The description for this project is to choose a specific issue in the any specific organization and how they come up with the solution for that issue and use the attached documents as a blueprint and follow the steps to solve the issue and explain it in the given APA format for the given heading in the documents in around 11 to 14 pages and also the power point presentation.
deliver a great presentation, one should concentrate
not on the content, but on the way of delivering it. Very
often a presenter should avoid mistakes as follows:
1) Do not wrap one leg around the other
Frequently touching any part of the face (nose,
mouth, ears ) or small objects
not swallow very often
Standing with hands clasped behind the back
More annoying mannerisms
Speakers who flicker in front of the screen while giving information
Reading out the slides word for word and making every slide the
Turning your back to the audience and talking to the PowerPoint
presentation on the screen instead
Running to the laptop to change slides (James, 2017)
Speaking monotonously and boring
General recommendations to make a successful presentation
Prepare properly, deliver appropriate content, and speak loudly.
Careful planning is always a formula for success.
Keep your content clear and brief, and choose corresponding visuals.
Practice your speaking regularly at home to avoid rash delivery.
An audience is engaged when you are using gestures, body language and
eye contact to make your speech more emotional.
Try to calm own and be relaxed.
From the beginning to the end of
the objectives and aims of your presentation.
speakers use a humorous pun or a
provocative statement to attract attention of
you should present your arguments and
further development of the story
presenters know the importance of first impression
well as working hard to prepare a successful presentation, you
also need to consider your style and the impression you make on the
wisely: do not let your appearance divert from what your
for the situation. If it is a professional meeting, a presentable
appearance is expected.
strident colors or prints that can distract from listening
As a presenter, it is your responsibility to make the audience remains
engaged and interested.
not ignore the power of details
You need to fully realize that every detail counts in delivering a
rapport with your audience and showing your passion
is a key for building trust and passion means that you are
interested in the subject.
message that your performance sends
what your presentation can teach people.
on your bullet points
eye contact and being in a good mood
and positive speaker can easily build comprehension.
Begin with a strong statement
first thing you say is the most important part. A powerful
proclamation can attract your audience’s attention and hold it long
dealing with a multiethnic audience:
not use difficult words. Use simple vocabulary
that would be understood by people with different
levels of English.
the culture, specific vocabulary, and
not ignore the handshake. Certain cultures have
different attitudes towards handshake. Some respect a
firm handshake, while others would consider it rude.
It is advised that every presentation should be specified for local
communities. One should have deep knowledge of customs, traditions, and
in particular understanding of the business culture.
Try to learn local languages for simple communication. People will
appreciate your interest and attitude.
Think about your image and how people perceive you. Sometimes how
you look and how you sell yourself is more important than what you say.
Make sure that your Asian audience understands what you say as English is
not their first language. Present brief yet detailed messages.
Arabic, African, and South European
audiences are influenced by non-verbal
information such as body language, eye contact, and
other visual cues.
context of the audience and environment can
provide one with understanding on how to behave and
these audiences are an example of high-context
culture, very little must be explicitly transferred
Northern Europeans, Scandinavians
audiences represent low-context cultures in
which information should be explained in detailed.
clues should not be used, everything
should be provided explicitly, in words
is important to segment and segregate information
C. (2017). Are These The 10 Most Irritating
Presentation Mannerisms?. Find The Edge.
to make presentations. (2017). Kent.ac.uk.
D. (2017). 10 Mannerisms That Can Kill an
Effective Presentation. Public Speaking Tips from
997 Ways To Be A Great Speaker. from
Running head: CHANGE MANAGEMENT
The Effect and Management of Change in Organizations
Table of Contents
The Effect and Management of Change in Organizations
Continued advances in technology and globalization have transformed the way
businesses are conducted across the world. Rapid technological change ensures that new
products and services come up faster than demands for them are created. Alongside, as nations
develop and get richer, new markets emerge, creating opportunities for businesses around the
world. Such changes have been the driving force for today’s business organization to be agile
so as to remain relevant in their domains and thus remain in business (Okenda, Thuo, &
Kithinji, 2017). External changes demand internal changes; thus, to survive in any given
environment, organizations must accommodate change. Easy access of knowledge to
spearhead organization changes is foundational for such crucial endeavors. However, other
environmental factors, such as political and sociological factors, influence what kind of
change is implemented. A review of organizational policies and operations must be
considered before carrying out any change (Janssen, Wimmer, & Deljoo, 2015).
Organizations must prepare well and put considerable effort to succeed in carrying out and
managing change. Willing participation of all stakeholders is paramount to efficient change
The change process in an organization is not devoid of challenges. Change is always a
difficult thing for any organization to sell to its stakeholders, in particular employees. The low
success rate in change management is a discouraging factor for any organization planning
change. Also, the manner in which change is implemented dictates its success or failure. In
some cases, organizations tend to rush in with change initiatives without in-depth
comprehension and end up losing focus along the way. In some other cases, organizations are
overwhelmed by change concepts, which put them in very volatile and risky situation.
Equally, change implementers overlook the implications of change and thus lack the
structures in place to manage such limitations (Okenda, Thuo, & Kithinji, 2017). To achieve
success in a change endeavor, it is imperative for the leadership to factor in focus, sufficient
knowledge, preparedness, and well-laid-out structures within the system. Thus, an effective
organizational leadership is essential in achieving success in any change initiative.
As much as some organizations are opposed to change, global business dynamics often
make it inevitable. Failure to adapt to the forces of globalization and technological innovation
will lead to extinction of businesses, unless they adapt to the new realities. Organizational
policies in this respect are no longer relevant as businesses have to survive in their highly
competitive domains, let alone prosper (Janssen, Wimmer, & Deljoo, 2015). Today’s
businesses need to grapple with change, in terms of ideas, policies, operations, and
technology, on a regular basis. Market dynamics, workforce demographics, and social values
demand changes in policies and operations of businesses (Okenda, Thuo, & Kithinji, 2017).
To avoid closure and irrelevance in the business environment, organizations are left without
options. The inability to effect change has left the business trailing their competitors in
performance. Delay in adoption of change will result in them being edged out by their
competitors. Organization competitiveness, therefore, is majorly determined by its degree of
response to changes in its operational environment.
Besides, continued use of old methods and policies has proved detrimental. Businesses
are left in a weak position to cope with emerging market challenges such as stagnant demand,
product and operational obsolescence, needs to adopt new technologies, and marketing
innovations, among others. Therefore, it is evident that change is important for the continued
success of any business. For this, improved frameworks for change initiative and development
are needed, which will ensure enhanced business survival and competitive capabilities. To
create a competitive advantage, leaders have to understand the key issues and policies that
require attention and effect change in them (Janssen, Wimmer, & Deljoo, 2015). Similarly,
establishing a framework for readiness to change will determine how effectively the
organizations can exploit the emerging economic opportunities.
Change implementation in any organization requires a coordinated effort from all
stakeholders. Furthermore, there must be an organization-wide agreement on objectives and
goals for a successful change application. According to Okenda, Thuo and Kithinji (2017),
attentive planning and articulate engagement of objectives by organizational leaders is a must
to ensure understanding and acceptance of the need for change in consideration of business
viability and competitiveness advantage. Interestingly, to achieve success in change efforts,
often change of leadership is inevitable. Additionally, change adoption requires caution as it
has both negative and positive implications. To avoid the negative ones, appropriate change
management is needed to counter any change resistance that can surface. Employee resistance
is a common roadblock to change in organizations. The acknowledgement of a possible
confrontation with employees and steps to navigate it are pivotal to the successful
implementation of change in an organization (Hayes, 2018). Therefore, an efficient change
management technique is called for to tackle turbulence and unpredictability in the work
environment, which might scupper the entire change exercise.
Perpetuity and survival of organizations is dependent on their response to change and
adaptability. Letting go of the traditional and familiar organization traditions and embracing
the unknown and untried aspects in business can be fearsome but exciting too. When change
has knocked, it is unstoppable and, therefore, inescapable. Generally, change entails alteration
of the structures of an organization. Such modifications affect processes of management,
policies, operations, human resources, marketing, and a myriad of activities. As much as
change promises growth, competitiveness, and business survival, its implementation requires
apt planning and execution lest it causes adverse implications. According to Doppelt (2017),
development of new knowledge and training of employees is essential to success of change
implementation. Moreover, the transition from the current mode and system of operation to
the new one requires time and a well thought-out framework. Problems addressed by change
ought to be clearly identified to ensure that the right change is adopted. Additionally, smooth
transition and implementation of change demand effective and continued communications to
all stakeholders involved in the realization of change. Initiators of change should clearly
communicate their vision and have in place a change management structure to deal with any
Changes in policies and operations in an organization are meant for progress and not
chaos in the workplace. Changes are meant to put the business in a better position than before
to grow or venture into new areas as well as to create a more enabling environment for
employees (Okenda, Thuo, & Kithinji, 2017). In a globalized world, even the smallest
organizations and businesses are not immune to changes; the important thing is to be able to
embrace change. Lack of change results in poor business performances and jeopardizes
growth. Research has found several systemic limitations that exist in most organizations
effecting change. Studies have also depicted a myriad of emerging challenges that impedes
successful change implementation. Research has also enumerated the setbacks to change,
given a resistance to change adoption. While several studies have tackled issues of change
management in government sectors, few studies have been done on the effect and
management of change in organizations.
Description of the Problem
Studies have shown that organizations routinely face challenges in their change
processes. Several firms still succeed while many more failed in carrying out change that was
profitable. This points to a limitation in organizations to adopt change, which is mainly a
result of challenges in change management (Okenda, Thuo, & Kithinji, 2017). Failure to
successfully implement change is an indication of lack of suitable frameworks governing the
change process. Organizational change requires counterintuitive insights and in-depth
evaluations of managerial discretions and employee responses. A key contributor to change
implementation failure is resistance of participants. Failure of coordination between change
initiators and other participants results in setbacks. Studies have shown that the initial reaction
of policy change is resistance. Mostly, the resistance is from the employees. Therefore, until
all the change participants are convinced of the need for change in an organization, the
implementation process will not be without challenges.
Change is always accompanied the modification of, often disruption in, established
structures within the organization, which affects normal operations. Such alteration of the
usual flow of operations affects all who are involved but differently, depending upon the roles
they play in the old setup and new. Therefore, the interruptions affect their performance. As
such, before they adapt to the new system, several challenges may erupt. To begin with, the
performances of the employees may lag because they are unaccustomed to the new system.
Also, different expectations and behaviors may trigger resistance to the new system. New
practices, procedures, policies, equipment, software and operation systems require an intrinsic
and comprehensive change management structure (Okenda, Thuo, & Kithinji, 2017). Change
management is important to help reduce the negative consequences of the new modes of
operation. Addressing both the negative and positive effects of change require fundamental
process management to attain success.
The general objective of this study is to establish the effects and management of
change in an organization.
In essence, change involves reconceptualization of old ways of working in an
organization for new ones, often a new way of thinking. Also, change entails incorporation of
new market ideas, methodologies, and practices. Studies have found change to be often a
fundamental organizational behavioral shift, influenced by internal and external
environmental forces. According to Okenda, Thuo, and Kithinji (2017), any change should
seek to address a particular problem in an organization. In other words, change must have
specific purposes to accomplish. Lack of direction and purpose will jeopardize the viability of
the organization and risks its survival in a competitive environment, apart from creating
several obstacles in its implementation. To enhance full support of all participants, especially
employees, it is necessary for change to be adaptive and a continuous process. Adaptability
and continuity ensure that employees embrace the new developments and reinforce their
efforts in support of the new organization direction.
Provision of opportunities for employees to participate in change initiatives is
essential. This is because employees are the key facilitators of change as also the key
implementers. It is the employees who are determinants of success or failure of any change
endeavor in an organization. As such, employees should be directly in management,
implementation, and facilitation of change (Wang et al., 2017). Researchers have
acknowledged that the main obstacles to change implementation are the employees and,
therefore, structures that will foster employee collaboration in change implementation are very
significant. To achieve success, organizations are required to exploit and develop resources
through robust leadership, vibrant communication, and appropriate coordination. Some
studies also denote change as a process of capacity building projected toward a review of
certain issues of concern. Moreover, change should seek to cover all stakeholders’ concerns in
consideration of their aspirations, values, fears, and behaviors.
Arguably, change is replacing the past with the future. It entails a process of setting
aside the old way of doing things and embracing new modes and processes of working, even
new ways of thinking. That journey of moving from known traditions to a largely unknown
future is not an easy matter. The uncertainty brought about by the adopted system affects the
output of employees. According to Okenda, Thuo, and Kithinji (2017), employees require
great deal of coping abilities and a strong sense of worth to be in a position to blend into the
new system. Therefore, some resistance is to be expected, and workers must be provided with
persuasive reasons why the change is necessary for the wellbeing of the entire organization
(Wang et al., 2017). Initiators of change must be very deliberate in adopting several strategies
to ensure full support of the change process. The change process requires inclusive
participation from all stakeholders. The use of the organization’s vision assists in developing a
shape of the future state of the organization in the minds of the participants, thereby helping
the mission to build a basis for change. Also, organizational culture impacts change
initiatives; sturdy leadership and communication are pillars in tempestuous phases of change
Most organizations, mainly in government and small private sectors, operate in a
state of no change. They are engraved in a situation of predictability, relative security, and
stability. In such environments, many organizations have no urge or inclination toward
embracing any kind of change. Researches have pointed out that organizations operating in
such a mindset were doomed to collapse sooner or later (Okenda, Thuo, & Kithinji, 2017).
Organizations in such mindset are left in a weak position to cope with emerging market
challenges such as stagnant demand, new technologies, new market innovations, and
operational obsolescence. Many studies also highlight that organizations functioning in such
setups are considered inefficient and ineffective in both performance and operation. It is clear
that for the success of these organizations, the general perspective must change. For these
organizations to survive and improve their performances, it is essential for them to have a
change mentality in their cultures, work values, and strategies, and for both employers and
employees to have a shared opinion of change. Proper coordination between employer and
employees and commitment of all participants toward change implementation are crucial to
the success of change adoption. Studies show that the link of cultures and systems enhanced
efficiency and effectiveness of commitment of participants involved in the change endeavor.
Furthermore, it is noted that the ultimate success is embedded in and hinges upon individual
effectiveness as well as group effectiveness.
An organization’s success of implementing change is reliant on the effectiveness of
individuals at a personal level or at a group level. At a personal level, employee effectiveness
in change implementation is faced several inhibitors. Knowledge, attitudes, work stressors,
and motivation affect how an employee will respond to change, which again will determine
their effectiveness (Okenda, Thuo, & Kithinji, 2017). Consequently, the combined effect of
these factors on each employee determines the effectiveness at group level. Furthermore, the
effectiveness of the group dictates the success rate of the organizational change
implementation. At a group level, leadership, roles, status, and cohesiveness contribute to its
effectiveness, and the effectiveness at group level influences the effectiveness of the entire
organization. Significantly, when the organization factors in issues such as environment, work
culture, strategies, and technology, it bolsters its chances of succeeding in change
Change management entails frameworks that focus on continual renewal of
organizational capabilities and structures to be in a position to meet changing demands. The
change process is a complex journey that is strongly associated with the organizational
strategy, which makes change management vital (Hayes, 2018). Ideally, all changes are meant
to improve the efficiency of organizations and their competitive advantage. However, as much
as change is beneficial to the organization, its implementation must happen while working
with resistance from some employees that are wary of their future. Therefore, successful
change implementation calls for readiness of change from all stakeholders involved in the
change process. According to Okenda, Thuo, and Kithinji (2017), readiness is more essential
than other factors to attain an effective change process. Change readiness is the cognitive
precursor of either support or resistance of the change process. It is embedded in the
participants’ attitudes and behaviors toward the change effort.
Besides, change readiness is integral to and also transformational in the change
process. It entails several aspects that are discussed here. To begin with, the topmost factor is
the vision for change that must be clearly communicated to all stakeholders to ensure
collective support. The second is mutual trust and respect, where change initiators must
adhere to all stakeholders’ concerns in the process of change implementation (Monteiro et al.,
2017). Third, change initiatives must dictate comprehensive consultation at every stage. All
participants must be consulted during the inception of a change process. Fourth, management
and leadership support is essential in the provision of adequate resources to facilitate the
change process and to ensure stability during the turbulent phases of change implementation.
Finally, the perception toward the change process is deemed the most important aspect of
change readiness. The reason for its importance is due to its ability to discover the cause/s of
resistance. As discussed earlier, employees are pivotal to the success of change
implementation. As a result, their perception of the change effort is very influential and has
the potential to influence the success or failure of the entire exercise. Thus, employees’
attitude and knowledge of the change effort is key to change readiness and effective
Studies have shown change management to be a response to change in a systematic
fashion. It is the organization control of change in line with its destined direction. Other
researches depict that structures and organizational culture has a way of controlling the
organization, direction, and operation. Interestingly, globalization has affected how
organizations manage their change in modern times (Okenda, Thuo, & Kithinji, 2017). As a
result, change management or control has become a very laborious task. Furthermore,
globalization has subjected the aspects of change to numerous hazards. The way to manage
change process necessitates an amicable review. According to Janssen, Wimmer, and Deljoo
(2015), change management requires an apt framework that will foster the continued survival
and thriving of a business in a dynamic environment. Resultant forces of globalization, such
as the worldwide breakdown of socialism, advanced technological innovation, and
international economic integration, have to be dealt with tactically. Therefore, these forces
and the ever-increasing pace of trade and commerce brought about by globalization demands
businesses engaging in change effort to effectively instill change and manage the process
This study requires the qualitative methodology. Qualitative research is appropriate
for inquiries that seek to capture the current realities of a particular situation. The method
allows scrutiny of human undertakings in gathering of data through spoken or written words.
The research design used is the case study method. This method is appropriate when
seeking to understand a particular scenario in great depth. This method is useful when seeking
information from an organizational setting. The case study design is useful in sourcing out the
effect of change and how change has been managed in a particular organization. The method
is suited to identify the change management mechanisms in use.
Study of Population
The people used for the study were the employees of Royal Dutch Shell plc, one of
the top six global oil and gas companies, which has experienced major change in recent times.
Data collection involved the survey method where interviews are used as the main
instrument of gathering information.
To obtain in-depth of data, considerable time is needed as well as finances, which are
the key limiting factors of this study. To have a strong foundation and findings that may be
applicable widely, the study ought to be diversified across public and private organizations.
Collecting a wide range of information will provide a comprehensive scope with deeper
understanding of effects and management of change. Advanced methodologies, such as
qualitative longitudinal design, would be more suited to gather in-depth data. Additionally, the
unwillingness of respondents to cooperate and the use of a small number of respondents
undermine the degree of accuracy.
Change in any setup attracts either positive or negative effects depending on how it
has been managed. The positive effects of change include growth, competitive advantage,
dynamism, and employee self-assurance. Growth effect is brought about by technological
change and adoption of new technologies, change of management, and inclusion of new
departments that calls for new job requirements (Doppelt, 2017). Moreover, the setup of new
infrastructures, venturing into new markets, and adoption of new market concepts constitute
growth brought about by change. Productivity and efficient organizational performance are
products of dynamism due to successful change implementation. According to Janssen,
Wimmer, and Deljoo (2015), employees have confidence in the management due to successful
management of changes in the organization. Also, according to Doppelt (2017), the positive
consequences brought about by change create a motivation in the employees, which serves to
increase their output as well. The organization’s response to the need for change is crucial for
its effectiveness. As a result, a competitive advantage is realized due to the application of
change. The ability to adopt new operational systems, new technology, and new marketing
concepts faster than competitors places such organizations ahead in the market.
On the other hand, change can lead to negative effects. The causes include lack of
support and resistance internally, and incompetence of the change initiators. Policy and other
operational changes in an organization are meant for improved operations and creation of an
improved working environment for employees (Janssen, Wimmer, & Deljoo, 2015).
Nevertheless, employees tend to believe that change in the organization will endanger their
job in the long run. Thus, they are opposed to change from the word go. Other factors that
lead to resistance is the fear of unknown, repudiation to be improved, and love for status quo.
However, the failure of the change process may be also due to incompetence (Hornstein,
2015). It is required that change initiators be adequately knowledgeable to manage and
oversee change processes. Lack of clear and comprehensive communication to all
stakeholders to convince them of the need for change will result in challenges. Therefore,
proper communication about the change effort to all participants is essential to achieving
Notably, change process is difficult and apt management is needful. Transition from
the old operation systems to new method effectively requires a well-thought-out framework.
To achieve success in change management, the issue addressed by change should be well
identified to ensure the right change is implemented (Hayes, 2018). More so, change is always
a sensitive issue that is usually not well received. Change management necessitates that
change be conducted in an orderly and systematic manner. The process should be well
coordinated beginning with front-runners to others following and should ensure a smooth
transition from the known traditions to the new operations. Change management requires high
level of stability due to the resources needed and alignment of change to the organization’s
objectives and goals.
Significantly, change management has got several benefits to the organizations. To
begin with, change management helps organizations in saving costs, time, and resources.
Second, it provides an opportunity to identify the problem addressed by change and hence
choosing the right change to be implemented (Hornstein, 2015). Third, change management
helps organizations to anticipate challenges and address them accordingly. Moreover, change
management enhances communication to all employees and convinces them on the need for
change to minimize chances of resistance. Also, it provides the leadership of the organization
with a platform for valuation of the impacts to be brought about by change and apply the
necessary mechanism to address those impacts. Further, change management improves
organizational performance by allowing change process to be implemented with minimal
interference in daily operations. Finally, change management assists in relaying the benefits of
change to the organization if done in the right manner.
Communication is integral to change processes and change management. Any
organization embarking on a big change effort should ensure that communication is at its best.
Communication gives adequate opportunity for addressing all concerns raised by different
stakeholders, thereby minimizing resistance to change. Moreover, communication allows
effective change management to take place, thus increasing success rates. Additionally,
communication enhances preparedness of the change and equips participants of change with a
The study recommends that trainings and workshops be conducted prior to
implementation of change. Such platforms will enlighten all stakeholders especially the
employees on the need for change. With knowledge, the chances of resistance are greatly
reduced. Moreover, trainings and workshops provide a foundation for proper change
management. It is important that change initiators be the leading examples in the change
process. They should strive to communicate clearly of the need and reasons for change, and
also encourage others to participate and support the change effort. The change initiators
should ensure that change efforts are in line with the organization’s goals and objectives.
In summary, change is inevitable and unavoidable in today’s world. Change is fueled
by different factors that demand organizations to initiate change and adapt to new ways of
working. When organizations do not heed a call for change, they risk collapse and loss of
competitive advantage. Today, the very survival of businesses, let alone growth, is dependent
on their response to change and adaptability. Change process is a complex journey and is
strongly associated with the organization strategy, making efficient change management
crucial. Also, an effective transition from old operating systems to new and exciting ones
requires a well-thought-out framework to deal with potent negative and positive effects. When
change management is conducted effectively, organizations can see unprecedented success.
Change should ensure that an organization achieves the best possible structure to ensure that
its infrastructure matches its goals and mission, continues to meet emerging challenges posed
by the dynamics of business realities and greatly enhances the potential of success for the
collective efforts of its employees.
Doppelt, B. (2017). Leading change toward sustainability: A change-management guide for
business, government and civil society. Routledge.
Hayes, J. (2018). The theory and practice of change management. Palgrave.
Hornstein, H. A. (2015). The integration of project management and organizational change
management is now a necessity. International Journal of Project Management, 33(2),
Janssen, M., Wimmer, M. A., & Deljoo, A. (Eds.). (2015). Policy practice and digital
science: Integrating complex systems, social simulation and public administration in
policy research (Vol. 10). Springer.
Monteiro, R., Pereira, M., Daniel, F., Silva, A. G. D., & Matos, F. R. N. (2017). The influence
of organizational reconciliation policies and culture on workers stress perceptions.
BAR-Brazilian Administration Review, 14(3).
Okenda, R., Thuo, A., & Kithinji, M. (2017). Effects of change on organizational
performance: A case of the Ministry of Environment, Water and Natural Resources.
International Academic Journal of Human Resource and Business Administration,
2(3), 501-520. Retrieved from
Wang, W., Fu, Y., Qiu, H., Moore, J. H., & Wang, Z. (2017). Corporate social responsibility
and employee outcomes: A moderated mediation model of organizational
identification and moral identity. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1906. doi:
Meaning of Problem Statement in a Research
➢A problem statement refers to clear description of
issues(s) such as the vision, issues statement as well as
approach that is needed to solve a particular problem
➢ A problem statement is used to help an individual or a
team to remain focus on research efforts so as to solve
a given problem. A problem statement should be
designed to address the following questions:
➢ What is the problem? – In this sense the focus is on boundaries of
the problem such as customers or work flow among others
➢ Who has the problem? – Focuses on the person or group that is
affected by the problem. For instance, it can be customers or
particular groups among others.
➢ Why- Relates to the reasons that indicate the importance of
solving a particular problem?
➢When- Relates to particular time when the problem
➢Where- Relates to specific area that is affected with
the problem such as certain places or process among
The purpose for writing problem statement is as
a) Introduce the significance of studying particular
topic or issues to readers
b) Put the problem is a given context to make it easy
for carry out study on it
c) Gives information concerning the tools that will be
needed to display required information.
Description of a Background
➢The main issue in the background of the problem is
the ability to reflect on facts related to problem so that
other readers can understand the problem well.
➢Background description enables researchers to have
better understanding on how to design the experiment
(Schindler & Cooper, 2014).
➢In order to have a good description of background
information the researcher needs to consider
General information in a Background
✓ Wide view of the subject of study (root of the problem)
✓ Definition of the topic
✓ Major dates as well as events in the study
✓ The key words and specific concepts concerning the study.
Problem Description and Research objective
➢ Description of the problem includes particular important points
such as the hypothesis concerning the research, main
treatments, and explanation of the location and scope of the
study. Problem description should be done on specific terms
other than general terms.
➢ Research objectives are the descriptions what researchers
expect to achieve at the end of the study (David, 2011). The
objectives in this case are determined through looking at the
kind of research that needs be done as well as information that
should be obtained by the study. The kind of questions and
subjects of study are the important factors for determining the
Examples on How Samples can be used
➢ Samples are used when collecting data to represent the
entire population. For instance, collecting sample data
through observing a particular group of people so as to
help in making inferences concerning the general
➢ Some of the information such as individual opinions can
be obtained through sampling (opinions of college
students) to give a bigger picture concerning the
popularity of particular political candidate among the
youths among others.
Definition of Limitations of Research and
➢ Research limitations refers to shortcomings or influences
that put restriction to the methodology and conclusion of a
research yet the researcher has no control over such issues
➢ Some of the areas that can be used to identity limitations
include the analysis, choice of date collection methods,
nature of self-reporting, nature of the samples (scope) used
in the experiment as well as the time limit.
➢ An example of a research limitation is on a study that is
done in a particular city involving men is subjected to
limitations such as gender, sample size as well as the
Example of Diagram and Chart
The percentage of new students who
joins different sports in their school
Example of number of cars sold
within particular period
➢Most of the research studies have gaps which need to
be foundation for conducting other studies in the
➢When mentioning limitations the researcher should
state the choices
➢ Every researcher should strive to reduce the scope of
limitations during the study.
➢ Every researcher should follow all the necessary steps when
doing a research in order to have a comprehensive research
Research Methodologies 1
1. Observation: is the systematic research methodology involving observing a given species,
recording and analyzing the behavior of individuals or the object under study. It is time
consuming since a researcher has to interact with the people he/she observes.
Face-to-face interview: involves conducting an interview on one-on-one basis with a
respondent. The method is appropriate in enabling a researcher get immediate feedback from
a respondent and even observe the facial expression of the respondent as they answer
3. Telephone interview: involves conducting an interview with a respondent through the
telephone. This method is less expensive, less time consuming and a researcher accesses
anyone who has a telephone.
4. Computer assisted personal interview: this research method is a form of personal
interviewing with the only difference being that a respondent has to bring a laptop or a
computer so as to enter their information in a database directly.
5. Focus groups: this type of research data collection method is appropriate in exploring a topic
further so as to provide a broader understanding of why a given targeted group thinks or
behaves in certain way (Gill et al., 291).
6. Case studies: this method is applied when a researcher is trying to ascertain the extreme
conditions that can or cannot be met under a given circumstance. Under this method, all
cases are given the same starting point and then a sample of cases is used to help justify why
a given phenomenon holds.
7. Self-Studies: this methodology involves the process of studying an individual’s behavior as a
representation of others. A researcher may study their personal sleeping habits so as to
Research Methodologies 2
represent the habits of other people who have the same traits as them. The method is,
however, unreliable since a researcher might produce a biased opinion about themselves.
8. Ethnography: is a research methodology that involves scientific research studies of the daily
lives of a given society.
9. Action research: involves in-depth investigation and analysis that aims at diagnosing a
problem affecting an organization.
10. Census: is the process of obtaining data from an entire population under study. A census
offers accurate and reliable data since chances of errors are extremely low due to the
incorporation of the entire population understudy.
11. Sample survey: refers to the use of a given sample from an entire population as a
representation of a general population under study. This method is appropriate in areas where
the population to be studied is so large such that a researcher and the research has no time
and resource to conduct a full study on the entire population.
12. Experiments: this is a controlled study that attempts to help a researcher understand the
cause-effect relationship of a given object under study.
13. Casual inferences: Involves the use of scientific experimentation guidelines so as to
understand the cause-effect relationship of randomly assigned subjects from a given group or
14. Documentation: involves providing substantial descriptions that are essential in further
exploring a given subject under study by a researcher.
15. Creative strategy: involves the use of electronic data sources such as video as alternative
Research Methodologies 3
16. Triangulation: this method involves the use of multiple research methodologies so as to
enhance the validity of the data under study. The process can involve the use of observation,
focus groups, and even in-depth interviews as a way of investigating the reliability of given
17. Paper-pencil questionnaire: involves the process of an individual answering questions
presented by a researcher. The method is convenient since questionnaires can be sent to a
large number of people, thus, saving a researcher’s time and money.
18. Web-based questionnaire: this is a more modern method of questionnaire in which the
respondents receive and answer questionnaires through the internet (Gosling et al. 93). The
method is quicker but can only be used by respondents who are computer literate.
19. Secondary data methods: involves the use of already existing sources of data such as
archives, books, census data, and other government sources. The use of secondary data
sources enables a researcher to access data with much ease without necessarily going to the
field (Hox and Hennie 593).
Gill, Paul, et al. “Methods of data collection in qualitative research: interviews and focus
groups.” British dental journal 204.6 (2008): 291-295.
Research Methodologies 4
Gosling, Samuel D., et al. “Should we trust web-based studies? A comparative analysis of six
preconceptions about internet questionnaires.” American Psychologist 59.2 (2004): 93.
Hox, Joop J., and Hennie R. Boeije. “Data collection, primary vs. secondary.” Encyclopedia of
social measurement 1.1 (2005): 593-599.
Research of the Effect of Operations Management Practices on Performance of SMEs Operating
in United States Market
Former Student Research Paper
The Effect of Operations Management Practices on Performance of SMEs Operating in United
Today, businesses are operating under environments which are highly dynamic because
of uncertainties, changing technological trends and scarcity of critical resources. However,
demand has increased significantly due to increased concentration on the customer needs during
production. Additionally, advancement in technologies has impacted the production of goods and
services significantly where some operations are being automated to reduce the operational cost
and increase productivity among others. The growth in demand and increase and advancement in
technology has resulted in needing for firms to ensure careful optimization of their internal
resources in order to established sustained competitive advantage. To achieve these standards, it
is important to develop quality control systems and measures to provide the organization with
improved feedbacks relating to the operations and use the feedback in management of
Since 1990s, a number of empirical studies has been conducted to help business
managers and economists understand the financial performance variance when factors such as
corporation, industry, firm and country effects are considered. Additionally, whenever it is
assumed that organization’s internal factors are responsible for the performance variation,
considerations are made on whether changes undertaken as per the best practices on the
infrastructural and structural elements of an organization to help in achieving the set goas.
According to Sadikoglu and Olcay (2014), businesses are of performance curves due to the
number of resources available for use in production including technologies such as Total Quality
Management (TQM), and Joint (JIT) among others can change performance curves of an
Globalization has resulted in the emergence of new business models and techniques
which can be used by a corporation to increase their performance to establish a sustainable
competitive advantage. The global market has imposed standards that can be considered as being
highly efficient and firms that are unable to meet the standards are marginalized quickly. Due to
this reason, careful optimization of internal processes and resources is essential for businesses
operating in the modern market due to the need to maintain a competitive edge (Sadikoglu &
Olcay, 2014). Additionally, achieving the standards has been accompanied by continued
enhancement of internal routines. Some of the areas which businesses are concentrating on to
achieve the internal routines includes skill enhancement and knowledge management which is
essential for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises entering the global market.
According to Zeng et al., (2015), Operation Management (OM) is one of the concepts
being used by businesses in the manufacturing sector to create an environment which can help in
planning, development, and improvement in the processes essential in the product manufacturing
and provision of services. The term Operations Management refers to methodological solutions
or procedures which are undertaken by an organization to help in the improvement of efficiency
in logistics and production processes for businesses operating in the good manufacturing
industry. Additionally, operations management is important not only for businesses operating in
the manufacturing sector, but also improvement of functions such as logistics, and creation of
new products. The importance of OM in businesses has resulted to acceptance of the concept
through creation of new and careful managerial culture which is demanding for integration of
operation management in all business practices in order to enhance business performance for
SMEs. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to describe the relationship between some
optimization methods used in Operation Management and their effect on the performance of
SMEs in the global manufacturing sector. To effectively understand the relationship, the
researcher will analyse a dataset containing information of about 50 SMEs operating in the
United States market. Additionally, using survey, an in-depth study of different subsets of the
databases will be undertaken so that a model will be developed based on Structural Equation
Modelling (SEM) approach (Zeng et al., 2015). The method will be used due to its ability to
create and validate theoretical models in Operation Management.
Description of the Problem
Organizational performance has been a major issue when establishing sustainable
businesses in the dynamic political and economic factors, technological innovations and
changing trends in customer demands. Businesses operating in the modern business world are
forced to come up with different practices to ensure they achieve high efficiency hence affecting
the performance of the businesses. The SMEs operating in the United States of America (U.S)
market has shown a major potential of growing into multinational corporations hence creating
major competition in the manufacturing sector (Parnell et al., 2015). Innovations within these
organizations have become key due to the growing number of consumers who expected the
producers to not only supply goods and provide services but also understand their needs and
In the United States, SMEs find it difficult to adapt and identify innovative technologies and
operational methods due to major weaknesses in their internal resources. Some of the most
common internal resources contributing to this issue include low human capital and lack of
proper involvement in managerial networks. Due to this reason, it has become so challenging for
SMEs operating in this market to effectively improve their performance by establishing a
sustainable competitive advantage. For example, most SMEs operating in the U.S market are
operating in localized markets and smaller scale hence holding them back when trying to pursue
best practices which are essential for the improvement of organizational performance. Under this
perspective, it means that if the return to the best practices is universal to such organizations, it
means that less intensive use of current management practices may be utilized as sub-optimal.
For SMEs operating in the U.S manufacturing industry, effectiveness in product improvement
and Total Quality Improvement are some of the issues resulting in increasing in failure in these
businesses. For example, operation management in the manufacturing sector in an important
activity where it plays a significant role in the enhancement of productivity ratios. Therefore,
operations management will be related with the overall management process and functions due
to its role in the improvement of production efficiency in SMEs (Parnell et al., 2015).
Conversely, Total Quality Management is considered as one of the most critical practices
for improved performance for SMEs operating in the manufacturing sector where it helps in
crisis management by determining which part of production will be improved in order to increase
organizational performance. SMEs operating in the U.S manufacturing sector can improve their
performance through ensuring there is operational effectiveness in the present, and ensuring
there are capacity and foresight to help in preparation and anticipating for the future. Lastly,
SMEs operating in the U.S market face major challenges when establishing strategies to enhance
their performance due to lack of effective models to guide the managerial function in the
management of different operations (Vivares-Vergara et al., 2016). This is because, SMEs
operating in the manufacturing industry require enhanced care in various operations and
processes starting from outsourcing of raw materials, until the goods are sold to the consumers.
Therefore, for these SMEs to improve their performance, there is a need to ensure customer
needs and demands are addressed at all time, and establishing operations management strategies
which will involve common management tasks such as motivating, staffing, controlling,
planning, directing and organizing (Zeng et al., 2015). This means that establishing appropriate
operations management practices in SMEs operating in the U.S manufacturing market will
benefit the businesses in enhancing their performance and establishing competitive advantage
due to effectiveness in resource utilization and addressing customer needs and expectations.
Main Research Objective
General Research Objective
The general research objective of this study is to assess the effect of operations management
practices on the performance of SMEs operating in the United States of America manufacturing
The specific objectives of this study are:
To find out whether operations management practices affect the performance of SMEs
operating in the United States manufacturing industry
To find out whether designing effective operations management practices will affect the
performance of SMEs operating in the United States manufacturing industry
To determine the relationship between system operations management and performance of
SMEs operating in the United States manufacturing industry
The purpose of this section is to discuss the some of the related kinds of literature
addressing the effects of Operations Management on the performance of SMEs operating in the
United States manufacturing industry.
According to a study conducted by Krajewski et al. (2015), businesses operating in the
modern business world can increase their performance through the use of the ten areas of
Operations Management when making decisions on differentiation, feedback and cost reduction
in their manufacturing processes. Some of the ten areas of Operations Management which can be
considered by managers when making decisions to increase the organizational performance
includes product and service design, which is essential in determining the outcome due to the
conversion of an input. The importance of product and services design occur where the cost of
production, capacity and quality requirements are determined at this level of operations
management. The second areas are capacity and process design, an area of Operations
Management where volumes are combined to achieve market demand. At this point, the
decisions made entail identification of required technologies, selection of processes, expertise,
quality, maintenance and systems which are the primary determinants of the basic cost structure
in the manufacturing process (Krajewski et al., 2015).
Supply chain management is another areas of Operations Management which can impact
the performance of an SME operating in the U.S manufacturing industry either positively or
negatively. According to Vivares-Vergara et al. (2016), supply chain management decisions
entail determining the movement of raw materials from the suppliers to manufacturers and
distribution of finished goods to target consumers. Some of the decisions which can be made
using this area of Operations Management practice to ensure there is improved performance
include the cost of supplying goods to the consumers, ways of reducing holding cost, and
availability of raw materials which are also essential factors in increasing production in the
In the last few decades, businesses operating in the global manufacturing industry have
continued to form set of quality-related methods, procedures, and techniques aimed at enhancing
the performance of their organizations. Various studies have shown that the higher the number of
techniques or methods deployed by businesses in enhancing their performance the greater the
variable of the firm. Some of the quality practices that can be used in enhancing performance
using Operations Management for businesses operating in the manufacturing business include
Just-In-Time (JIT) which including understanding the internal JIT and the external JIT.
Secondly, the use of ISO standards in the improvement of organizational performance is
achieved through the application of ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 in performance improvement for
business operating in the manufacturing industry (Vivares-Vergara et al., 2016). Lastly, service
outsourcing level is the last quality practice under Operations Management which can be used by
SMEs to understand the level of spending in purchasing raw materials from the third party.
The purpose of this section is to describe the choices made by the researcher relating to
the cases to be studied. This entails some of the methods used in conducting a survey, the
information selected for research design, the selected population and reason for selection,
sampling methods that will be used, the selected data collection method, data analysis, and
The research study aimed at developing new theoretical models hence survey design was
used for this scientific research. There are two main categories of surveys which can be
distinguished including descriptive or explorative and relational or explicative survey. For this
research study, a descriptive or explorative survey will be used to understand the current state of
the operation management among the SMEs operating in the United States manufacturing
industry. It will be the first step of the study, and it will entail collecting data to describe the
result of the phenomenon under study. For example, a descriptive survey may be used to
determine the effect of operations management and its relationship in the improvement of
performance of SMEs. Conversely, the relational or explicative survey will be used to determine
the relationship between different variables which are under investigation. The use of this
surveying method will help the researcher prove the existing relationship between operations
management and performance of SMEs operating in the United States manufacturing industry.
Population in research study refer to the people or organizations which will be researched
during the study. The target population for this study includes SMEs operating in the United
States manufacturing industry. Some of the fields of U.S manufacturing sector which will be
studied include manufacturing of rubber goods, metallic products, general machinery and
equipment, ceramic products, garments tailoring and footwear, furniture, and automotive parts
In the research study, a sample refers to selection of a unit from the target population so
that the sample can be studied and fairly generalize the result back to the population they were
selected from. For this study, the target population was 3, 000 SMEs operating in different areas
of U.S manufacturing sector. The study sample included 50 SMEs which were selected based on
size, field, and location among others. The random sampling method ensured the researcher
gather facts and record data from each unit of the target population.
In the research study, data collection refers to a process of gather information from all
relevant sources in order to find answers to the problem under research and evaluate the
outcomes. For this paper, the data collection process will utilize both the primary and secondary
methods. For the primary data, a structured questionnaire will be sent to all the operational
managers of the selected SMEs using email. The questionnaires will contain two parts with the
first part including the general information while the second section will address the effects of
operations management on the performance of their enterprises. Moreover, the questionnaire will
use both open and closed question in order to offer the operational managers opportunity to offer
personal experiences relating to the phenomenon under study. Conversely, secondary data will
be gathered through the review of different kinds of journals, case studies, and papers offering
supplementary information relating to the study topic. The collected data was cleaned and
reviewed for consistency, completeness, accuracy, and uniformity.
Several limitations which may be addressed in future were identified during the study.
Some of the limitations include the use of secondary databases for data collection instead of the
research at hand. The use of research databases provided contradicting information with some
scholars concluding that operations management practices have a major effect on the entire
performance of an organization while others were claiming that only manufacturing sectors are
affected by operations management practices in a given organization. The second limitations
experiencing affecting the effectiveness of the findings of this study include concerns over the
stability of the performance in SMEs due to effect by other internal and external factors. For
example, whenever a given practice that provides a competitive effect, early adopters will benefit
more than the pioneering firms. This makes it challenging to determine the effect of operations
management practices on organizational performance. Other limitations included inadequate
time and resources required in the collection, sorting, and analysis of research data to ensure
accurate results are obtained.
The study results have found a major relationship between Operations Management
practices for SMEs operating in the United States manufacturing industry. When carrying out the
analysis, the researcher used the maximum likelihood technique. The technique allowed the
calculation of coefficient on the causal links. Additionally, the different areas under study were
valued based on standardized weights obtained from the SEM. Additionally, the statistics for the
goodness of fit for the collected data were as follows: x2 =56.0 where a p-value of about 0.007
was allowed, CFI=0.70 and RMSEA=0.075. After the analysis of the collected data using SEM,
the good fit of the study model was able to confirm for all the reported sets of the statistic. With
performance and Operations Management practices being the essential casual links in the study,
the study found that the significance of Operations Management on performance may not be high
because of some specific indicators utilized in determining the performance of a given industry
including direct connect of performance with sales and production. However, when other aspects
of the supply chain management are not considered, the study indicated that Operation
Management has a significant impact on the performance of SMEs operating in the United States
manufacturing industry at the level of 0.05.
Conclusion & Recommendations
The research study has depicted the importance of Operations Management practices on
SMEs operating in the United States manufacturing industry. According to the study, Operations
Management are essential indicators for the performance of these firms. The results indicated
that the value of the positive effect of Operations Management and performance of SMEs
operating in the U.S manufacturing industry should be taken into account by the management so
that it can be possible to implement best practices that will influence the internal efficiency and
revenue of the organizations. Consequently, the findings offer a clear input on the diffusion of
Operations Management practices culture during the introduction of new policies in the
organizations and also in business clusters. This means that our results are consistent with the
previous studies which indicated that Operations Management has a significant impact on the
performance of SMEs operating in the United States manufacturing market although most of the
previous studies concentrated on the specific context of the industry. Lastly, the study has
revealed that system operations practices have no significant effect on the performance of SMEs
operating in the U.S manufacturing industry. However, the findings have indicated that there is a
positive relationship between the performance of an SME and systems operations practices.
Therefore, the businesses operating in this sector are expected to improve the inspection and
maintenance of products and service delivery in order to benefits from Operations Management
practices. Additionally, the SMEs operating in the United States manufacturing industry also
need to improve their supply chain management practices, inventory management practices, and
scheduling practices in order to increase performance. Based on the findings, the researcher also
recommends the SMEs operating U.S manufacturing industry to invest more on innovation and
technology as a way of eliminating some of the constraints in the supply chain management and
operations management practices. Additionally, the researcher recommends utilization and
restructuring of operations management practices so that they can improve the performance of
their organizations through effective employees and reduced wastage of resources during
Krajewski, L. J., Ritzman, L. P., & Malhotra, M. K. (2015). Operations management: processes
and supply chains. New York, EEUU: Prentice Hall.
Parnell, J. A., Long, Z., & Lester, D. (2015). Competitive strategy, capabilities, and uncertainty
in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in China and the United States.
Management Decision, 53(2), 402-431.
Sadikoglu, E., & Olcay, H. (2014). The effects of total quality management practices on
performance and the reasons for and the barriers to TQM practices in Turkey. Advances
in Decision Sciences, 2014.
Vivares-Vergara, J. A., Sarache-Castro, W. A., & Naranjo-Valencia, J. C. (2016). Impact of
human resource management on performance in competitive priorities. International
Journal of Operations & Production Management, 36(2), 114-134.
Zeng, J., Phan, C. A., & Matsui, Y. (2015). The impact of hard and soft quality management on
quality and innovation performance: An empirical study. International journal of
production economics, 162, 216-226.
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