facet of a transformational leadership style does not
significantly predict job satisfaction, work motivation, and employee performance in an
Ha3: The inspirational motivation of a transformational leadership style significantly
predicts job satisfaction, work motivation, and employee performance in an organization.
H04: The individualized consideration facet of a transformational leadership style does
not significantly predict job satisfaction, work motivation, and employee performance in
an organization.
Ha4: The individualized consideration facet of a transformational leadership style
significantly predicts job satisfaction, work motivation, and employee performance in an
Theoretical Framework
There are four aspects of transformational leadership, the theoretical framework utilized
for this research is Burn’s (1978) and Bass’s (1985) transformational leadership style. Bass and
Avolio (1997) explained that the transformational leadership-styled executive should
demonstrate a prominent level of self-esteem, morality, dignity, and authenticity to undertake
this type of role (e.g., employees are motivated more by the performance outcomes of the
transformational leadership style manager). Li et al. (2019) also identified that the
transformational leadership style manager entails value to motivate employees to work
collaboratively instead of working individually. Research shows that the organization’s ability
to maintain innovation to compete is essential for its growth and economics; also,
transformational leader encourages the inclusivity of their subordinates, which demonstrates trust
(Asrar-ul-Haq & Kuchinke, 2016).
Herzberg et al. (1959) further proposed that the two factors that affect job satisfaction,
which included hygiene factors and motivation hypotheses, utilized the transformational
leadership approach to ensure that employees maintain an elevated level of work motivation and
job satisfaction. Damij et al. (2015) additionally, classified and described the fields that fell
under the hygiene and motivation factors. For example, the hygiene factors include –
supervision, physical working conditions, job security, salary, interpersonal relations, benefits,
and company policy, and the motivation factors include – achievement, responsibility, the work
itself, recognition, and advancement (Damij et al., 2015). Transformational leaders use
Herzberg’s theory to conceive and nurture an ideal working environment for motivation and job
satisfaction (El-Zayaty, 2018).
Nature of the Study
This quantitative correlational research aimed to determine if a predictive relationship
existed between the transformational leadership style of managers and the job satisfaction, work
motivation, and performance of employees in organizations. The quantitative methodology
chosen for this predictive study was regression analysis. This study aided in statistically
interpreting relationships and fundamentally comparing patterns that emerged to help address the
posed research questions. For this study, the transformational leadership styles were the
predictor variable, and employee job satisfaction, work motivation, and performance were the
criterion variables.
Employee Performance: this term implies an individual’s performance act after
exercising the necessary discipline that his or her position involves and connected to achieving
significant work-related tasks in the organization (Pradhan & Jena, 2017).
Job Satisfaction: is a certain feeling that an individual perceives, which normally occurs
from the evaluation of their job performance and the extent to which the worker like or dislikes
their position, this sense of well-being is felt through, good interaction with administration,
recognition, and appreciation for work performance (Cardiff et al., 2018).
Leadership: is a socially controlled method by which the manager solicits the optional
support of the employees to achieve the objectives set for the company, the leader inspires the
workers to operate and carry out designated tasks in the organization (Nanjundeswaraswamy &
Swamy, 2015).
Transformational Leadership demonstrates the vision to arouse the senses and exude the
style of management, which is distinguished by the ability to illustrate the four characteristics of
a leader, these are inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, idealized influence, and
individualized consideration (Cetin & Kinik, 2015).
Work Motivation: is frequently characterized into two classes, intrinsic and extrinsic
motivation, which indicates that various designs have different influences on worker motivation,
and the intrinsic motivation is treated with bonuses as the exercise the origin of the extrinsic
motivation is a visible controlling variable as the specific prize; for example, salary (Locke &
Latham, 2004).
One assumption of this research was declaring that any organization that utilizes the
transformational leadership style was beneficial for employees and their shareholders; thus, the
primary hypothesis of this study was that the transformational leadership style was a good
strategy for organizational leadership for workers, businesses, and stakeholders (Kiryongi, 2018).
Therefore, it was necessary to research the transformational leadership style for this study
because of the prevalence of investigation backing this assumption. The most obvious in
practical research is the opinion was that all administrators are leaders, which was not always the
case. Kerr et al. (2018) suggested that generally, assumptions look at only assertive leadership
behaviors that are critical for the success of an organization. They also pointed out that current
research affirms small, and large businesses display similar dynamics, which assumed that the
study can successfully utilize current measurement instruments, to determine these facts, doing
the research. Transformational leadership changes the principal benefits and implications of
motivation of employees to accomplish the objectives that surpass their expectations through
positive motivation by introducing wage increases, credit at preferred stores, and work perks or
points. Another assumption is that implementing the use of the transformational leadership style
will accurately reflect that all leaders should try to follow this style of leadership to ensure
success for their perspective organizations.
Scope and Delimitations of the Study
This research thoroughly conducted the phenomena of interest by reviewing articles with
data from organizations using the transformational leadership style. The distinct characteristics
of this study approached job satisfaction, work motivation, and employee performance in an
organization, with the inherent effectiveness of the transformational leadership approach in an
organizational environment. The gender analysis of the employees was not part of this research;
the differences between male and female workers’ implications were something to consider for
future studies. This study confined itself to sending electronic questionnaires to managers and
staff of the Prince George’s Public School (PGCPS) personnel. The scope concentrated on
distinct variables, members, and specific positions, minimized to one sample of study design
(e.g., ethnography or empirical research as noted by Creswell and Creswell (2017).
Limitations of the Study
Some of the limitations of this research included emphasizing the vulnerability of the
design by becoming restricted by my views of the study and making assumptions, which
Bracken-Roche et al. (2017); also, identified when doing research. Therefore, all areas of studies
require support; the conditions were be based on the participant’s comfort level and did not
always portray actual situations. The responses of the test populations were not accurate
indications of their actions as in a non-experimental setting. The purpose of the sampling
procedure tends to decrease the generalizability of findings. This study was not generalized in
all areas of the employee, or their supervisor as additionally observed and researched by
Havermans et al. (2018) studies. But there are two significant limitations:
(1) Non-experimental quantitative method research, which is not always attainable for the
researcher to manage all unknown extraneous variables; for example, the participant’s
well-being, attitude, or life situations affecting their opinions.
(2) Utilizing participants from one population; for example, the study only accessed staff
from school employees and their information, this could have been biased (Creswell, &
Creswell, 2017).
The Significance of the Study
The outcomes of this research will help future researchers understand the benefits of
using the transformational leadership style to increase productivity and build worker trust in the
organization. Leadership styles improve or diminish employee performance. In this case, this
research may assist leaders in changing the way they treat their juniors and boost motivation and
production (Chang, 2017). The findings from this study would be helpful to some researchers
who would be interested in studying the concepts of an effective transformational leadership
style. Future researchers can utilize ideas from this study and carry out further research on how
the transformational leadership style impacts, employee job satisfaction, work motivation, and
employee performance (Mehrad & Fallahi, 2014). Also, the outcomes of this research will assist
in determining and depicting the relationship between the transformational leadership style and
the impact it has on employee motivation and their satisfaction with their jobs. The data
obtained from this study may encourage the utilization of the transformational leadership style
by other companies to implement, improve, and increase job satisfaction, work motivation, and
employee performance.
Further research shows that organizational transformations performed by such leaders in
a company are likely to make it possible to run a successful business; due to the respect received
from their workers (Holt et al., 2017). Additionally, researchers may benefit from this research
if they desire to conduct a global study linked to leadership. The results will indicate that
transformational leaders may very well evoke higher production levels in their employees by
building their workers’ satisfaction while engaging in their work tasks. Bailey et al. (2015)
explained the link between a worker’s commitment, job tasks, production, and engagement level
is correlated to the employee’s intrinsic interest and responsibilities. From a theoretical
standpoint, the significance of this as the research shows employee engagement and other similar
constructs of organizational responsibility had the ability to explore to determine the changing
links between the levels of satisfaction (SHRM, 2017).
Leadership has a primary role in the growth of an organization; the process of
organizational change demands a very efficient and highly competent leadership that can address
the issue of organizational change (SHRM, 2018). The leader of the organization plays a
significant role in the development of an organization, which leads to innovative advancement
for an organization and social change (Blanchard, 2018). By understanding the outcomes of this
study, the objective thereof is to recognize that leadership is a very crucial element in employees’
job satisfaction, work motivation, and levels of performance in an organization.
The study will attempt to determine the relationship between the transformational
leadership style and the job satisfaction and work motivation of the workers. Research shows
that leaders who utilize the transformational leadership styles to increase job satisfaction, work
motivation, and performance, for their workers, identified that this leadership style forms the
growth of the employees in the organization (Asrar-ul-Haq & Kuchinke, 2016). Kljajić-Dervić
and Dervić (2017) identified that successful leadership and work motivation leads to worker job
satisfaction, which creates an environment for the implementation of new strategies. Promoting
successful leadership is a recognized initiative among employees as an encouraging factor in the
motivation and satisfaction of the employees, which ultimately increases production (SHRM,
2017). These efforts may effectively promote a positive social change for the workers by
ensuring long-term success and sustainability in the organization.
Choi et al., (2016) identified that additional research generates a theoretical framework
for future investigation, which will provide the formulation of more practical and productive
methods for comprehending conditions in any organization that utilizes transformational
leadership style management. By examining what motivates employees’ requirements, managers
can begin exploring ways to reduce outside influences, by decreasing misinterpretations, and
increasing employee satisfaction, and motivation. Thus, by examining the impact of the
variables and the results of this research, it is expected to add to the growing body of leadership
literature. Steinman et al., (2018) suggested that creating a better understanding of the
contributions, and individual facets of a transformational leadership style may have on employee
job satisfaction, work motivation, and employee performance. Managers may look at the impact
of their bottom lines with stronger employee job satisfaction, work motivation, and employee
performance. Future researchers may use the results of this research to help determine where to
aim for leadership development efforts.
Summary and Transition
This chapter’s purpose provided an introduction and explanation of why research needs
to be performed to determine the transformational leadership style and the relationship between
job satisfaction, work motivation, and employee performance in the organization. This chapter
provided information on the background of the issue, the stated problem, the reason for the
research, the research questions and associated hypotheses, and the theoretical framework, which
are all incorporated to open the way for further investigation of the subject of this research. It is
evident Blanchard (2018) and Para-González (2018) identified that transformational leadership
styles and job satisfaction, work motivation, and employee performance in an organization had
gone almost unnoticed, which suggests that there is a definitive demand for this research.
Chapter 2 presents a careful literature review that covers the current theoretical framework and
research that is important to this study.
Chapter 2: Literature Review
A fundamental component of any business is the motivation of its employees and their
satisfaction to maintain work performance, which is the principal source of income for the
growth and recognition that the company needs (Obiekwe, 2016). A transformational leader can
drive their workers to gain the required success that the organization thrives to achieve. A
worker’s motivation can be affected by many influential intrinsic or extrinsic factors, which are
beneficial for the company (El-Zayaty, 2018). Motivation-hygiene theorist Herzberg (2008)
hypothesized that workers who display satisfaction contribute more to the organization, accept
responsibility for their actions, meet the goals of the organization, and are loyal to the company
and their employers. The manager’s capability of demonstrating adequate management
strategies can elicit the employee’s trust, and respect, this encourages maximum work
performance, which is connected to work motivation, and the employee’s feeling of job
satisfaction (Kuranchie-Mensah & Amponsah-Tawiah, 2016).
The transformational leader promotes employee job satisfaction. Research has identified
that this style of leadership directly boosts employee performance in the organization mainly
because the transformational leader ensures that their followers attain maximum productivity, by
instilling that their workers are as valuable an asset as they are to achieve success (Vatankhah et
al., 2017). Research concerning leadership in companies has frequently studied the correlations
between the employees, and the types of leadership styles in both the private and public sectors.
The research determined that there is a significant need to explore how transformational
leadership styles affect job satisfaction, work motivation, and employee performance when
presented with their vital purpose in the organization (Dalluay & Jalagat, 2016).
This research established a framework for examining the transformational leadership
style in organizations and how it correlates to, job satisfaction, work motivation, and employee
performance. Igbaekemen and Odivwri (2015) identified that leadership styles, whether positive
or negative, can affect the worker’s opinion of their administrator significantly, and in turn,
affects overall performance. Although, the focus of many studies has been on determining the
leader’s influence on the employee, and how it impacts their wellbeing, understanding this power
is significant, and research in this area is crucial. This extensive review of the literature includes
four components of the transformational leader, which were – individualized consideration,
intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, and idealized influence. Additionally, there
were explanations of the differences between the components and the association between the
transformational leadership style and job satisfaction, work motivation, and employee
performance. Finally, a review of the literature explains, leadership, organizational culture,
synthesis of the research findings, summary, and transition. This chapter involved an outlined
literature search procedure utilized to develop this section. This section included a list of the
databases and search engines used to support and substantiate this process. Subsequent sections
of this paper identified the conceptual structure used for this research, recognized major factors
crucial in the framework, and defined the concepts utilized in prior investigations, and the
current study on the transformational leadership style.
Literature Search Strategy
For the literature review research, the purpose is to distinguish, understand, compile, and
integrate all subjects that relate to the correlation of the transformational leadership style theories
from the resulting search engines and resources available. For example examples, Google
Scholar, ProQuest, Walden Scholar works, Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC),
American Psychological Association (APA), and Sage Premier, also the Local library if
necessary. Widespread database investigation includes the use of the advanced search to input
author, title, and keywords relating to the criteria posted. The guidelines applied for this
literature examination comprise peer-reviewed articles, conducted from, 2015 and possible
theories from earlier dates for reference. The samples included the public and private
organizations’ leadership and their employees in these organizations and empirical studies
published in highly rated articles, sites, and journals.
Exploring the databases above provided many possible references for each subject
concerning this research for the initiation of this process. Firstly, the business databases, and
then the topic associated with the questions posed, such as satisfaction, motivation, and
performance, was found in the psychology databases to expand the research. Where there was a
shortage of examination, such as transformational leadership and two of the three variables, or
outcomes that concentrate on cases different from the subject of this research but had similar
wording, were still regarded as beneficial for this research. These were important because the
viewpoints, frameworks, the literature reviews, incorporate successful data that was significant
for this research; for instance, transformational leadership and employee performance had
minimal search results. Information that was deserving of including or the lack of research on
the material which was relevant required searching for similar phrases; for example, leadership
styles with the inclusion that one of the methods being transformational leadership and employee
The principal research terms used were, leadership, transformational leadership theory,
transformational leadership, management, transformational leadership in organizations,
transformational leadership and job satisfaction, transformational leadership and work
motivation leadership and employee performance, traditional leadership, Herzberg, Maslow’s
hierarchy of needs, and Burn’s, Avolio, and Bass theories. The literature research was a lengthy
process using the direct research terms, such as the transformational leadership theory and the
databases, which included increasing the scope and ways to input the terms and rephrasing the
words where necessary. The initial query involved the transformational leadership theory and
would close with singular terms utilizing leadership, or transformational leadership in
organizations. For the literature review approach, there was a need for each subject to be used
for the review to increase the relevance of the research, the search findings were sorted based on
significance and then reconstructed so that those with the most recent published dates were first.
This method of preparing the search sequences assisted with having only the recently published
research in the past 4-5 years, and the written theories dated further back.
Theoretical Framework
The theoretical frameworks for this research were explained further in this section. The
first analytical framework utilized for this research was Burn’s (1978) and Bass’s (1985)
transformational leadership style. This theory supported the transformational leadership style and
its four elements that were inherent characteristics of this type of leadership, which motivated
their employees positively (Bass, 1985). Leadership theory constructs establish an acceptable
set of standards that employees utilized when they work; additionally, the employees can either
decide to endorse those standards or oppose them (Downe et al., 2016). Because of that, the
employee’s role was more likely to be cooperative with the transformational leadership style.
Another hypothesis that supported this research framework is Herzberg’s (1959) motivation to
work theory. This hypothesis explains how the foundation gives a strong correlation between
job satisfaction and employee performance. Herzberg’s (1959) ‘Two Factor Theory’ provided
the data on the motivation of employees. This theory implies that workers can be satisfied or
dissatisfied with their jobs; this is the basis for the hygiene factors; for example, pay and work
environment (Herzberg et al., 1959). Also, relying on the type of transformational leadership
style, the leader influenced the employee’s job satisfaction, work motivation, and performance in
the organization.
Theoretically Bass (1985) identified that there was a link between transformational
leadership styles, and job satisfaction, work motivation, and employee performance by providing
further proof of what stimulates the well-being of the employees in an organization. Previous
research has shown the primary outcome of the transformational leadership style of workers’ job
satisfaction in the organization. However, for the worker to maintain job satisfaction, the
employee requires a broader recognition of their performance and the relationship that they
should strive to achieve (Blanchard, 2018; Kuranchie-Mensah & Amponsah-Tawiah, 2016;
Mohammad et al., 2006). Firstly, this research-validated that job satisfaction, work motivation,
and employee performance relationship links to transformational leadership and were significant
when examining transformational leadership in organizations. Secondly, this research measured
the constructs, for example, transformational leadership, job satisfaction, work motivation, and
employee performance in the organization. Finally, the theoretical framework for this research
suggests a basis for the use of the transformational leadership style to promote job satisfaction,
work motivation, and employee performance in organizations. Figure 1 demonstrates the links
in the framework.
Figure 1.
Transformational Leadership Framework
Adapted from: Post, M. (2018). The basic idea of transformational leadership. Retrieved from
Leadership Theories
The term leadership means a process whereby the managers guide, direct, and influence
the behavior and performance of their juniors to accomplish some specific set goals and
objectives (Igbaekemen & Odivwri, 2015). Steinman et al., (2018) determined that leadership is
the manager’s ability to manage and motivate his or her subordinates to achieve organizational
goals. The supervisors are required to have a distinct image and encourage other members to
work towards accomplishing the same vision. Many theories pertain to leadership. The notable
hypotheses are the Characteristic, Behavioral, Contingency, Transactional, and Transformational
Theories (Cote, 2017). Bass (1990) examined the characteristic theory and considered this the
primary leadership theory. The characteristic theory recognized that each is different and has its
method of leadership. This hypothesis ascertains that these are the mental and physical qualities
of a great manager (Bhattacharyya & Jha, 2018). By the mid-nineteen hundred’s, the
characteristic theory was rejected, and productivity played a significant part in the manager’s
level of determinants, these are the situational and environmental theories (Sabbagha, 2016).
When World War II ended, the Behavioral trait surfaced as the principal theory in
leadership education, which lasted for about 30 years (Amanchukwu et al., 2015). The
Behavioral trait strategy tries to define what strong administrators accomplished, as far as their
actions that separated the leaders from their workers (Downe et al., 2016). However, the first
issue with this strategy was that leadership was not always an inherent characteristic, solely
because behaviors can be obtained through training to be more efficient (Blanchard, 2018). Most
of the leadership hypotheses evolved to the application of the behavioral trait, which concluded
that utilizing this characteristic was the best way to manage and be implemented globally
(Igbaekemen & Odivwri, 2015). Although in many situations, researchers were not able to
identify similarities of capable administrators or general managerial styles in all conditions
applied; instead, they attempted to classify each influencing situation factor for efficiency by
using a distinct leadership technique (Amanchukwu et al., 2015; Igbaekemen & Odivwri, 2015).
Another significant strategy emerged. This was known as the contingency theories theory; this
hypothesis suggested that a suitable way to manage depends on the circumstance that the leader
has created within the organization (Amanchukwu et al., 2015).
However, the significance of the contingency model is the path-goal theory, which was
formulated by House (1971), whose hypothesis affirms that the workers would look at a distinct
management style and gain the necessary job satisfaction. The contingency approach studies on
leadership suggest that a significant area of research emphasizes the individual traits of
managers, which have an extensive influence on associations or companies that points to the
evolution of the transformational leadership style theory (Burns, 1978). The transformational
leadership style of management provides a shared platform between themselves and their
employees; thus, the leadership generates the goals that the organization wishes to strive
towards, and they present that link that increases work motivation to achieve the vision for the
company (Crevani & Endrissat, 2016). The transformational leadership style was essential for
identifying the necessary changes within the organization (Choi et al., 2016).
Transformational Leadership
Transformational leadership is considered inspirational, challenging, charismatic, and
exciting this leader perpetually amplifies the skills of the workers, which motivates the worker to
reach their goals and maximize their full potential once encouraged by transformational leader
(Freeman, 2019). The transformational leader presents themselves as a motivating factor that
will empower and satisfy their employees (Choi et al., 2016). Burns (1978) first researched and
recognized the transformational leadership characteristic, and Bass in 1985 expanded the
information to encompass, update, and explain the style. Bass’s (1985) theory indicates that
there are four components of transformational leadership. Choi et al. (2016) defined
transformational leadership as a leadership strategy that brings a change in social systems and
individuals. This type of leadership creates a positive change that makes the followers support
their leaders in their ideal form. Williams, (2012) identified that transformational leadership
improves the morale motivation, job satisfaction, and performance of followers using several
ways. This includes connecting the followers’ behavior with the organization’s vision of
inspiring the supporters, being a role model, challenging the workers to attain high performance,
recognizing the weaknesses or strengths of individuals, and assigning duties based on strengths.
Components of Transformational Leadership
Sayyadi, (2021) explained there are four components of transformational leadership:
individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, and idealized
influence explained. The following sections systematically cover these four characteristics.
Individualized Consideration
Steinman et al. (2018) identified the first component of being individualized
consideration, this implies that transformational leaders encourage the growth of their worker’s
skills and education. This helps the leaders achieve their objectives through coaching and
guidance. Steinmann et al. (2018) also argued that today’s successful leaders involve their
followers in management, which holds the employee accountable for their work, and motivates
them to achieve the goals of the organization. This includes attending to the needs of each
follower individually; hence, the leaders coach their workers and listen to their grievances and
concerns, the administrators are empathetic, and provide support to their followers; they maintain
open communication and sharing of opinions about the challenge. Buble et al. (2014) agreed
that there is an individual consideration of contributions from each follower, to inspire and
motivate them. The leaders encourage the growth of their worker’s skills and education, which
in turn helps them achieve their objectives through guidance, and this motivates them to work
productively for the organization.
Intellectual Stimulation
The second component of transformational leadership is intellectual stimulation. The
leader fosters a practice to encourage workers to manifest intelligence, analytical thinking, and
establish independence (Antonakis & Day, 2017). Thus, current managers have learned that the
strategy of threatening their employees is counterproductive; instead, they have learned that
motivating and empowering their workers to perform better is beneficial for the company
(Clarke et al., 2019). The manager encourages the followers to embrace an elevated level of
intelligence and critical thinking individually, the leaders practice this approach to promote and
stimulate their followers’ creativity. Also, the workers who think wisely, and independently are
encouraged to develop, and learning is highly appreciated. Additionally, educational
opportunities occur in unexpected situations (Antonakis & Day, 2017). El Gendi (2017)
explained that followers are expected to seek clarifications, brainstorm, and come up with
innovative ideas for moving the organization to the next level this style of motivation and
empowerment, is key to exploring the workers’ production level, and the potential for the benefit
of the organization.
Inspirational Motivation
The third component of transformational leadership is Inspiration. Leaders have elevated
expectations and promote their workers to help realize the goals and objectives established by the
organization. The transformational leader utilizes effective techniques of communication to help
make sure that the workers understand the set tasks and expected outcomes (Antonakis & Day,
2017). The advancement in technology has contributed to the improvement of managerial
communication in most organizations, which has continued to encourage the scrutiny of
managers’ or supervisors’ contribution to the organizational performance and success of the
company (Hill et al., 2017). The leader articulates an inspiring and appealing vision to their
followers. Inspiring leaders challenge their followers with high performance, speak positively
about future goals, and appreciate their followers for the job well done. The workers need to
have a desire to advance to the next level for them to be motivated to perform better, e.g., having
a purpose gives the energy the group needs to move ahead (Steinmann et al., 2018). Generally,
inspirational leaders have high expectations and empower their workers to achieve established
goals and objectives. The transformational leader utilizes effective techniques of communication
to help make sure that the workers understand the set tasks and expected outcomes (Hill et al.,
Idealized Influence
This is the fourth and final component of the transformational leader model, the
charismatic leader. Antonakis and Day, (2017) explained that the concept and purpose, of this
type of manager in the organization, is to convey to the employees, through inspiration, which
gains respect and trust of the workers; thus, being in the best interest of the organization.
Generally, this leadership style of managers demonstrates their ability to promote their followers,
helps motivate the employees, and improves their job satisfaction, thus increasing organizational
performance (Lee et al., 2018). This component of transformational leadership, known as the
idealized influenced leader, provides a role model for gaining trust, respect, and high ethical
behavior; this tool has enabled transformational leadership to spread to almost all sectors,
including governmental organizations (Bass, 1997). Del Nagro (2019) suggested that this type
of bold leader feels dignified with the belief that their underlings support their choices and have
their passion, these leaders tend to possess more skills, firmness, and resolution when faced with
adversity. This leaders’ character has attributes that are associated with control. This kind of
characteristic involves the leader taking risks and holding firm to their ideas concerning business
deals; also, they are determined and maintain a high level of morale. This leaders’ character has
traits that are associated with control; for example, taking risks, holding firm to their ideas
concerning business deals, self-determination, and maintaining a high sense of morals (ElZayaty, 2018).
Literature Review Related to Key Variables and/or Concepts
Leadership is an individual’s ability to motivate and support other workers in an
organization (Dunne et al., 2016). Obtaining the right individual is crucial since appropriate
administration is beneficial for any company, knowing the elements of what good leadership
consists of, and reviewing the current hypotheses of leadership has proven essential (Igbaekemen
& Odivwri, 2015). Ejimabo (2015) explained that the leadership role is significant when
gathering information for evaluation and gaining the worker’s opinion. The worker takes
responsibility for their actions and feels a sense of connection to the business. Ejimabo (2015)
also recognized that having the appropriate leadership and experience is an instrumental
approach, to linking to the organization to collaborate successfully with their workers.
Organizational employee performance is graded and assessed, then the goals set for the company
are accomplished. This implies that the productivity level of the industry is high (SHRM, 2017).
Thus, the general conclusion of worker understanding of leadership characteristics, and how they
impact workplace accomplishment is necessary. Today’s leadership has become more
competitive, secondary to, the environmental and technological changes that are happening
globally (Igbaekemen & Odivwri, 2015).
Bolden (2016) identified that effective leadership could change the employee into a
competent manager. The leadership style plays a significant role in the employee’s relationship
and their ability to obtain job satisfaction, work motivation, and employee performance
(Alghazo, & Al-Anazi, 2016). Vatankhah et al., (2017) determined that managers utilizing a
transformational leadership style were influential on their employees, which was successful for
organizations. A few of these unique characteristics include employees who could creatively
resolve issues promptly, work individually and in groups, interact efficiently, adjust to any
environment, and increase productivity and usefulness (Foreman et al., 2017). Igbaekemen and
Odivwri (2015) explained that the type of leadership style is significant for all organizations, and
the theoretical foundation showed this valuable relationship. However, Amanchukwu et al.
(2015) explained that before suggesting a leadership style for companies, researchers should
identify the most efficient approach and illustrate that a specific leadership style is beneficial for
organizations. Researchers must complete research to determine an effective and statistically
significant relationship between the type of leadership style and how to implement the goals of
the organization to the employees (Amanchukwu et al., 2015).
Sisco (2019) described, that excellent leadership is crucial to professionalism, this can be
expressed not only in their dispositions but their characteristics. He also explained that a leader
is shown disrespect, when they come to work portraying a poor appearance, present uncivil, or
offensive conduct, and is unable to set an example in the organization; thus, the leader must gain
the employee’s trust and admiration. If a leader wants their workers to react to trust, approval
must be a mutual transaction. If there is a lack of confidence displayed by the workers towards
their leader questions, it will consistently present certain phases of their assignment.
Additionally, they will not take any pride or responsibility for their work position (Li et al.
2019). The leader’s attitude influences employees. Poor leadership leads to low productivity
and inadequate service. The positivity displayed by the administrator is encouragement, and
enthusiasm is the role this position requires. Additionally, engagement and job responsibility are
welcomed in businesses. The leader who demonstrates signs of vulnerability, lack of interest,
poor work ethics, and indifference, passes this to workers and endangers the organization to the
point of failure (Harwell, 2018).
In a company, leaders are very noticeable. Maintaining a leading role encourages the
employees that the administrators are providing job security and responsibility in the
organization (Rainie & Anderson, 2017). Blanchard (2018) argues that understanding each
person’s requirements in the company generally ensures that they have the help they need to
accomplish their job responsibilities efficiently to meet the organization’s goals, which makes
sure workers know they are respected and regarded. The employee should know what is taking
place and gain recognition to improve their work performance and increase productivity in the
organization. The advice leaders contribute to their followers in the company must be reliable
and trustworthy towards the workers. Keeping information from the employees can cause
suspicion and distrust between the employee and the administrator. Many leaders are known to
take risks. However, they should be wary at times, when the company goals are not successfully
met (Bradley, 2018). Today’s leaders should recognize that they are no such thing as perfection.
Also, mistakes occur often, and the leader should be allowed to identify and correct them. Once
acknowledged the leader changes and proceeds to other objectives in the organization
(Blanchard, 2018).
Blanchard (2018) stated that many individuals assume leaders are born, and they do not
possess the ability to learn. The developing trend is leaders can learn crafts and practices that
will assist them, to lead an institution efficiently. In the school-based setting, many teachers who
practice well in their positions, are classed differently, and given opportunities to move to
supervisory statuses. However, they do not get the administration education that would assist
them to be successful in their specialized areas, such as School Psychologists, Individualized
Education Program (IEPs) instructors, and special education instructors. Yet these instructors are
pushed into supervisory positions with no managerial education (Warren, 2021). Marshall
(2019) researched those teachers who have experienced an injustice, which has prepared them
for disappointment. Fortunately, there are programs to assist teachers’ improvement of their
education. This frequently identifiable phenomenon has programs that are innovative and
proposed to address this demand. Serdyukov (2017) identified that there are colleges that have
designed managerial programs to invite teaching staff, using a short-term curriculum these
educational programs strive to implement the necessary talents they need to be triumphant in
their future positions. Also reported by Serdyukov (2017) is that some institutions have formed
programs in doctoral psychology, teacher, and leadership or created online programs for
convenience, and some private institutions have started in-house leadership education programs.
This learning style has become a popular source of learning with today’s fast-paced population
and will continue to grow due to the aging society. Additionally, leaders should continue to be
refreshed on the latest trends or changes to maintain that competitive edge with other
Transformational Leadership and Job Satisfaction
Researchers have identified the significance of transformational influence in improving
the job satisfaction of personnel in educational departments. Workers in the educational area
often operate in high-pressure settings (Kouni et al., 2018; Choi et al., 2016). Schwartz, (2017)
and Choi, et al., (2016) expressed that administrators’ who perform transformational practices
can ascertain a feeling of stability, and responsibility among the workers and improve job
satisfaction. The researchers also emphasized that teaching staff usually favor administrators
with transformational behaviors that seek to think about the employees’ individual needs. Silins
(1994), investigated in detail the relationship linking a transformational leader to the worker;
additionally, Lowe et al. (1996) and Vatankhah, et al., (2017) identified a distinct correlation
between transformational leadership and employee work productivity. The practices of the
transformational leader can influence job satisfaction through the worker’s opinions (Çakmak et
al., 2015). Transformational leaders in an organization enhance the expectation of employees
and acknowledge their productivity, which intensifies job satisfaction; in turn, the worker and the
leaders observe cognitive abilities and a sense of motivation (Antonakis & Day, 2017). The
transformational leader spurs a sense of responsibility, which encourages the worker’s dedication
and increased levels of job satisfaction (Choi et al., 2016).
Choi et al. (2016) describe job satisfaction as a prominent influence on the
transformational characteristics of a transformational administrator. The transformational leader
develops workers’ opinions and perceptions of their job, heightening the workers’ sense of job
satisfaction and preference, for example, through recognition, employee intelligence, and work
motivation. The transformational leader’s practiced role of responsibility gives the workers that
feeling of belonging. The expert levels of increased job satisfaction, if the position is ranked at a
higher level, is one of those examples. The research by Hetland et al., (2018) and Choi et al.,
(2016) implied the practice of transformational leadership management in an organization paves
the way for job satisfaction to transpire. Thus, the transformational leader provides the workers
with an adequate amount of appreciation, personal attention, and motivation required to inspire
job satisfaction. This is interpreted as job satisfaction and considered as the workers obtain
correlative transformation. The results gathered from the transformation, are reliable and are
valued by the organization.
Steinman et al. (2018) and Choi et al. (2016) suggested that what is undeniable is single
and group hypotheses of transformational leadership and their correlation to job satisfaction.
These leaders view their workers as a singular person of interest, and they value the ideas the
group formulates towards the goal of the organization. The characteristics of the
transformational administrators will envision and express to the individual or group. The
workers will then work towards that objective out of a sense of admiration, respect, and
responsibility. Due to the motivation and job satisfaction, one feels the type of transformational
leader. Thus, through emulation, motivation, and a sense of responsibility, the goals of the
organization are successfully met (Choi et al., 2016; Weaver, 2016). When people work within
groups interpersonal disagreements are minimized, and job satisfaction of individuals in a whole
team is inclined to demonstrate strength (SHRM, 2018). The significance of transformational
leadership to workers’ job satisfaction is not limited to a specific organizational framework.
Previous research shows that transformational characteristics transpire and intensify employees’
job satisfaction in multiple organizational environments. This comprises institutional, technical,
service, and missionary-type fields (Abelha et al., 2018; Choi et al. 2016). SHRM (2018) and
Blanchard (2018) found that participants demonstrate real opinions of transformational
perceptions by managers. The aim is to effectively respect and responsibly complete tasks on
time and achieve the organizational goals, which proves the worker feels job satisfaction.
The performance of the transformational leader in enhancing the workers’ organizational
responsibility and job satisfaction is a factor, which cannot be disputed (Ledgister, 2015). The
influence of transformational leadership is considered ever-changing and is necessary for people
who work in today’s electronic job environment, which is fast-changing, and technology-driven.
The employees in this setting are held responsible for the programs they create individually,
which enhances the desirability of the organization and its production levels. This raises
organizational loyalty and job satisfaction (SHRM, 2018; Bush, 2018). Beatty (2016) suggested
that environmental shifts occur where there is the practice of transformational leadership, and it
is vital to any company that is government based. This includes businesses that are recognized
as experiencing the least amount of organizational change, in this case, the public schools.
Similarly, a study by Amanchukwu et al., (2015) and Smith (2015) implied that hierarchical
administration procedures are demonstrated. The transformational leadership characteristics are
not restricted by the usually established limitations that are practiced in other businesses. These
companies can decide to replace management even if, their authoritative type of encouragement
towards their workers restrains the transformational leadership behaviors.
Transformational Leadership and Work Motivation
Bass (1985) in his work, claimed that transformational leaders motivate their
subordinates using rationalized thought processes. The motivation of employees was further
emphasized by Asrar-ul-Haq and Kuchinke (2016), who claimed that employees get motivated
when they are involved in the decision-making process, in their respective departments, which
enhances the attainment of their departmental goals. Transformational leaders need to groom
and encourage a culture of sharing ideas and skills among the staff members. This was vital for
the attainment of organizational goals and objectives as researched by Abashian (2017). The
managers need to ensure fair and equitable allocation of tasks or duties among the workers to
build good relationships between the team members. Antonakis and Day (2017) suggested that
this strategy goes a long way in ensuring organizational productivity. Previous studies on
transformational leadership have found that transformational leadership has a definite positive
effect on employee motivation (Jiang et al., 2017).
Transformational Leadership and Employee Performance
The history of employee performance in the areas of marketing, management, and
psychology was defined as; the contribution of the worker’s skills and organizational influence
in which he/she contributes and performs adequately towards the organizational goals.
(Blanchard, 2018). Buil et al. (2019) and Jiang et al., (2017) first connected employee
performance to the relationship between transformational leader performance; following this,
research carried out resulted in the connection of multiple aspects of employee performance and
the transformational leader. The interpretation of Jiang et al., (2017) and Choi et al., (2016)
analysis of employee performance and transformational leadership performance demonstrated
the effectiveness of actions that contributed to business performance. Employee performance
and contextual projects add to organizational effectiveness by developing the communicative and
educational settings that catalyze employee actions and characteristics. In the job market, there
is a demand for skilled labor. The amount of productivity in an organization is estimated by the
performance of the employees, which is better for the worker’s job performance and generally
determines the level of job satisfaction. Kamau (2017) also identified that workers’ production
levels are at their highest during starting of their hiring phase, which concludes that the level of
job satisfaction and job motivation can eventually be affected if there is a change in leadership or
poor leadership, due to, that change. Thus, the level of job satisfaction negatively impacts the
goals of the company, which sequentially affects performance outcomes (Abubaha, 2019).
Jiang et al. (2017) explained that a significant part of employee performance is the
relationship formed between the transformational leader and their workers; this generates focus
and sustainability towards project supervision. The employee sustainable performance theory
emphasized in this study referred to the worker’s increased growth and sustainability, which was
contributed to the company’s development and progress towards its objectives, by enhancing
employee production. Heerwagen et al. (2017) explained, that when employees feel responsible,
they fulfill their duties, and they achieve and sustain growth. When employees commit to the
sustainable growth of project companies that support organizational practices, these businesses
ensure that their workers maintain commitment and responsibility. Steinmann et al. (2018)
asserted that numerous studies prove that the correlation between the transformational leader and
employee performance is successful, and the studies show that the transformational leader has a
positive effect on employee work performance. Thus, the theory of transformational leadership
style is best suited for improved employee performance.
Many organizations should utilize the transformational leadership type of management to
motivate their workers Bass (1985), also maintained that transformational leadership encourages
believers to face ensuing difficulties and overcome any obstacles that arise. Each result that
occurs in a company is different because of the various objectives and what is required to meet
them; thus, the transformational leader must encourage their employees to achieve these goals by
any means possible. These objectives must be met by skilled workers that have to work
independently and responsibly. Allen et al. (2016) discussed that transformational leaders must
instill and promote leadership qualities in their employees. Transformational leaders function as
both teachers and mentors. An individualized relationship supports the engagement of team
members regardless of the differences, each member of the team demonstrates. Initially, a
transformational leader is involved personally with each employee daily, even though the job
skills are different. The transformational leader provides instances for the employee to grow in
his/her area of expertise. The SHRM (2018) additionally, explained that the transformational
leader guides the project, and consciously fosters the spirit of group unity; while encouraging the
workers to cooperatively engage with each other to reach the company’s objectives. This also
attributes to the employees’ work performance, promotes growth, and it allows the ability to
become an expert in the chosen field. Meeting the goals of the organization is an essential part
of the transformational leader, it shows their influence, and the ability to increase employee
Summary and Transition
This review of the literature set the basis for the comprehensive research while
highlighting the hypotheses that existed, for the gaps in the literature concerning the
determinants associated with the relationship of the transformational leadership style to job
satisfaction, work motivation, and employee performance, expressly, examining factors such as
extrinsic motivation factors. Additionally, the social role hypothesis suggested that management
did have an impact on individuals, and similarly, leadership theories proposed that particular
styles influenced workers’ behaviors (Walker, 2015). Also, laying the groundwork for this
review was the investigation of empirical studies relating to the work environment to either
confirm or deny, leadership theories the proposed literature showed how individuals are
motivated to perform.
There has been very little research conducted specifically on the influence of a leader’s
style that links to satisfaction, motivation, or performance of the employee(s) (Igbaekemen &
Odivwri, 2015). Perhaps, the most critical part of this literature review was its classification of
the speculations of the transformational leadership style, and the reality of how each highlighted
determinant can magnify or lessen the worker’s level of satisfaction, motivation, or performance.
On the matter of success, both the leader and their distinct leadership style could be, regarded as,
more useful than the other, Jiang et al. (2017), Asrar-ul-Haq and Kuchinke (2016), and Xenikou
(2017), and multiple other studies, infer that the use of the transformational leadership style, can
enhance different areas of a company’s efficiency. To study the role of leadership style in public
or private organizations, Li et al. (2019), inferred that the predominance of the transformational
leadership style notably surpassed the existence of other leadership styles.
The review started in the Purpose of the Study section, of why the study methodology
needed to identify the relationship between transformational leadership and job satisfaction,
work motivation, and employee performance, and the foundation of this study started in the
theoretical foundation. In the Theoretical Foundation section, I presented the transformationalleadership theory by Burns (1978) and Bass (1985), which discusses that transformational
leaders experience shared goals in the organization. The quantitative method this study is based
on is explained in the section labeled Nature of the Study, which includes the rationale for using
the chosen methodology, the design, and the survey instruments. Chapter 3 outlines the Research
Methodology used for this study, starting with the summary of the Research Design, the rationale
behind its use, the Population and Sample, the Research Questions and Hypotheses, the Data
Collection Process, the Data Analysis Process, and finally the Validity and Reliability issues for
the research.
Chapter 3: Research Method
The objective of this quantitative correlational study was to assess the relationship
between manager transformational leadership style and the outcome variables of employee job
satisfaction, work motivation, and employee performance. In this study, I examined the four
main components of transformational leadership and their influence on the outcome of the used
variables. Studying how job satisfaction, work motivation, and employee performance correlate
to transformational leadership can help leaders understand leadership styles in organizations, as
well as the appropriateness of using the transformational leadership style in an organization.
Thus, the objective of this quantitative study was to examine the transformational leadership
style utilized by leaders in an organization.
This chapter presents a review of the research methodology I used to examine the
influence of the transformational leadership style. I described the measurement tools, discussed
reliability and validity, and reviewed how the presented information was gathered and studied.
This chapter covered a summary of the research design, research questions, and rationale, the
data collection in the study, the methodology, and the issues of validity, and reliability, in
addition to the steps used to preserve the privacy of the information obtained.
Research Design and Rationale
To conduct the proposed research, I used a nonexperimental design; this research strategy
was most appropriate because it identified the relationship between the construct of
transformational leadership style and employee job satisfaction, work motivation, and
performance. Jackson (2017) explained that all four elements of the transformational leadership
including, idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and
individualized consideration are essential for leaders to effectively execute and maintain desired
results organizations that they run.
In this study, I focused on three well-defined goals: (a) to identify the degree to which
transformational leadership is exercised concerning job satisfaction in an organization, (b) to
distinguish the control of the relationship between the transformative leadership style and work
motivation in the organization, and (c) to examine the transformational leadership style variable
and the link to employee performance in the organization. Thus, the main research question
posed for this study was: Do the individual facets of a transformational leadership style
significantly predict job satisfaction, work motivation, and employee performance in an
organization? The four associated hypotheses that examined were:
H01: The idealized influence facet of a transformational leadership style does not
significantly predict job satisfaction, work motivation, and employee performance in an
Ha1: The idealized influence facet of a transformational leadership style significantly
predicts job satisfaction, work motivation, and employee performance in an organization.
H02: The intellectual stimulation of the individual facet of a transformational leadership
style does not significantly predict job satisfaction, work motivation, and employee
performance in an organization.
Ha2: The intellectual stimulation of the individual facet of a transformational leadership
style does significantly predict job satisfaction, work motivation, and employee
performance in an organization.
H03: The inspirational motivation facet of a transformational leadership style does not
significantly predict job satisfaction, work motivation, and employee performance in an
Ha3: The inspirational motivation of a transformational leadership style significantly
predicts job satisfaction, work motivation, and employee performance in an organization.
H04: The individualized consideration facet of a transformational leadership style does
not significantly predict job satisfaction, work motivation, and employee performance in
an organization.
Ha4 The individualized consideration facet of a transformational leadership style
significantly predicts job satisfaction, work motivation, and employee performance in an
This study’s population consisted of teaching and office-based employees working in the
education industry, which is diverse and inclusive, a representation from the entire group of
professionals may assist in, theorizing about teaching specialists’ information. A representation
of the aggregated components of teaching professionals is beneficial for this kind of research.
The schools are in the public sector, with some institutions being private.
Power Analysis
Based on Coxet al.’s (2018) concept of statistical power there was a correlation between
the representation size, and the power of the research rising with a growth in the population size.
Realistically, the smallest power of research is said to be 80%; therefore, the sample size
estimation is essential for planning a research protocol (Meyers et al., 2016). Also, Meyers et al.
(2016) stated that after the research, a subsequent power analysis is beneficial, particularly when
a statistically, but not notable outcome is achieved. When the real population size and alpha
levels were identified, and the variance recognized in the unit, it presented an assessment of the
variance of the group. A power analysis was carried out before the computation of the minimum
sample size for the study (see Figure 2).
The number of people needed for results that were targeted for the population to detect an
effect, using G*Power to assess the number of participants. The calculated participants for this
study ranged as Anticipated effect size (f2): 0.15, statistical power level: 0.87, Number of
predictors: 4, Probability level: 0.05, Minimum required sample size of 95. The desired sample
size of 100 participants: however, 97 responded fully. 125 participants were contacted to ensure
the appropriate sample size was obtained to conduct this research.
Figure 2.
X-Y Plot for a range of values
I used G*Power 3.1.2 software to enhance the computation for the minimum sample size.
To determine the minimum sample size, a power analysis requires assumed values for the Type I
error, effect size, and power in addition to the number of predictor variables; however, it was
recommended that the effect size should be small, and power should be high for quantitative
studies, and the Type I error should be less than or equal to α this was suggested by Perugini,
Gallucci, and Costantini (2018). G*Power was a free operating program utilized to assess
statistical power, and the application provides the capability to determine the power for a broad
category of statistical tests, which comprises t tests, F tests, and chi-square tests.
Saleh and Bista, (2017) stated that although sampling might be helpful, the response rate
to questionnaires is usually lower, with a range between 15% and 30%. This research employed
a convenience sample of all the workers and their respective managers/supervisors in the
organizations and acknowledged the members of the study who were similar in the areas of job
position, education level, and skill performance. The research consisted of both employees who
were full-time from both private and public organizations. The members selected were emailed
recruitment packets, which included an invitation, consent, and participant letter.
The participants selected were generated by a personal email address database, which
was the basis for the snowball sampling approach. The survey sent to the staff and participating
managers, or supervisors contained all information and details of the research.
There were
several steps employed when carrying out this study; for example, this study selected individuals
using the tools suggested, emailing the link for the questionnaires, and interpreting the
information gathered. The recruiting participants were those individuals who were employed in
various organizational settings and had a working association with their prevailing administrators
who were selected to participate. The leaders, supervisors, or management were gathered using
convenience sampling from the public and private schools employing a snowball sampling
method. Over the many years that I worked in education; I have compiled a database of personal
contact lists of email addresses consisting of at least 125 educators to get the desired minimum of
100 responses. These employee email addresses database is the foundation for the snowball
sampling approach. Hence participants were asked to forward the email to other workers that
meet the inclusion criteria, a current teacher in any institution. The packets included a full
explanation of the research confidentiality, voluntary participation, tools applied, and the time
and date of the survey. Tools provided for this study were online questionnaires, the participants
filled out their responses anonymously by not including their names on the questionnaire as
suggested by Holcomb (2017).
The participants answered the questions they felt comfortable with, and they were
advised on how their information would be handled and stored. The employees chosen for this
research were currently working either in local government or public institutions. Undergoing
phenomena for the delimitations for participant inclusion were required based on information
gathered schemes applied for this research. Determinant criteria not included were the subject’s
gender, ethnicity, race, and years of duty. The inclusionary rule demanded by participants as
part of the research was signing the informed consent forms.
Procedures for Recruitment, Participation, and Data Collection Strategy
All subjects chosen were full-time from various organizations. Sekaran and Bougie,
(2016) also mentioned that the researcher’s approval from the organizations’ management to
participate in the study by email, and in some cases, the researcher may be required to meet faceto-face with executive management and staff to present a study for approval (Sekaran, & Bougie,
2016). The SurveyMonkey website as a choice provided for easy formatting of questionnaires.
This site was chosen because of its accessibility and functionality to interpret data obtained either
as text or numbers in a form that is available for deciphering. SurveyMonkey offered more
suitable alternatives for creating surveys and gathering data than the conventional mailed survey.
Questionnaires that are created and managed via the Internet give more power over the order of
the details, as well as the assigned quantity of items the participant can see at any given moment
(SurveyMonkey, 1999). The participants Provided their perceptions and opinions on how they
think the transformational leadership style impacted employee motivation, job satisfaction, and
performance in the organization. Data transcription and analysis were required to check for any
errors; however, scheduling follow-up meetings ensured the accuracy of the translation of the
initial forms sent by SurveyMonkey after receiving questionnaire completion were not necessary.
Instrumentation and Operationalization of Constructs
Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. The study determined the correlation between
the transformational leadership style, as measured by the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire
(MLQ). The MLQ was utilized to discover the distinct style that a leader maintains it is a 35-item
survey, which measured the entire spectrum of transformational leadership styles (Avolio, &
Bass, 2004). The information from the questionnaires on transformational leadership consisted
of items on a five-point Likert scale from 1=Strongly Disagree to 5=Strongly Agree to quantify
the variable. Job satisfaction, employee performance, and job motivation (Criterion Variables)
questionnaires consisted of 5 items from the same five-point Likert scale from 1=Strongly
Disagree to 5=Strongly Agree to quantify these variables while focusing on the targets being
various organizations’ populations (Naeem, & Khanzada, 2018). Muenjohn and Armstrong,
(2008) implied that the nine-factor design seems to be the most desirable analytical construct that
depicts the newest form of the MLQ whether it examined a large sample in the Bass and Avolio
research (n = 1,394) or a small sample of the current study of 100 (n = 100). Although some
leadership factors are significantly correlated to each other; for example, among the five factors
of transformational leadership, these determinants can measure their managerial constructs
(Muenjohn & Armstrong, 2008).
The questionnaire was the principal method for this research. Bass’s (1985) MLQ was
utilized to gauge the views of employees or subordinates to their leaders, and the principal
determinant that forms a possible threat to the internal and external validity of these applications
is the sampling methods applied in the numerous studies. However, the MLQ’s volunteer
determinant of the employees from other research poses choice threats to the outcome, which
cannot be overlooked; for example, the halo effect if the workers decided to make their superiors
look like the perfect boss, they may be the ones, who may want to participate in the study (Haga,
2016). Additionally, the lack of instrumentation compatibility may diminish the overall validity
of the outcomes; another possibility that may occur when using the MLQ is when resulting
variances of two or more constructs are included by one rater (Roth et al., 2016). The program is
offered on the internet once purchased.
Job Satisfaction Scale. The variable job satisfaction scale (JSS), measures five key
viewpoints of job satisfaction, which organizations identify as significant, the job position,
wages, advancement, administration, and peers (Haas, 2015). The JSS comprises 36 parts to
assess job satisfaction these are – Disagree very much, disagree moderately, disagree slightly,
agree slightly, agree moderately, agree very much, the greater amount on the scale shows a
powerful inclination toward job satisfaction (Warr et al., 1979). This questionnaire was applied
to assess nine dimensions of the overall link to job satisfaction. This tool was preferred over the
use of other job satisfaction scales. To take the test, the participants answered 36 items or 4
items for each of the nine subscales, each item had a selection between ‘strongly disagree’ to
‘strongly agree’ this comprises six choices in all, which the participants must answer (Robinson,
2018). For research, the foundation for concurrent validity is regarded as satisfactory at 0.50 or
higher, or a sub-scale equivalence scale of at least 0.50 (Dessart et al., 2016). The most
significant weakness that may transpire from the use of the JSS, in this quantitative study was
that it may not support serious investigative questions concerning complicated leadership
situations, which Warr et al. (1979) also, agreed. A free sample was downloaded online for use
with this research. For this study, the JSS was used, prior researchers have examined, replicated,
and utilized this instrument, determined that this was reliable, and found it to be an active device
to test employee job satisfaction Batura et al., (2016), Hall (2018), and Lee (2017), established
that the JSS is a reliable tool for evaluating, item determination, item examination, and
measurement on a range of 36-items.
Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Scale. The Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic
Motivation Scale (WEIMS) was used to measure work motivation. This was an 18-item scale,
that measures work motivation, this theoretical self-determination system, ranged on a sevenpoint Likert scale from, ‘does not correspond at all, to corresponds exactly’ (Deci & Ryan,
2000). The 18 items of the WEIMS are then divided into three subscales each consisting of six
items, the purpose of the subscales ascertains if intrinsic, and extrinsic motivations included any
significant proportions (Howard et al., 2017). The WEIMS subscales were generated from the
study of literature concerning intrinsic, and extrinsic motivations, factor analysis, and retesting
(Raufelder & Hoferichter, 2015). The objective of the present study is duplex, (a) firstly, the
utilization and evaluation of the WEIMS in various work conditions, (b) secondly, the
assessment of its factorial composition and psychometric properties (Pedroni-Pereira et al.,
If properly implemented, work climate, organizational commitment, job satisfaction,
work strain, and turnover interactions, can be measured. However, the users may welcome the
diminished response burden, which provides a broader range of professional growth and
assistance; notably, correlations of the WEIMS can be high, reliable evidence of validity, and
being acknowledged when applying the original instrument (Abashian, 2017). The factorial
composition of the WEIMS is analyzed by confirming the factor examination. The six
motivational subscales evaluate the internal cohesion, and the construct validity of the WEIMS is
measured by performing the correlation between an individual item, and the relationships
between the subscales (Posch et al., 2019). For work motivation, the participants concluded the
18-item WEIMS, which was divided into three-item six subscales that respond to the six classes
of motivation posited by the self-determination hypothesis (Posch, et al., 2019). For example,
intrinsic motivation, integrated, identified, introjected and external regulations, and motivation.
The WEIMS is a theoretically grounded 18-item model hypothesis of work motivation
self-determination (Posch, et al., 2019). By applying the WEIMS’s three indexes; (work selfdetermination index, work self-determined, and non-self-determined motivation) sequentially,
the effects of regression examinations are supportive of its capability to predict positive, and
negative characteristics in the work environment. Subsequently, its quasi-simplex pattern and
connections with psychology correlate with the additional support of the self-determination
continuum (Hawke, 2019). This can also be applied to assess behavioral patterns of motivation,
individual characteristics, opinions, and habits which are also incorporated and used and
comparable to the MLQ (Akwuole, 2017). The WEIM supports a good test-retest reliability,
influential internal compatibility, and durability, previous research has validated the criteria of
the WEIM, and the MLQ’s internal consistency reliability (Bolarinwa, 2015; Rosa, Galliani, &
Vianello, 2015). The Employee Performance Scale (EPS) reliability research on individuals,
reported notable internal consistency on the entire measure (a = 0.80) simultaneously including
three subscales from (0.80 to 0.91). The chosen framework proposes a comprehensive
perception of the characteristics and innuendoes of employee performance (Pradhan, & Jena,
2017). The program is offered on the internet once purchased.
Employee Performance Scale. For the employee performance variable, the Employee
Performance Scale (EPS) consists of a 38-item scale with indicators of task performance=12,
adaptive performance=12, and contextual performance=14. It is simple to apply a psychometric
tool that encompasses the ability to be utilized in organizational performance, administration
services, examination, and practice. The purpose of the EPS is to cross-validate various societies
with many customs, which incorporate opinions from managers, focused group study with
peered personnel, and individual worker meetings (Pradhan & Jena, 2017). Additionally,
Pradhan and Jena (2017) explained that the designed framework allows a complete opinion of
the character and distinctions of employee performance and the reasons for improving employee
The initial dimension of this tool is, the performance of work, which comprises 5 items,
and the next dimension, planning work, which has 5 items, the third dimension, creativity, and
innovation, has 6 items, and the final dimension making efforts comprises 7 items. This gives a
total of 23 items for the questionnaire for measuring employee performance (Tabouli et al.,
2016). The work factor of the storing composite reliability and the average variance extracted is
used to identify the concurrent validity; thus, if it is equal to or greater than 0.5 (Tabouli, et al.,
2016). The EPS research utilizes rigorous research techniques to give the primary information
the necessary data to present a generalized conclusion towards the validity of the intended depth
of the variables of employee performance; this tool was formulated to survey the level of
employee performance and was verified in the Indian production and business setting (Pradhan
& Jena, 2017). The below types of validity are explained for a deeper understanding of what the
researcher may choose to use when verifying an instrument. A copy of the test is provided in the
textbook provided by Ahamed (2014), which provides forms and templates for researchers.
Data Analysis Plan
The characteristics of this research did not require the utilization of any experimental
designs (e.g., pretests, intervention). All information was put into SPSS for Windows. Wagner
(2016) suggested that descriptive statistics should be used to summarize the sample
demographics and research when the variables for analyses in a study calculate the frequencies
and percentages for nominal data; for example, the estimates for the means, and standard
deviations for continuous data of the transformational leadership amounts, and job-satisfaction
scores. For this study, the approach using the model of predictive questions model, with multiple
regression was applied.
The focal point was on job satisfaction, work motivation, and employee…
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