Wireless Technologies: Antennas, Protocols, And Software-Defined Networks

Different Antennas for Wireless Links

Horn Antenna is generally one of the waveguides which can easily work through proper parabolic reflectors. They are the flaring metal waveguide which is shaped like the horn mainly for directing the radio waves in the beam. The horns are seen to be used as antennas where the standard calibration is about to measure the gain for the other antennas. The major advantage for this is to moderate the directivity and then handle low standing wave ratio (SWR) which is set with broader bandwidth and the simple construction or adjustment (Elamin, Husein, & Alzubaidi, 2015). The advantage for this is that it can work over the wider range of frequencies with wide bandwidth. The scale is depending upon the input impedance that is varying mainly over the wider range of frequency which also allow the lower voltage standing wave ratio to be set over the bandwidth.

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The pyramidal horns are through

G= (4 Pi K A)/λ^2 (K=0.5-0.6). It completely depends on the phases or the other amplitude ranges. Here, A is the horn aperture, B is the beam width and W is the width.

The strength is about construction and connectivity where the weakness is about handling the radiation of energy with gain of horn antenna which is seen to be limited for 20db.

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They tend to make use of a parabolic reflector which is a curved surface. The advantage is of a high directivity which seems to function with the searchlight or the flashlight reflector. Here, the Parabolic antennas have certain higher gains with producing the narrow bandwidths for the different types of antenna (Sudhakar & Ravindranadh, 2017). The achieving of parabolic reflector is larger than the wavelength of the radio waves which have been used.

The area A = 3.14 R2 
Gain G = 6 (D/λ)^2 

D is antenna dish

The major strength is the antenna transmission with receiving of reciprocity. The weakness is about the feeding of antenna and the other reflector discs that have been designed with the parabolic reflectors.

This is consisting of the conducting wires which are in the form of helix. The cases are mounted and set over the ground plane with omnidirectional designs that might not be. In the normal mode, the diameter and the itch of aerial are smaller when they are compared to the other wavelength structure (Saravanan & Sudhakar, 2018). The effects are determined through handling the helical conductor which includes the matching impedance that is changed depending upon the limits.

Recent Advanced Wireless Technologies and Their Security Challenges

The ground plane antenna is about the variant for the dipole which has been used for the unbalancing of the feed line like the coaxial cable. It tends to resemble mainly with the lower sections that are for the straight elements rather than the hollow conducting cylinder. The adjustments are done through tuning coil which is determined through radials that are connected to the outer conductor or shield. The elements for the ground plane are oriented vertically with transmission and optimum response as well. The vertical polarized signals with base of antenna is also placed with radials that behave as perfect ground system. (Culotta-Lopez, Schraml,  Wilke & Heberling, 2015). The ground plane antennas are generally favored at the frequency which is above 10MHz where the dimensions are also easy to be managed.

Here, it is seen that parabolic antenna reflector is able to handle the medium to the long-distance range for a better communication. It is seen that the coverage is done through the longer geographical areas. The radio astronomy then helps in providing a gain of 10million as well.

LTE is for the standardized high-speed wireless communication which is important for data terminals. It is mainly used for increase capacity and speed through radio interface and core network improvements. The setup is worked upon with 4G LTE that does not meet the technical criteria as well. The specific versions are based on the network goal to redesign and specify the network architecture of IP based system. 

The strength for LTE is that the objects are able to handle the increase of capacity and speed through use of different radio interface with core network improvements (Liu, Georgakopoulos & Rao, 2017).

The weakness is about setting the call delay and the phone can become expensive with the higher consumption of the power.

It helps in verifying the system of authentication, integrity and encryption where the long-term evolution standards are able to meet with the demands. The challenges arise through affecting the system integrity. The challenges are robust and secured as well.

Wi-Fi is a technology with the radio wireless LAN of devices that helps in restricting to the trademark that leads to completely handling the interoperability. The devise that use Wi-Fi are generally desktops & laptops which are compatible to handle the connections to internet. The access points also have a range with indoors and a greater range outdoors. The wireless network controller leads to attempting the access to network where Wi-Fi is generally vulnerable for the different attacks. (Khan, Riaz, & Bilal, 2016)

Reflections on Software-Defined Wireless Networks

The strengths are mainly to focus on interfering with the cellular receptions which are not seen to be completely eliminated with major interference that is coming between cell phones and the tower.

The weakness is about the weak Wi-Fi signal. It can lead to reducing the availability of bandwidth and connection problems. The tracking down and correcting issues might need to be attenuated through wireless signal to improve the speed and reliability of network.

This is about authenticating the access points to mainly ensure about the legitimacy and then prevent the introduction for rogue Aps. The security threats are generally minimized through security loop holes where use of intrusion software is important for identifying the internal and external threats.

It is a wireless technology for handling the data exchange mainly over the shorter distances. It is mainly for building the personal area networks which are worked upon through computing, networking and proper telecommunication (Zhang, Zhang & Zeng, 2015). The operations are defined through packet-based control with master slave architecture where master can communicate with slaves.

The Bluetooth does not need a clear sight mainly in between the synced devices which does not also need to face the possibilities for carrying out transfers. It requires no cables and wires. The maximum range that it tends to work on handling the lower operations. The advantage is also that it is simple to use, and low powered wireless signals generally adapts to the technology with frequency hopping.

The weakness is that even though through the transfer speeds (at 25 Mbps), Wi-Fi provides 250 Mbps. The battery usage is negligible, but it takes phone battery and lowers the life of it.

The security challenges are about handling secured connection between each other as needed. The issues like bluejacking which enables the sending of the data into another person’s phone. The bluebugging is about how the security issue allows the hackers to remotely access pone and then use its features. It includes the placing of calls and sending the text messages as well. The car whispering is about involving the use of software that allow the hackers to send and then recite the audio to and from Bluetooth enabled system.

3. Bernardos et al., (2014) discusses about the software defined networking which is set through controlling and handling data planes. The network operations can easily run their infrastructure through supporting a fast and easy deployment of different services with enabled virtualization. The illustration is about how telecommunication is experiencing the major revolution with networking and services that are deployed for the next decade. The mechanism includes sharing of network infrastructure with reduced costs and the core servers which tend to run in data centers. The article analysis is set through potentially applying SDN paradigm to the mobile wireless networks that help in identifying the use cases with additional benefits to it. The high-level interactions are mainly set in between defined functions which are for supporting the use case of interest to operators. SDN networks includes the control and then forwarding the planes where the separation allows a quick provisioning and proper configuration that is defined for network connections. The logical view of the SDN reference architecture includes centralization with global view of network that does not need to work on implementing and understanding different protocol networks. Hence, for this, the deployment is defined through standardizing the interface to mainly control the mobile devices. The current deployment tend to support the virtualization where existing network devices and the mechanisms are not designed for supporting dynamic reconfiguration which needs to be virtualized and allocated for the different physical resources. The approach is to handle time sharing access to resources with adopting SDN and improving support for timely and efficient virtualization process with a wireless networking. The current networks help in provisioning and operating towards a certain quality of service. The focus is on service architecture with server capabilities, caches and other location sectors.

Rangisetti & Tamma, (2017)., focus on wireless networks like the mobile networking which is set with the inflexibility and the expensive architecture. According to the research, there are different challenges to handle the growing demands of the users for the traffic, where mobile network operators are also looking for novel networking paradigms which could lead to simplifying the network management as well. It includes the control of networks with defining the agility and flexibility of operations which are set by the separated data plane and control plane tasks. SDN is important for handling the deployment of the network services which are set on the network function virtualization infrastructure. It is mainly for the elastic and flexible deployment where virtualization of evolved packet core in LTE is able to handle control signal overhead and other traffic demands from one machine to other with internet of things. SDN and NFV helps in offering the scalability and flexibility for network service chaining platforms that is important for handling inflexibility in middleboxes. The Mobile Edge Computing is a new evolving platform which brings the IT services and cloud computing with end-user network aware services and better solutions. The survey is to enumerate the different issues and the challenges which are for wireless networks and SDN based solutions for 4G/5G. The survey and the discussion in the research is about the roles of SDN, NFV and MEC with properly designing the 5G networks as well.


Bernardos, C. J., De La Oliva, A., Serrano, P., Banchs, A., Contreras, L. M., Jin, H., & Zúñiga, J. C. (2014). An architecture for software defined wireless networking. IEEE wireless communications, 21(3), 52-61.

Culotta-Lopez, C., Schraml, K., Wilke, R., & Heberling, D. (2015, September). The yagi-helix: A multi-director configuration for the backfire-helix antenna. In Radar Conference (EuRAD), 2015 European (pp. 357-360). IEEE.

Elamin, E. M., Husein, Z. M., & Alzubaidi, A. J. (2015). CDMA Based Secured Dual Gain Control of Helical Feed Parabolic Reflector Antenna. IJEEE International Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 7(2), 257-263.

Khan, A. Q., Riaz, M., & Bilal, A. (2016). Various Types of Antenna with Respect to their Applications: A Review. International Journal of Multidisciplinary sciences and Engineering, 7(3).

Liu, X., Georgakopoulos, S. V., & Rao, S. (2017). A Design of an Origami Reconfigurable QHA with a Foldable Reflector [Antenna Applications Corner]. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 59(4), 78-105.

Rangisetti, A. K., & Tamma, B. R. (2017). Software Defined Wireless Networks: A Survey of Issues and Solutions. Wireless Personal Communications, 97(4), 6019-6053.

Saravanan, S., & Sudhakar, P. (2018). Analysis of mobile internet speed, signal strength and FMDH antenna design for improved internet speed. The Journal of Supercomputing, 1-27.

Sudhakar, A., & Ravindranadh, J. (2017, May). Realization of desired shaped beam array of helical antennas. In Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium-Spring (PIERS), 2017(pp. 3326-3329). IEEE.

Zhang, Q., Zhang, H., & Zeng, S. (2015, August). An evolved S-band helical antenna with 1.8 G bandwidth. In Natural Computation (ICNC), 2015 11th International Conference on(pp. 221-225). IEEE.